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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION IN BUILDINGS Contents of this part is about a) Current supply for domestic buildings b) Electricity distribution in buildings

c) Components of electrical equipments Introduction Electricity Supply Specifications Electricity supply for domestic consumers, according to MS IEC 60038 standards, meets the following specifications: i. ii. iii. Single phase supply with nominal voltage of 230V, range +10%, -6%; Three phase supply with nominal voltage of 400V, range +10%, -6%; Permitted frequency is 50Hz + 1%;

Malaysia's BS 1363 Domestic AC power plug

Electricity transformer/convertor for US appliances.

These are the recommended wall outlet plug adapters for Malaysia.

Electrical Generation and Distribution


I. Three phase supply
Refers to alternating current that continually varies in both magnitude and direction Its consist of three overlapping currents, in one in each phase When 3 coils are rotated at a uniform speed in the magnetic field of an alternator, 3 identical waveforms are obtained.

3 PHASE SUPPLY SYSTEM

II.

One phase / single phase circuit


variation when the conductors in the alternator rotate through the opposite magnetic field set up by magnets.

In this circuit, the electromotive force (emf) undergoes one complete cycle of

The voltage rises to a maximum positive value then falling to zero before continuing to a maximum negative value, before returning to zero.

SINGLE PHASE SUPPLY

The Planning Flow Chart for Single Phase and Three Phase Supply Building Wiring System

Features of Electrical Wiring Composes of electrical wiring equipment such as cables, switch boards, main switches, miniature circuit breakers (MCB) of fuses, residual current devices, etc

Example of Single phase consumer wiring

Example of Three phase electrical wiring

Example of Lighting Circuits Schematics Wiring Single light point controlled by a one way switch

Two light points controlled by a one way switch

Two light points controlled separately by two one way switches

Single light point controlled by a two way switch

Three light points controlled by two way switches and intermediate switch

Single flourescent light point controlled by a one way switch

Example of socket outlet schematic wiring Socket outlet single socket

Socket outlets radial connection

Sockets outlets ring circuit connection

Distribution Of Electricity In Building final stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. A distribution

system's network carries electricity from the transmission system and delivers it to consumers. The modern distribution system begins as the primary circuit leaves the sub-station and ends as the secondary service enters the customer's meter socket. A variety of methods, materials, and equipment are used among the various utility companies, but the end result is similar.

I.

CONSUMER CONTROL UNIT Domestic installations have a consumer unit. Unit - in various sizes but in general they consist of an 80A microgap switch, with up to 12 single-phase and neutral (SPN) fuses and neutral terminals. The number of circuit provided will depend on the nature of the building.

II.

FUSES Is a device for opening a circuit by means of a conductor designed to melt when an excessive current flows. Purpose is to protect the cable and appliance from excess current flows, which may occur from a fault or result from the installation of a device having a higher current rating than the fuses.

3 type of fuse :
a) rewirable fuse b) cartridge fuse c) high breaking capacity fuse

a) Rewirable fuse It consists of a thermoplastic or porcelain bridge and base. The bridge has two set s of contacts fit into the base contacts. The bridge contacts have the fuse element a tinned copper wire-connect between them.

Advantages :Cost effective Easiness on operation ( easy to install)

Disadvantages:Fuse element deteriorates in use

b) Cartridge Fuse Can be found in a porcelain tube fitted with two connecting caps. Has a colour coded Did not expire like the rewirable fuse but an incorrect fuse may be fitted in the plug, resulting in a system that is not correctly protected.

a) High Breaking Capacity Fuse Is used to protect circuit against heavy overloads, opening a circuit under short-circuit conditions without damaging surrounding equipment.

Selection of Wiring Cable Type The selection of the cable size has to take into consideration of these following features All wiring cables must be PVC or PVC/PVC insulated with copper conductors. Conductors with cross sectional areas of 16mm2 or less must be of copper. Aluminium conductors are not permitted. Cables for swimming pools must be water resistant PE (polyethylene) insulated; The selected cable must be capable of delivering the electrical energy efficiently; The cable size allows it to carry the current without heating the cable; The voltage drop must not exceed 4% of the supply voltagevi. The cable insulation must be suitable for the surrounding conditions of the installation, such as the ability to withstand the surrounding temperatures and the ability to provide mechanical protection. Each conductor in the installation must be protected from overcurrent by means of overcurrent protection devices needed to prevent damage to the cable insulation.

5.2 Factors Related to Cable Current Carrying Capacity The following factors in relation to the current carrying capacity of cables must be taken into consideration; Surface wiring using clips group factor; Wiring using conduits space factor 40%; Wiring using ducts space factor 45%; Concealed wiring group factor; and Concealed wiring using ducts surrounding temperature factor.

The correct installation for any installation depends on : The current to be carried The voltage drop The operating temperature

For a given current, the greater conductor cross-sectional area, the less heat is generated. Excessive heat will damage the insulation. If several cable are run in one conduit, duct or trunking, a temperature increase due to bunching will occur. To limit this effect, the cable size may have to be increased and the number of cables restricted to a certain percentage of the cross-sectional area of the conduit. An insulator is a material that offers a high resistance to the flow of electricity in all directions. PVC cable Mineral-insulated cable

PVC cable is :Is widely used for domestic and commercial applications. Is largely unaffected by oil and many chemicals (non-hygroscopic, tough, durable and chemically inert and will not support combustion.