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CHAPTER ONE 1.

1 INTRODUCTION SIWES : Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme is a programme designed by many tertiary institutions to acquaint students with the practical or field knowledge of their profession. It enhances students knowledge of the past, present and the future. By the past, I mean it affords the student an opportunity to witness practically what has been taught theoretically in the class. And by the present, I mean distinguishing between theoretical knowledge and what is on ground i.e. the reality of the 100% assumption by the theories. It also affords student the current knowledge of what the field is all about, getting familiar with new development in technology. The future aspect of it is the foreknowledge of what should be expected when he/she begins to practice the profession. In partial fulfilment of the award of Bachelors Degree in engineering and technology in the Faculty of engineering and technology, University of Ilorin. The SIWES programme is very important. It makes engineering very real, to be precise, civil engineering. Going to the field brings to sight those visualized beams, columns, slabs etc. it makes real the processes involved in road pavement (i.e. surface dressing of highway), construction of bridges, drain and a lot more. Furthermore, it avails the students an opportunity to learn inter- and intrapersonal relationship, office organization and administration, site management, identification of equipments among other opportunities. This report entails some of the experience I was able to acquire in my little period of attachment.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF SIWES The programme (SIWES) came to existence through establishment of the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) under decree 47 of 1971 in bid top boost professionalism in the construction industry. The fund in its policy statement NO.1 published in 1973 inserted a clause dealing with the issue of practical skill. The fund will seek to look out co-operative machinery with industry, where
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students in institutions of higher learning may rewrite industrial training or midcareer attachment by contribution to the allowance payable to the students. SIWES is therefore a skill training programme designed to expose and prepare students of the universities, polytechnics and colleges of education to practical work on site, this scheme is for students of engineering and technology including environmental, technical and business studies. Of recent, students in the medical field are also made to undertake this programme for higher learning in Nigeria. However, in 1979, ITF withdrew the funding enjoyed by polytechnics and colleges of education, technical and went ahead to notify all universities that it would withdraw the funding of SIWES as from January 1980. In view of this, the National University Commission took up the responsibility of funding the programme for engineering and technology students of Nigerian Universities, while the National Body for the Technical Education (NBTE) assumed financial responsibilities for the programme in the polytechnics and colleges of education. The administration of the programme was still a Herculean task and was not without a myriad of operational problem so the Federal Government agreed on the funding of the scheme in 1985. In 1985, ITF assured the administration of SIWES programme and these are some of the parastatals of government that are involved in the management of SIWES programme the federal government, industrial training fund (ITF), institutions of higher learning, employers of students and coordinating agencies, the National University Commission (NUC), the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) and the National Council for Colleges of Education (NCCE). 1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF SIWES The purpose and reason behind the establishment of SIWES by the government are numerous and they are discussed below: 1. To allow students to apply theoretical knowledge they have gathered in the

four walls of the university to practical issues where the knowledge is highly needed. 2. To help students on how to interact with people of varying ranks and classes when they finally get employed.
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3. 4. 5.

To help prepare students for future challenges and innovations in To allow the students develop exceptional skills and instincts in their To increase lecturers efficiency. Since students are able to practice what

establishments. individual disciplines by participating actively in the operations of their areas. they are taught, it enhances quick understanding. Lecturers effort is therefore appreciated in this sense. 6. To help balance up in some establishments where there are shortage of workers to carry out their operations. Students are able to render assistance most especially in labour intensive organizations.

CHAPTER TWO 2.1 LOCATION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT Head office of BAL ENGINEERING LTD opened in July 1990. It is presently located on the first floor of No 38, Dele Abubakar Street, off Stadium Road, Ilorin, Kwara State. Its other branches are located in Kaduna, Lagos and Abuja. 2.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ESTABLISHMENT BAL Engineering Ltd, a Chartered Engineer and Consultant firm was established and registered under the Business Act Code of 1968 and COREN. BAL Engineering Ltd provides specialized consultancy services in different areas of engineering with particular emphasis on the Civil, Highway, Water & Waste disposal, Surveying, Structural Engineering, Project management and Industrial development planning. BAL Engineering Ltd consultants have varied experience in many fields of engineering and offer services, which combine a broad technical background with an objective view, directed towards protecting the interest of our clients and ensuring superior engineering work at reasonable cost. The company stirs diligently to meet the needs of clients in both the public and private sectors using the latest and the most advanced techniques in engineering. The company utilizes inputs from this vast reservoir of talents as and when required. The search for additional inputs are not restricted to Nigeria alone, but extended to foreign counterpart when absolutely necessary.

