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8) Vertical squashed
This is a vertical deflection problem - possibly a bad capacitor, bad connection, flyback/pumpup diode, or other component. None of these should be very expensive (in a relative sort of way). If the symptoms change - particularly if they become less severe - as the set warms up, a dried up electrolytic capacitor is most likely. If they get worse, it could be a bad semiconductor. Freeze spray or a heat gun may be useful in identifying the defective component. It is often easiest to substitute a good capacitor for each electrolytic in the vertical output circuit. Look for bad connections (particularly to the deflection yoke), then consider replacing the vertical output IC or transistor(s). A defective deflection yoke is also possible or in rare cases, a bad yoke damping resistor (e.g., 500 ohms, may be mounted on the yoke assembly itself). The following are NOT possible: CRT, flyback, tuner (except for the famous RCA/GE/Proscan or Sony models where the controller is at fault - see the sections on these specific brands). I am just trying to think of really expensive parts that cannot possibly be at fault :-). Note that some movies or laser karaoke discs are recorded in 'letterbox' format which at first glance looks like a squashed vertical problem. However, the picture aspect ratio will be correct and turning up the brightness will reveal a perfectly normal raster above and below the picture.

23.11) Single Horizontal Line

CAUTION: To prevent damage to the CRT phosphors, immediately turn down the brightness so the line is just barely visible. If the user controls do not have enough range, you will have to locate and adjust the master brightness or screen/G2 pots.

A single horizontal line means that you have lost vertical deflection. High voltage is most likely fine since there is something on the screen. This could be due to: 1. Dirty service switch contacts. There is often a small switch on the located inside on the main board or perhaps accessible from the back. This is used during setup to set the color background levels. When flipped to the 'service' position, it kills vertical deflection and video to the CRT. If the switch somehow changed position or got dirty or corroded contacts, you will have this symptom. Flip the switch back and forth a couple of times. If there is some change, then replace, clean, resolder, or even bypass it as appropriate. 2. Bad connection to deflection yoke or other parts in vertical output circuit. Bad connections are common in TVs and monitors. Check around the pins of large components like transformers, power transistors and resistors, or connectors for hairline cracks in the solder. Reseat internal connectors. Check particularly around the connector to the deflection yoke on the CRT. 3. Bad vertical deflection IC or transistor. You will probably need the service manual for this and the following. However, if the vertical deflection is done with an IC, the ECG Semiconductor Master Substitution guide may have its pinout which may be enough to test it with a scope. 4. Other bad parts in vertical deflection circuit though there are not that many parts that would kill the deflection entirely. 5. Loss of power to vertical deflection circuits. fusable resistors/fuses and bad connections. Check for blown

6. Loss of vertical oscillator or vertical drive signals. The most likely possibilities are in the deflection output stage or bad connections to the yoke.

23.17) Vertical foldover

The picture is squashed vertically and a part of it may be flipped over and distorted.

This usually indicates a fault in the vertical output circuit. If it uses an IC for this, then the chip could be bad. It could also be a bad capacitor or other component in this circuit. It is probably caused by a fault in the flyback portion of the vertical deflection circuit - a charge pump that generates a high voltage spike to return the beam to the top of the screen. Test components in the vertical output stage or substitute for good ones.

23.18) Comments on vertical problems

(From: Bert Christensen ( As a general rule, vertical faults can be divided into two types: ones that cause geometric distortion (a circle will not be round) and those that simply black out a portion of the screen. The former are faults in the vertical oscillator, drive, or output stages. The latter are blanking faults. Blanking faults are almost always caused by electrolytic capacitors changing value and thereby changing the timing of the pulses which blank the screen during vertical retrace. In other words, the pulses are turning off the video signals at the wrong time. The most common true vertical fault is geometric distortion and a foldover of white lines at the top of the screen. This is almost always caused by the electrolytic capacitor on or near the collector of the vertical output transistor or part of the IC which has the supply voltage (B+) on it. In the old tube days, the general rule was that bottom distortion was in the cathode of the output tube and distortion at the top was caused by a fault in the drive circuit.

21.3) Focus adjustment

On a decent TV, you should be able to make out the individual scanning lines. If they are fuzzy, especially in bright areas, then focus may need to be adjusted. The focus pot is usually located on the flyback transformer or on an auxiliary panel nearby. Where there are two adjustment knobs on the flyback transformer, the top one is generally for focus and the bottom one is for G2. The focus wire usually comes from the flyback or the general area or from a terminal on a voltage the multiplier module (if used). It is usually a wire by itself going to the little board on the neck of the CRT. Let the set warm up for at least half an hour. Display a good quality signal. Turn the user color control all the way down and the brightness and contrast controls all the way up. This will be the worst case. Adjust the focus control for best overall sharpness - you may not be able to get it perfect everywhere - center as well as corners. If best focus is at one end of the focus pot's range and still not good enough, there may be a problem in the focus divider, focus pot, or some related component.

21.4) Adjustment of the internal SCREEN and color controls

The screen should be adjusted with a white pattern (snow from the tuner should do or turn the user COLOR control all the way down to get a black and white picture). Put the set in Service mode (horizontal line) if it has such a switch in the back or inside. If not, just use the raster in a darkened room. Adjust screen for a dim white line (raster). If the line is not white at its dimmest point, you will need to adjust the drive and cutoff controls for R, G, & B. Alternatively, you can use the following procedure: Turn R, G, and B screen (or background) controls down. Now turn color control fully counterclockwise -- off. Now turn up red screen until the screen just shows a red hue. Now turn red gun down until red tint just goes away. Now do the same with the green and blue screen controls. Now adjust the two DRIVE controls for the best black and white picture. That`s all there is to it. I don`t like to work with just a thin "SETUP" line. Cartoons seem to be the best thing to have on while doing the above procedure. You can

also use just plain snow (no program) if you prefer. If you can obtain a good b@w pic. when you`re done, the tube is good and the set if most likely functioning properly. Be patient and go slow while watching the large mirror that you are using during this procedure. (LEE)