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GREENBEE Introduction: Microcontroller Based GREENBEE Model project is an advanced and innovative system for the automatic monitoring & controlling of the GREENBEE Systems. In conventional method, the parameters like Soil Moisture i.e., Water; Light Intensity & Temperature are manually controlled to produce a food grains / vegetables or fruits. This process is time consuming & requires man-power to study & control these physical parameters. Here, Automatic GREENBEE Model project is designed to measure & control the above said parameters automatically and efficiently without the manual attention & intervention. This project helps us to eliminate the manpower requirement and also to use the resources like water & electricity very efficiently. Many electronic mosquito repellers are available in the market. These usually consist of a small heating element that burns a chemical coated tablet in order to produce chemical fumes which are meant to repel pests. But these fumes not only affect pests but also have adverse effects on human beings. Also, they prove to be considerably costly in operation and have a limited life. The fact that pests, especially pests, are sensitive to ultrasonic frequencies, is quite well known. When exposed to ultrasonic frequencies, they are unable to withstand them and tend to be repelled by them. Making

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use of this principle, the ultrasonic pest repeller described here uses ultrasonic frequencies rather than chemical fumes for operation. Robots today are being employed to release man from heavy, tedious, monotonous work like arc welding or to work under conditions where human beings cannot function effectively. The robot described here senses the objects, picks it up and places it at a predefined distance. A wireless device with a will control the functions of the robot.

Methodology: The project consists of the following system elements / functional blocks. The brief explanation for these section is also given below. 1) Sensors: 2) Buffer Amplifier 3) Filter 4) Amplifier / Signal Conditioner 5) DRIVER 6) Buffer 7) I/O Circuit / PC Port 1) Sensors: Sensors are used to sense / detect the value of the physical parameter under observation. Here numbers of sensors are used for analysing the parameters like, Soil Moisture, Light Intensity & soil Conductivity. 2) Buffer Amplifier: Buffer amplifier amplifies the faint electrical signals generated from the sensors, so that the DRIVER (DRIVER) can process the data and converts
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them to digital format. If the input signals are not sufficiently high in amplitude, the DRIVER circuit cannot perform the conversion. 3) Filter: The job of the filter circuit is to eliminate all unwanted electrical noise signals. This filter network is used to filter out the harmful signals from the nearby electrical heavy devices like AC Motors, Pump sets etc. 4) Monostable : Signal Conditioner is used to limit the incoming signal amplitude to a safe limit in case the sensors operate in extreme conditions like Dry Soil or Over temperature, so that, the remaining circuit components remain safe and functional. 5) DRIVER: DRIVER circuit is used to convert the incoming analogue signals in to digital one. Since the Computer is a Digital Device, it cannot process or sense Analogue Values. So the conversion of analogue signals to digital format is very essential. 6) Buffer: Buffer circuit is primly used to provide BUFFER of between the Input / Output Device (I/O Device) like PC Parallel Port or COM Port. This concept will help one to safeguard the relatively expensive computer from electrical damage in case the Project connected to it fails or gets damaged.

7) Ultrasonic: The system consists of an ultrasonic oscillator, a decade counter, a clock pulse generator and a common regulated power supply.

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The ultrasonic oscillator generates an ultrasonic frequency which is externally varied automatically in ten steps. The frequency has not been kept constant because of two reasons. First a constant frequency after prolonged use is unable to affect the pests effectively. Second, a particular frequency affects only one specific kind of pests. So by utilizing various frequencies, control can be exercised over various kinds of pests.

Applications: 1. Suitable for horticulture and agriculture fields. 2. With slight modifications can be used as Weather Station. 3. Frequency is varied continuously to affect larger number of pests. 4. The circuit has no operational expenditure.

APPLICATIONS 1) Used at homes, hospitals, etc.

