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THEORY & APPLICATIONS

Balanced Attenuation Ear Protection


by Mort Altshuler
hen exposed to extreme sound D levels, we can and should use earplugs as often as possible, for anything we can do to protect our ears from intense sound is worthwhile. Historically, anything from cotton, lambswool, (petrolatum-soaked or not), silicone-putty, foam, molded or storepurchased plugs, to sophisticated (and sometimes expensive ear-muffs) have been used. Properly fitted foam plugs and earmuffs offer the most attenuation. The key words here are properly fitted. Many people use these protective devices on a regular basis, but if the plugs or earmuffs are not properly fitted, any potential benefit can be lost. However, properly fitted or not, it is a well-known fact that virtually all commercially available earplugs, as well as "home-made" types, cut out more high frequency than low frequency. Figure one illustrates the various attenuation afforded by properly fitted ear protection devices. The predominance of high frequency attenuation is clearly noted. This lack of balanced attenuation is one of the many reasons given by musicians, sound engineers, soundmixers, et al, for not using ear protection devices. They complain of a lack of clarity or an "untrue" sound received when using ear-plugs; it is most difficult to do a good job as a musician, sound engineer, or sound mixer if the sounds you hear are not true to the ear.
Altshuler is Professor, Audiology, at Hahnemann University, and Chief, Audiology/Speech Pathology, Veterans Administration, Philadelphia, PA, and is a member of the Sound & Communications Technical Council.
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Figure 1. Attenuation afforded by various ear protection devices (after E.H. Berger, High Fidelity, July 1988).

This indictment is indeed a valid one or I might report now has been a valid reason. Etymotic is a "new ancient Greek" word meaning "true to the ear." Mead C. Killion, Ph.D., president of Etymotic Research, Elk Grove, IL, reports that his company expects to be in full production by the fall of this year with what he refers to as the "Musician's Earplug," the ER-15. This new ear protector was developed several years ago by Elmer Carlson of Industrial Research Products, a Knowles Company. Ed DeVilbiss, who is vice president of Etymotic Research, reported that about 150 of their ear-protectors are currently in use, most of them in the ears of jazz, rock, and symphony musicians. Almost all report great success regarding reduction or elimination of acoustic trauma and the return to sensitive, "true" hearing.

The reason for the success of these ear protectors over those earlier described is based on the fact that the ER-15 earplug attenuates a uniform 15dB, allowing the user to hear accurately in high SPL environments. In a recent article Killion, DeVilbiss and Stewart stated the need for a "high fidelity" earplug with a uniform response. What good fidelity means, in essence, is proper spectral balance. They report that, "The trick to producing this high-fidelity response is to reproduce the shape of the natural frequency response of an open ear, but at a reduced level." Figure 2 illustrates the open ear resonance with the usual peak at about 2700Hz and the ear with a well-made, properly fitted ER-15 earplug. The difference between the two is the real-ear attenuation of the earplug. One can clearly note the closely parallel curves. The device is actually a small plastic acoustic sound chamber that is attached to a specially made earmold. Figure 3 is the cross section of the ER15 earplug and the electrical analog equivalent circuit. Compliance is in the form of a flexible plastic diaphragm (Cl) the sound channel (L1) is the acoustic mass. "... a Helmoltz resonator is formed between the inertance of the sound channel and the combined compliance of the flexible diaphragm and the ear-canal volume." The plastic sound chamber is affixed to a soft vinyl (or silicone) deep-canal ear mold fabricated from individual ear impressions of the users' ears. The material used and the insertion deep in the canal are necessary to avoid an occlusion effect (the hollow, in-a-barrel effect when we cup a hand over or ac-

Reprinted with permission from Sound & Communications vol 35 no 3; 12-14 (1989)

