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Nutrition and gas exchange in plants

[1B09401] * Write an essay on the structure of a dicotyledonous plant leaf and its adaptation to gas exchange. (11 marks)

-- ans -Any four from: Both sides of a leaf are covered by epidermis. Both the upper and lower epidermis are covered by a thin waxy layer of cuticle. Under the upper epidermis is the palisade mesophyll that is made of up tightly-packed cells containing chloroplasts. The spongy mesophyll is just below the paslisade mesophyll and is loosely packed with many air spaces. Stomata are found on the lower epidermis. Each stoma is surrounded by two guard cells. Vascular bundles with xylem and phloem are found in mesophyll. Any four from: Leaves are flat and broad, providing a large surface area for gas exchange. The air spaces among the spongy mesophyll cells allow gases to diffuse freely. The surface of the mesophyll cells is moist. This allows gases to dissolve in it and diffuse into or out of the cells easily. There are numerous stomata on the lower epidermis. This allows gases to pass into and out of the leaf freely. Guard cells are present to control the opening and closing of stomata so rate of gas exchange can be regulated. Effective communication 3m 1m x 4 1m x 4

-- ans end -* Plants absorb water from the soil via their roots.

Describe the pathways and mechanisms by which water passes from the soil to the xylem vessels in the root. (9 marks)

-- ans --

The root hairs project into the soil.


The water potential of the soil water is higher than that of the cytoplasm of the root hairs. 1m Water moves into the root hairs by osmosis. 1m

As the amount of water increases in the root hairs, the water potential of the root hairs becomes higher than that of the neighbouring cortex cells. 1m

Water moves inwards from cell to cell by osmosis or along the cell walls until it reaches the xylem vessels. Water is then drawn up the xylem vessels by transpiration pull. Effective communication 1m 1m 3m

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Transpiration, transport and support in plants

[1B10401] * Describe how the rate of transpiration is increased by external factors. (7 marks) WJEC GCE (A/AS) Biology Module BI2 Jun 2008 Q8 -- ans --

Any seven from: Transpiration is the water loss from leaves. This takes place by diffusion through the stomata.

1m x 7

Any factor which increases the water potential gradient between the spongy mesophyll cells of the leaf and the atmosphere increases the rate of transpiration. Transpiration rate is increased by a temperature rise which provides additional kinetic energy for the movement of water molecules. A rise in air movement increases the concentration gradient of water near the leaves. Low relative humidity increases water loss and therefore the rate of transpiration. An increase in light intensity causes an increase in the degree of stomatal opening. These factors (do not act independently but) interact with each other. Appropriate sketch graphs


Describe the structure of plant phloem tissue. Discuss the transport of materials within the phloem. Any diagrams included in your answer must be fully annotated.

(10 marks)

WJEC GCE (A/AS) Biology Module BI2 Jan 2005 Q7 -- ans -Any four from: Each sieve tube has a companion cell found beside it. At each end of the sieve tube is a sieve plate. The cell cytoplasm is continuous through sieve plates. Companion cells contain organelles (nuclei / cytoplasm). Nuclei are lost / absent in sieve tubes. Any six from: Phloem transports sucrose in the plant. Sucrose is transported from a source to a sink. Example of source is leaves and examples of sinks are growing points, fruits, seeds, bulbs. Sucrose is transported by active transport. 1m x 6 1m x 4

Due to the high concentration of sucrose, water is taken up by the source. The hydrostatic pressure drives the organic solution to the sink. At sink, sucrose is taken up. One example of the problem with the hypothesis of bidirectional movement / ATP consumption / no function of sieve plate or barrier. Reference to an alternative hypothesis, cytoplasmic streaming / electrosmosis.

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[1B10403] * A rose and a tulip were put in a glass without water. After an hour the tulip stalk bent but the rose stalk remained upright. Explain. (9 marks)

-- ans -The cells of the two flowers lost water from evaporation. The cells lost turgidity. The stalk of tulip was mainly supported by the turgidity of cortical cells. It bent when cortical cells lost water and were not turgid any more. The stalk of rose was mainly supported by woody xylem. 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

The woody xylem cells were dead and hard. Their hardness was not affected when water 1m Effective communication 3m was lost.

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Transport in humans
[1B08401] * Explain how tissue fluid is formed and how it may be returned to the circulatory system. (10 marks)

-- ans -Any seven from: 1m x 7

The pressure of blood in the capillary is higher than the pressure of the fluid surrounding the body cells. This forces some components of the plasma out of the capillary wall to form tissue fluid. Proteins and red blood cells are of large size so they cannot pass through the capillary wall. The composition of the tissue fluid is similar to that of blood, except for the absence of red blood cells, blood platelets and plasma proteins. Due to the retention of plasma proteins and blood cells in the blood, the water potential of the tissue fluid becomes higher than that at the venule end of the capillary. There is a net movement of water molecules from the tissue fluid to the capillary by osmosis. The excess tissue fluid drains into the lymph capillaries. The lymphatic system helps return the tissue fluid to the blood circulation. Effective communication 3m

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[1B08402] * Describe the structure of arteries and veins. Explain how the features described help these blood vessels carry out their functions. (9 marks)

-- ans -Any six from: Arteries have thick walls. The wall allows the arteries to withstand the high blood pressure. Arteries have elastic fibres in their walls. The elastic fibres recoil when the heart relaxes to maintain a continuous blood flow. Veins have a larger lumen. The large lumen reduces the resistance to blood flow. Veins have valves. The valves prevent the backflow of the blood. Effective communication 3m 1m x 6

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Gas exchange in humans

[1B07401] * Explain why oxygen in the air sac can enter the blood in the capillary efficiently. (8 marks) -- ans -Any five from: 1m x 5 There are many air sacs so that the surface area for diffusion of oxygen is very large. Walls of air sacs and capillaries are one-cell thick so the diffusion distance is very short. Red blood cells have biconcave disc shape so as to increase the surface area to cytoplasmic volume ratio.

Red blood cells have haemoglobin to combine with oxygen. Mature red blood cells have no nucleus so as to allow more room for holding haemoglobin. The network of capillaries provides a steep concentration gradient of oxygen. The inner surface of the air sacs is covered by water film so that oxygen is allowed to dissolve into it. Effective communication 3m

-- ans end -[1B07402] Describe how inhalation is achieved during ventilation . -- ans -The intercostal muscles and diaphragm muscles contract at the same time. 1m Contraction of the intercostal muscles pulls the rib cage upwards and outwards. 1m Contraction of the diaphragm muscles causes the diaphragm to become flattened. 1m The actions lead to an increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity and the lungs expand. 1m The air pressure in the lungs decreases and becomes lower than the atmospheric pressure. Air therefore rushes into the lungs through the respiratory tract. Effective communication 1m 1m 3m

(9 marks)

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Movement of substances across cell membrane

[1A03401] * Compare the consequences of putting plant cells and animal cells into pure water. (12 marks)

-- ans --

Pure water has the highest water potential.