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The circuit needs two different voltages, +5V & +12V, to work. These dual voltages are supplied by this specially designed power supply. The power supply, unsung hero of every electronic circuit, plays very important role in smooth running of the connected circuit. The main object of this power supply is, as the name itself implies, to deliver the required amount of stabilized and pure power to the circuit. Every typical power supply contains the following sections:

1. Step-down Transformer: The conventional supply, which is generally available to

the user, is 230V AC. It is necessary to step down the mains supply to the desired level. This is achieved by using suitably rated step-down transformer. While designing the power supply, it is necessary to go for little higher rating transformer than the required one. The reason for this is, for proper working of the regulator IC (say KIA 7805) it needs at least 2.5V more than the expected output voltage

2. Rectifier stage: Then the step-downed Alternating Current is converted into Direct
Current. This rectification is achieved by using passive components such as diodes. If the power supply is designed for low voltage/current drawing loads/circuits (say +5V), it is Dept. of Electrical & Electronic s Page 7


sufficient to employ full-wave rectifier with centre-tap transformer as a power source. While choosing the diodes the PIV rating is taken into consideration.

3. Filter stage: But this rectified output contains some percentage of superimposed a.c.
ripples. So to filter these a.c. components filter stage is built around the rectifier stage. The cheap, reliable, simple and effective filtering for low current drawing loads (say upto 50 mA) is done by using shunt capacitors. This electrolytic capacitor has polarities, take care while connecting the circuit.

4. Voltage Regulation: The filtered d.c. output is not stable. It varies in accordance
with the fluctuations in mains supply or varying load current. This variation of load current is observed due to voltage drop in transformer windings, rectifier and filter circuit. These variations in d.c. output voltage may cause inaccurate or erratic operation or even malfunctioning of many electronic circuits. For example, the circuit boards which are implanted by CMOS or TTL ICs. KIA 78xx Series

1 2

The stabilization of d.c. output is achieved by using the three terminal voltage regulator IC. This regulator IC comes in two flavors: 78xx for positive voltage output and 79xx for negative voltage output. For example 7805 gives +5V output and 7905 gives -5V stabilized output. These regulator ICs have in-built short-circuit protection and autothermal cutout provisions. If the load current is very high the IC needs heat sink to dissipate the internally generated power.

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Circuit Description: A d.c. power supply which maintains the output voltage
constant irrespective of a.c. mains fluctuations or load variations is known as regulated d.c. power supply. It is also referred as full-wave regulated power supply as it uses four diodes in bridge fashion with the transformer. This laboratory power supply offers excellent line and load regulation and output voltages of +5V & +12 V at currents up to one amp. output


IC1 7812 D1 1 IC1 7805


9V +5V

230AC C1 C2 C3 C4

D2 1


X 1

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SEMICONDUCTORS IC1 IC2 D1& D2 CAPACITORS C1 C2 to C4 MISCELLANEOUS X1 230V AC Pri,14-0-14 1Amp Sec Transformer 1 1000 f/25V Electrolytic 0.1F Ceramic Disc type 1 3 7812 Regulator IC 7805 Regulator IC 1N4007 Rectifier Diodes 1 1 2

1. Step-down Transformer: The transformer rating is 230V AC at Primary and 12-012V, 1Ampers across secondary winding. This transformer has a capability to deliver a current of 1Ampere, which is more than enough to drive any electronic circuit or varying load. The 12VAC appearing across the secondary is the RMS value of the waveform and the peak value would be 12 x 1.414 = 16.8 volts. This value limits our choice of rectifier diode as 1N4007, which is having PIV rating more than 16Volts.

2. Rectifier Stage: The two diodes D1 & D2 are connected across the secondary
winding of the transformer as a full-wave rectifier. During the positive half-cycle of secondary voltage, the end A of the secondary winding becomes positive and end B negative. This makes the diode D1 forward biased and diode D2 reverse biased. Therefore diode D1 conducts while diode D2 does not. During the negative half-cycle, end A of the secondary winding becomes negative and end B positive. Therefore diode D2 conducts while diode D1 does not. Note that current across the centre tap terminal is in the same direction for both half-cycles of input a.c. voltage. Therefore, pulsating d.c. is obtained at point C with respect to Ground.