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WITH ER-15

Car Audio and Electronics


Hearing protection products are rated by the Environmental Protection Agency with a Noise Reduction Rating (NRR). The NRR tells you how many decibels are attenuated by the device. Most earplugs you can buy over the counter have NRR ratings from 6 dB to 40 dB. For instance, an earplug with a 20 NRR rating would reduce your exposure in an environment with 110 dB of ambient noise to a much safer 90 dB of exposure. Earplug types range from rubber, wax, or foam inserts to earmuff models typically used on shooting ranges. These over-thecounter ear protection devices are inexpensive and can be purchased at drugstores or sporting goods stores. Audiologists say the most important factor for an earplug's effectiveness is how well it conforms to the inner ear canal to prevent sound from reaching your eardrum. They say foam plugs seem to do the best job because they expand to fit your ear canal after insertion and maintain a tight seal even when your canal area changes during facial and jaw movements. For more information on obtaining high-quality foam inserts, contact Cabot Safety at (800) 225-9038 or Moldex at (800) 421-0668. The main drawback of this type of protection is that the higher frequencies are overly attenuated so that music sounds "bossy." And the user's speaking voice sounds abnormally loud and muffled to the point of distraction. Known as the occlusion effect, earplugs cause the sound of your voice to vibrate in the empty area of your ear canal. Recently, a more advanced type of hearing protection called the ER-15 has been introduced. Referred to as "the musician's earplug," the ER-15 reportedly attenuates to mirror the natural frequency response of the open ear, but at a reduced level of 10 to 15 dB. Instead of getting an unbalanced attenuation of the higher frequencies, the ER-15 provides a more natural sound by incorporating a diaphragm similar to a passive speaker cone. The occlusion effect is also lessened because the plug fits deeper into the ear canal. The ER-15 can be purchased only at hearing aid dispensers where the user is custom fitted by making molds of the inner ear canals. Cost with custom fittting is around S120 to S140. For more information on the ER-15, contact Westone Laboratories at (800) 525-5071.A.J.

20
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EARPLUG

20

50

100

200

500

1 kHz

2 kHz

5 kHz 10 kHz 20 kHz

FREQUENCY

Figure 2. Normal open ear canal resonance and attenuation curve with the ER-15 (after Killion, DeVilbiss and Stewart, The Hearing Journal, May 1988).

tually close our ear with a finger and listen to our own voice). The length of the canal portion (ideally 10mm) and the diameter of the sound channel (L1), 4mm, are critical to insure the balanced attenuation that is sought. When worn, these devices sit well down in the concha (bowl) of the ear. The author ordered a pair of these devices and had his own ear-canal plugs fabricated. I found the soft vinyl plugs easy to insert, comfortable to wear and easy to extract. Listening to very loud music pumped into one of my acoustic test booths at RMS 100 dB SPL was very comfortable, undistorted and it was immediately discernable that there was an unloading of pressure in my ears. (I had listened to 3 minutes of the music without the devices about 20 minutes prior to wearing the plugs.) It was clear that the high frequencies were coming through in a normal relationship with the lows. Appropriate testing before and during use of the devices revealed, as claimed, a uniform attenuation.

DeVilbiss informed me that there are about seven labs in this country and in Canada that are able to fabricate the ear canal plugs. It is further reported that local suppliers who are able to make ear impressions of the required (high) quality are growing in numbers throughout North America. DeVilbiss reported that a pair of attenuators and plugs would retail for approximately $100.00 to $125.00. The devices would be a boon to others who must attend a large number of loud concerts (journalists, reviewers, security personnel, and the like). Other loud/noise environment workers would appreciate these also, wherever the need for "balanced" hearing exists. I don't know about any of you out there, but I intend to wear mine the next time out.

Figure 3. The 15 dB Earplug (after Killion, DeVilbiss & Stewart, The Hearing Journal, May 1988).

TECHNOLOGY

An Earplug With Uniform 15-dB Attenuation


By MEAD KILLION, ED DEVILBISS, & JONATHAN STEWART

urrently available custom-earmold hearing protectors have one defect in common: They muffle the sound. Technically speaking, they give more attenuation at high frequencies than at low frequencies. Figure 1 shows representative performance of a wellsealed and of a poorly sealed customearmold type of hearing protector with solid construction, based on data from E. H. Berger.' Another type of custom-earmold hearing protector includes a small vent channel, often with a stepped diameter. If the vent channel is very small (0 5-mm diameter, for example), such devices give a real-ear attenuation that is generally similar to the curve labeled "Leaky Earmold H.P." in Figure 1. If the vent channel is a little larger, an undesirable resonance peak is created, and the earplug actually provides amplification instead of attenuation at the resonance frequency. A 1-mm diameter vent, for example, gives a peak of about 5 dB near 250 Hz.