2.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE ESTABLISHMENT 1. PROJECT MANAGEMENT At BAL Engineering Ltd, the approach to project management is resultoriented. The project management team is essentially responsible for scheduling, planning, allocating resources, organizing
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effectively,

motivating

project

personnel and consultancy evaluating performances for better results. In addition

to their services provided in the areas of feasibility studies, detailed investigation and design, we offer project management to investors, builders and industrialists. 2. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT. The consultants at BAL Engineering Ltd participate activity in the continuous effect to apply technology, human and financial resources to develop our nation utilizing the use of human and natural resources at our disposal. The guiding principle of the company is the belief that a developing nation can be selective in its choice of means for industrial progress. 3. GENERAL CIVIL ENGINEERING SERVICES. BAL Engineering Ltd offers services in the following field of activities: a. Water supplies and sewage disposal. b. Structural Engineering. c. Irrigation works. d. Dams and related hydraulic structures. e. Highways and highway structures. f. Floor and erosion control. g. Airport and offshore structural design. In addition to the above services, the company also provides the following: (a) Reconnaissance survey, identification/ formulation of project. (b) Project feasibility studies. (c) Project planning.

2.4 ORGANIZATION CHART OF THE ESTABLISHMENT

MANAGING DIRECTOR/CEO

DIRECTOR ADMINISTRATION

DIRECTOR TECHNICAL

SECRETA

ACCOUNTA

PLANNING OFFICER COMMERCIAL MANAGER

DESIGN ENGINEERS

CONSTRUCTI ON ENGINEERS CIVIL TECHNOLOG IST

MECH/EL ECTENGI WORKSHO P MANAGER

PROCUREM ENT
STORE OFFICER

OFFICE ASSISTANT CLERICAL STAFF


ACCOUNT

SECURITY STAFF

MONITORING SECTION

ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOG

AUTOMOBIL E TECHNOLO

PLANT TECHNOLOGI ST

CLERK

SITE ACCOUNTANT

SURVEY SECTION

EVALUATIO N ENGINEER BENDE WELDER S

AUTOMILE MECHANIC S

PLANT MECHANI CS

BRICK

CARPENT

REWIRE ELECTRICIANS

COMPUTER MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS

2.5 THE DEPARTMENTS IN THE ESTABLISHMENT 1. Civil engineering department

This department is composed of: a. b. c. d. e. The civil engineers. Surveyors. AutoCAD Draughtsmen. Civil engineering technologists and technicians. Industrial training students.
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The department sees to: a. b. c. d. e. Structural analysis and design of projects. Project evaluation. Construction of projects. Supervision of projects. Project management.

2.

Mechanical engineering department

This department is composed of: a. b. c. The mechanical engineers. Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians. Vehicle drivers.

The department sees to: a. b. c. Plant maintenance. Vehicle maintenance. Transportation of workers and equipments.

3.

The administrative department

This is composed of: a. b. c. d. The administrative officer. The accountant. Planning officer. Secretary.
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e.

Computer operators.

The department sees to: a. b. c. Remuneration of workers. Provision of all materials needed. Document management (typing, printing, storage etc).

CHAPTER THREE 3.0 3.1 CONSTRUCTION OF SLAB INTRODUCTION TO SLAB A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings. Horizontal slabs of steel reinforced concrete typically between 10 and 50 centimeters thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner slabs are also used for exterior paving. In many domestic and industrial buildings a thick concrete slab, supported on foundation or directly on the subsoil, is used to construct the ground floor of a building. In high rise buildings and skyscrapers thinner, pre-cast concrete slabs are slung between the steel frames to form the floors and ceilings on each level. On the technical drawings, reinforced concrete slabs are often abbreviated to "r.c.slab" or simply "r.c.

3.2

DESIGN For a suspended slab, there are a number of designs to improve the strength-to-

weight ratio. In all cases the top surface remains flat, and the underside is modulated:

Corrugated, usually where the concrete is poured into a corrugated steel tray. This

improves strength and prevents the slab bending under its own weight. The corrugations run across the short dimension, from side to side.

A ribbed slab, giving considerable extra strength on one direction. A waffle slab, giving added strength in both directions.

Reinforcement design.

