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# Numerical Aperture Aim:- The objective of this experiment is to measure the numerical aperture of the plastic fiber provided

with the kit using 660nm wavelength LED. Apparatus required:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fiber optical characteristic kit. 1 meter fiber cable. Power supply cable. Ruler. Fiber folding fixture. Patch chords.

## Block diagram:Variable clock generator

Clock o/p 0 clock variable

buffer

Digital txer

IF E96

Sw 1

BB B BBB B B
DSW2

## To fiber holding fixture

Theory:Numerical aperture refers to the maximum angle at which the light incident on the fiber end is totally internally reflected and is transmitted properly along the fiber. The core formed by the rotation of this angle along the axis of the fiber is the core of the acceptance of the fiber. The light ray should Strike the fiber end within its core of acceptance. Else it is refracted out of fiber core. Procedure:-

1. Slightly unscrew the cap of LED IF-E96. Do not remove the cap from the connector. Once it is loosened insert the fiber into the cap by screwing it back. 2. Connect the power chord to kit and a switch on the power supply. 3. Apply the high input digital value to LED using 8-bit serial data generator. 4. Insert the other end of the fiber such that its cut face is perpendicular to the axis of the fiber. 5. Keep the distance of about 10mm between the fiber tip and screen. Gently tighten the screw and thus fix the fiber in place. 6. Now observe the illuminated circular path of light on the screen. 7. Measure exactly the distanced and also the vertical and horizontal diameter MR and PN as in the figure. 8. Mean radius is calculated using the format.

9. Find the numerical aperture of fiber using the formula. NA fiber. Measurement setup:

## Result:Thus the numerical aperture of the plastic fiber is calculated NA=

Time division multiplexing Aim:- the objective of this experiment is to learn to setup the multiplexer and de-multiplexer and to observe the simultaneous transmission of several channels using time division multiplexing. Apparatus required:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fiber optic time division multiplexing trainer kit. Power supply cable. CRO. Probe. Patch chords.

Theory:Time division multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital (or rarely analog) multiplexing in which two or more bit streams or signals are transferred. Appearing simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel. The time domain is divided into several recurrent time slots of fixed length, one for each sub-channel. A sample byte or data block of sub-channel 1 is transmitted during time slot 1 such channel 2 during time slot 2 etc. Applications:1.) the plesiochronous digital hierarchy(PDH)system, also known as the PCM system, for digital transmission of several telephone calls over the same four wire copper cable. 2.) the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)\SYNCHRONOUS optical networking (SONET)network transmission standards that have placed PDH. 3.)the GSM telephone signals,

Block diagram of TDM:CH 1 MOD 1 Sine 1khz TDM modulator MOD 2 BPF 2 buffer Txer BPF 1

CH 2 Sine 2khz

fiber CH 1
Demod1 BPF1 TDM demodulator buffer Rxer

CH 2
Demod2 BPF2

Procedure:1.) Connections are given as shown in block diagram. Switch on the power supply. 2.) Set the channel 1 voltage given ch1 knob similarly set the channel 2 voltage. 3.) Note down input channel 1 and 2 voltage 4.) Trace the TDM signal at the transmitter output 5.) Note down the voltage of the received signals to the channel 1 and 2 terminals of the demultiplexer end.

## Tabulation:s.no terminal amplitude(v) time period(ms)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

transmitting channel 1 transmitting channel 2 TDM output Receiving channel 1 Receiving channel 2

Model graph:-

Result:The simultaneous transmission of several changes (2 data channels) using Time division multiplexing are observed.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

AIM:-To perform the fiber optical analog line and calculate the frequency response of the fiber optic cable. APPARATUS REQUIRED:1.) Fiber analog link kit 2.) 1 meter of fiber cable 3.) Power supply cable 4.) 20 Mhz dual channel oscilloscope 5.) 2 Mhz function generator. 6.) Patch chords Block diagram:AFO Signal amplifier Driver circuit

Analog Txer

## Amp o/p IF E96

CRO

Audio amplifier

Signal conditioner

Audio o/p

IF E91

THEORY:Fiber optical links can be used for transmission of digital as well as analog link signals. Basically a fiber optical links contains three main elements. 1.) Transmitter 2.) Optical fiber 3.) Receiver.