Both the plant and animal cells are surrounded by a solution of higher water potential than their contents. There is a net movement of water into the cells by osmosis. 1m 1m

In the plant cells, the volume of the cells increases and exerts a pressure outwards on the cell wall / turgor pressure. 1m As osmosis continues more water enters the cells. The plant cells finally become turgid and no net water movement into the cells occurs. 1m Animal cells do not have a cell wall. As osmosis continues, more and more water molecules move into the cells. The cells swell and eventually burst. Effective communication 1m 1m 1m 3m 1m

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[1A03402] * Describe and explain the structure of the cell membrane and its role in diffusion and active transport. (11 marks)

-- ans -Any five from: The cell membrane is made up of a bilayer of phospholipids. /

The water-loving phosphate groups form the outer layer / while the water-repelling fatty acids are in the inner layer. / Some protein molecules embed half-way through or penetrate through the bilayer. / The phospholipid molecules and some protein molecules can move laterally and different kinds of protein molecules are interspersed among the phospholipid molecules, so the structure is known as fluid mosaic model. / The cell membrane with water-repelling fatty acids does not allow water soluble proteins and large molecules to pass through. / It only allows lipid-soluble substances and small molecules like oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through. Diffusion: Therefore, diffusion of the lipid soluble substances and small molecules can be achieved down 1m Active transport: The carrier proteins on the cell membrane transport the water-soluble proteins and large molecules into the cell against the concentration gradient. Energy is required. Effective communication 1m 1m 3m a concentration gradient. 1m x 5

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Food and humans

[1A05401] * Describe the structure and outline the role of proteins in living organisms. Any diagrams included in your answer must be fully annotated. (9 marks) WJEC GCE (A/AS) Biology Module BI1 Jan 2005 Q8 -- ans --

Any nine from: The sequence of amino acids is joined by peptide bonds. The shape of the protein is maintained by hydrogen bonds. Drawing showing globular proteins Proteins act as enzymes, with an example. They also act as antibodies or hormones. Connective tissue is a protein in skin cells. It helps prevent entry of pathogens. Carrier molecules in active transport consist of proteins. Proteins are a secondary source of energy. They form blood clotting factors.

1m x 9

-- ans end -[1A05402] Discuss the structure and functions of lipids in humans. -- ans -Lipids consist of fatty acids and glycerol. 1m One example is triglycerides. They are formed from the condensation of three fatty acids molecules and one glycerol molecule. Lipids are a source of energy. 1m 1m

(9 marks)

The energy released from lipids is twice as much as that from carbohydrates or proteins. 1m Lipids act as a food reserve. Lipids act as a shock-absorber to protect internal organs. Effective communication 1m 1m 3m

-- ans end -[1A05403] Contrast the structure and functions of triglycerides and phospholipids. (11 marks) -- ans -Any four from: 2m x 4

A triglyceride consists of glycerol and three fatty acids, while phospholipids are triglycerides in which one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group. A triglyceride is non-polar while the phosphate group is (negatively) charged / polar. A triglyceride is insoluble in water, while phosphate group of the phospholipid is soluble in water / hydrophilic and the fatty acid groups are insoluble in water / hydrophobic. A major function of triglycerides is as an energy store, while phospholipids form the basis of the structure of cell membranes. Triglycerides are also stored under skin where they act as a heat insulator / are for buoyancy / are for protection around internal organs, while phospholipids in cell membrane help control the passage of various molecules into and out of the cells. Effective communication 3m

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Enzymes and metabolism

[1A04401] * Describe the structure of an enzyme molecule and explain how the properties of enzymes are related to this structure. (10 marks) Any diagrams included in your answer must be fully annotated. WJEC GCE (A/AS) Biology Module BI1 Jun 2008 Q7

-- ans --

Any ten from: Enzyme is a protein. It has 3D foldings that make the active site specific for the substrate.

1m x 10

At low temperature, the kinetic energy of substrate and enzyme molecules is very low, i.e. the reaction rate is low. At high temperature, the molecules collide with each other more frequently so the reaction rate is high. If the temperature becomes too high, the enzyme is denatured and the shape of the active site is distorted. pH changes the shape of the active site. At optimum pH, the enzyme works at its fastest rate. With competitive inhibitors, some of the active sites are occupied and the reaction rate decreases. The inhibiting effect is reversible. Increasing the substrate concentration reduces the effects of a competitive inhibitor. Non-competitive inhibitors attach to other parts of the enzyme molecules. Increasing the substrate concentration does not increase the reaction rate.

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[1A04402] * Describe the structure and function of enzymes. Explain how their activity is influenced by pH, temperature and inhibitors. (10 marks) Any diagrams included in your answer must be fully annotated. WJEC GCE (A/AS) Biology Module BI1 Jun 2005 Q9 -- ans --

Any ten from: An enzyme is a biological catalyst / speeds up a chemical reaction. It lowers the activation energy of a reaction. It is a globular protein / a protein with a tertiary structure. It has an active site which is of a specific shape.

1m x 10

It combines with the substrate with the specific shape and converts the substrate into (a) product(s). Effects of pH: An enzyme has a narrow optimum pH range. Large deviations from this optimum range may result in denaturation of an enzyme / a change in the shape of an enzyme. Small pH changes cause reversible changes. Effects of temperature: The rate of reaction increases with an increasing temperature. It is because of the increased number of collisions of active sites and the substrate. Enzymes are denatured by a temperature above 45 oC while the optimum temperature for most mammalian enzymes is 37oC. Effects of inhibitors: Competitive inhibitors bind reversibly to the active site. Non-competitive inhibitors cause changes in the structure of the active site. Correct examples of both types of inhibitors, malonic acid for competitive inhibitors and cyanide for non-competitive inhibitors.

