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Energy Saving in Social Housing: an Innovative ICT Service to Improve the Occupant Behaviour

Guerrisi A., Martino M.*, Tartaglia M.


Department of Energy - Politecnico di Torino Torino, Italy mariapia.martino@polito.it *(corresponding author)
AbstractThe European Commission is supporting many projects in the field of energy saving, with the aim to improve inhabitants behavior and to help Europe to meet emission targets. The objective of the Balanced European Conservation Approach ICT services for resource saving in social housing (BECA) Project is to enable consumption reduction of key resources in European Social Housing by providing usable ICTbased services for Resource Management and Resource Use Awareness, directly by tenants. The project is developing a range of ICT innovative services to be provided to the inhabitants of 7 different European cities: rebro (Sweden), Manresa (Spain), Darmstadt (Germany), Torino (Italy), Havirov (Czech Republic), Ruse (Bulgaria), and Belgrade (Serbia). The ICT service will deliver to tenants information with direct timely and comprehensible feedback on the impact of their behavior on a full range of resource uses, thereby enabling tenants to save energy and water. This paper describes the project highlighting the adoption of ICT service in Torino and the initial results. Keywords - energy reduction, ICT-Innovative services, real-time information, tenants behaviour.

the flats. Given those increasing consumption and the difficulty in identifying the major contribution, in house monitoring and control systems, with sub-metering capabilities, are needed to make information about unwanted consumption available to end users and to give the users some measure of automated control over theirs loads, in a smart and efficient way and also taking into account the progressive introduction of Renewable Energy Sources in an urban context [7], [8]. Today, reduction of energy consumption is possible, adopting smart metering systems that can allow final user to be able to better manage their energy use, reduce their bills and estimated bills, based on the recall of final users [11]. Many implementation of smart metering are adopted widely in Europe, based on different ICT solution (WiFi, LAN, Web based information) [9], [10]. Let us point out that only strong involvement and an intensive training of the resource energy managers and of final users, allow an effective energy reduction and the adoption of a new positive attitude. In the paper the adoption of ICT-based services for Resource Management and Resource Use Awareness directly by tenants, providing an effective ICT monitoring and control of local power generation and, for district-building system, of the full heat delivery chain, as well as by providing distribution networks operators with the data they need to optimize their tariff is described. II. THE TORINO PILOT SITE

I.

INTRODUCTION

In the last decades, large energy consumers, such big industrial sites and shopping areas, presented a constant energy consumption, thank a continuous attention in monitoring their consumption and a better management of the energy resources, by employing staff and contract consultants, even if the production has been increased. [1]. On the contrary, the energy consumption in the residential sector has steadily increasing, this also for the requirement of high level of comfort and services. Small energy consumers do not have the same opportunity of large consumers and most people do not have sufficient technical knowledge to implement the given suggestion on energy saving. Remote energy management of residential sites has attracted a lot of interest with proposal dominated by smart metering or domestic management devices [2], [3], [4], [6]. Recent studies have shown that the energy (in particular electricity) consumption breakdown in the Europe households was recently characterized [5], showing in a clear way the increasing importance of electronics loads, that are more than 21% of the overall consumption. The loads are represented by entertainment and ICT appliances with high standby consumption, which is about the 7% of the total annual electricity consumption per household. HVAC loads have also shown high consumption and an increasing penetration rate in

The pilot site Torino consists of three area called MOI, Spina 3 and Orbassano (outside Torino city) located in three different districts owned by the Municipality of Torino and managed by the Agenzia Territoriale per la Casa (ATC).

Figure 1. View of the buildings in MOI - Torino.