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3. Filter Stage: Here Capacitor C1 is used for filtering purpose and connected across
the rectifier output. It filters the a.c. components present in the rectified d.c. and gives steady d.c. voltage. As the rectifier voltage increases, it charges the capacitor and also supplies current to the load. When capacitor is charged to the peak value of the rectifier voltage, rectifier voltage starts to decrease. As the next voltage peak immediately recharges the capacitor, the discharge period is of very small duration. Due to this continuous charge-discharge-recharge cycle very little ripple is observed in the filtered output. Moreover, output voltage is higher as it remains substantially near the peak value of rectifier output voltage. This phenomenon is also explained in other form as: the shunt capacitor offers a low reactance path to the a.c. components of current and open circuit to d.c. component. During positive half cycle the capacitor stores energy in the form of electrostatic field. During negative half cycle, the filter capacitor releases stored energy to the load.

4. Voltage Regulation Stage: Across the point D and Ground there is rectified and
filtered d.c. In the present circuit KIA 7812 three terminal voltage regulator IC is used to get +12V and KIA 7805 voltage regulator IC is used to get +5V regulated d.c. output. In the three terminals, pin 1 is input i.e., rectified & filtered d.c. is connected to this pin. Pin 2 is common pin and is grounded. The pin 3 gives the stabilized d.c. output to the load. The circuit shows two more decoupling capacitors C2 & C3, which provides ground path to the high frequency noise signals. Across the point E and F with respect to ground +5V & +12V stabilized or regulated d.c output is measured, which can be connected to the required circuit.

Note: While connecting the diodes and electrolytic capacitors the polarities must be
taken into consideration. The transformers primary winding deals with 230V mains, care should be taken with it.

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When the user programs the schedule for the automation using GUI [Graphical User Interface] software, it actually sends 5-bit control signals to the circuit. The present circuit provides interfacing with the Microcontroller and the controlling circuitry. This circuit takes the 5-bit control signal, isolates the MICROCONTROLLER from this circuitry, boosts control signals for required level and finally fed to the driver section to actuate relay. These five relays in turn sends RC5 coded commands with respect to their relay position. First the components used in this Module are discussed and then the actual circuit is described in detail.
1 Vcc

IC 4050


HEX BUFFER / CONVERTER [NON-INVERTER] IC 4050: Buffers does not affect the logical state of a digital signal (i.e. logic 1 input results into logic 1 output where as logic 0 input results into logic 0 output). Buffers are normally used to provide extra current drive at the output, but can also be used to regularise the logic present at an interface. And Inverters are used to complement the logical state (i.e. logic 1 input results into logic 0 output and vice versa). Also Inverters are used to provide extra current drive and, like buffers, are used in interfacing applications. This 16-pin DIL packaged IC 4050 acts as Buffer as-wellas a Converter. The input signals may be of 2.5 to 5V digital TTL compatible or DC analogue the IC gives 5V constant signal output. The IC acts as buffer and provides isolation to the main circuit from varying input signals. The working voltage of IC is 4 to 16 Volts and propagation delay is 30 nanoseconds. It consumes 0.01 mill Watt power with noise immunity of 3.7 V and toggle speed of 3 Megahertz.
8 Vss 9 7 10 6 11 5 12 4 13 3 14 2 15

