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Types of Instructional Software

1. Drill and Practice Definition Drill and practice software provides exercises in which students work example items one at a time and receive feedback on their correctness. Features Reinforce instruction by providing the repetition necessary to move acquired skills and concepts into long-term memory. Capture and retain the attention of students. Save teachers time and efforts. Personalize instruction by meeting individual differences among learners. Example ECS Keyboard Enables students to: Play notes on the keyboard after seeing them written. Identify played notes by assessing intervals from played/written notes Playback written notes quickly. Example Master the Facts Multiplication: This program was created in response to teachers to use in their classrooms to teach multiplication. Students using Master the Facts Multiplication for as little as ten minutes a day to practice multiplication skills may demonstrate marked improvement in multiplication skills on quizzes and tests..

2. Tutorials Definition A tutorial exposes the learner to material that is believed not to have been previously taught or learned. A tutorial often includes pre-test, post test and drill and practice activities. Features Follow linear programmed instruction or branching design. Encourage students to interact, control and response to the program. Guide the learner throughout learning from the beginning (objectives) to the end (evaluation). Have computer-management capabilities (e.g. data collection). Example Auslan Sign Tutorial This system provides an easy-to-use and interactive tutorial for learning the basics in communicating in the Australian Sign Language (Auslan). 3D model for signing. 3D model shows emotion. Numbers Mode. Over 60 sign phrases to learn. Random Quiz tests.

Example Food Hygiene This tutorial is designed to teach students at a school of medicine a complete course on food hygiene which concerns food and the prevention of illness and maintenance of health. Uses well-prepared text supported by pictures, audio and video clips.

3. Simulations Definition A simulation is a computerized model of real or imagined system designed to teach how a system works and allows learners to create their own sequence for using simulation. Features Involve students into learning process. Compress time or slow down processes. Save money and resources. Make experimentation safe. Make impossible situations possible and controllable. Let student repeat events as many times as they want. Example Infinite Physics Simulator Infinite physics simulator has a large collection of objects useful for optics simulation including mirrors, prisms, lenses and other transparent objects. Example Curvilinear Friendly design, users do not need to get trained to operate these tools. Using buttons, textboxes and slide bars learners can run or stop the experiment and change the parameters of the phenomena.

4. Instructional Games Definition Instructional games are courseware designed to motivate learning by adding game rules to learning activities. Features Make learning fun and motivating (Edutainment). Motivate learners via the challenge of competition. Engage the learner in a situation where the learner is competing for a high score. Include elements of adventure and uncertainty. Provide different levels of complexity that match players ability. Example Save the Math Apples Help the monkey save the apples! Click on the basket with the number to give the answer. Keep clicking the basket to add numbers to your answer. Example Jungle Jim and the Donga Dinga Drums This interactive game encourages kids to play with numbers and multiplication concept and win points as long as he/she hits the right number.

5. Problem-Solving Definition Problem-solving software is a type of content-free or content-based programs that places emphasis on critical thinking, analysis, logic and reasoning via the presentation of set of data or problematic event. Features Stress thinking processes rather than correct answers. Expose students to a series of activities that would help teach the desired skills. Help students work together in small teams.

Give students opportunities to see how information applies to actual problems. Vary the amount of direction and assistance depending on the each students needs.

Example StressAlyzer This program provides students with many problems in Mechanics of Materials to solve. Students get immediate feedback on whether they solve each problem correctly, and they are offered randomly generated versions of similar problems until they can be solved correctly.

Example Scholars Desktop. This program provides a series of modules for teaching, using a combination of media. Students can visit many museums around the world and explore many environments as they visit it.

Example MS Photo Story This authoring tool allows students to create their own digital stories using text, audio and pictures and export their projects into a digital movie.