Regardless of their exact construction, a reasonable generalization is that existing custom-earmold hearing protectors produce 10 dB to 20 dB of excessive highfrequency attenuation. A hearing protector with more uniform responsea highfidelity earplug, if you willseems needed. The curve labeled "15 dB Earplug" in Figure 1 shows the expected real-ear attenuation of the ER15TM earplug, based on KEMAR measurements. The trick in producing this high-fidelity response is to reproduce the shape of the natural frequency response of the open ear, but at a reduced level. Figure 2 shows the response of the normal open ear, plotted as the eardrum SPL developed in a diffuse sound field, and the response of the ear with a properly constructed ER-15 earplug in place. The difference between these two curves represents the real-ear attenuation of the ER-15 earplug, which is a nearly uniform 15 dB as shown in the solid curve of Figure 1, based on KEMAR measurements. The ER-15 earplug is a novel development by Elmer Carlson, who added acoustic elements into the sound channel in order to accomplish this result. Figure 3 shows a cross-section drawing of the ER-15 earplug, along with the electrical analog equivalent circuit (included for those who enjoy reading schematics). A flexible plastic diaphragm acts as a compliance, and is labeled C 1 in the
A NEW EARPLUG

equivalent circuit. The sound channel (Li in Figure 3) acts as an acoustic mass, so that a Helmholtz resonator is formed between the inertance of the sound channel and the combined compliance of the flexible diaphragm and the ear-canal volume. With the proper combination of diameter and length for the sound channel, the Helmholtz resonator will resonate at 2.7 kHz, providing the desired boost at that frequency as illustrated in the lower response curve of Figure 2.
CONSTRUCTION VARIATIONS

Mead Killion, PhD and Ed DeVilbiss, MBA are President and Vice President, respectively of, and Jonathan Stewart, BS/EET is Engineer with, EtyrnOtic Research, Inc. (manufacturer of the ER-15 earplug). Correspondence to: EtymOtic Research, Inc., 61 Martin Lane, Elk Grove Village, IL 60007.
14 THE HEARING JOURNAL/MAY 1988

Figure 4 shows the medium depth ER-15 earmold with the ER-15 attenuator button snapped in place. The "canal-aid" style construction should make for a nearly invisible earplug in most ears. The right and left earmolds must be color coded. A version designed to produce less occlusion effect (i.e., fewer "my own voice sounds hollow" complaints), shown in Figure 5, is suitable for persons with larger-diameter ear canals. The reduction of occlusion effect is a result of the deep seal of the plug." The standard 3 5-mm diameter sound channel can be drilled with the same .142" drill used for #13 super-thick tubing. Some ear canals will be so flattened that such a hole, extending for 10 mm down the canal, will not be practical. A roughly oval hole may be used in these cases to obtain the desired acoustical results, as suggested years ago by H.S. Knowles. Figure 6 shows don-

Reprinted with permission. Vol.41 (5) ; 14-17

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FREOUENCI

Figure 1. Performances of a well-sealed and of a poorly sealed

Figure 2. Expected eardrum SPL in diffuse (random incidence) sound

custom-earmold-type hearing protector with solid construction.,

field with ear open or occluded.

gated holes, equivalent to 3.5-mm and 4-mm diameter sound channels, with flat-side dimensions of 3 mm. In order to check the accuracy of the frequency response and/or the amount of occlusion effect on an individual ear, a 1-mm o.d.

probe-tube hole can be ordered with the earmold. Figure 7 shows the preferred and alternate locations for the probe-tube channel, which should be sealed completely after testing is completed. Despite the best of intentions, earmolds occasionally will be badly made. The effect of two likely errors, lack of seal and undersized sound channel, is illustrated below with specific examples. Figure 8 shows the effect of a leak or an undersized sound channel (2-mm diameter instead of 3 5-mm diameter) on the eardrum SPL generated in a diffuse sound field. Figure 9 shows the resulting realear attenuation expected for these errors.
EARMOLD MATERIAL

a good seal; (2) It permits a deep seal with good comfort. The disadvantage of soft (30- to 40-durometer) materials is their reduced durability compared to acrylic.
APPLICATIONS

Figure 3. Construction of 15-dB earplug.