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ULN 2004: Since the digital outputs of the some circuits cannot sink much current, they are not capable of driving relays directly. So, high-voltage high-current Darlington arrays are designed for interfacing low-level logic circuitry and multiple peripheral power loads. The series ULN2000A/L ICs drive seven relays with continuous load current ratings to 600mA for each input. At an appropriate duty cycle depending on ambient temperature and number of drivers turned ON simultaneously, typical power loads totalling over 260W [400mA x 7, 95V] can be controlled. Typical loads include relays, solenoids, stepping motors, magnetic print hammers, multiplexed LED and incandescent displays, and heaters. These Darlington arrays are furnished in 16-pin dual in-line plastic packages (suffix A) and 16-lead surface-mountable SOICs (suffix L). All devices are pinned with outputs opposite inputs to facilitate ease of circuit board layout. The input of ULN 2004 is TTL-compatible open-collector outputs. As each of these outputs can sink a maximum collector current of 500 mA, miniature MICROCONTROLLER relays can be easily driven. No additional free-wheeling clamp diode is required to be connected across the relay since each of the outputs has inbuilt free-wheeling diodes. The Series ULN20x4A/L features series input resistors for operation directly from 6 to 15V CMOS or PMOS logic outputs. 1N4148 signal diode: Signal diodes are used to process information (electrical signals) in circuits, so they are only required to pass small currents of up to 100mA. General purpose signal diodes such as the 1N4148 are made from silicon and have a forward voltage drop of 0.7V.
8 9 Vc c 7 10 6 11 5 12 4 13 3 14 2 15 1 1 6

IC ULN 2004

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+12 V COM-1 R6-R10 IC2 +5V

3 5 7 9 11 1





9 1 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 8 N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C

2 4 6 10 12 15 2 3 4 5 6








D1 TO D5

R1 TO R5


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Parts List:
SEMICONDUCTORS IC1 IC2 RESISTORS R1 to R5 R6 to R10 DIODES D1to D5 D6 to D10 MISCELLANEOUS RL1-RL5 12 V, 700 Ohm DPDT Reed Relays 5 1N4148 SIGNAL Diodes Red Indicator LEDs 5 5 220 Ohm Watt Carbon Resistors 2.2 K Ohm Watt Carbon Resistors 5 5 4050 HEX BUFFER/CONVERTER(NONINVERTER) 2004 DARLINGTON ARRY 1 1

Circuit Description:
The Hex Buffer/Inverter IC1s working voltage of +5V is applied at pin-1 and five control signals are applied at input pins 3, 5, 7, 9 & 11. Thus the signal supplying circuit [i.e. MICROCONTROLLER] is isolated from this Buffer & Driver circuit. Further the grounding resistors R1 to R5 prevents the abnormal voltage levels passing inside the IC1. The buffered outputs are acquired at pins 2, 4, 6, 10, & 12. Thus the varying input is further stabilized and fed to signal diodes [D1 to D5]. As the load is inductive, there is a chance of producing back e.m.f. So to cope with this back e.m.f, signal diodes are used. But this signal level is not strong enough to drive the low impedance relay. So, IC2 Darlington driver is used. Its working voltage is +12 V and only five input/output pins are used. The output signal from the Darlington driver IC is strong enough to actuate five relays.

These relays with +12V working voltage can be used to produce five command signals with RC5 format. The N/O [Normally Open] contact of each relay produces one Dept. of Electrical & Electronic Page 15


command signal with the help of RC5 Transmitter Circuit. The five relays activation with their corresponding command signal production is tabulated as below: COMMAND NUMBER COM-1 COM-2 COM-3 COM-4 COM-5




Depend upon the circuit diagram this system is divided into following stages: Monostable Multivibrator, Variable Power Supply and finally Power Supply. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Page 16



The timer comprises two operational amplifiers (used as comparators) together with an RS Bistable element. In addition, an inverting output buffer is incorporated so that a considerable current can be sourced or sunk to/from a load. A single transistor switch, TR1, is also provided as a means of rapidly discharging the external timing capacitor. The standard 555 timer is housed in an 8-pin DIL package and operates from supply rail voltages of between 4.5V and 15V. This encompasses the normal range for TTL devices and thus the device is ideally suited for use in conjunction with TTL circuitry.