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[1A04403] * What is meant by enzyme inhibition? Describe in detail how each type of inhibitors functions and the effect of increasing the substrate concentration on the rate of enzymatic reaction. (12 marks)

-- ans --

Enzyme inhibition is the slowing or stopping of an enzymes action by other substances. 1m The competitive inhibitors are chemicals with a structure similar to that of the substrate molecules. They compete with the substrates for the active sites of enzymes. 1m 1m

They occupy the active sites and prevent the enzymes from combining with the substrate molecules. 1m

Increasing the substrate concentration can reduce the effects of a competitive inhibitor. 1m Non-competitive inhibitors attach to other parts of the enzyme molecules. This causes changes in the structure of the active site. The substrate molecules can no longer bind to the active sites. 1m 1m 1m

Increasing the substrate concentration cannot increase the rate of enzymatic reaction. 1m Effective communication 3m

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Nutrition in humans
[1A06401] * Digestion is completed in the small intestine. Give an account of the uptake of the products of digestion. Describe what happens to each product once it has entered the body. (10 marks) WJEC GCE (A) Biology Module BI4 Jun 2008 Q8

-- ans --

Any ten from: Absorption occurs in ileum with good capillary supply. The surface area is increased by villi on the surface of the ileum. Glucose is absorbed by diffusion / active transport.

1m x 10

Glucose diffuses down the concentration gradient into the blood vessels in the villus. Amino acids are taken up by active transport. Blood travels from the small intestine to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Fatty acids and glycerol are absorbed by diffusion across the cell membrane. Lipids move into the lacteal and transported through the lymphatic system which rejoins the bloodstream. Glucose is used for respiration / stored as glycogen / lipids. Amino acids are used for protein synthesis. Excess amino acids are deaminated in the liver. Lipids are used for making cell membranes / hormones / stored in adipose tissue.

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[1A06402] * Explain how the structures of the walls of the stomach and ileum are related to their functions. (10 marks)

-- ans --

Any three from: Stomach: The stomach is a muscular bag. Food is churned to increase the surface area for chemical digestion. The stomach wall has gastric glands that secrete gastric juice for digestion.

1m x 3

Mucus is secreted to protect the wall of the stomach from being digested and damaged. Any four from: Ileum: The ileum is very long to allow sufficient time for complete digestion and absorption. The epithelium of the ileum is one-cell thick so as to allow rapid diffusion of food molecules to the blood vessels. There is a network of capillaries to allow absorbed food molecules to be carried away rapidly. The ileum has numerous finger-like projections called villi so as to increase the surface area for absorption. Effective communication 3m 1m x 4

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Cell cycle and division

[0211401] Give an account of mitotic cell division which includes mitosis and cytokinesis. (12 marks)

-- ans --

Any five from: Mitosis is the nuclear division of mitotic cell division. During prophase, chromosomes become visible.

1m x 5

Each chromosome is seen to consist of two chromatids held together at the centromere. During metaphase, the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. During anaphase, the two chromatids of each chromosome separate and move to the opposite poles of the cell. During telophase, new nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes. The chromosomes become invisible again. Cytokinesis: Cytokinesis occurs after mitosis. 1m

Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm of the parent cell into two equal halves. 1m In animal cells, the cell membrane constricts inwards into the centre of the cell, forming two new cells. 1m

In plant cells, a cell plate made up of new cell walls and cell membranes is formed between two nuclei. Effective communication 1m 3m

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[0211402] Describe the events that occur in meiotic cell division and explain the importance of meiotic cell division to organisms. (12 marks) -- ans --

Any four from: In the first meiotic division, DNA molecules are first replicated. Each chromosome consists of two chromatids. Members of each pair of homologous chromosomes pair up. The nuclear membrane disintegrates. Independent assortment occurs.

1m x 4

The two members of each homologous pair separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. New nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes. Any three from: In the second meiotic division, nuclear membranes disintegrate again. Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cells. Chromatids separate and move to opposite poles of the cells. New nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes. After cytoplasmic division, four haploid daughter cells are formed. Importance of meiotic cell division: Meiotic cell division produces haploid gametes for sexual reproduction. It provides genetic variations among daughter cells. Effective communication 1m 1m 3m 1m x 3

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Reproduction in flowering plants

[0212401] Describe how an insect-pollinated flower is adapted to its functions. (11 marks)

-- ans --

Any eight from: The anthers are located inside the flower so when insects obtain nectar, pollen grains stick to the insects. The petals are large and brightly coloured and have scent so as to attract insects and provide a platform for them. The stigma is sticky so as to pick up pollen grains from the insects. The pollen grains produced are rough and sticky so as to attach to the insects easily. Nectary is present to secrete nectar to attract insects. Effective communication

1m x 8


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[0212402] * Explain the importance of seed dispersal and describe three different methods of seed dispersal. (12 marks)

-- ans --

Dispersal of seeds can reduce overcrowding and competition for water, light, nutrients and space among the plants. It allows the species to colonize new areas. 1m 1m

The daughter plants can escape from pests and diseases associated with the parent plants. Any six from: 6 Some seeds that are for wind dispersal have parachutes. They are light and easily carried by wind. Some fruits have air inside. They are buoyant and can be dispersed by water. Some fruits are juicy. They attract animals to eat them and are dispersed when the animals move around. Some seeds have hooks to attach to the fur of animals. They can be dispersed by animals. Some fruits disperse seeds by explosion. Effective communication 3m 1m 1m x

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Reproduction in humans
[0213401] ** Before birth, the placenta is the organ of gas exchange; after birth, the air sacs in the lungs take up this function. Compare and contrast the adaptations of the placenta and air sacs to gas exchange. (9 marks)

-- ans -Similarities:

Both are surrounded by a network of capillaries so gases are taken up and removed rapidly. The walls of the placenta and air sacs are very thin so as to allow rapid diffusion of gases. Differences: The placenta has villi so that the surface area for gas exchange is large. There are numerous of air sacs in the lungs so that the surface area is large. Effective communication

1m 1m 1m 1m

1m 1m 3m

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[0213402] What are the benefits of breast-feeding to both the newborn babies and their mothers? (10 marks)

-- ans -Any seven from: Breast milk is good for babies as it contains all the nutrients that a baby needs. Breast milk enhances the development of the brain and retina of babies. Breast milk contains antibodies which protect babies against diseases in the early months. Close contact between mothers and babies develops during breast-feeding. This helps establish a bond between them. It also gives babies a sense of security. Breast-feeding helps the recovery of the mothers uterus after birth. It reduces the risk of breast and ovarian cancer for mothers. Effective communication 3m 1m x 7

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[0213403] * Compare and contrast the male gametes and female gametes in humans. (9 marks)

-- ans -Any six from: 1m x 6

Both male gametes (sperm) and female gametes (ova) contain a nucleus with the haploid number of chromosomes. A sperm looks like a tadpole while an ovum is spherical in shape. Sperm are produced in large numbers while ova are produced in much smaller numbers. A sperm contains numerous mitochondria while the cytoplasm of an ovum contains food reserves. A sperm contains a cap called acrosome which contains enzymes for penetration into the ovum while an ovum is surrounded by a protective layer. A sperm consists of a tail which allows swimming while an ovum is immobile. A sperm is very small while an ovum is the largest cell in the human body. Sperm are produced at puberty and thereafter while all ova are already produced at birth. Effective communication 3m

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Growth and development

[0214401] * Name the three main requirements for the germination of seeds and explain why each is necessary. Describe how food reserves are mobilized during germination. (10 marks) WJEC GCE (A) Biology Module BI5 Jun 2008 Q4

-- ans --

Any ten from: Suitable / optimum temperature is required to activate enzymes.

