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Clean In Place Made Simple

Written By: John Robert Parraga Global Process Technical Consultant

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Abstract
Clean in Place (CIP) Automation is typically a complex part of the automation process. In many instances it is more complex to automate the cleaning process than to make the product since the final CIP automation sequence is often defined after the process equipment is built and cleaning tests are performed. There are many requirements for cleaning equipment as well as many cleaning types. Some process equipment is cleaned with only water while other equipment is cleaned using detergents such as acids or caustic solutions. Some plants have taken to recovering the water used for a final rinse and use it as the initial rinse of the next CIP sequence in order to reduce the overall cost of production. Although there are many approaches to implementing a CIP solution, each approach has limitations and/or allows for significant improvement. The following paper discusses an approach that makes CIP automation a straight forward task and provides ample modularity and flexibility through the use and application of ANSI/ISA-88 (S-88) concepts.

Fig. 1 Sample CIP Process Overview

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What Makes CIP a Complex Problem?


Creating control code for the typical major steps of CIP including preliminary flush with water, caustic cleaning, hot water flush, acid flush, and final rinse Establishing the conditions that define when a step has completed, such as waiting for a conductivity value following the preliminary flush before moving on to the next step. Complex routing Creating control code to perform the CIP procedures as defined during automation design Physical factors, biological factors, chemistry of detergents, concentration, temperature, exposure time, flow rate, etc. Coordination between the CIP skid and the destination to be cleaned Equipment arbitration By applying the S-88 concepts, we are able to separate the Equipment Model (EM) from the Procedural Model (PM). This approach allows for the creation of procedures (recipes) after the process has been automated without requiring changes to the overall control system. This modularity allows for rapid recipe creation, as well as optimization of the CIP procedures, typically resulting in an overall cost reduction and CIP duration.

Fig. 2 ANSI/ISA-88 Fundamental Concept

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Focusing in the Equipment Model (EM) or What can the equipment do? the following describes the essence of a typical CIP process. By using a single EM, we can expose all parameters required on the CIP skid side as well as the parameters required at the destination. Fig. 3 - CIP Basic Overview The key to the simplification of the CIP process is to set up the equipment using a single EM. This allows for the definition of all the possible equipment configurations in a simple modular manner, and then by using the Procedural Model of S-88, we can specify the sequence required to perform the required procedures. In order to describe the automation approach, we will independently focus on what can be done on the CIP skid side then move to the destination side. First we will look at a sample CIP station. By gaining an understanding of this automation approach, we will see how this solution would be applicable to different CIP skid types.

Fig. 4 CIP EM Basic Overview - Operator Interface

Fig. 5 - Sample CIP Skid Detail

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What Can the CIP skid Do?


Deliver a material from a SOURCE Detergent A, Detergent B, wash water, rinse water, return solution, air, in-line detergent Control the FLOW RATE Control the TEMPERATURE Receive material and RETURN to Detergent A, Detergent B, wash water, rinse water, return solution, drain Monitor Supply and Return conditions Supply temperature, flow rate, conductivity; return temperature, flow rate, conductivity The destination may include tanks, transfer lines, etc. Each destination may have multiple options for a supply inlet path as well as return path. For simplicity, only two destination tanks will be used in this example. This methodology is applicable to one or many destinations and paths.

Fig. 6 - CIP Sample Destination

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What Can the Destination Equipment Do?


Deliver a material to a destination Tank_1 Tank_2 If the destination is Tank 1 then the cleaning solution can enter via two paths Spray ball, side of tank, or these can be used in conjunction If the destination is Tank 2 then there are no options to select from Spray balls is the only option For the return path of each of these tanks, no options are possible Adding more detail to the CIP EM of Fig. 4, the following parameters can be specified.

Fig. 7 - CIP EM Overview

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Additional parameters (not shown in diagram) that can be used by the EM include: Duration of step, how much time should this step setting last Amount (weight or volume) of fluid, for the step Looking at the destination equipment, we are able to select which tank to CIP and, in the case of Tank 1, we are able to specify which tank inlet to use. The code implementation required to build the EM is straight forward, while the EM is running each of the actions required to meet the parameters specified are enforced. No procedural sequence resides in the EM, as EM actions are very basic and typically include: Open paths Control flow rate Control temperature Additionally, the EM monitors if the required flow rate and temperature are met and, only if these conditions are within tolerance, will the timer and amount be enabled. The duration has been met The required amount has been met Via the EM faceplate, we can see that any destination can be cleaned using any source of cleaning material, at a specified flow rate, and at a specified temperature. This can run for a time interval or for a designated amount.

