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THE CONTINENTS ARE STATIONARY

Scientist G. Ponmudi The geologists believe that currently there is a continuous formation of new sea floor in the volcanic range under the sea in the oceanic region between the continents, which is drifting in the opposite directions causing the continents also to drift apart in the opposite directions along with the ocean floor. The geologists are also of the opinion that when the continents drift along with the ocean floor, friction is caused between the rocky areas and earthquakes are caused. The geologists explain that in a similar way, when one rocky plate beneath another rocky plate moves scraping against the one above, it causes the upper rocky plate to rise suddenly and this gives rise to tsunami waves. However, it has been found out through various sources that the ocean floor and the continents are stationary. Particularly, on the basis of non-occurrence of earthquakes between the continents, it is known that the ocean floor and the continents are stationary. Presently, it is believed that in the central part of a volcanic range formed with a distance of thousands of kilometers towards north south direction under the Atlantic Ocean, magma rises from under the earth, cools down and solidifies to form a new ocean crust. Similarly, it is also believed that when magma enters the same area again, it shifts the old rocks of the ocean floor formed in that area in opposite directions and a new ocean floor is formed in the center. It is explained that this process is continuous which causes the formation of a new ocean floor in the mid-ridge of the Atlantic Ocean, moving apart in the east and west directions and causing the two continents on either side of the Atlantic Ocean to drift apart in the opposite east and west directions along with the ocean floor. Specifically, it is believed that a new ocean floor is being formed in the oceanic mountain range in the northern sphere of the earth and this ocean floor is drifting towards east and westward directions, and the North American continent is said to be drifting towards west along with the westward ocean floor and the European and Asian continents are moving towards east along with the eastward ocean floor. In the same way, it is believed that a new ocean floor is being formed in the volcanic mountain range in the southern sphere of the earth and this ocean floor is drifting apart towards north western and north eastern directions, and the South American continent is said to be drifting towards north west along with the ocean floor that is said to be drifting towards north western direction and the African continent is moving towards north east along with the ocean floor that is said to be drifting towards north eastern direction.

Actually, if the North American continent has been drifting towards west along with the newly formed ocean floor which is drifting towards west and the South American continent has been drifting towards north-west along with the ocean floor formed in the center of the Atlantic Ocean which is drifting towards north-west, earthquakes should be continuously caused in the ocean floor region between these two continents spreading up to the central part of the Atlantic Ocean. But, it has been found through the seismograph drawn on the places where earthquakes have occurred globally, that no such continuous earthquakes have been caused in the ocean floor region between these two continents. The geologists of NASA, the leading scientific research center of America, prepared a graphical representation of the places world-wide where a total of 3,58,214 earthquakes occurred during the past 35 years from the year 1963 to 1998. This global level graph had not recorded any continuous earthquakes from the ocean region between the North American continent and the South American continent up to the central part of the Atlantic Ocean. Hence, on the basis of the absence of continuous earthquakes between these two continents, it has been proved with concrete evidence that the ocean floor between these two continents and the continents are stationary. This renders the explanation of the geologists baseless which states that that a new ocean floor is being formed in the center of the Atlantic Ocean which is drifting in opposite directions causing the continents also to drift along with the ocean floor and as a result earthquakes are caused by the scraping of the rocky areas with one another. It is believed that prior to breaking up and drifting to their present locations, all the seven continents had at one time formed a single supercontinent which was called Pangaea and later the hot magma from beneath the Pangaea supercontinent gushed to the top, cooled and solidified, bent and went into the earth due to its weight and hence the magma under the Pangaea supercontinent rotated like wheels in the opposite directions causing the Pangaea super continent to break up into two, forming the north supercontinent of Laurasia in the northern region and the south supercontinent of Gondwana in the southern region. Similarly, it is believed that due to the cyclical motion of the magma in the opposite directions under the north continent of Laurasia, the continent of Laurasia was also split into two and North American continent was formed in the north and in the same way, the Eurasian continent was formed in the east which includes the continents of Europe and Asia. It is explained that at present due to the cyclical movement of the magma in the central region of the Atlantic Ocean, a new ocean floor is being formed which is drifting apart in opposite directions and hence the continents on either side of the Atlantic Ocean are also drifting away along with the ocean floor.