From an acoustic standpoint, any earmold material can be used, but we recommend soft vinyl or silicone for two reasons: (1) It eases the task of obtaining

Two potential applications for the ER-15 earmold stand out: First, for the musician who wants some protection but needs good fidelity (proper spectral balance) in order to perform properly; and second, for the factory worker who has a high-frequency hearing loss and refuses to wear conventional hearing protection because he needs to hear more clearly. Figure 10 shows the expected sound-field audiograms for a person with normal hearing, and for a typical 50-yearold man using either conventional custom-earmold hearing protectors or ER-15 custom-earmold hearing protectors. The audibility of important highfrequency speech sounds is clearly im-

2 MM ( 0.080 ) IMAXIAlltRA TOP DOWN VIEW ( OVERHEAD )

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IF REOUIRED )

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Figure 4. Medium (First Bend) Depth. (Standard ER-15 earmold for

ER-15 attenuator.)
16

Figure 5. Long (Second Bend) Depth. (Low-occlusion-effect version

of ER-15 earmold for larger ear canals.)

THE HEARING JOURNAL/MAY 1988

Figure 6. Sound channels for round and flattened ear canals: (A) 3.5-mm equivalent diameter; (B) 4-mm equivalent diameter.
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Figure 7. Preferred and alternate probe-tube channel locations.


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FREOUENCY

Figure 8. Expected eardrum SPL with ear open and with three constructions of ER-15 earmold.

Figure 9. Calculated ER-15 performance vs. eamiold construction: ( ) correct (3.5 mm) sound channel, well-sealed; (. . .j poor seal, equivalent to 0.028" vent hole; (- - -) undersized sound channel (2-mm dia.).

SOUND FIELD AUDIOGRAMS


NORMAL HEARING
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TYPICAL MALE AGE 50



125 250 500 1K 2K 4K 8K

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proved with a flat attenuator. Note: this is a low-attenuation earplug with an estimated noise reduction rating (NRR) of 5 dB to 8 dB,* and is not meant for prolonged use in high levels of industrial noise or with gunfire. Another potential application is for the person whose hearing probably is not really at risk, but who would prefer to hear without discomfort at amplifiedmusic concerts. The authors also find that these attenuators make travel by both automobile and airplane more enjoyable. Production quantities will be available in the thirdquarter of 1988;
The NRR estimates the A-weighted noise exposure from a C - weighted sound level meter reading under worst-case ( - 2 sigma) conditions. The calculation of NRR is laborious and not simply related to

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the actual attenuation of an earplug at any frequency.

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Figure 10. Expected sound-field audiograms, using conventional or ER-15 hearing protectors, for a normal-hearing person (left) and for a typical 50-year-old man (right).

REFERENCES 1. Berger EH: Can hearing aids provide hearing protection? Hear Insa 1987; 38(412-14. 2. Xillion MC, Wilber LA, Gudmundsen GI: Zwislocki was right . . . . Hear Instr 1988; 39(1):14-18. 3. Berger EH, Kerivan JE: Influence of physiological noise and the occlusion effect on the meaI Aeons Soc Am 1983; 74:81-94.

surement of real ear attenuation at threshold.

THE HEARING JOURNAL/MAY 1988 17

EARPLUG PROTECTION LEVELS: To choose the appropriate model of earplug it is important to know the sound pressure level of your environment. A sound level meter, such as the low cost Radio Shack model 33-2050, is a good tool for measuring environmental noise levels. It is also important to obtain a good seal in the ear, since a leak can reduce the attenuation by half or more, especially below 1 kHz. Noise induced hearing loss is a function of exposure time, the average noise level and the peak level of very loud sounds. Some people are more susceptible to hearing loss than others, so that protection on the basis of an average time and sound level exposure will only protect the "average" person. Even under optimistic OSHA conditions (see table), regular listening for 2 hours without protection, would be the safe limit at levels of 100 dB, and this assumes that for the rest of the day the wearer is not exposed to sound levels exceeding 85 dB. In general, the ER-15 attenuators are designed for environments where the A-weighted sound pressure level is 105 dB or less. The ER-25 attenuators are for use in environments above 105 dB and below 120 dB. The attenuation shown in the graph on the first page is for an average ear; at least 10 dB of protection for the ER-15, at least 15dB of protection for the ER-20 and at least 20 dB of protection for the ER-25 are achieved in almost any ear with these attenuators properly in place. The following table includes safety data of the U.S. OSHA standard as well as the more conservative 85 dB equal-energy (EE) calculations