The three blocks have a total surface of about 44.600 m with a total of 697 dwellings. The population of MOI is composed mainly by applicants to Public Notices (by Law) with some reservation for special categories, such seniors over sixty and disabled people. In general the social level in MOI is medium education and income. For Spina 3 the resident population is quite heterogeneous with social mix that include the following categories: elderly, disables, foreign people, military forces, evicted and socially fragile families. For Orbassano site, the type of occupation is different; consolidated tenants, mostly families, Italian people from retired and working class. The education and literacy level of tenants varies fron medium to low and only about 50% of the tenants have a personal access to the Internet. The details of the three site are reported in Table I. The buildings have been built between 2003-2006 in two areas (MOI and Spina 3, the first s shown in Fig. 1) and in late 80 in the last (Orbassano). The Orbassano site is the only one that was under renovation in the building programs (2005-2009). MOI and Spina 3 have an high energy performance index and Orbassano shows a medium energy performance index. The total of 697 dwellings participating in the three pilot sites have different range in size surface from 30 m2 to 90 m2. Three different energy measurement and control systems (from Johnson Controls, Caleffi and Techem) are used in the pilots. All technical companies contractually agreed on allowing the project team to use the data collected by the systems in a portal (RUAS) without further interaction necessary during data download (Fig. 2). In the MOI site all apartments (average) are east-west oriented with respect to living areas and all dwellings have balconies or verandas. Ventilation in bathroom is 50% natural 50% mechanic. In Spina 3 all apartments (average) are southnorth oriented with respect to living areas and apartments have balconies or verandas at Corso Mortara 44 and 36, and eastwest at via Orvieto. The ventilation in bathroom is 50% natural 50% mechanic. Last in Orbassano, all apartments (average) are east-west orientate with a mechanical ventilation average. In the following the description of the three plants is provided along with the functional block scheme. For each plant schemes are reported the different points, in which the all available data are collected. The data are then reported in a matrix for further calculation, in order to have the total capacity of the observed plant. It must be taken into account that not all the available data are then used for the online portal, but they are used to evaluate the performance of the whole systems. A. MOI The buildings are connected to the main district heating managed by IREN (Municipal Energy Provider). Heating and Domestic Hot Water are provided to the users. Solar-Thermal Panel are located on each roof building, with the aim to improve the production of Hot Sanitary Water (Fig. 3). In the basement of 9 buildings are located the heating substations. Each substation has two exchangers: one is devoted to Domestic Hot Water production and the other is devoted to hot

water production for the heating. For each building, three different sets of measures are available: Heating consumption (kWh), total hot water consumption (m3), total cold water consumption (m3) B. Spina 3 The heating is provided by a local heating district which serves private user and shops (for a total of 950 dwellings and 15000 m2 in service sector). The heating station is composed by: 1 co-generator (Pelt = 1064 kW, Pth = 1259 kW), 2 boilers (2 x 4000 kW) ,1 absorber (180 kW). A module located on the floor is assigned to each user. For each dwelling, two different data are collected: Heating consumption (kWh for space heating and sanitary hot water) and Domestic Hot Water (Caleffi) and total water consumption (m3 of hot and cold water). For each building, a meter collects the total consumption (kWh). C. Orbassano In Orbassano the heating and hot sanitary water is provided by a gas methane burner located in the basement as shown in Fig. 5. The device for consumption monitoring is provided by Techem. For each dwelling is recorded: unit of provided heating and one data for each heated room is available and the consumption of Domestic Hot Water (m3). In this case the data are separately provided for the bathroom and for the kitchen. In the pilot sites of Torino 30 data logger (temperature and relative humidity) will be installed in 30 representative dwellings in order to evaluate, in independent way, the actual behaviour of inhabitants. This because occupants operate control devices such as windows, shades, radiators and fans to get the desired indoor environmental conditions [13, 14, 15]. The data will be registered by the instruments every 15 and collected on fixed periods. These measured data will not be available on the on-line portal and the so-called control data will be used to check comfort in dwellings and people behaviour to control ambient conditions in dwellings.

Figure 2. Layout of the ICT service for Torino pilot sites.

Systems can automatically partially switch off depending on demand parameters set by tenants, that can arrange that temperature in individual rooms or in the dwelling. In general the set temperatures are reduced by users during the night or during the absence, obtaining in this way a reduction in heating consumption. Some pilot site are implementing and piloting systems to combine heat measurement with automatic, user controlled switching systems to save energy by matching demand better. Modern district heating plant, suitable for use in social housing, is available fired with renewable energy sources and built as combined heat and power CHP to provide additional, cost-effective power generation. Manufacturers of these energy supply installations, like solar panel, already provide ICT components for system monitoring and control and this basic infrastructure has to be taken forward towards integration into automatic evaluation and information feed-back to operators for continuous system optimization [7]. In the following the Resource Management Services (RMS) for the three Pilot Sites in Torino for the BECA project [12] are deeply described.

Figure 3. MOI - Functional block scheme.

Figure 5. Orbassano - Functional block scheme: Via Riesi. Figure 4. Spina 3 - Functional block scheme. TABLE I. KEY FACTS ABOUT TORINO PILOT SITES MOI Dwellings Surface (m ) Technical System Heating and hot water generation Remote reading of heat consumption RMS Access to heating generation settings RMS Access to heat distribution settings on-site (e.g. valves, temperatures)
2

III.