Similarly, it is believed that due to the cyclical movement of the magma beneath the southern part of the continent of Gondwana, the continent of Gondwana was also split and the Antarctic continent was formed in the centre, surrounded by the continents of South America, Africa, India and Australia. Even today, it is believed that the magma is rotating like wheels around the continent of Antarctica which has resulted in the formation of a new ocean floor and this is drifting apart towards northern region and southern region. It is also believed that this has resulted in the movement of the continent of South America towards north-west direction and the movement of the African continent towards north-east direction, and similarly a hundred million years ago, India and Australia were joined together with the continent of Antarctica. Later they were separated, started to move in the north-eastward direction and reached their present locations. This is a total misconception. The reason is the continent of Antarctica lies in close proximity to the South Pole region. In this position, the ocean floor formed around the Antarctic continent or in its smaller circumference area cannot move towards the northern region, viz. an area with a circumference area and fill up that space. In the same way, the explanation that a new ocean floor is formed around the Antarctic continent, viz. the region with a wider outer ring is moving towards the Antarctic continent located in the region with a narrow inner ring is also totally wrong. This is because, if the new ocean floor which is formed in the wider outer ring moves towards the region with a narrow inner ring, there will be tension between the rocks in the sea floor and they will be crushed. Hence it is entirely wrong to reiterate that a new ocean floor is formed around the Antarctic continent and they are drifting apart in opposite directions, which is causing the continents also to drift apart. More over, it is stated that hundred million years ago, India and Australia were joined together and stuck to the continent of Antarctica and later began to separate from Antarctica and moved north-east direction reaching the current location. Even today these two continents are said to be moving towards north-east direction. If India and Australia which were together hundred million years ago, had drifted apart for five thousand kilometers as they are located today, these two continents must have been moving by staying on two separate ocean floors. If such a drifting had taken place, a series of earthquakes would have been caused up to the northern part of the continent of Antarctica for thousands of miles due to the scraping of the rocks in the ocean floor between these two continents.

But, no such series of earthquakes was recorded between those two continents in the global seismograph published by the geologists of NASA. More over, no oceanic volcanic mountain range had formed between these two continents. Hence, there is no basic evidence to state that these two continents had drifted apart in opposite directions. Thus, it is proved with the concrete evidence on the basis of non-occurrence of a series of earthquakes in the ocean region between the continents of India and Australia that the ocean floor in this region is continuous and these two continents are stationary. But, contrary to this fact, it is believed that hundred million years ago, the Indian land region was attached to the continent of Antarctica, then it was separated and it started moving in the north-eastern direction and now sixty five million years ago, the land region of India was an island continent and due to its collision with the Asian continent, the mid-land area rose up forming the Himalayan mountains. More over, it is wrongly stated that earthquakes are caused in the Himalayan region on account of the drifting of the land region of India which is pressing the Asian continent. Likewise, it is wrongly reiterated that the Indian Ocean floor is also moving towards north-eastern direction and bending downwards, it finally goes into the earth in the southern region of Sumatra and Java Islands which has caused the formation of long and narrow canal-like pits in the ocean floor of this region. More over, the geologists are of the wrong notion that due to the scraping movement of the Indian Ocean with the earth near the Sumatra and Java Islands, the pressure between the tectonic plates found in this area increases and gets suddenly released causing earthquakes when the Indian Ocean floor enters the earth and at the same time the plate of the Asian continent rises upwards and gives rise to tsunami waves. In addition, the geologists are also providing a pseudo theory that the ocean floor which entered the earth near the Sumatra and Java Islands was melted by the intense heat beneath the surface of the earth into light magma and when this rose up and gushed out of the land region of the Sumatra and Java Islands, it formed into a volcanic range. The geologists categorically state that for the past one hundred million years a new ocean floor is being formed around the continent of Antarctica which is drifting away in opposite directions towards north and south and the ocean floor which is drifting towards the northern region finally penetrates into the earth near the Sumatra and Java Islands. But, it is significant to note that no geologist has come forward till date to explain what happens to the ocean floor which is said to be formed around the wider outer ring of the continent of Antarctica for the past one hundred million years and moving towards the continent of Antarctica.