AVERAGE SAFE HOURS PER DAY


Noise Level
in dB A 85 88 90 94 95 97 100 105 110 115 120 125 1/2 1/4 2 1 1/2 1/4 2-1/2 3/4 1/4 8 4 2 1 1/2 8 2-1/2 3/4 1/4 8 4 2 1 8 2-1/2 3/4 1/4 8 4 2 1 1 4 8

No Protection
EE 8 4 8 OSHA

10 dB Protection
EE OSHA

15 dB Protection
EE OSHA

20 dB Protection
EE OSHA

NOTE: The ER-15, ER-20 and ER-25 are not intended for maximum attenuation. For that application, conventional foam or fully sealed premolded hearing protectors are recommended. For further information about sound levels and ear protection a recommended reference is Noise & Hearing Conservation Manual by Berger, Ward, Morrill & Royster, American Industrial Hygiene Assn.

ESTIMATED END USER COST


ER-15 with Custom Earmold ER-20 with Generic Eartip ER-25 with Custom Earmold $120 to $150

$20 to $30 $120 to $150

per pair per pair per pair

DESIGNED

12/94

ETYMOTIC RESEARCH
PROBLEMS WITH CONVENTIONAL EARPLUGS: There are three basic problems with conventional earplugs. Most important, they produce 10 to 20 dB of extra high frequency attenuation; second, they have a large occlusion effect, which makes the users hear their own voice with a boomy quality; and third, they attenuate more than necessary for much of the noise in industry and the environment. A frequent result of these problems is that some people will either wear no protection or they will wear their earplugs loosely so that sounds such as speech, machinery, noise or music can be heard more clearly.

ER-15 MUSICIANSTM EARPLUG ER-20 H_Firm EARPLUG ER-25 MUSICIANS TM EARPLUG


EARPLUG ATTENUATION

-10-20-

ER-15 MUSICIANS PLUG ER-20 HI-Fl PLUG ER-25 MUSICIANS

-30-40-50

(tentative)

FOAM E-A-R PLUG (DEEP)

0.125

0.25

0.5

FREQUENCY IN KHZ

SOLUTIONS PROVIDED BY THE ETYMOTIC RESEARCH EARPLUGS: The ER-15 and ER-25 Musicians earplug and the ER-20 HI-Fl earplug provide nearly equal attenuation at all frequencies. The fidelity of the original sound is preserved, and the world doesn't sound muffled. Musical levels are attenuated with minimum change of tone quality. To reduce the occlusion effect, a deep seal of the plug in the second bend of the ear canal is necessary. This is made possible by using a custom earmold. The ER-15 (black connector nipple) and ER-25 (white connector nipple) are interchangeable in a custom earmold -- they are snapped into place -- while the ER-20 is available with a different but generic eartip. THEORY AND DESIGN OF A FLAT-RESPONSE ATTENUATOR: A flat-response attenuator must have a frequency response that follows the shape of the natural frequency response of the open ear, but at a reduced level. Both the ER-15 and ER-25 use a diaphragm, 0i Connector similar to a passive speaker cone, to ER-15 ( achieve the desired response curve. The ER-20 uses a tuned resonator and White ER-20 with Generic Eartp Musician's Earplug in Earmold ER-25 acoustic resistor. APPLICATIONS FOR FLAT-RESPONSE ATTENUATORS: There are two groups of people that can benefit from the use of these plugs. First are people exposed to 90 - 120 dB sound levels, who need to hear accurately. This group includes musicians, their sound crews, recording engineers, night-club employees, certain industrial employees such as machinists and foremen, racing pit crews, motorcycle riders, etc. Second are people whose hearing may not be at risk but who want to hear without discomfort, and who will not wear conventional hearing protection because they need to hear more clearly. This group includes regular airline or auto travelers and individuals that occasionally attend loud concerts. Musicians will find the ER-15 and ER-25 attenuators useful in reducing discomfort and ear fatigue without sacrificing clarity. The greater attenuation of the ER-25 should prove useful to percussionists, rock musicians and individuals that experience post-exposure tinnitus.
14-i i_a e

ETYMUTIC RESEARCH, 61 Martin Lane, Elk Grove Village, Illinois 60007


Etymotic (et-im-OH-tik) is a new ancient Greek word" which means true to the ear.