1m x 10

Water is needed for activation of enzymes / formation of vacuoles / transport of soluble food. Oxygen is needed for respiration to provide energy for growth / to produce ATP. Food reserves are insoluble and cannot be transported. They must be broken down into soluble substances so that they can be transported / dissolve in water. Initially water is taken up rapidly by seeds. Tissues then swell. Enzymes are activated. Enzymes digest food stored in seeds. Maltose / sugars / soluble products are transported to growing points. Seed coats are softened and rupture. Radicles grow downwards and plumules grow upwards.

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[0214402] * Explain how a cell in the meristem develops into a mesophyll cell of a leaf. (10 marks)

-- ans --

Any seven from: The cell stops dividing. It then enlarges / elongates. Water enters by osmosis / down the water potential gradient. Vacuole forms. The cell wall stretches. The cell synthesizes new materials and differentiates. Chloroplasts form. Effective communication

1m x 7


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Detecting the environment

[0215401] * How can we detect sound? Write an essay on the processes involved in the detection of sound waves in the cochlea and the generation of nerve impulses. (10 marks) -- ans --

The pinna collects and directs sound waves along the auditory canal to the ear drum. 1m Sound waves cause the ear drum to vibrate. 1m

The ear bones amplify and transmit vibrations from the ear drum to the oval window. 1m The oval window vibrates, making the perilymph in the upper canal vibrate. Vibrations in the perilymph are transmitted to the endolymph of the central canal. 1m Sensory hair cells in the central canal are stimulated and they send out nerve impulses. 1m Nerve impulses travel along the auditory nerve to the auditory centre to produce the sensation of hearing. Effective communication 1m 3m 1m

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[0215402] * Describe how the actions of different structures in a human eye help focus the light rays from a distant object and then the light rays from a near object onto the retina. (12 marks)

-- ans -Any nine from: The light rays from a distant object are parallel. 1m x 9

The light rays first pass through the transparent cornea. The curved surface of cornea and aqueous humour help refract the light rays. The light rays then pass through the iris, which controls the size of the pupil by its circular and radial muscles. The circular ciliary muscles relax and the tension in the suspensory ligaments is increased. The lens becomes less convex. The lens refracts and focuses the light rays onto the retina. The choroid contains a black pigment which absorbs light. This reduces the reflection of light within the eye. The light rays from a near object are diverging. When the eye focuses on a near object, the circular ciliary muscles contracts. The tension in the suspensory ligaments is decreased. The lens becomes more convex. The light rays are refracted more and focused onto the retina. Effective communication 3m

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Coordination in humans
[0216401] ** Using a labelled diagram show the structure of the spinal cord. Describe the nerve pathways involved in the flexion of the arm in response to touching a hot surface. (10 marks) Any diagrams included in your answer must be fully annotated. WJEC GCE (A) Biology Module BI5 Jun 2006 Q6 -- ans -Spinal cord Diagram showing dorsal and ventral roots, grey matter butterfly, central canal. Correct labels: (any 4) Central canal 1m 1m x 4

Grey matter / white matter Dorsal / ventral roots Sensory neurone / motor neurone on same side Dorsal root ganglion Interneurone Meninges / cerebrospinal fluid Any five from: Heat / stimulus detected by receptor in skin Impulse travels to CNS via sensory neurone Synapses with interneurone Relay of impulse to brain And motor neurone Terminates at an effector Example of an effector muscle / gland which brings about a response 1m x 5

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[0216402] * Describe the structure and functions of the spinal cord. (12 marks)

-- ans --

Any nine from: It is the extension of the medulla oblongata. There are two regions, the inner and outer region. The outer region is made up of white matter. The inner H-shaped region is made up of grey matter.

1m x 9

The centre of the grey matter is the central canal which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The fluid acts as a shock absorber / cushions the spinal cord from shock. Pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord. Each of the nerves connects to the spinal cord.

The dorsal root contains sensory neurones that transmit nerve impulses from the receptors to the spinal cord. The cell bodies of the sensory neurones group together to form the dorsal root ganglion. The ventral root contains motor neurones that transmit nerve impulses from the spinal cord to the effector. The spinal cord relays nerve impulses between the brain and other body parts. It controls many reflex actions. Effective communication 3m

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[0216403] Describe and compare reflex actions and voluntary actions. (11 marks)

-- ans -Reflex actions are inborn, rapid and automatic response to a stimulus. Voluntary actions are controlled by wills of the cerebrum. Differences: Reflex actions involve the spinal cord or the medulla oblongata while voluntary actions involve the cerebrum. 1m 1m 1m

Reflex actions are involuntary and cannot be controlled while voluntary actions are under conscious control. 1m

Reflex actions are inborn and do not require learning while voluntary actions require learning. 1m

Reflex actions involve receptors while voluntary actions may not require a receptor as they can be initiated by the cerebrum. In reflex actions, the same stimulus always results in the same response, while in voluntary actions, the same stimulus may result in different responses. 1m 1m

The speed of response in reflex actions is fast while that in voluntary actions may be fast or slow depending on the nervous pathway involved and the nature of response. 1m Effective communication 3m

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Movement in humans
[0217401] * Describe the events happen in a neuromuscular junction when a nerve impulse arrives at the ending of an axon. (8 marks) -- ans -When a nerve impulse arrives at the ending of an axon, it stimulates the ending to release neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters diffuse across the junction to the muscle fibre and stimulate it to generate an electrical impulse. The electrical impulse spreads along the muscle fibre 1m 1m 1m 1m

and the muscle contracts. Effective communication

1m 3m

-- ans end -[0217402] * Explain how the difference in the elasticity of ligaments and tendons is adapted to their functions. (9 marks) -- ans -Ligaments are present at joint. They hold bones in position and prevent dislocation during movement. The elasticity of ligaments allows the bones to move. Tendons are present at the end of muscles. They attach muscles to bones. 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

The inelasticity of tendons effectively transmits the pulling force generated by muscle contraction to the bones. Effective communication 1m 3m

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[0218401] * Describe how homeostasis is brought about by negative feedback mechanism. (9 marks)

-- ans -Negative feedback mechanism results in responses that have opposite effects to the changes in the parameter so that the level of the parameter can be restored to normal. 1m The mechanism has three components: a receptor, a control centre and an effector.

