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CHEM 2035 CHEMISTRY LABORATORY Group 9 Rosete, Vince Lowel H.

Experiment No. 1 MEASUREMENT: THE METRIC SYSTEM Objectives: 1. To learn the importance of measurement in Chemistry 2. To become familiar with the metric units of mass, length and volume

A. Mass Measurement Using platform balance, 3-one peso coins were separately weigh The recorded mass of each coin are the following Coin Mass of the Coin 1 5.4 g 2 5.1 g 3 5.3 g The calculated sum the coin: = Coin 1 + Coin 2 + Coin 3 = 5.4g + 5.1g + 5.3g = 15.8g The 3-one peso coins were put on the pan and weigh. The mass of 3-one peso coin when weigh together is 15.8g

B. Volume Measurement I. Liquid The 50mL beaker was filled with water up to 50mL level. The water from the beaker was then transferred into the graduated cylinder. The procedure was repeated the second time in a 250mL beaker The following data were obtained Beaker Measured Volume Difference

50mL 250mL

51.5mL 45mL

1.5mL -5mL

II.

Regular Shaped Solid Using a metric ruler, the length of each edges of the tetra-pack juice container was obtained.

Tetra-Pack Juice Container Dimensions: Length: 13.1 cm Width: 5.4 cm Thickness: 3.7 cm The calculated volume of the tetra-pack juice container was: V =LxWxT = 13.1cm x 5.4cm x 3.7cm =261.738 cm3 III. Irregular Shaped Solid An initial volume of 20mL of H2O was placed in a graduated cylinder The irregular solid was then immersed into the graduated cylinder.

The recorder rise of H2O is shown below: Initial Volume of Water: Final Volume of Water: Volume of Irregular Solid: 20mL 23mL 3mL

C. Distance Measurement Using the length of the string, the circumference of four different sizes of beakers was measured. The diameter of each beaker was also measured. The following data were obtained: Beaker 1 2 3 4 Circumference 218 cm 174 cm 171 cm 137 cm Diameter 68.5 cm 56 cm 54 cm 43.5 cm

D. Temperature Measurement An approximate 50mL of water was placed in a 250mL beaker. The water was then heated until it boils. The temperature of water was obtained using laboratory thermometer. The recorded temperature was 920C.
0

Temperature of Water

C 920C

Assuming that the water boils, the boiling point of water was 920C. The true value of the boiling point of pure water is 1000C but the measured value from the experiment is only 920C. The inaccuracy of the instrument used may be the reason behind this observation The thermometer should not touch the bottom or side the beaker container because beaker absorbs heat greater than 1000C while the boiling point of water is only 1000C so the experiment would then be inaccurate. Another reason is the thermometer can only withstand temperature less than 1100C, so the thermometer might explode if it touches the beaker.

Experiment No. 2 DENSITY: THE MASS VOLUME REALATIONSHIP Objective: To determine the densities of unknown solids and liquids

A. Density of a Liquid The 250mL beaker and watch glass were weighed using beam balance. A 25mL of unknown liquid was then placed in a graduated cylinder. The unknown liquid was transferred into the beaker and the mass was recorded. The following data were obtained: TRIAL 1 52 g 80 g 28 g 25 mL 1.12 g/mL

Mass of Beaker and Cover Mass of Beaker, Cover and Liquid Mass of Liquid Volume of Liquid Density of Liquid

2 52.3 g 79.2 g 26.9 25 mL 1.076 g/mL

B. Density of Solid I. Irregular Shaped Solid The mass of solid was obtained using beam balance. A 20mL of water was placed in a graduated cylinder. The irregular shaped solid was then submerged into the graduated cylinder. The volume was recorded. The following results were obtained: Mass of Solid Volume of Water Volume of Water and Solid Volume of Solid Density 21.5 g 20mL 25mL 5mL 4.3 g/mL

II.

Regular Shaped Solid The volume and mass of solid were measured.

The following results were obtained: Mass of Solid Volume of Solid Density of Solid 9g 4 mL 2.25 g/mL

Application of Principle If your irregular solid is soluble in water, and you wished to determine the density, how would you modify the procedure of part B-I? Experiment No. 3 THE PHYSICAL STATES OF MATTER Objective: To study the different states of matter

A. Solid to Liquid The crushed ice was placed in a beaker. 5mL of distilled water was then added. The ice and water was stirred and the temperature was recorded. The following results were obtained: Time Temperature

0 1 2 3 4 5 1. What have you measured? The melting point of water was measured.

00C 00C 00C 0.50C 0.50C 0.50C

2. When a solid melts, does it absorb or give off heat? When a solid melts, it absorbs heat. 3. Define: Melting Point Melting point is the temperature required for a solid substance to melt into liquid substance.

B. Solid to Gas The few crystal of iodine was placed in a test tube. The test tube was then heated.

1. What is the purple gas which fills the test tube The purple gas which fills the test tube is the iodine gas. 2. Does any iodine melt? 3. What is formed on cooling the tube? 4. Define: Sublimation Sublimation is the process in which the solid sublime or turn into gas.

C. Liquid to Gas 50mL of water was placed in an Erlenmeyer flask with a one holed stopped with short rubber tubing attached on top of it. The water was then boiled. A dry beaker was placed near the end of the rubber tubing.

1. What comes out of glass tubing when the water boils? Water vapour came out of the glass tubing when the water boils. 2. Is it in the form of a gas or a liquid? The water vapour is in the form of gas. 3. Define: Boiling Point Boiling point is a point or a temperature required for a liquid to evaporate into gas. 4. What do you observe on the side of the beaker? Tiny water droplets were formed on the side of the beaker. D. Gas to Liquid A 5mL of water and chunks of ice was placed in a test tube and allowed to stand for a minute in the rack.

1. What collects in the outside of the tube? Tiny droplets of water accumulate on the outside of the tube. 2. Where did it come from? The tiny droplets of water which accumulates on the outside of the tube came from the water vapour in air. 3. Why did the moisture form on the tube? The moisture was formed on the tube because the water vapour in air condenses or turns into liquid due to the temperature of the tube. 4. When the gas condenses to liquid, does it absorb or evolve heat? When the gas condenses to liquid, it gives off heat.