A one way slab needs moment resisting reinforcement only in its short-direction.

Because, the moment along long axes is so small that it can be neglected. When the ratio of the length of long direction to short direction of a slab is greater than 2 it can be considered as a one way slab.

A two way slab needs moment resisting reinforcement in both directions. If the ratio

of the lengths of long and short side is less than one then moment in both directions should be considered in design. 3.3 CONSTRUCTION A concrete slab may be prefabricated or insitu. Prefabricated concrete slabs are built in a factory and transported to the site, ready to be lowered into place between steel or concrete beams. They may be pre-stressed (in the factory), post-stressed (on site), or unstressed. It is vital that the supporting structure is built to the correct dimensions, or the slabs may not fit. In situ concrete slabs are built on the building site using formwork - a type of boxing into which the wet concrete is poured. If the slab is to be reinforced, the rebars are positioned within the formwork before the concrete is poured in. Plastic tipped metal, or plastic bar chairs are used to hold the rebar away from the bottom and sides of the form-work, so that when the concrete sets it completely envelops the reinforcement. For a ground slab, the form-work may consist only of sidewalls pushed into the ground. For a suspended slab, the form-work is shaped like a tray, often supported by a temporary scaffold until the concrete sets. The formwork is commonly built from wooden planks and boards, plastic, or steel. On commercial building sites today, plastic and steel are more common as they save labour. On low-budget sites, for instance when laying a concrete garden path, wooden planks are very common. After the concrete has set the wood may be removed, or left there permanently. In some cases formwork is not necessary - for instance, a ground slab surrounded by brick or block foundation walls, where the walls act as the sides of the tray and hardcore acts as the base. Apparatus Mixing pan, Trowel to mix concrete mixture, Steel tamping rod, Shovel Material Concrete (Cement, water, fine & coarse aggregates). Procedure i. ii. iii. Mix the correct proportion of sand, coarse aggregate and cement. Then add the normal water cement ratio. Provide the form work for the slab.
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iv. v. vi.

If the slab is a reinforced concrete slab, arrange the bars in proper way. Then pure the concrete after proper mixing. Use the steel tamping rod to compact and make a proper level. CHAPTER FOUR. 4.0 ROAD CONSTRUCTION

4.1 INTRODUCTION TO ROAD CONSTRUCTION A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places, which typically has beenpaved or otherwise improved to allow travel by some conveyance, including a horse, cart, ormotor vehicle. Roads consist of one, or sometimes two, roadways: carriageways) each with one or more lanes and also any associated sidewalks (British English: pavement) androad verges. Roads that are available for use by the public may be referred to as public roads or highways. The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway, however there is no formal definition for a highway in the relevant Act. A 1984 ruling said "the land over which a public right of way exists is known as a highway; and although most highways have been made up into roads, and most easements of way exist over footpaths, the presence or absence of a made road has nothing to do with the distinction. Another legal view is that while a highway historically included footpaths, bridleways, drift ways, etc., it can now be used to mean those ways that allow the movement of motor-vehicles, and the term rights of way can be used to cover the wider usage.

4.2

DESIGN Structural road design is the science of designing a road for its environment in order