The reason is, no canal-like long and narrow strips of pits had formed in the ocean floor around the continent of Antarctica. Likewise, no volcanoes had emerged around the continent of Antarctica. Mainly, it has been found out through the global seismograph that no continuous tremors have occurred around the continent of Antarctica. Hence the explanations offered by the geologists currently about the formation of mountains, volcanoes and pits in the ocean floor are baseless imaginations with no factual evidence and are far from truth. Similarly, the fact that the Indian Ocean floor is stationary has also been proved by the two volcanic ranges formed in the western and eastern regions of India. To be specific, the Lakshadweep Islands and the Diego Garcia Islands formed in the Arabian Sea region have emerged in a curved path. Likewise, an ocean floor volcanic range has also formed in a straight line in the eastern part of India and underneath the Bay of Bengal. This ocean floor is made up of rocks to the extent of approximately ten kilometers in depth. Under these conditions, the magma beneath the ocean floor penetrates the rocky terrain of the ocean floor and emerges as volcanoes above the ocean floor. Considering that the volcanoes are formed on the ocean floor in this way, if the Indian Ocean floor had actually been moving towards north, the two volcanic mountain ranges formed under the ocean on the ocean floor on either side of India must have been formed parallel to each other. But, the fact that two volcanic mountain ranges formed on the ocean floor of the western and eastern regions of India are not parallel to each other goes to prove that the Indian Ocean floor and the Indian continent are stationary. In the same way, along with the ocean floor that has formed in the volcanic range situated in the midregion of the Atlantic Ocean and said to be moving towards East, it is believed to be moving towards North-eastern direction. Under these conditions, the Canary volcanic mountain range formed from the ocean floor of the Atlantic in the western region of the African continent and extending up to the top region of the African continent is formed from the western to eastern direction. Accordingly, it is construed that the continent of Africa is moving from West to East. But the Cameroon volcanic mountain range formed in a chain in the region of Gulf of Guinea from the ocean floor of Atlantic to the top region of the continent of Africa is formed from west to east. As per this theory, it is construed that the continent of Africa is moving from south western to north eastern direction. How can a continent move in two different directions at the same time?