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+Vcc R1 4 R2 8 6 2 IC1 7 3 1 5 input C1 C2 D1 C3 R4


Output To Relay


Parts List:
SEMICONDUCTORS IC1 R1 R2 R3 R4 D1 CAPACITORS C1 & C3 C2 MISCELLENOUS SENSOR LDR Sensor 1 10 f / 25V Electrolytic 0.1F Ceramic Disc type 1 1 555 Timer IC 33 K Ohm Watt 1K Ohm Watt 10K Ohm Watt 470 Ohm Watt Red Light Emitting Diode 1 1 1 1 1 1

The circuit diagram shows how the timer IC 555 can be used as a Rising Light Level Switch. In Monostable pulse generator mode, pin 4 is connected to pin 8 and that to +Vcc. The threshold pin 6 and the discharge pin 7 are connected together to +Vcc by a resistance R3. The control pin 5 is connected to ground via capacitor C2. The trigger

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input pin 2 is connected to +Vcc using a pull-up resistor R1.Here the Light Detector, R2 & C1 gives the triggering pulse needed for Multivibrator. The current through Monostable Multivibrator will depend upon the light intensity falling on LDR sensor. In full fall the reverse current flowing through Light Detector will be very small. When the LDR has no light source falling on it, the capacitor C2 is uncharged and the trigger input is low and that switching transistor TR1 (at pin-7) is in the non-conducting state. Thus the output (at pin-3) is high. The capacitor C1 will begin to charge toward +Vcc with current supplied by means of the series resistors R1 and R2. When LDR senses light on its surface, the reverse current flowing through Light Detector increases markedly. Thus Monostable timing period is initiated by a falling edge (i.e. High to Low transition) applied to the trigger input (at pin 2). When such an edge is received and the trigger input voltage falls below of Vcc, the output of the lower comparator goes high and the Bistable is placed in the set state. The Q output of the Bistable then goes low, switching transistor TR 1 is placed in the OFF (non-conducting) state and the final output (at pin-3) goes High. The circuit can be readily adapted to drive a load with operating current less than about 150mA. So, the indicator LED (D1) goes ON stating the relay is in ON position.

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The RF transmitter is built around the ASIC and common passive and active components, which are very easy to obtain from the material shelf. The circuit works on Very High Frequency band with wide covering range. The Carrier frequency is 147 MHz and Data frequencies are 17 MHz, 19 MHz,22 MHz & 25 MHz. It should be noted that ASIC or Application Specific Integrated Circuit is proprietary product and data sheet or pin details or working principles are not readily available to the user.

Application Specific Integrated Circuit [ASIC] is another option for embedded hardware developers. The ASIC needs to be custom-built for a specific application, so it is costly. If the embedded system being designed is a consumer item and is likely to be sold in large quantities, then going the ASIC route is the best option, as it considerably reduces the cost of each unit. In addition, size and power consumption will also be reduced. As the chip count (the number of chips on the system) decreases, reliability increases. If the embedded system is for the mass market, such as those used in CD players, toys, and mobile devices, cost is a major consideration. Choosing the right processor, memory devices, and peripherals to meet the functionality and performance requirements while keeping the cost reasonable is of critical importance. In such cases, the designers will develop an Application Specific Integrated Circuit or an Application Specific Microprocessor to reduce the hardware components and hence the cost. Typically, a developer first creates a prototype by writing the software for a generalpurpose processor, and subsequently develops an ASIC to reduce the cost.

An electronic device that generates sinusoidal oscillations of desired frequency is known as a sinusoidal oscillator. Although we speak of an oscillator as generating a frequency, it should be noted that it does not create energy, but merely acts as an energy converter. It receives d.c. energy and changes it into a.c energy of desired frequency. The frequency of oscillations depends upon the constants of the device. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Page 20