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SERVICES (RMS)

Spina 3 388 23,388 Caleffi District Heating on-site Yes To be explored

Orbassano 102 7,092 Techem Heating Unit in building Yes Automatically /remotely Automatically /remotely

In order to reduce the energy peak demand, energy management in the residential environment can give a contribution to evening the over load time. This approach is based on the latency periods, heat storage capabilities or indifferent delivery timing of a number of home appliances. The introduction of special tariffs can strongly motivate consumers in order to time their demand against the general trend and reducing these peaks. Since energy costs are fixed in time, manual or simple timing systems can be adopted by social housing tenants or service staff to ensure their appliances are used at low-tariff (off-peak) times. With reference to the local generation management, it is common opinion that the district heating systems delivering hot water to buildings is more difficult to meter and control than individual dwelling heating.

207 14,125 Johnson Controls District Heating off-site Yes No (generation offsite) Automatically/ remotely

Automatically/ remotely

A. MOI The following service for RMS purpose are available: activiation of the reading system and remote monitoring of heating and DHW consumption of housing (daily); monitoring of monthly Cold Water consumption; monthly control of thermal energy delivered to the building for heating and domestic hot water; optimisation of energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water with a streamlined management of the plants through the Johnson Controls Metasys; integrated Management of plants from a distance, through the supervision system of Johnson Controls Metasys with the possibility of sending automatic alerts to the manager. B. Spina 3 In Spina 3, the RMS offers the possibility to enable remote reading system and daily monitoring of the joint consumption of heating and to monthly control of thermal energy delivered to the building for heating and domestic hot water. C. Orbassano For Orbassano, where Techem system is present, the RMS foreseen the following services: to active the reading system and remote monitoring of heating and Domestic Hot water consumption for all the flats on daily basis; to control annual methane consumption of heat generator for heating and domestic hot water, to inspect, every year, the thermal energy delivered to the building and to optimize the energy consumption by installing electronic devices. For all the three sites, ATC is evaluating the possibility of showing the economic value of the energy consumption on the portal. This because the tenants express the need of understanding the paid annual forfait rate compared to the monthly bill. IV. RESOURCE USE AWARENESS SERVICES (RUAS) The BECA project intend to support tenants to realize the impact of energy behavior, to enable, to adjust and correct the amount of used energy in real time in line with the real underlying demand people have not to consume energy, but for warmth, coolness, a hot bath, dry washing, etc. etc. These Resource Use Awareness Services include in particular the advice and guidance, the self-assessment of energy behavior and a feedback on metered energy consumption. Results from previous similar project indicates that among social housing tenants, satisfaction with displays of own electricity consumption provided over internet is widespread, with services that offers an historic feedback about the past consumptions. The ICT solutions proposed by BECA is based on a comparison between the monthly and daily energy consumption with the historic data (corrected with degree days for known influences). The ICT solutions include: automatic digital (smart) metering for measuring energy and noninvasive load monitoring; visualization by analysis and presentation of consumption data for access by tenants on home displays, via web and by other media; extension/modification of tenants portal in the web to present device-level information and meaning full trend information on

energy use and add self-management functions where appropriate. In the Torino sites, the information available to tenants and Staff for RUAS is unified in on-line portal, purposely developed. The data are collected from the systems and unified in one database accessible by the web portal. All tenants will be able to access to the web portal to check their consumption (principally heat and sanitary hot water) as shown in Fig. 6, while tenants of MOI and Spina 3 will be able to monitoring also the cold water consumption on monthly basis. All the tenants can choose to export the consumption data, as shown in Fig. 7. Initially it will be possible to check only the monthly consumption, but it is planned to have by the end of 2012 the possibility to daily monitor the energy consumption. The tenants/users will also receive information on energy consumption in a separate letter with the bills and will also be contacted regarding abnormal consumption. Motivation for RUAS is to increase tenants awareness on energy consumption and to provide a better service trying to reduce waste of energy. A side effect will be to educate the tenants also to ICT technologies use and their control.

Figure 6. Webpage for energy consumption comparison on different periods.

Figure 7. Interface for exporting data consumption.

All tenants will be able to access to the web portal to check their consumption and the access will be granted by password and username. The tenants have five different possibilities to access to their energy consumption: Case 1: It will be possible for all tenants, from the three pilot sites, to request information about the status of their consumption to the call centre by calling (toll already available for other users' needs). The staff will be trained to provide appropriate responses. Case 2: Installation of a computer station with connection to the web portal at the offices of ATC. Application will be installed to control the accesses to the portal from that PC apart from the access provided at home for selected tenants. (1st phase). Case 3: Installation of a computer station with connection to the web portal at the municipal offices of the District, for districts MOI and Spina 3, and the Town Hall for tenants in Orbassano. Application will be installed to control accesses to the portal at ATC from that PC. (2nd phase). Case 4: Some tenants will be selected, by ATC, and they will have in use a PC and the ADSL line to give them a chance to review their consumption by the web portal and possibly provide information on the consumption of others residing in the same building, consent of the parties concerned. Case 5: Alarms. Users will report any anomalies on excessive energy consumption through the medium of communication preferred by the tenant (SMS later on, e-mail, phone call).