The transmitter module takes the input signal in electrical form and then transistors it into optical light energy containing the same information. The optical fiber is used for carry the optical light energy. The receiver module receives the signals in optical light energy and then transforms it into electrical form. PROCEDURE:1.) Slightly unscrew the cap of IF-E96 LED do not remove the cap from the connector. Once it is loosened insert the fiber into the cap by screwing it back. 2.) Slightly unscrew the cap of IF-E91 LED Do not remove the cap from the connector. Once it is loosened insert the other end of fiber into the cap by screwing it back. 3.) Remaining connections are given as per the given block diagram. 4.) Switch on the power supply. 5.) To measure the analog bandwidth of the link, keep the same connections and vary the frequency of the input signals from 100Hz onwards. Measure the amplitude of the received signal for each frequency readings. Tabulation:I/P voltage =
s.no freq(HZ) o/p voltage(v) Gain = 20log( )dB

Model graph:Gain(Db)

Frequency (Hz)

Result:Thus the optical analog link has been performed and verified.

ATTENUATION AIM:-The aim of the experiment is to measure loss in the fiber. 1.) Propagation loss 2.) Bending loss APPARATUS REQUIRED:1.) Fiber optical analog link kit 2.) 1&3 meter fiber cable 3.) Patch chords 4.) 20Mhz dual channel oscilloscope 5.) Function generator 6.) Power supply cable THEORY:Optical fibers are available in different variety of materials. These materials are usually selected by taking into account their absorption characteristics for different wavelength of light. Incase of optical fiber, which is completely different in nature as that of electrons one has to consider the interaction of matter with the radiation to study the losses in fiber. Losses are introduced in fiber due to various reasons. As light propagates from one end of fiber to another end part of it is absorbed in the material exhibiting absorption loss. Also part of the light is reflected back or in some other direction from the impurity particles present in the materials contributing to the loss of the signal at the other end of the fiber. PROCEDURE:MEASUREMENT OF PROPAGATION LOSS

1.) Slightly unscrew the cap of IF-E96 LED. Do not remove the cap from the connector. Once it is loss end insert the fiber into the cap by screwing it back. 2.) Slightly unscrew the cap of IF-E91 LED. Do not remove the cap from the connector. Once it is loss end insert the other end it fiber into the cap by screwing it back. 3.) Remaining connection are given as per the given block diagram. 4.) We can measure the right output using the signal strength section of the kit. The loss will for a longer piece of fiber. So you will measure the loss of the long piece of fiber. In order to measure the loss in the fiber you first need a reference of how much light free into the piece of fiber from the light transmitted. You will use the short piece of fiber to measure this reference. 5.) Now remove the 1 meter fiber and insert 3meter fiber. 6.) Power= 10log(P2/P1)db. P2=reference reading by 1meter fiber. P1=reference reading by 3meter fiber.

## BLOCK DIAGRAM:Analog TXER

AFO Signal amplifier
AMP O/P

Driver circuit
IF-E96

CRO

## Audio AUDIO O/P amplifier

Signal conditioning

IF-E91

Measurement of bending loss:1.) Slightly unscrew the cap of IF-E96 LED. Do not remove the cap from the connector. Once it is loss end insert the fiber into the cap by screwing it back. 2.) Slightly unscrew the cap of IF-E91 LED. Do not remove the cap from the connector. Once it is loss end insert the other end it fiber into the cap by screwing it back. 3.) Remaining connection are given as per the given block diagram. 4.) bend the fiber in a loop. Measure the amplitude of the received side. 5.) keep reducing the diameter of above 2cm and take corresponding o/p range and reading. 6.) plot the graph of received signal amplitude vs 1loop diameter.

Bending measurement:-

Tabulation:-

signal amp(v)

No bend

## Model graph:Signal amp

Result:Thus the losses in the optical fiber and its corresponding graph are drawn.