A circuit which produces electrical oscillations of any desired frequency is known as an oscillatory circuit or tank circuit. A simple oscillatory circuit consists of a capacitor (C) and inductance coil (L) in parallel. This electrical system can produce electrical oscillations of frequency determined by the values of L and C. The sequence of charge and discharge results in alternating motion of electrons or an oscillating current. The energy is alternately stored in the electric field of the capacitor and the magnetic field of the inductance coil. This intercharge of energy between L and C is repeated over and again resulting in the production of oscillations. In order to obtain continuous undamped a.c. output from the tank circuit, it is necessary to supply the correct amount of power to the circuit. The most practical way to do this is to supply d.c. power to some device which should convert it to necessary a.c. power for supply to the tank circuit. This can be achieved by employing a transistor circuit. Because of its ability to amplify, a transistor is very efficient energy converter i.e. it converts d.c. power to a.c. power. If the damped oscillations in the tank circuit are applied to the base of transistor, it will result in an amplified reproduction of oscillations in the collector circuit. Because of this amplification more energy is available in the collector circuit than in the base circuit. If a part of this collector-circuit energy is feedback by some means to the base circuit in proper phase to aid the oscillations in the tank circuit, then its losses will be overcome and continuous undamped oscillations will occur. Hartley Oscillator is very popular and is commonly used as a local oscillator in radio receivers. It has two main advantages viz., adaptability to a wide range of frequencies and is easy to tune. The RF transmitter is built around the common passive and active components, which are very is to obtain from the material shelf. The circuit works on Very High Frequency band with wide covering range.

The ASIC Transmitter IC has four inputs and only one output pin. The four inputs are for the frequency range of 17 KHz, 19 KHz, 22 KHz and 25 KHz and four switches are Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Page 21


provided for each range. When any one switch is selected, that frequency is added to the Transmitter circuit as data frequency and transmitted in the air. The Crystal X1 with two coupling capacitor provides the working oscillator frequency to the circuit. The Capacitors C6 and C7 are to stabilize the crystal oscillator frequency.

SEMICONDUCTORS: IC T1 T2 RESISTORS: R1 & R2 R3 & R6 R4 R5 CAPACITORS: C1, C2 C3 & C7 C4 C5 & C6 MISCELLANEOUS: X1 S1 to S4 L1 L2 0.001 Pico Farad Capacitor 0.022 Pico Farad Capacitor 4.7 Pico Farad Capacitor 0.01 Micro Farad Capacitor 1.44 MHz Crystal ON/OFF SWITCHES RF Coil 200mH Aerial or Telescopic Antenna 2 2 1 2 1 4 1 1 ASIC BC 547 NPN Transistor BF 494 NPN Transistor 2.7 K Ohm Watt 330 K Ohm Watt 1 K Ohm Watt 47 K Ohm Watt 1 1 1 2 2 1 1

The ASIC output is added to the transmitter circuits oscillator transistor T1s base. The data frequency is added with carrier frequency 147 MHz and aired for transmitting purpose. The transistor T1 is heart of the Hartely Oscillator and oscillates at carrier frequency of 147 MHz along with tuned circuit formed by coil L1 and capacitor C4. The Data frequency is fed to T1 on base through resistors R4 and R5. Capacitors C1 and C3 and for stabilizing the tuned circuit along with resistor R3. To increase the range of the circuit, transmitting signals must be strong enough to travel the long distance [i.e., upto 100 meters in this prototype]. So the generated signals are Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Page 22


made strong by amplifying to certain level with the help of Transistor T2 and associated circuit. The Radio frequency thus generated is fed to pre-amplifier transistor T2 on base terminal. The resistor R6 provides the bias voltage to T2 and capacitors C5 & C7 removes the noise and harmonics present in the circuit. The antenna coil L2 transmits the radio frequency in the air.

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C6 17 KHz 19KHz 22 KHz 25 KHz S1 S2 S3 S4 ASIC R4 X1 C7 C3 C4


