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Section A

[60 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.

1 Diagram 1 shows a plant cell as seen under an electron microscope.

Diagram I
(a) (i) On Diagram 1, label the structures p,
e, R and S. [4 ntarksl
(ii) State the function of structure:

P:

Q:

12marl--
\./
(b) Explain the role of R to maintain cell turgidity.

[2marks]

r37
(c) Every somatic cell which contains structure
e has a potential to form a complete new
organism.

(i) Name the techniqueusedto prodi.rce


new plants in large quantities.

IImarkl
(ii) By using onesuitable part of the plant,
explain the techniquein (cxi).

[4marksl
2 (a) Diagram 2.1 showshumandigestive system.

Duodenum

Diagrarn 2.1
structure Q in Diagram2.Lis involved in the digestionoffat.

(i) Name structure Q.

[lmarkl

139
(ii) Name the enzlrmewhich digestsfat in
e.

ILmarhl
(iii) Diagra m2.2showsa mechanismof an enzyme
reaction.
Dray the diagram in the spacesIII and fV provided in Diagram
2.2 to complete the
mechanismof the enzJrmereaction.

n
B fl
+

I III rv V

Diagram2.2
12marks)
(b) (i) Explain how starch is digestedin the duodenum.

[2marksf
(ii) Astudent eats too many oranges.
Explain the effect of eatfng too many oranges on the digestion
of starch in thY
duodenum

12m,arksl

t4l
(c) In a food preparation process, a houservife carries out the following
steps:
step 1 : Marinate pieces of meat with strips of unripe papaya in a uarln.
Step 2 : Immerse the basin in a'eontainei frlled with watei at 40
"C for B0 minutes as in
Diagram 2.3.

Water at 40 "C

Mixture of pieces of meat


with strips ofunripe papaya

Diagram 2.9

Explain why the housewifecaries out Step 1 and Step 2.

14marksl
I Diagram 3.1 shows a cross section of part ofthe nervous sistem.

I .l
I

I
I
x ---!

(a) (i) NamestructureX.

lLmarkl
(ii) State the function ofX.

ILm.arkl

r43
(b) (i) Why is Y swollenat the dorsal root?

ILmarkT
(ii) Complete Diagram 3.1 with the neurones involved
in a reflex action. Mark the
direction ofthe impulse movementon the neurones.
[2 marksj
(c) compare two structures of a sensoryneuroneand a motor
neurone.
1.

2.

12marh^l
(d) If the spinal nenreis cut offat Z,whatis the effecton the
organwhich is connectedto it?
-Explainyonr answer. .

12m.arksl
(e) Ali's finger accidentlytouchesa flame.
Explain brieflyhow his reflex action functions to avoid the injury.

13marksl

t45
4 Diagam 4 showsa longitudinal sectionof the reproductiveparts of a flower during
fertilization.

Diagrarn 4
(a) On Diagram 4, name the structures p, R and S.
e, V*ornf,
(b) (t In the spacebelow,draw a seition through the ovule, showingall the cells in S.
Label the cells involved in fertilization.

[3 marks]
(ii) What is tbe significance of having two Q structures in the fertilization?

IZ marks]
(c) In Diagram 4, thestructure Y has to be kept dormant for future
researphpurposes.
(t Explain howY can be preventedfrom germinating.

12marksl

147
(ii) If Yis tobe germinated,suggestone
methodto stimulate the germination of y.

ILmark]
Diagram 5'1 showsa sequenceof stagesin the synthesis
of an extracellular eRzJrme
in a human
pancreatic cell' The stages are labelled as
Staie r, Stage rr and Stage rrl. Stage I shows a
change in the specific part of a DNA stran*d. trre,n-Ng
strand in=volvedcontains three
nitrogenousbases,CTC.

-stase;"",)
7GX
(:"r,",ffilTft'"[#
\
,\
FiT
\ ,r\ into the cytopla" ,/
ucreus
cteusg,
g] u1
,// Y ;"";;
ProteinKw"pt*
Kv-',,t;a,
. I \ beingsynthesised
**\f
^io"r",J*," *o*"y/
\

Diagram 5.1
(a) Explain the changes that occured
in the double helix of the DNAstrand during stage I.