1m The receptor detects changes in the level of the parameter. 1m

The control centre processes information from the receptor and coordinates different organs. It is usually part of the nervous system or the endocrine system. 1m 1m

The control centre causes the effector to produce a response that has an opposite effect 1m Effective communication 3m to the original change.

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[0218402] Explain the roles of liver and pancreas in the regulation of blood glucose level. (11 marks) -- ans --

When blood glucose level is lower than normal, pancreas secretes more glucagon and less insulin. This stimulates liver cells to increase the blood glucose level by converting stored glycogen to glucose. 1m 1m 1m

When blood glucose level is higher than normal, pancreas secretes more glucagon and less insulin. This stimulates liver cells to convert more glucose to glycogen. Body cells take in more glucose. More glucose will then be broken down into carbon dioxide and water in the cells. 1m These decrease the blood glucose level. Effective communication 1m 3m 1m 1m 1m

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Biodiversity Essays
[0319401] * Discuss on the facts that a cat and a pigeon are classified into two subdivisions of the same major group of animals. (10 marks) -- ans -Same major group: Both are vertebrates. 1m They have a backbone. 1m Different subdivisions: Cat is a mammal while pigeon is a bird. 1m The body of cat is covered with hair while the body of pigeon is covered with feathers. 1m Cat has no beak while pigeon has a beak. 1m

Cat has well-developed teeth while pigeon have no teeth. Cat gives birth to kittens while pigeon lays eggs for reproduction. Effective communication 3m

1m 1m

-- ans end -[0319402] * Fungi belonged to a class under the kingdom Plantae in the old two-kingdom system, but it is now classified as an individual kingdom in the modern sixkingdom system. Discuss whether fungi should be included in the kingdom Plantae. (10 marks) -- ans -Fungi should be included in the kingdom Plantae: Both of them consist of cells with a cell wall. 1m Both of them cannot move to other places freely. Fungi should not be included in the kingdom Plantae: Fungi carry out parasitic or saprophytic nutrition while plants carry out autotrophic nutrition. 1m Fungi do not have roots, stems or leaves while most plants do. Fungi do not have chlorophyll while plants do. 1m The cell wall of fungi is not made up of cellulose while the cell wall of plants is made up of cellulose. 1m Effective communication 3m 1m 1m Fungi produce spores for reproduction, which is similar to some plants like ferns. 1m

Ecosystem Essays
[0320401] * After volcanic eruption, a barren area is formed. Ecological succession occurs on the area. Describe how this area would change in the following few thousand years. (10 marks) -- ans --

The barren area will first be colonized by pioneer community made up of lichens and mosses. As they grow, rocks are broken down into small particles and soil is formed. Grass, ferns and herbs start to grow. Small animals join the community. trees. A climax community is reached. Effective communication 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 3m

The death and decay of grass, ferns and herbs enrich the soil for the growth of shrubs. Finally the soil becomes so thick and rich in nutrients that it can support the growth of The habitat becomes a woodland. More animals are attracted to the community. 1m

-- ans end -[0320402] ** Discuss the various ways in which human activities influence the nitrogen cycle. (10 marks) -- ans -Nitrogen fixing is done artificially in the factory by chemical processes to make fertilizers. growth of crops. Animal waste from stock rearing is used as manure. 1m 1m 1m 1m

The chemical fertilizers are added to the soil to increase the amount of nitrates for the

Sewage discharged into water increases organic nitrogen supplies to water plants. 1m Intensive growing of crops decreases the amount of nitrates in the soil. the activity of certain decomposers. Effective communication 1m 1m 3m Ploughing improves aeration of the soil, producing aerobic condition which decreases

-- ans end -[0320403] Describe the role of bacteria in the main processes of the nitrogen cycle. (12 marks) -- ans -Putrefying bacteria / decomposers compounds. 1m 1m convert nitrogen inside the organic waste and dead bodies of organisms into ammonium

Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium compounds to nitrites and then to nitrates, which can be absorbed by plants. Nitrogen fixing bacteria in the soil or in root nodules of leguminous plants convert nitrogen gas into ammonium compounds. Denitrifying bacteria

1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

convert nitrates in the soil into nitrogen gas, which is then released into the atmosphere. Effective communication 3m

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[0321401] * What is a limiting factor? Explain, with one named factor, the effects of limiting factors on the rate of photosynthesis. (10 marks) -- ans -Meaning of limiting factor: When a process is affected by more than one factor, the reaction rate is limited by the factor that is in the shortest supply. That factor is called the limiting factor. until some other factors become limiting. Effects of limiting factors on the rate of photosynthesis: Light intensity Increasing the light intensity will increase the rate of photosynthesis. Light acts as an energy source for the photochemical reactions / light reactions photolysis of water. At low light intensities, light is a limiting factor. At high light intensities, other factors become limiting. OR Carbon dioxide concentration 1m Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration will increase the rate of photosynthesis. 1m Carbon dioxide is used in the Calvin cycle / carbon fixation / dark reactions. At low carbon dioxide concentration, carbon dioxide is a limiting factor. At high carbon dioxide concentration, other factors become limiting. Effective communication 1m 1m 1m 3m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m An increase in the value of this factor will lead to an increase in the rate of reaction

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[0321402] * Describe the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis and state the fate of the products. (10 marks) -- ans -Process of Calvin cycle: Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma of chloroplast. compound. 3-C compound is reduced to triose phosphate using ATP and NADPH from hotochemical reactions. Two molecules of triose phosphate combine to form a glucose molecule. energy from ATP. Fate of the products (any two): Glucose acts as the main energy source. Starch is stored as food reserve. Sucrose is used for transport and storage. Cellulose is used for making cell walls. Glycerol and fatty acids combine to form lipids, which are used to form cell membrane / stored as food reserve. Amino acids are used to make proteins for growth, repair and making cell membranes. Effective communication 3m 1m 1m 1m 1m x 2 1m 1m Carbon dioxide combines with 5-C carbon dioxide acceptor to form two molecules of 3-C

Some of the triose phosphate is used to regenerate 5-C carbon dioxide acceptor using

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[0321403] * Describe the process of photosynthesis. -- ans -Any seven from: Chlorophyll in thylakoid absorbs light energy and excites electrons.