Hence, by the uneven formation of the volcanic mountain range in the northern part of the continent of Africa, it has been proved with evidence that the ocean floor of Atlantic and the continent of Africa are stationary. Similarly, the Anahim volcanic chain, Stikine volcanic belt and Wells Gray volcanic field formed during the same period in the north western part of North America have not formed in parallel manner. This goes to prove that the continent of North America is also stationary. Also, the Hawaii volcanic mountain range, Line volcanic range and Lewisville volcanic mountain range formed in the Pacific Ocean region have also not formed in parallel manner and this proves that the ocean floor of the Pacific is also stationary. Under these circumstances, in the south-east region of the Pacific Ocean, specifically on the western side of the continent of South America, a new ocean floor is believed to have been formed in the central part of an oceanic volcanic mountain range called East Pacific Oceanic Ridge (just as mentioned for the Atlantic Ocean region) and this ocean floor is said to be moving towards north-western and southeastern directions, of which the ocean floor moving towards north-west finally penetrates into the earth near Japan and Philippines Islands, then melts into magma and gushes out of the earth crust and takes the form of volcanoes. In a similar way, it is believed that the ocean floor which is said to have been formed in the East Pacific Oceanic volcanic mountain range and moving toward the south-western direction, finally penetrates into the earth in the western side of the South American continent, then melts into magma and gushes out of the earth crust and forms a volcanic mountain range in the Andes Mountain region on top of that continent. It is also a wrong belief that the reason for the formation of ocean trenches in the ocean floor near the islands of Philippines and Japan and the continent of South America is the penetration of the ocean floor into the earth in those regions and similarly, the reason for the frequent earthquakes and tsunamis in the islands of Philippines and Japan and in the western part of the continent of South America is the scraping movement of the ocean floor into the earth in those areas. The geologists specifically believe that a new ocean floor is quickly forming in the area of East Pacific Oceanic Ridge and is moving. At the same time, a long and narrow pit has been formed on the ocean floor near Tonga Island also. On the basis of this, it is explained that a new ocean floor is formed in the northern region of the continent of Antarctica and this ocean floor is drifting apart in opposite directions of north- west and south east and the ocean floor that is drifting towards north west is going under the earth near the Tonga Island. Similarly, while a new ocean floor formed in the northern region of the continent of Antarctica is moving towards the north- western direction, if a new ocean floor formed in the East Pacific Oceanic Ridge is also moving towards the north- western direction, this should cause scraping between the ocean floor

rocks which are moving separately, thereby giving rise to a chain of earthquakes up to the northern region of the continent of Antarctica. But, no continuous earthquakes in the ocean floor region between the East Pacific Oceanic Ridge area and Tonga region have been recorded in the global seismograph published by the NASA. Hence, it is proved beyond doubt that no separate ocean floors are formed and are moving and the fact remains that the ocean floor is stationary. More importantly, while the geologists explained the formation of the ocean trenches in the eastern side of Philippines, Japan, Tonga and the western side of the continent of South America as a result of the movement of ocean floor underneath the earth in those areas, it puzzling why they have not come forward to answer questions like what happens to the ocean floor which is drifting towards the continent of Antarctica, why ocean trenches and volcanoes have not been formed in the ocean floor around the continent of Antarctica, and why continuous earthquakes are not occurring around the continent of Antarctica. Hence, from the fact that absence of ocean trenches in the ocean floor around the continent of Antarctica, absence of volcanoes in the ocean floor around the continent of Antarctica and absence of continuous earthquakes around the continent of Antarctica, it is proved that the ocean floor around the continent of Antarctica and similarly the continents that surround the continent of Antarctica are stationary. Thus the theory of the formation of new ocean floor in the oceanic volcanic mountain range which is formed in the ocean region between the continents and its drifting apart in opposite directions is totally baseless and farce. In short, on the basis of the absence of continuous earthquakes in the Atlantic Ocean region between the American continents, the Indian Ocean region between India and Australia and the Pacific Ocean region, and the formation of unparallel volcanic mountain range on the ocean floor, it is proved beyond doubt that the ocean floor as well as the continents are stationary. In addition, it was found out through the global seismograph published by the NASA that there were continuous earthquakes in the region where the volcanic mountain range has been formed underneath the ocean. Hence, it has been proved through the evidence of the global seismograph that the earthquakes are caused only by the eruption of volcanoes under the earth. Likewise, the satellite photographs which capture the deformation pattern of the ground with precision have also revealed the occurrence of earthquakes and tsunamis due to the eruption of underground volcanoes. To be specific, three volcanoes called The Three Sisters have emerged in the North American state of Oregon.