12rnarksl
(b) Basedon Diagram 5.1:

(i) state two differencesbetweenthe structure


ofthe protein polypeptide
rvrr'.vv morecureand the
DNAmolecule.

1.

2.

[2rnarks]

149
(ii) Ditrerentiate betrareen
the structure of DNA and RNA.

[lrnark]
(c) Explain how the protein formed at the
ribosome is transformed into the extracellular
enzyme so that it can be secreted from the cell.

tSrnarkq_,
(d) Diagram 5.2 shows a gene mutation that
occurs in the DNA strand containing the base
sequenceCTC.

Before mutation Aftermutation


DNAstrand rtl
C TC
trr l
AC
,l +
I

o
Glu tamic acid
o
Valine

Synthesized
protein

Diagram 8.2

Explain how the mutation affects the specific characteristicor trait controlled.

13marksl

151
Section B
120marksl
Answer any one question.

Diagram 6 showsthree organisms,p, e and R.

-<<4-

il u
F
-";t$o*"-
P R

Diagram 6
(a) (i) Describethe type of nutrition in pand
e. 14marksl
(ii1 Explain one similarity and four differencesbetween the
alimentary canal of e and R.
ILOmarks)
(b) constipation, night blindness and anaemia are three
health problems.
State the causeand suggestthe ways to overcomethese health problems
from nutritional
asPects.
[6 marks)
(a) Plasma membrane encircles the protoplasm of a cell.
As a whole plasma membrane
exhibits fiuidity as if it is a layer of oil in a beaker of water.

what is meant byplasma membrane exhibits fluidity?


[4marksl
(b) (i) An experimentis carried out using substanceR outside
a cell.
The aim of the experiment is to study the effect of different concentrations of
substance
R on the rate of its movementacrossthe plasma membraneinto the cell.

153
Graph 7.1 showsthe result of the experiment.
Rate of movement
of substance R / mg s-1

Concentration of
substance R/ unit

Graph 7.1
Based on Graph 7.1, state an example of substanceR and
explain how substuo"" *-
movesacrossthe plasma membrane.
16m,arksl

155
(ii) The experiment is repeatedby replacing substance
R with substances.
Graph 7.2showsthe result obtained.

Rate of movement
of substanceS / mg s-r

Concentration of
substance S / unit

Graf 7.2

Based on Graph 7.1 and Gr apn 7 .2,compare and explain the


movement of substancil R
and substance S across the plasma membrane.
[L0 marksl

t57
Section C
[20 marks]
Answer'any one question.

Green plants sJmthesize their food through the process of photosynthesis. The chemical
process of photosynthesis can be summarised as in the schematic diagram in Diagram 8.

Hidroxyl ion
Water + Oxygen

Lightt"r.rr""I
Water molecule

Chlorophyll rrrolecule ------+ Electron

Hydrogen

Dark reaction

stored Glucose
+- (CHrO)n Carbon
Water dioxide
[-
Diagram 8

(a) State the meaningof photos5mthesis based on the schematic diagram in Diagram 8.
t2 marksT
.
(b) Starting with water and cbrbon dioxide as the raw materials, describe how a green plad
produces starch molecules tg ma;i,,-_
(c) It is found that the process of photosynthesis contributes to the balance of nature.

Explain how air pollution may have an effect on photos5mthesis and the balance of nature.
t10 marks]

I (a) The following statements are on lymphatic system and blood circulaiory system.

' llhe substances that come out from the blood capillaries into the body tissue will be re-
entered into the blood circulatory system.

o Lymphatic system also functions in transporting products of digestion.