R3 330K C1 R5


C2 0.00 1



R2 2K7 Gnd

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This circuit is built around the ASIC i.e., Application Specific Integrated Circuit, hence less circuitry is observed. The Radio Frequency tuned circuit has 147 M Hz carrier frequency with four options viz., 17Khz, 19Khz, 22KHz and 25KHz. The transmitted signals are received on coil L1 which acts as receiver antenna. The oscillator transistor removes the received signals from 147MHz carrier frequency and fed to ASIC. The tank circuit formed by C1 and L1 gives the carrier frequency range. The current limiting resistor R1 and bypass capacitor C5 stabilizes the oscillator. The resistor R2, R3 and R4 provide the biasing voltage to the oscillator transistor T1. Capacitors C2 and C3 are there to bypass the noise and harmonics present in the received signals. Through coupling capacitor C7 output of the RF Receiver is fed to ASIC. The ASIC manipulates the received signal and gives out four channels as output viz., 17KHz, 19KHz, 22KHz and 25KHz. Each channel is amplified by pre-amplifier transistor T2 along with bias resistor R9. The output of the pre-amplifier transistor is fed to relay driver stage to activate the respective relay ON. The Darlington pair T3 and T4 are arranged in driver stage to drive the low impedance relay.

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SEMICONDUCTORS: IC T1 T2 T3&T4 RESISTORS: R1 & R2 R3 & R6 R4 R5 R7 R8 R9 CAPACITORS: C1, C2 C3 & C7 C4 C5 & C6 L1 0.001 Pico Farad Capacitor 0.022 Pico Farad Capacitor 4.7 Pico Farad Capacitor 0.01 Micro Farad Capacitor RF Coil 200mH 2 2 1 2 1 ASIC BC 547 NPN Transistor BF 494 NPN Transistor BC 548 NPN Transistor 270 K Ohm Watt 220 Ohm Watt 2.2 K Ohm Watt 2.2 M Ohm Watt 10 K Ohm Watt 100 Ohm Watt 560 Ohm Watt 1 1 4 8 2 2 1 1 1 4 4

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R6 RL1 R2 C1 C2 R3 C3 R1

R7 L1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1




T3 T4

C7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 +Vcc

C6 R9 C5 R4 C4





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The field parameters are monitored by this Microcontroller chip with the help of user written program and generates alert message for LCD display and fault code for remote monitoring end transmission. The Microcontroller Chip has input port for getting fault condition of field parameters and Stop signal through RF Receiver and output port for sending fault code to DTMF Encoder and switching Relay [MCB] for isolating power line from load.


The general definition of a microcontroller is a single chip computer, which refers to the fact that they contain all of the functional sections (CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O, ports and timers) of a traditionally defined computer on a single integrated circuit. Some experts even describe them as special purpose computers with several qualifying distinctions that separate them from other computers. Microcontrollers are "embedded" inside some other device (often a consumer product) so that they can control the features or actions of the product. Another name for a microcontroller, therefore, is "embedded controller." Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. The program is stored in ROM (read-only memory) and generally does not change. Microcontrollers are often low-power devices. A desktop computer is almost always plugged into a wall socket and might consume 50 watts of electricity. A battery-operated microcontroller might consume 50 mill watts.

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A microcontroller has a dedicated input device and often (but not always) has a small LED or LCD display for output. A microcontroller also takes input from the device it is controlling and controls the device by sending signals to different components in the device. A microcontroller is often small and low cost. The components are chosen to minimize size and to be as inexpensive as possible. A microcontroller is often, but not always, ruggedized in some way. The microcontroller controlling a car's engine, for example, has to work in temperature extremes that a normal computer generally cannot handle. A car's microcontroller in Kashmir regions has to work fine in -30 degree F (-34 C) weather, while the same microcontroller in Gujarat region might be operating at 120 degrees F (49 C). When you add the heat naturally generated by the engine, the temperature can go as high as 150 or 180 degrees F (65-80 C) in the engine compartment. On the other hand, a microcontroller embedded inside a VCR hasn't been ruggedized at all. Clearly, the distinction between a computer and a microcontroller is sometimes blurred. Applying these guidelines will, in most cases, clarify the role of a particular device.