The first test with the a selected group of tenants was held in October 2011 at ATC Turin head quarter with the support by ATC staff during the test performance. The tenants were selected taking care of tenants background (families, single aging people, single young people, immigrants). During the test all tenants showed no problem to understand the web portal functions. The main interest of the tenants was in finding a good tool to reduce their own billing cost and thus their energy consumption. In order to have a significant value in terms of energy saved, a strategy for tenants involvement was foreseen. This in order to engage the tenants to the BECA project not only during operation but also after the end of the project giving them a useful tool to discipline themselves in terms of energy consumption. The strategy passes also through the education of the maintenance and the management of ATC and ESCO staff. The tenants recruitment strategy of BECA has also a value of being a model to be replicated on other sites. The targets are both users and the technical staff. The authors believe that the winning strategy for all target can be resumed in the following points based on simplicity of information and in particular to explain exactly what each person can do to save energy. It is understood that most of people believe that their input is irrelevant compared to the global approach (it doesnt matter what I do, my behaviours cannot influence the planet).
TABLE III. NUMBER OF FLATS WITH PLANNED OPERATION OF SERVICES Orbassano 2 buildings Dwellings with consumption monitoring RMS-Overview Total number of flats with RMS Number of flats with RMS Techem adapterm RUAS-Overview Total number of flats with RUAS Number of flats with RMS Techem portal Number of flats with RMS Caleffi HE, HW, CW Number of flats with RMS Johnson Controls HE, HW, CW 102 Spina 3 18 buildings 388 MOI 13 buildings 207 Tota l 697

The Table 2 provides the elements which are measured and reported on the web site.
TABLE II. MEASURED ELEMENTS MOI X X X Spina3 X X X X X Orbassano X X Site Consumption Heat Cold water (m3) Hot water (m3) Other factors Local Heating Degree Days Heating Limit Temperature used for HDD

102 102

0 n/a

0 n/a

102 102

51 51 0

169 0 169

156 0 0

376 51 169

The periods data are visualized monthly and weekly and its possible to make a comparison from the year before on the same month. The web portal also give the possibility to ATC to update the procedure for billing and management service, while the tenants will be able to see their consumption (not expenditure) and to receive if needed coaching from ATC in order to reduce the consumption. The tenants can also compare in different way the consumption: table or diagrams. The heating consumption is measured in thermal units for Orbassano and in kW/h in MOI and Spina 3. At the moment tenants in MOI and Spina 3 cannot set a target on their consumption, because a special agreement need to be signed with the energy, while target setting are already implemented for the management of the services in Orbassano with Techem.

156

156

The authors think that using a very simple language and very clear images and lists of good and bad behaviours can educate the tenants and the technical stuff to act correctly. The Politecnico di Torino has a wide experience and knowledge on tenants behaviours and prepared tools of very simple content to be used to explain the project and the concept of energy saving.

It is also an important aspect to present BECA as an appealing approach to energy sustainability by making comparable the cost saving energy saving explaining that one does not exclude the other and organizing series of lectures on energy consumption and energy savings. V. EVALUATION