Explain the above statements to justifr that lymphatic system is a complementary to the
blood circulatory system. ILOmarksl

159
Multicellular organisms like humans, need specific
transport systems as compared
to unicellular organisms likeAm oeba sp.,which do
not
""J;1;;;"";;;;;-*.
Give an evaluation of the above statement based
on the physical features of the organisrns
with the following physiological processes:

Respiration
Nutrition
Excretion
[L0 marks]

t6l
Conclusion: Isotonic solution will maintain the 3 (a) (, Spinal cord
mass and the length of plant tissues and this is yo/oof (ir) Control reflex actions and connect the brain
sucrosesolution. to the peripheral nervous system.
o) ( ' Congregation of cell bodies of afferent
neurones to form a ganglion.
SPM D(AMINATION PAPER 2006
(ir)
Paper I tl
lC 2C 3C 4A 5A 68
7B 8A 9C 10D 1lA 12 C
13A 14 D 15c16At7A18B
19D 20 C 2r B 22 B 23 C 24 B
25 D 26 B 27 C 28 A 29 A 30A
31D 32 A 33B 34 A 35D 868
37 B 38C 39A 40 B 4r D 42D
43D 44 D 45 D 46 D 47 A 48 C
49 C 508
(c) Sensory neurone Motorneurone
Paper 2 1. Cellbcdylocated 1. Cellbodylocated
Section A outside the spinal inside the spinal
1 (a) (r) P chloroplast cord. cord.
a nucleus
2. Has a long 2. Has a short
R vacuole
dendron and a
s Golgi apparatus
short axon.
dendron and a
long axon.
(ir) P Contains chlorophyll whieh absorbs
sunlight for photosynthesis.
(d) Nerve impulses cannot be transmitted from the
a Contains genetic material in the form of
spinal cord to the effectors and the organ will not
chromosomes which control the activities
respond.
ofthe cells.
(e) Pain receptors in the skin ofthe fingers detect
o) The vacuole pushes the cytoplasm and pressesthe -
stimulus
plasma membrane against the cell wall.
- Nerve impulses are transmitted from receptors
(c) (l) fissueculture/cloning
(ii) - Tissuesectionsareobtainedfromtheroot. to spinal cord via sensory neurone which
transmits impulses to the efferent/motor
- Tissues are cultured in suitable nutrient
nenrone via interneurone and then to muscles
mediums with growth hormones.
in the organ which contracts and pulls hand
- Callus tissues are formed through mitosis.
awayfromflame.
- Callus tissues are transfetred to agar
medium.
4 (a) P: pollen tube Q : male gametes
- New plantlets/clones formed are then
R: ovary S : embryo sacs
transfened and grown in the soil.
(b) (r)
2 (a) (D Small intestine/ileum
(ii) Lipase
Polar nucleus
(iir)