(708) 228-000(3
Fax (708) 228-6835

THEORY AND DESIGN OF A FLAT RESPONSE ATTENUATOR


A flat-response attenuator must have a frequency response that follows the shape of the natural frequency response of the open ear, but at a reduced level. Both the ER-15 and ER-25 use a diaphragm, similar to a passive speaker cone, to achieve the desired response curve. The ER-20 uses a tuned resonator and acoustic resistor. To reduce the occlusion effect, a deep seal of the plug in the second bend of the ear canal is necessary.
EARPLUG ATTENUATION

SAFE EXPOSURE LEVELS


Noise-induced hearing loss is a function of exposure time, the average noise level and the peak level of very loud sounds. Some people seem to be more susceptible to hearing loss than others, so that protection on the basis of an average time and sound level exposure will only protect the "average" person. The following table includes data for the more conservative 85 dB equal energy (EE) approach as well as the U.S. OSHA standard. We assume that at least 10 dB of protection for the ER-15, 15 dB of protection for the ER-20, and 20 dB of protection for the ER-25 is achieved in most ears with these attenuators in place.
Noise Level in dB 85 88 so 94 95 97 100 105 110 115 120 125 AVERAGE SAFE HOURS PER DAY No 10 dB 15 dB Protection Protection Protection EE OSHA EE OSHA EE OSHA
8 4 8 1 4
1/2

High Fidelity

PF.1(31-11
ER-15 MUSICIAN'S EARPLUGS ER-25 MUSICIAN'S EARPLUGS ER-20 HI-Fl EARPLUGS
Sound Quality is Clearer and More Natural Fidelity of the Original Sound is Preserved Fatigue Associated with Noise Exposure is Reduced The World Doesn't Sound Muffled
Model ER-15 Custom - Molded Flat - Attenuation Earplug

20 dB Protection EE OSHA

8 2 1/2 3/4
1/4

0.125

0.25

0.5

1/4

2
1 1/2 1/4

FREQUENCY IN KHZ

In general, the ER-15 attenuators are designed for environments where the A-weighted sound pressure level is 105 dB or less. The ER-25 attenuators are for use in environments above 105 dB and below 120 dB. The attenuation shown in the above graph is for an average ear; at least 10 dB of protection for the ER-15, at least 15 dB of protection for the ER-20 and at least 20 dB of protection for the ER-25 are achieved in almost any ear with these attenuators properly in place.

8 4 2 1 1/2

8 21/2 3/4 1/4

8 4 2 1

8 21/2
3/4

1/4

8 4 2 1

NOTE: The ER-15, ER-20 and ER-25 are not intended for maximum attenuation. For that application, conventional foam or fully sealed premolded hearing protectors are recommended. For further information about sound levels and ear protection a recommended reference is Noise & Hearing Conservation Manual by Berger, Ward, Morrill & Royster, American Industrial Hygiene Association.

FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT:


,14

Designed to provide moderate attenuation at all frequencies.


EFFECTIVE PRACTICAL COMFORTABLE

DESIGNED

Patented

PROBLEMS WITH ,ONVENTiONAL EARPLUGS


PROBLEM 1: Existing earplugs attenuate more than necessary for much of the noise in industry and the environment. PROBLEM 2: Regardless of their exact construction, existing earplugs produce 10 to 20 dB of high frequency attenuation and the result is that people often reject them because they can't hear speech clearly. PROBLEM 3: Existing earplugs make the wearer's own voice sound hollow (known as the occlusion effect). PROBLEM 4: Many people risk their hearing by either wearing earplugs loosely or wearing no protection at all so they will be able to hear voices, machinery or music more clearly.

CAN BEN
e

Available with a custom earmold only. An accurate impression is critical to ensure a proper fit.

ER-20

Those who are exposed to 90-120 dB sound levels for various time periods and need to hear accurately: Musicians Dentists Traders Pilots; airline personnel who do not require maximum attenuation Recording engineers Sound crews Most industrial workers Machinists Restaurant and dance club employees Rock music listeners Those whose hearing may not be at risk, but who prefer to hear without discomfort: Airplane and auto travelers Flight attendants Rock music listeners Spectators at sporting events Persons with tinnitus Persons with high frequency hearing loss who reject conventional ear protection because they cannot hear speech clearly Persons with an abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds

Available with a ready-fit eartip (as shown) or with a custom mold.


damper sealing ring

eartip

end cap

ER-20's patented acoustic damping network provides nearly uniform attenuation.

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