(10 marks)
1m x 7

Excited electrons pass through a series of electron carriers (electron transport chain) and release energy gradually. Energy released is used to combine a phosphate group with ADP to form ATP (photophosphorylation). Some energy is also used to split water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen. Oxygen is released as a gas to the atmosphere. Hydrogen is accepted by NADP to form NADPH. Carbon dioxide diffuses into the photosynthetic cells and enters the stroma of the chloroplasts. Carbon dioxide combines with 5-C compound under the action of enzymes to produce two molecules of a 3-C compound. Hydrogen and ATP produced in the light reactions are used to reduce 3-C compound into triose phosphate. Some molecules of triose phosphate form glucose. Some molecules of triose phosphate are used to regenerate 5-C carbon dioxide acceptor. Effective communication 3m

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[0321404] * Describe the effects of limiting factors on the rate of photosynthesis. (8 marks) -- ans -Any five from: As light intensity increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases. At saturation point, the rate is kept constant. Chlorophyll can capture more light energy for photochemical reactions. As concentration of carbon dioxide increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases. More raw materials are available for the Calvin cycle. Temperature affects the activities of the enzymes involved in the Calvin cycle. Water acts as a raw material, photosynthesis cannot occur without water. Effective communication 3m 1m x 5

-- ans end -[0321405] Explain how the structure of leaves is adapted to obtaining raw materials and for photosynthesis. (9 marks) -- ans -Adaptation for obtaining light (any two): Leaf blade is broad and flat to provide a large surface area. Leaf blade is thin to allow light to reach the photosynthetic cells easily. Palisade mesophyll consists of tightly packed cells that contain many chloroplasts to absorb sunlight. Palisade mesophyll locates on the upper side of the leaf. Adaptation for obtaining carbon dioxide (any two): dioxide to diffuse freely. Numerous stomata allow gases to diffuse into the leaf. Adaptation for obtaining water (any two): Upper and lower epidermis are covered by waxy cuticle to reduce water loss. Guard cells control water loss through stomata. Midrib and network of veins transport water from the root to the leaf for photosynthesis. Effective communication 3m 1m x 2 1m x 2 Spongy mesophyll consists of loosely packed cells with many air spaces to allow carbon


1m x 2

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* Explain the process of aerobic cell respiration. (8 marks) IB Biology Standard Level Paper 2 (TZ1) May 2008 Q5 -- ans -Cells carry out respiration to produce energy. 1m Aerobic respiration is a controlled release of energy by the breakdown of glucose. 1m Energy released from the process is used to make ATP. Aerobic respiration occurs in cytoplasm and mitochondria. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen. Glucose is first broken down into pyruvate in glycolysis. Pyruvate is broken down in the mitochondria into carbon dioxide and water. Aerobic respiration produces a large amount of ATP per molecule of glucose. 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

-- ans end -[0322402] * Explain the conversion of the chemical energy of organic compounds into ATP in aerobic cell respiration. (8 marks) IB Biology Higher Level Paper 2 (TZ1) May 2008 Q7 -- ans -Any eight from: Organic compounds release energy in stages. Some ATP is produced in glycolysis. Acetyl-CoA is produced from pyruvate. Acetyl group joins a 4-C sugar in the Krebs cycle to form a 6-C sugar. Some ATP is produced during the regeneration of 4-C sugar. 6-C sugar is oxidized in the Krebs cycle by removing hydrogen atoms. NADH and FADH carry hydrogen to hydrogen carriers. Energy is released when hydrogen passes from one carrier to another. ATP is produced in oxidative phosphorylation. Oxygen is required to act as the final hydrogen acceptor. 1m x 8

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[0322403] * Describe the similarities and differences of chloroplasts and mitochondria in of their structures. (8 marks) -- ans -Similarities: Both of them are bound by a double membrane. Both of them are filled with fluid (stroma in chloroplasts, mitochondrial matrix in mitochondria) Differences: Chloroplasts contain thylakoids / grana / starch grains but mitochondria do not. The inner membrane of mitochondria is highly folded but the inner membrane of chloroplasts is not. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll but mitochondria do not. Effective communication 1m 1m 3m 1m 1m 1m


-- ans end -[0322404] * Describe the similarities and differences in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. (9 marks) -- ans -Similarities: (any 3) Both of them involve ATP production. Both of them involve the hydrogen carriers (NADP in photosynthesis, NAD and FAD in respiration) Both of them involve energy conversion. Both of them involve cyclic reactions. (Calvin cycle in photosynthesis, Krebs cycle in respiration) Differences: Photosynthesis produces organic molecules while respiration breaks down organic molecules. oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and the Krebs cycle in respiration. 1m 1m 1m Effective communication 3m ATP is produced by photophosphorylation in photosynthesis while ATP is produced by Photosynthesis uses NADP as hydrogen carrier while respiration uses NAD and FAD. 1m x 3

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[0322405] * Describe how ATP is produced in aerobic respiration. -- ans -pyruvate. 4-C compound.

(10 marks)

Some ATP is produced in glycolysis during the conversion of triose phosphate to 1m 1m Some ATP is produced in the Krebs cycle during the conversion of 6-C compound to NADH is produced during the conversion of triose phosphate to pyruvate, the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and the conversion of 6-C compound to 4-C compound. FAD is produced during the conversion of 6-C compound to 4-C compound. inner membrane of mitochondria. Oxygen acts as the final hydrogen acceptor. Energy released in the process is used to produce ATP. Effective communication 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 3m

Hydrogen from NADH and FADH passes from one hydrogen carrier to another on the

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Personal health
* Kelly is a Primary 3 student. She likes to eat meat and deep-fried foods but not fruit and vegetables. Describe the effects of unbalanced diet on her health. (12 marks) -- ans -Meat and deep-fried foods: Meat and deep-fried foods contain a large amount of fats and cholesterol, and have a high salt content. The intake of a large amount of fats can lead to obesity, which increases the risk of having heart disease, diabetes and arthritis. 1m 1m 1m

Cholesterol in the blood can block the arteries to the cardiac muscles and the brain, 1m which may lead to heart attack and stroke. High salt content may cause high blood pressure, which may lead to damage in the brain and the kidneys. Little or no fruit and vegetables: 1m 1m 1m

Taking in too little or no dietary fibre can cause constipation Taking in too little or no vitamin C can cause scurvy. Effective communication

1m 1m 3m

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[0323402] * Describe the long-term effects of excessive intake of alcohol of pregnant women on their body and their foetuses. -- ans -Effects on the digestive system: Excessive drinking increases the risk of cirrhosis and inflammation of the stomach lining, pancreas and liver. It also increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, oesophagus and throat. Effects on the circulatory system: Excessive drinking leads to high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke. Effects on foetuses: Excessive drinking increases the risk of miscarriage and baby born dead. The baby born may have low birthweight. 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

(10 marks)

Babies born to heavy drinkers are more likely to have mental retardation and poor coordination. Effective communication 1m 3m

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Infectious diseases
[0324401] Give an account on the ways of transmission of infectious diseases from one to another. Name two diseases transmitted by each way. (11 marks) -- ans -Any four ways of transmission with examples: By droplets: When patients talk, cough or sneeze, droplets containing pathogens are expelled from the breathing system. Transmission of diseases occurs when these droplets deposit on the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose or mouth of another person. e.g. influenza / common cold / SARS (any 2) By air: Dust particles and droplet nuclei carrying pathogens and fungal spores in air are inhaled into the body and cause diseases. e.g. measles, tuberculosis By water: Water contaminated by patients faeces is drunk by another person.