Eggcell/ovum
m ry
(b) (t - Pancreassecretespancreaticjuiceintothe (ri) - One male gamete fuses with the egg cell.
duodenum. - Another male gamete fuses with the two
- Pancieatic juice contains amylase polarnucleus.
which hydrolyses undigested starch into - Double fertfisation occurs.
maltose. (c) (r) Place in dry/cool plabe which is air tight
(il) - Oranges contain ascorbic acid and will (ii) Place in sugar solution
lower the pH in the duodenum from an
optimum of pH 3. (a) The double helix of the DNAstrand unzips.
-
- fhis will slow down the digestion of stareh *
The DNA code is copied/transcribed into a
which requires an optimum pH of 7.t strandof mRNA.
-8.2. (b) (t 1. DNA is double stranded whereas
(c) - Step 1 is to provide enzyme protease to digest polypeptide is single stranddd
the meat in order to tenderize the meat. 2. DNA is made up of repeating units of
- Step 2 is to provide the optimum temperature phosphate, sugar and nitrogenous bases
for enzyme action and to allow enough time (nucleotides) whereas polypeptide is
for enzyme reaction.
of 20 differenttype of amino Section C
ffff "r 8 (a) Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll to break up
(ii) DNA molecules consists of 2 polynucleotide water to provide H atom and form AIP which are
strands whereas RNAconsists of a single used to reduce CO, to form starch.
stranded nucleotide. @) During light reaction, chlorophyll captures light
(c) Proteins synthesized at the ribosome enters the energ'y which excites the electrons of chlorophyll
cistern/spaee in the endoplasmic reticulum which molecules to higher energ'y level. In the excited
is transported to the Golgi apparatus in transport state, the electrons can leave the chlorophyll
'
vesicles. The Golgi apparatus process,modify and molecules. Light energy is used to split HrO
package the enzymes into vesicles and are secreted molecules into hydrogen ions (H*) and hydroxyl
fromthe cell. ions (OH-). The OH- from photolysis of water
(d) This is a substitute mutation where the amino combine to form water and orygen gas. During
acid valine replaces glutamic acid. The amino the dark reaction, the hydrogen atoms are used
acid sequence in the polypeptide is altered. This to fix CO, in a series of reactions catalysed by
changes the structure ofthe protein which loses its enzymes. The overall reaction results in the
original function. reduction of CO, into glucose. The glucose
monomers undergo condensation to form starch.
Section B (c) Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels produces
6 (a) (t P: Autotrophic tiny carbon particles which form smoke, haze
Q: Heterotrophic and smog. Smoke and haze r"educe light
(ii) Similarity intensity. Smoke particles can also deposit on
Both contain anaerobic bacteria and leaves and prevent gaseous exchange. Both can
protnzna in their alimentary' canal for lower the rate ofphotosynthesis.
digestion of cellulose.
Dififerenees 9 (a) lO% of interstitial fluid enters ly.mphatic
Q has a very large caecumcompared to R. capillaries to form lymph, and flows into bigger
- Q has one stomach and R has four vessels called lymphatic vessels which conaect
stomaches; rumen, reticulum, omasum the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct.
and abomasums. Both push their contents into the right and left
- R has a diastema to store cut cellulose subclavian vein and return the fluids into the blood
before chewing by the molar. circulatory system via the lymphatic systems.
R has a hard upper palate to help in the Fatty acids and glycerol diffirse into the
cutting ofcellulose. lacteal in the small intestine. It is transported to
(b) Constipa.tion the thoracic duct, left subclavian vein andjoins the
- Insufficient fibre in the diet blood circulatory system.
- Eat more vegetables and fruits (b) Respiration
Anaemia - Gaseous exchange takes plaee by diffr.rsion
- Insufficientiron/ferum across the thin plasma membrane.
- Eat more red meat, liver, spinach and efgs - Has a relatively large surface area compared to
Nightblindness the volume.
- Insu{ficientvitaminA - Simple diffirsion is sufficient to transport the
Eat more liver and egg yolks gasesinto, around and out oftheir bodies.
- Oxygen diffuses into the cell and carbon dioxide
(a) Plasma membrane consists of a bilayer of diffirses out of the cell due to concentration
) Z
phospholipid with globular proteins interspersed gradients.
Nutrition j
in it. The phospholipid layer and able to move
therefore it exhibits fluidity. - Amoeba engulfs microorganisms such as
(b) (t . bacteria by carrying out phagocytosis.
Substance R is water molecules. Water.
molecules can difftrse through a plasma - Protrusions of the cyrtoplasmforms pseudopodia
membrane because the size of the water which surround thd inuscles which is brought
moleculesare small. by food vacuole.
(ii) Substance S is sofium ions/calcium ions. The Enzlrmes are secreted into it and digestion
transport of sodium ions is active transport occurs.
where there is movement of molecules or Excretion
ions from a region of lower concentration to - Undigested food or waste products are excreted
a higher concentration across the plasma by exocytosis.
membrane with the use of cellular energ:y. - The vacuole fuses with the plasma membrane.
However the movement of substance R does - Its contents are then excreted when the
not require enerry and it is called osmosis. membrane burst open to the exterior.
The process of osmosis ddes not require
energ:y as water molecules move across a Paper 3
semi-permeable membrane according to its
concentration gradient. 1 (a) (t 1. The higher the percentage concentration
of albumen suspension, the more time