Fig. 8 Destinations to be Cleaned are Units

Fig. 9 Phase Instances of Each Unit

Continuing with the equipment definition, the destinations to be cleaned are considered units, since a procedure or recipe needs to be used to specify how to clean the equipment. In this example, Tank 1 and 2 are units. The CIP skid equipment is not considered a unit unless a procedure needs to be specified for that equipment; typically the functionality required around the CIP skid is made up of EMs, which can be responsible for controlling temperature, agitation, etc. Each of these units will contain one (1) Equipment Phase to perform the CIP process. In our example these phases belong to different classes because they can specify different parameters sets. The phase parameters expose what the equipment is capable of to the recipe editor.

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Fig. 11- Parameter Values for Class 1 Phase

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The phase reports when the desired conditions are met. These then can be used in a recipe transition in order to move forward with the operation.

Fig. 12- Reported Information

The factors that can be used to make decisions in the recipe are exposed to the recipe by defining Unit Tags. These can be used to build simple or complex Transitions Expressions.

Fig. 13 Unit Tags

Once the Equipment Phase (EP) is defined it can be used to construct the recipes or procedures.

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What Do We Want to do With the Equipment?


Using the recipe editor, different, reusable, operations can be built to perform major tasks. The following are traditionally associated with the cleaning procedures: Set up equipment Preliminary flush with water Caustic cleaning Hot water flush Acid flush Final rinse

Fig. 14 Equipment and Procedural Models

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Fig. 15 Equipment and Procedural Models

During recipe execution, a CIP phase instance will contain the required parameters for a specific step. These parameters are downloaded from the recipe phase to the equipment phase then to the EM. Note that all parameters related to the equipment to be cleaned, as well as the CIP skid, are specified in the recipe phase. The sample operation contained in Fig. 16 is set to perform the following tasks: 1. Check that all equipment is ready (all in Auto, none failed, etc.) and, if not, prompt operator to check. 2. Prompt operator to make required equipment setup, transfer panel connections, close tank hatch, etc. 3. Download operating parameters to CIP EM and evaluate the transition conditions before proceeding.

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In Fig. 16, transition T4 is defined to move from the first instance of the CIP phase (CIP_CLS_1:1) to the second instance (CIP_CLS_1:2) once the specified amount has been met. During this transfer (transfer of control), the new specified parameters get downloaded to the EM without stopping the CIP process. The timer and amount are reset and the new operating parameters are evaluated in the following transition conditions T5.

Fig. 16 Sample Operation

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In some processes, a single destination equipment can be cleaned using one of multiple CIP stations, but each CIP station is used on a first come first served basis. For example: Destination TK_1 can be cleaned by CIP A or CIP B. If all CIP stations are being used by other destinations, then the recipe for cleaning TK_1 will wait until any CIP station gets released and becomes available to be acquired by TK_1. The following is an approach used to allow the multiple CIP stations to be allocated and arbitrated.

Fig. 17 Skid with Two CIP Circuits

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A CIP_AQUIRE equipment phase is added to each unit and a recipe phase is added in parallel in the CIP recipe Operation. The CIP_ACQUIRE phase logic determines if any of the CIP stations are available then makes the request to reserve the appropriate CIP station. -(CIP_A or CIP B). Once a CIP station has been allocated to the phase, the phase reports that the CIP station is available. This report is used in the recipe transition to start running the cleaning process. Once the destination equipment cleaning is complete, the CIP_ACQUIRE phase releases the CIP station used, making it available for other destination equipment to use.

Fig. 16 Sample Operation

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Conclusion
By applying S-88 concepts, we have provided a modular and flexible CIP process with significant advantages: The automation team is not required to know how to CIP the equipment It provides a modular, straight forward design and implementation approach There is no need to change the code to create or change the CIP procedure Create reusable operations to meet standard CIP operating procedures This straight-forward methodology results in reduced costs in both engineering and implementation time, as well as a flexible solution that can be implemented across a facility with limited re-work of code.

Author
Rockwell Automation John Robert Parraga Global Process Technical Consultant 15458 North 24th Dr, Suit B Phoenix, Arizona 85053 (+1) 623 225 8273 jrparraga@ra.rockwell.com

Publication PROCES-WP003A-EN-P July 2010

Copyright 2010 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in USA