2m x 4

e.g. cholera, gastroenteritis By food: Food contaminated with pathogens are eaten. e.g. cholera, food poisoning By body fluid: Pathogens in the blood of patients enter the body of another person through wounds, sharing of injection needles, blood transfusion or during childbirth. Pathogens in semen and vaginal fluid of the patients enter the body of another person during sexual intercourse. e.g. AIDS, hepatitis B By vector: Pathogens are picked up by some organisms and transferred to another person. e.g. malaria, dengue fever By direct contact: Pathogens transfer directly when patients are in contact physically with another person. e.g. athletes foot, sexually transmitted diseases such as genital herpes Effective communication 3m

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[0324402] * Discuss how the impact of disease on the human population can be reduced. (10 marks) SQA Human Biology Higher Section C 2008 Q2 -- ans -Introduce vaccination programmes, e.g. vaccines for measles / polio / whooping cough / smallpox. / Use insecticides / drugs / nets in the control of malaria. / Educate the public about the prevention of diseases, e.g. use of condoms in the control of HIV. / Improve hygiene / sanitation. / Ensure a supply of clean drinking water in the control of cholera. / Add chemicals / sterilizing agents in drinking water, e.g. chlorine. / Develop an effective sewage treatment process. / Be careful when handling food, e.g. refrigerate meats and milk to prevent food poisoning. / Improve the medical facilities / increase the number of hospitals / doctors. / Work with the aid agencies around the world, e.g. WHO. (any 8 or other reasonable answers) Effective communication 1m x 8 2m

-- ans end -[0324403] ** Describe the differences between viruses and bacteria as causes of infectious diseases in humans. (11 marks) -- ans -Viruses cause diseases only inside cells while bacteria can cause diseases inside or outside cells. All viruses entering the human body can cause diseases while many bacteria in humans do not cause diseases. 2m Viruses cause diseases by destroying the cell membranes of the host cells or stopping the synthesis of nucleic acids or proteins in the host, while bacteria cause diseases by producing toxins or enzymes. cannot. Effective communication 2m 2m 3m Bacterial infections can be treated by antibiotics and sulpha drugs while viral infections 2m

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Non-infectious diseases and disease prevention

[0325401] * State the cause of coronary heart disease and discuss how smoking increases the risk of having this disease. (11 marks) -- ans -Cause: For the heart to work properly, the coronary arteries must supply enough nutrients and oxygen to the cardiac muscles continuously. If the coronary arteries harden and are narrowed due to the deposition of fatty substances like cholesterol or due to the formation of scar tissues caused by high blood pressure, disease. How smoking increases the risk of having coronary heart disease: Nicotine in cigarette smoke causes constrictions of blood vessels, leading to an increase in blood pressure. forming blood clots in the coronary arteries. Carbon monoxide causes damage to the inner walls of the arteries. Effective communication 1m 1m 1m 3m Nicotine also increases the stickiness of blood platelets and thus increases the chance of 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

the amount of blood flowing to the cardiac muscles is reduced, causing coronary heart

-- ans end -[0325402] Give an account of allergies. -- ans -Allergies are overreactions of the immune system to foreign substances. and medicines. Mild symptoms include a runny nose, sneezing, itchiness and a skin rash. loss of consciousness. The tendency to develop allergies is inherited. Examples of allergies include asthma, hay fever and food allergy. The best way to prevent allergic attacks is to avoid contact with allergens. Effective communication

(10 marks)
1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 3m

Common allergens include dust mites, pollen, animal hair, insect stings, certain foods

Severe symptoms include swelling of the lips, tongue or throat, shortness of breath and

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Body defence mechanisms


* Explain the production of antibodies. -- ans -Antigens stimulate immune responses. Antibodies are produced in response to specific antigens. Antibodies are made by plasma cells. Helper T cells and antigens activate B cells. B cells clone into plasma cells and memory cells. Plasma cells produce specific antibodies to antigens. Memory cells remain to give a long-term immunity. Memory cells give a faster and stronger response later.

(8 marks)

IB Biology Higher Level Paper 2 (TZ1) May 2008 Q6

1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

-- ans end -[0326402] * Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination. -- ans -Advantages: (any 4) Vaccination can completely eliminate diseases from the community. Vaccination can reduce suffering / the cost of treatment. Vaccination can lower the death rate / reduce the number of people with disabilities due to diseases. Vaccination can enhance the immunity of the public against diseases. Vaccination can prevent the outbreak of epidemics. Disadvantages: Each vaccine is specific for a few types of diseases only. The immunity may not be life-long. Some people may infect diseases from the vaccine. Vaccination may cause side effects or allergic reactions. Effective communication 1m 1m 1m 1m 3m 1m x 4

(11 marks)

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[0326403] * Describe how vaccination enhances the immunity of an individual. -- ans -Vaccines contain weakened pathogens, killed pathogens, viral proteins or inactivated bacterial toxins. 1m Antigen of the pathogen in the vaccine stimulates a primary response. Lymphocytes (B cells and T cells) are activated. They multiply and differentiate into a clone of cells. Memory cells which are responsible for the secondary response are produced. 1m 1m 1m 1m

(9 marks)

The secondary response is faster, stronger and lasts longer, thus more effective in killing the invading pathogens. 1m Effective communication 3m

-- ans end -[0326404] **Discuss the problems associated with the use of influenza vaccines. -- ans -Some pathogens in vaccines can cause diseases. Some vaccines may cause side effects or allergic reactions. 1m 1m

(10 marks)

Some people are not suitable to have an injection, e.g. people infected with HIV. 1m The vaccines are effective only if the mutation rate of the viruses is low. The cost of development is high as new vaccine is needed each year. It is difficult to persuade healthy people to inject. 1m 1m 1m

It is difficult to predict which strains of influenza viruses are to be vaccinated against.