The seismologists were monitoring this volcanic region through a satellite which recorded the variations in the floor level with precision. When satellite was flying over the specific volcano, radio waves were sent from the satellite to the ground. When those radio waves returned to the satellite after touching the uneven surface of the ground, the sophisticated devices in the satellite recorded the uneven surface of the ground in the form of colors like blue, red and yellow. Likewise, when the satellite flew over the same volcano again, the rugged terrain was recorded through radio waves once again. When the recordings of the uneven surface of the volcano taken at various points of time by the satellite is compiled as one single picture with the help of a computer, even a minute change that might have occurred in the volcanic region during the intermediate period is also recorded with precision. For example, this method is capable of detecting even a field that had been ploughed during this time. Employing the same method, when the differences in the ground level of the volcanic region of the state of Oregon was recorded, it was found that the ground in that region had risen to a height of ten centimeters in an area of six hundred kilometers circumference. Many seismologists visited this area which was called Oregon Bulge and conducted a field study and they informed that there was an accumulation of magma seven kilometer deep under the surface of the earth in the region which could fill twenty thousand swimming pools and the formation of a new volcano is underway deep down in that area. At this juncture, in the year 2004, in a single month, more than three hundred and fifty mild earthquakes occurred in the central part of the bulge alone. Hence, it is proved with evidence that the earthquakes are caused only by the volcanic eruptions under the earth. Rugged Rings formed around volcanoes When a research team headed by Dr. Juliet Biggs, a seismologist of Miami University studied four volcanoes in the eastern region of Africa through a satellite that recorded the ground level variations by using radio waves, it was found that rugged rings of a few centimeter heights had formed around these volcanoes in a circumference extending to many kilometers. Dr. Juliet Biggs cited the upward and downward movement of the volcano as the reason for the formation of these rugged structures around the volcano. Particularly, when a volcano rises due to the accumulation of magma underneath, the ground that surrounds the volcano also tends to rise a few centimeters along with the volcano.

Similarly, when the volcano settles down after the gases and steam are expelled, the land area that had risen along with it in a circular form also settles down and this causes rings of scar-like ups and downs around the volcano. During the same period, in 2009 when a severe earthquake occurred in LAquila situated in the central Italy, the satellite that recorded the ground level variations, captured the rings of ups and downs with a height and depth of a few centimeters that were similar to those formed around the epicenter of the earthquake extending to a circumference of several kilometers. More over, a scientist known as Giampaolo Giuliani who is engaged in a research for predicting earthquakes beforehand, had discovered the emission of a radioactive gas called Radon from below the earth in that earthquake region a week before the occurrence of the earthquake. Most importantly, Radon is a gas emitted by volcanoes. Hence, it has been proved with evidence that the earthquake in LAquila was caused only by the volcanic eruption under the earth. Similarly, on 11.03.2011, tsunami occurred due to the earthquake under the sea near the Japanese island Honshu. At that time, a satellite that recorded the ground level variations had captured pictures of rings with lots of ups and downs of a few centimeter height formed around the epicenter of the earthquake that occurred in the Honshu island, in a circumference extending to many kilometers. It was also recorded in the pictures of the satellite that three days before the occurrence of the earthquake, the temperature of the upper layer of the atmosphere just above the epicenter region of the earthquake was abnormally high. A scientist of NASA study center, Dimitar Ouzounov had stated that this may be due to the emission of Radon gas in that area from beneath the earth which has radioactive properties. Dimitar Ouzounov had explained that electrons were released from the molecules found in the air due to radiation caused by the Radon gas and these electrons must have condensed to form an electron cloud. As the ions formed out of this had the tendency to absorb water and this reaction is a heat emitting reaction, it might have caused the temperature of the upper layer of the atmosphere to rise abnormally. More over, it was also recorded in the pictures of the satellite that after the earthquake, the temperature of the top layer of atmosphere in the Honshu island had returned to it normal level. Hence, there is an evidential proof that the earthquake and tsunami in Honshu island were caused only by the eruption of a volcano below the surface of the earth. Similarly, when an earthquake and tsunami rocked the Haiti Island on 12.01.2010, a satellite that recorded the ground level variations had captured pictures of rings with lots of ups and downs of a few