to extend its longevity and reduce maintenance. The Shell pavement design method is used in many countries for the design of new asphalt roads. Sub-base layer composed of cement-based material being applied during construction. Road construction requires the creation of a continuous right-of-way, overcoming geographic obstacles and having grades low enough to permit vehicle or foot travel and may be required to meet standards set by law or official guidelines. The process is often begun with the removal of earth and rock by digging or blasting, construction of embankments, bridges and tunnels, and removal of vegetation (this may involve
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deforestation and followed by the laying of pavement material. A variety of road building equipment is employed in road building. After design, approval, planning, legal and environmental considerations have been addressed alignment of the road is set out by a surveyor. The Radii and gradient are designed and staked out to best suit the natural ground levels and minimize the amount of cut and fill. Great care is taken to preserve reference Benchmarks . Roads are designed and built for primary use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Storm drainage and environmental considerations are a major concern. Erosion and sediment controls are constructed to prevent detrimental effects. Drainage lines are laid with sealed joints in the road easement with runoff coefficients and characteristics adequate for the land zoning and storm water system. Drainage systems must be capable of carrying the ultimate design flow from the upstream catchment with approval for the outfall from the appropriate authority to a watercourse, creek, river or the sea for drainage discharge. A borrow pit (source for obtaining fill, gravel, and rock) and a water source should be located near or in reasonable distance to the road construction site. Approval from local authorities may be required to draw water or for working (crushing and screening) of materials for construction needs. The top soil and vegetation is removed from the borrow pit and stockpiled for subsequent rehabilitation of the extraction area. Side slopes in the excavation area not steeper than one vertical to two horizontal for safety reasons. Old road surfaces, fences, and buildings may need to be removed before construction can begin. Trees in the road construction area may be marked for retention. These protected trees should not have the topsoil within the area of the tree's drip line removed and the area should be kept clear of construction material and equipment. Compensation or replacement may be required if a protected tree is damaged. Much of the vegetation may be mulched and put aside for use during reinstatement. The topsoil is usually stripped and stockpiled nearby for rehabilitation of newly constructed embankments along the road. Stumps and roots are removed and holes filled as required before the earthwork begins. Final rehabilitation after road construction is completed will include seeding, planting, watering and other activities to reinstate the area to be consistent with the untouched surrounding areas.
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Processes during earthwork include excavation, removal of material to spoil, filling, compacting, construction and trimming. If rock or other unsuitable material is discovered it is removed, moisture content is managed and replaced with standard fill compacted to 90% relative compaction. Generally blasting of rock is discouraged in the road bed. When a depression must be filled to come up to the road grade the native bed is compacted after the topsoil has been removed. The fill is made by the "compacted layer method" where a layer of fill is spread then compacted to specifications, the process is repeated until the desired grade is reached. General fill material should be free of organics, meet minimum California bearing ratio (CBR) results and have a low plasticity index. The lower fill generally comprises sand or a sand-rich mixture with fine gravel, which acts as an inhibitor to the growth of plants or other vegetable matter. The compacted fill also serves as lower-stratum drainage. Select second fill (sieved) should be composed of gravel, decomposed rock or broken rock below a specified Particle size and be free of large lumps of clay. Sand clay fill may also be used. The road bed must be "proof rolled" after each layer of fill is compacted. If a roller passes over an area without creating visible deformation or spring the section is deemed to comply. The completed road way is finished by paving or left with a gravel or other natural surface. The type of road surface is dependent on economic factors and expected usage. Safety improvements like Traffic signs, Crash barriers, Raised pavement markers, and other forms of Road surface marking are installed. When a single carriageway road is converted into dual carriageway by building a second separate carriageway alongside the first, it is usually referred to as duplication, twinning or doubling. The original carriageway is changed from two-way to become one-way, while the new carriageway is one-way in the opposite direction. In the same way as converting railway lines from single track to double track, the new carriageway is not always constructed directly alongside the existing carriageway. 4.3 ROAD MAINTENANCE. Like all structures, roads deteriorate over time. Deterioration is primarily due to accumulated damage from vehicles; however environmental effects such as frost heaves, thermal cracking and oxidation often contribute. According to a series of experiments carried out in the late 1950s, called the AASHO Road Test, it was empirically determined that the effective damage done to the road is roughly proportional to the
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Fourth power of axle weight.[30] A typical tractor-trailer weighing 80,000 pounds (36.287 t) with 8,000 pounds (3.629 t) on the steer axle and 36,000 pounds (16.329 t) on both of the tandem axle groups is expected to do 7,800 times more damage than a passenger vehicle with 2,000 pounds (0.907 t) on each axle. Potholes on roads are caused by rain damage and vehicle braking or related construction works. Pavements are designed for an expected service life or design life. Maintenance is considered in the whole life cost of the road with service at 10, 20 and 30 year milestones. Roads can be and are designed for a variety of lives (8-, 15-, 30-, and 60-year designs). When pavement lasts longer than its intended life, it may have been overbuilt, and the original costs may have been too high. When a pavement fails before its intended design life, the owner may have excessive repair and rehabilitation costs. Many concrete pavements built since the 1950s have significantly outlived their intended design lives. Virtually all roads require some form of maintenance before they come to the end of their service life. Pro-active agencies use pavement management techniques to continually monitor road conditions and schedule preventive maintenance treatments as needed to prolong the lifespan of their roads. Technically advanced agencies monitor the road network surface condition with sophisticated equipment such as laser/inertial Profilometers. These measurements include road curvature, cross slope, asperity, roughness, rutting and texture (roads). This data is fed into a pavement management system, which recommends the best maintenance or construction treatment to correct the damage that has occurred. Maintenance treatments for asphalt concrete generally include crack sealing, surface rejuvenating, fog sealing, micro-milling and surface treatments. Thin surfacing preserves, protects and improves the functional condition of the road while reducing the need for routing maintenance, leading to extended service life without increasing structural capacity.