1m Effective communication 3m

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[0326405] State the similarities and differences between the primary and secondary (9 marks) -- ans -Similarities: Both responses show a latent period. Both responses cause an increase of antibody level in the blood. The antibody level in the blood decreases after both responses. Differences: Secondary response shows a shorter latent period. Secondary response shows a higher antibody level in the blood. longer time. Effective communication


1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 3m

After recovery, secondary response maintains a higher antibody level in the blood for a

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Molecular genetics
[0428401] * Explain the consequences of altering a DNA base in the genome of an organism. (8 marks) IB Biology Standard Level Paper 2 (TZ2) May 2009 Q6 -- ans -Altering a base in DNA is called a substitution. When mRNA is produced by transcription, one of the bases is different from the original 1m One codon in mRNA is changed. 1m mRNA. 1m

Some base changes may result in a change in amino acid, while some base changes do not result in a change in amino acid. 1m If an amino acid is replaced, the polypeptide produced in translation will be altered.

1m The protein with an amino acid replaced may not function as the structure of the

protein 1m

is changed.

For example, sickle-cell anaemia is caused by a mutation of GAA to GTA in the coding strand of DNA which changes glutamic acid to valine. 1m

The structure of haemoglobin is altered so sickle-shaped red blood cells are formed, less oxygen can be carried by the red blood cells. 1m

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[0428402] * Give an account of RNA structure and function in protein synthesis. (10 marks) SQA Biotechnology Higher Section C 2008 Q2 -- ans -Structure of RNA: (any three) It is a single-stranded molecule. It is made of nucleotides. Each nucleotide has a base, a ribose and a phosphate group. The bases are guanine, cytosine, adenine and uracil. Function in protein synthesis: (any five) mRNA carries information from nucleus / from DNA / codes for protein. mRNA attaches to ribosome for translation. Three bases in mRNA make up a codon. tRNA transports amino acids to ribosome. rRNA is a component of ribosome. Three bases on tRNA make up an anticodon. Codons on mRNA pair with their complementary anticodons on tRNA to ensure the correct amino acids are added to the polypeptide chain. The sequence of bases / codons on mRNA gives the sequence of amino acids. Effective communication 2m 1m x 5 1m x 3

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Applied genetics
[0429401] * Discuss the ethical, legal and social issues that arise from the Human Genome Project. -- ans -(11 marks)

Ethical issues: Would the diagnosis of an incurable disease cause anxiety to the patients? Legal issues: Who can gain access to personal genetic information, the insurance company, the employers, the government departments, the schools or the clinics? Who is the owner of personal genetic information? Social issues: How does the personal genetic information affect the public perception of an individual? 2m (or other reasonable answers) Effective communication 3m 2m 2m 2m

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[0429402] * Describe the major steps of DNA fingerprinting and discuss the applications of DNA fingerprinting in forensic science. (11 marks) -- ans -DNA fingerprinting refers to the techniques involved in the use of DNA analyses to identify individuals. 1m 1m To generate the DNA fingerprint of an individual, DNA is first extracted from the cells of the individual. processes. 1m 1m DNA fragments containing the highly variable regions are obtained through proper The DNA fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis according to their size. 1m A specific pattern of bands is shown on the gel after gel electrophoresis. This pattern is unique to each individual. at the crime scene, the criminal may be identified. legal cases. Effective communication 1m 1m 1m 3m By comparing the pattern of bands of suspects with that from the blood sample collected It is an accurate method and therefore it can be used to provide evidence to the court in It makes use of the 0.1% of the base sequence in DNA that is unique to each individual.

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[0430401] * Discuss different hypotheses for the origins of life.
Any two hypotheses with evidence and problem: From other planets: Life started on other planets and was brought to earth by meteorites. Evidence: Amino acids and other organic materials were found in space. Problem: It implies that lives exist in other planets, which cannot be proved now. From simple inorganic substances: Simple organic molecules were formed from inorganic substances (e.g. hydrogen, methane, ammonia and water vapour) present in early earths atmosphere by ultraviolet radiation and lightning. Evidence: Experiment proved that organic molecules can be formed from a mixture of

(9 marks)
3m x 2

-- ans --

inorganic substances on exposure to ultraviolet radiation and electric sparks. Problem: No one knows what substances existed in early earths atmosphere. Special creation: All organisms were created by God. Each organism remained unchanged following its creation. Evidence: It is described in the Bible. Problem: Species are constantly changing. Effective communication 3m

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[0430402] * The diagram below shows a fossil. Describe how such fossil was formed and discovered. (11 marks)

-- ans -The soft parts of the dead body of the fish decayed after death. 1m The skeleton of the fish was buried by sand and mud on the bottom of sea / lake. 1m The mud and sand became rock after millions of years due to great pressure from the upper layers of sediment. Mineral salts deposited in the fish skeleton and hardened it into stone. Earth movement raised the rocks above water. 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

Further earth movement or weathering exposed the fossil skeleton, which was then discovered by people. Effective communication 1m 3m

-- ans end -[0431401] * Explain two examples of the evolution of specific populations of organisms in response to environmental change. -- ans -Example: antibiotic resistance in bacteria Exposure to the antibiotic is the environmental change that causes evolution. Non-resistant bacteria die and antibiotic resistant bacteria survive. 1m 1m 1m

(8 marks)

IB Biology Standard Level Paper 2 (TZ1) May 2008 Q7

The antibiotic resistant bacteria pass the antibiotic resistance gene to their offspring.

1m Example: Galapagos finches The change in food source caused by a change in climate is the environmental change 1m Finches having the beaks that suit the food source can survive, e.g. large beaks for eating large seeds. 1m Finches with suitable beaks can pass genes to their offspring. (or other correct examples) 1m that causes evolution. 1m

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[0431402] * Discuss how different mechanisms of isolations leads to speciation. -- ans -Any four mechanisms with explanations: Geographical isolation

(11 marks)
1m x 4

Two groups of organisms in a population are separated by impassable physical barriers, such as mountain ranges, oceans, deserts, rivers, etc. Ecological isolation Two groups of organisms in a population live in a slightly different location in the same habitat. Seasonal isolation The breeding seasons or flowering seasons of two groups of organisms in a population are different. Behavioural isolation Two groups of organisms in a population have different courtship behaviour. Mechanical isolation The sex organs of two groups of organisms in a population are incompatible. Postmating isolation The gametes of two groups of organisms in a population are incompatible and unable to fuse. / Hybrids formed are infertile or inviable. Speciation: When two groups of a population are isolated from each other, they cannot interbreed and hence there is no gene flow between them. variation. on them in different ways. Each group may then evolve into a new species due to accumulation of different favourable variations. Effective communication 1m 3m 1m 1m 1m Mutations can independently take place in different groups to produce different genetic Since the two groups may face different environmental conditions, natural selection acts

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