the field testing, the project is defining a roadmap focused toward an European application of this innovative ICT service. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This paper presents the first results aiming to help Europe to meet emission targets by achieving a significant reduction of energy consumption in European social housing in the frame of BECA Project (CIP-ICT PSP 2010-4 GA 270981 Balanced European Conservation Approach ICT service). Therefore, the authors would like to thank the partners of the project who cooperated in this work. REFERENCES
[1] Carreiro A.M., Lopez G.L., Moura P.S., Moreno J.J., de Almeida A.T., Malaquias, In-house Monitoring and Control Network for the Smart Grid of the Future, 2011 2nd IEEE PES Int. Conf. on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, 7-11 Dec. 2001, Manchester (UK), pp. 1-7. Wang C., de Groot M., Marendy P.: A Service-Oriented System for Optiminzing Residential Energy Use, IEEE - ICWS 2009, 2009, 6-10 July 2009, Los Angeles (CA-USA), pp. 735-742. James G., Cohen D. et al., A Deployed multi-agent framework for distributed energy application, 5th International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi.Agent Systems, May 2006. Marvin S., Chappell H., Guy S., Pathways of smart metering development: shaping environmetal innovation, in Computers, Ennvironment and Urban Systems, Vol. 2, n. 23, 1999, pp. 109-126. Firth S., Lomas K., Wright A., Wall R., Identify trends in use of the domestic appliances from household electricty consumption measurements, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 40, n. 5, 2008, pp. 926, 936. de Almeida T.A., Fonseca P., Schlomann B., Feilberg N., Characterization of the Household Electricty Consumption in the EU, Potential Energy Savings and Specific Policy Recomendations, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 43, n. 8, August 2011, pp. 1884-1894. Canova A., Cavallero C., Freschi F., Giaccone L., Tartaglia M., "Optimal Energy management", IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, March/April 2009, pp. 62-65. Bellosio B., Giaccone L., Guerrisi A., Lazzeroni P., Martino M., Tartaglia M., Energy Networks in Sustainable Cities: towards a full integration of renewable systems in urban area, 37th IEEE - IECON 2011, 7-10 Nov 2011, Melbourne (Austrialia), pp. 3146-3151. Kunold I., Kuller M., Bauer J., Karaoglan N., A System Concepts of a Energy Information System in Flats Using WirelessTechnologies and Smart Metering Devices, 6th IEEE Int. Conf. IDAACS: Technology and Applications, 15-17 Sep. 2011, Prague (Czech Republic), pp. 812-816. Rusitschka S., Gerdes C., Eger K., A Low-cost Alternative to Smart Metering Infrastructure Based on Peer-to-Peer Technologies,. 6th International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM 2009, 27-29 May 2009, Leuven (Belgium), pp. 1 6. Venables M.: Smart meters make smart consumers [Analysis], Engineering & Technology, Vol. 2, n. 4, 2007, pp. 23 23. Web site of the project: http://www.beca-project.eu Fabi V., Andersen R.V., Corgnati S.P.: Window opening behaviour: simulations of occupant behaviour in residential buildings using models based on a field survey, in: 7th Windsor Conference, Windsor, 12-15 April 2012. pp. 1-11 Fabi V., Andersen R.V., Corgnati S.P., Olesen B.W.: Occupants' window opening behaviour: A literature review of factors influencing occupant behavior and models. In: BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT, vol. 58, pp. 188-198. Giaccone L., Guerrisi A., Martino M., Lazzeroni P.,Tartaglia M., An effective monitoring of indoor comfort and evaluation of energy consumption in a complex urban energy system ICRERA 2012, Nagasaki (Italy), 26-29 June 2012, pp. 1-6.

The following section gives an overview about the numbers of dwellings that will be equipped with meters for the monitoring of consumption data and the numbers of dwellings that will serve as experimental group and therefore will be provided with services. Since in some pilot sites not all dwellings of the experimental group will be provided with RMS and RUAS, both kinds of services are distinguished. It will also be considered if there are different subgroups for RMS or RUAS. Additionally, dwellings that are used as control group and therefore are not provided with services are mentioned in the comments field. In Torino monitoring of consumption will take place in 697 dwellings that are distributed across 3 pilots with different monitoring systems. In Orbassano 51 dwellings will be provided with RMS and RUAS consisting of Techems adapterm solution for RMS and Techems tenant portal for RUAS covering Heating (HE) and Hot Water (HW). The remaining 51 dwellings in Orbassano will be used as control group for RUAS. In Spina 3 and MOI only RUAS will be operated covering Heating (HE), Hot Water (HW) and Cold Water (CW). In Spina3 169 dwellings will be provided with RUAS, in MOI it will be 156 dwellings. In both pilots there is a control group for RUAS consisting of 219 dwellings in Spina 3 and 51 dwellings in MOI. Let us underline that in Orbassano 51 flat have got a double status: they are used as experimental group for RMS and additionally serve as control group for RUAS that is not provided. In MOI the Johnson system all were purchased and installed in February 2012. This will allow the pilot site to acquire measurement of consumption. It is important to underline that historical data have been acquired manually but are available for evaluation. CONCLUSIONS Within the BECA project, a novel and innovative ICT service, based on tenants interacting with a personalized web portal is set up. It takes a fundamental different, innovative approach based on end-user feedback and automated control of the energy consumption. Implementation of the ICT service is expected to have an high impact, throughout full energy value chain, on energy efficiency, sustainability and change of attitude in the social housing tenants. The proposed ICT service are field test in seven different countries and each field trail is delivering proof of concept of specific aspect. On the basis of the results and experience from

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