centimeter height formed around the center of the earthquake that occurred in the Haiti island, in a circumference extending to many kilometers. After the earthquake, the seashore of Haiti Island had risen above the sea level. This made the sea flora in that region clearly visible. So, it was proved with evidence that the earthquake and tsunami in Haiti island were caused only by the eruption and uplift of a volcano below the surface of the earth. Similarly, the Sumatra Island of Indonesia experienced tsunami due to the earthquake that occurred under the ocean on 26.12.2004. After the earthquake, the northern region of simeulue Island, situated near the Island of Sumatra, had risen high up to 4 feet from the sea level. This had made visible the flora submerged under the sea in that area. Under similar conditions, when an earthquake shook the central part of the same simeulue Island on 20.02.2008, a satellite that recorded the ground level variations had captured pictures of rings with lots of ups and downs of a fifty one centimeter high, formed around the epicenter of the earthquake that occurred in the simeulue island, in a circumference extending to many kilometers. Hence, it was proved with evidence that the South Asian tsunami was caused only by the eruption of a volcano below the surface of the earth. On the basis of many evidences it has been proved that the continents are stationary. Along with these facts, it is also proved by the fossils of sea creatures which are found widespread everywhere, including the mountain regions of these continents that the continents have risen above the sea level from below the ocean. The steep rising of the island and continents from the spherical surface of the earth has caused long and narrow trenches on the floor of the ocean near the islands on the earths surface and also near the continents. Likewise, on the basis of the fossils of dinosaurs weighing thousands of kilograms found in the continents of Australia and Antarctica including the islands of Madagascar, New Zealand, Cuba, it is proved that the sea level was low by thousands of feet during the period of Dinosaurs and later rose up. The reason for the rising of sea level is water that coming from the submarine hot springs. the flow of water into the sea that is being generated by the condensation of the steam from the volcanoes. Meanwhile, in the oceanic region of Norway, when the sea floor was drilled for oil at two kilometer depth from the sea level, the fossils of plateosaurus, a dinosaur which have lived two hundred million years ago in Europe, were found in the rock formations.

Likewise, in the Indian Ocean also, when a rock sample of kerguelen plateau which is submerged under a depth of two kilometers was drilled to find out the age of the rock, it was discovered that these rocks had formed ninety million years ago. More over, it was discovered that burnt parts of trees and pollen grains were also embedded in these rock samples. Hence, it is proved with evidence that as the sea level was low to the extent of two kilometers during the period of dinosaurs, there were land routes and connections along with forests between the continents and islands, and only this had enabled the dinosaurs to migrate to various continents and islands. Specifically, it is also proved by the discovery of fossils of dinosaurs in the continent of Antarctica which is snow-covered up to a height of several kilometers, that tropical climate with thick forests must have existed in the continent of Antarctica during the period when dinosaurs lived. Hence, it is clearly proved that the rising of the sea level up to two kilometers and the increase of the ocean area have led to the cooling of the temperature of earth and consequently the formation of ice in the polar regions. It is also proved that when the temperature of the earth fell, it caused the destruction of vegetation on which the dinosaurs were thriving, leading to their extinction. Even today, the hot springs beneath the ocean are responsible for the increase in the sea level. The earth is actually being cooled by the rising of the sea level and also the increase in the area of the oceans. Additionally, since the earths axis is tilted, the Polar Regions are now experiencing day for four months and night for four months continuously. The vegetation in this region would not have survived by photosynthesis if there was night for four continuous months and also dense forests would not have emerged in the Polar Regions. So, the tilt in the earths axis must have taken place only after the period of dinosaurs. Because fossils of mammals has also been recovered from the polar region which lived after the extinction of the dinosaurs. The crossing of a dwarf planet in close proximity to earth may be responsible for the tilt in the earths axis. The same dwarf planet may be revolving around the sun even now or even planets like Mars, Mercury, Venus etc. may be responsible for the same. Thanks Scientist.G.Ponmudi.