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4.4

ROAD TERMINOLOGIES. 1. Alignment (road) - horizontal and vertical curvature of a road.


2. Adverse camber - where a road slopes towards the outside of a bend, increasing the

likelihood that vehicles travelling at speed will skid or topple. Usually only a temporary situation during road maintenance. 3. All-weather road - Unpaved road that is constructed of a material that does not create mud during rainfall. 4. Camber - the curvature of the road surface that encourages surface water to flow freely from the carriageway, or on bends angling of the surface to lean traffic 'into the bend' reducing the chance of a skid. 5. Grade - longitudinal slope 6. Byway - Highway over which the public have a right to travel for vehicular and other kinds of traffic, but is used mainly as a footpath or bridleway 7. Bypass Road that avoids or "bypasses" a built-up area, town, or village 8. Chipseal - Road surface composed of a thin layer of crushed stone 'chips' and asphalt emulsion. It seals the surface and protects it from weather, but provides no structural strength. It is cheaper than asphalt concrete or a concrete, in the U.S. it is usually only used on low volume rural roads 9. Curb (kerb) - A raised edge at the side of the roadway. 10. Drainage gradient 11. Guard rail - Prevents vehicles from veering off the road into oncoming traffic, crashing against solid objects or falling from a road 12. Gutter - a drainage channel between the main carriageway and the edge of the road. 13. Median - On dual carriageway roads, including controlled-access highways, divided highways and many limited-access highways. 14. Pavement - The road regarded as a geoconstruction. In the UK the term is road surface and the pavement is a pedestrian walkway alongside the road. 15. Pedestrian crossing - Designated point on a road where road marking or other means helps pedestrians cross safely 16. Road-traffic safety - Process to reduce the harm (deaths, injuries, and property damage) that result from vehicle crashes on public roads
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17. Road works - Part or all of the road is occupied for work or maintenance 18. Shoulder (also hand-shoulder) - A clear, level paved area to the side of the roadway available for stopping if required. 19. Texture (roads) - Deviations from a true planar pavement surface, which affects the interaction between road and tire. Micro texture has wavelengths below 0.5 mm, Macro texture below 50 mm and Mega texture below 500 mm. 20. Traffic calming - Set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists and improving the environment for residents 21. Traffic light - Also known as a traffic signal, stop light, stop-and-go lightsa signalling device at a road intersection, pedestrian crossing, or other location that assigns right of way to different approaches to an intersection

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CHAPTER FIVE 5.1 SUMMARY The industrial training enlightened me on the practical aspect of engineering. During the training, I also came across people from different tribes and different parts of the world thereby improving my human relations. 5.2 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED DURING THE PROGRAMME 1. 2. 3. 4. site. 5. Lack of time conscious. Inadequate safety equipment for workers on site. Abrupt stoppage of work due to change of design and specification. Inefficient transport system. Misunderstanding between work units often results in stoppage of work on

5.3 CONCLUSION SIWES is an essential programme in the tertiary institutions because it grants students a huge opportunity for them to put into practice the theoretical aspect of what has been taught in the institution.

5.4 RECOMMENDATION I make the following recommendations for the purpose of accomplishing the objectives of the SIWES training programme. 1. The ministries, companies and government agencies should make it their

responsibility to offer attachment places to students.

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2.

The stipends being paid by the Fund should be on monthly basis. This

is to

meet some of the financial obligations of the students who in most cases do not have relatives in their industrial attachment areas. 3. The school supervisors should endeavour to check up their students regularly

at their places of attachment. 4. The school should also create an avenue for each student to defend what is

being gain by them. 5.More practical oriented courses should be introduced to allow students to be able to work extensively before they go on industrial training. 6.Students assessment should not only be based on academics but discipline should be encouraged so as to create awareness on what is expected from him or her after the completion of the programme.

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REFERENCES Dr S.K. Khanna and Dr C.E.G. Justo (2001). Highway Engineering, Nem Chand & Bros, Roorkee (U.A.), India. Federal Ministry Of Works And Housing (1973). Highway Manual Design. www.goggle.com

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