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ATmel 89C51 Technical Description

The ATmel 89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The ATmel 89C51 device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and costeffective solution to many embedded control applications. The ATmel 89C51 provides the following standard features: 4K Bytes of Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, the 89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The AT89C51 Power-down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

Compatible with MCS-51 Products 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Two 16-bit Timer/Counters Six Interrupt Sources Programmable Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes 40-pin DIP

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COMPLETE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM [mother board] of 89c51 40 30 pF 19 XTAL1 vcc P0.7 P0.6 12 MHz P0.5 30 pF 18 XTAL2 P0.4 P0.3 35 36 34 32 33 ad7 ad6 ad5 ad4 ad3 ad2 ad1 29 30 31 10 MFD/63V 9 20K RESET SWITCH PSEN ALE EA RST ad0

230 AC


D1 & D2



R1 C1 D3 C2 C3

port 0
P0.2 P1.7 37 8 P0.1 P1.6 38 7 P0.0 P1.5 39 6 P1.4 5 4 28 3 27 2 26 1 25

8 x 2.2 K



Parts List of Power Supply X1 IC1 port 1

a15 a14 a13 a12 a11 a10 a9 a8

12-0-12V Transformer 7805 Regulator IC Red Indicator LED 1000MFD/25V

1 1 1

rd wr t1 t0 int1 int0 txd rxd



P1.3 P2.7 P1.2 P2.6 P1.1 P2.5 P1.0 1 P2.4 vss 20

D1 & D2 1N4007 Rectifier Diode 2 D3 R1 C1 C2 & C3 100 K Carbon Resistor 1 Electrolytic Capacitor 1 0.1F Ceramic Capacitor 2







13 Electronics 3 Dept. ofport Electrical & P3.3

P2.3 24 P2.2 23

port 2

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P3.1 P2.0 21 1


The mother board of 89C51 has following sections: Power Supply, 89C51 IC, Oscillator, Reset Switch & I/O ports. Let us see these sections in detail. POWER SUPPLY: This section provides the clean and harmonic free power to IC to function properly. The output of the full wave rectifier section, which is built using two rectifier diodes, is given to filter capacitor. The electrolytic capacitor C1 filters the pulsating dc into pure dc and given to Vin pin-1 of regulator IC 7805.This three terminal IC regulates the rectified pulsating dc to constant +5 volts. C2 & C3 provides ground path to harmonic signals present in the inputted voltage. The Vout pin-3 gives constant, regulated and spikes free +5 volts to the mother board. The allocation of the pins of the 89C51 follows a U-shape distribution. The top left hand corner is Pin 1 and down to bottom left hand corner is Pin 20. And the bottom right hand corner is Pin 21 and up to the top right hand corner is Pin 40. The Supply Voltage pin Vcc is 40 and ground pin Vss is 20. OSCILLATOR: If the CPU is the brain of the system then the oscillator, or clock, is the heartbeat. It provides the critical timing functions for the rest of the chip. The greatest timing accuracy is achieved with a crystal or ceramic resonator. For crystals of 2.0 to 12.0 MHz, the recommended capacitor values should be in the range of 15 to 33pf2. Across the oscillator input pins 18 & 19 a crystal x1 of 4.7 MHz to 20 MHz value can be connected. The two ceramic disc type capacitors of value 30pF are connected across crystal and ground, stabilizes the oscillation frequency generated by crystal. I/O PORTS: There are a total of 32 i/o pins available on this chip. The amazing part about these ports is that they can be programmed to be either input or output ports, even "on the fly" during operation! Each pin can source 20 mA (max) so it can directly drive an LED. They can also sink a maximum of 25 Ma current. Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin. The alternate function of each pin is not discussed here, as port accessing circuit takes care of that. This 89C51 IC has four I/O ports and is discussed in detail: P0.0 TO P0.7 1
Source: Magnum Technologies.


PORT0 is an 8-bit [pins 32 to 39] open drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs and configured to be multiplexed low order address/data bus then has internal pull ups. External pull ups are required during program verification. P1.0 TO P1.7 PORT1 is an 8-bit wide [pins 1 to 8], bi-directional port with internal pull ups. P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input and the timer/counter 2 trigger input respectively. P2.0 TO P2.7 PORT2 is an 8-bit wide [pins 21 to 28], bi-directional port with internal pull ups. The PORT2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. It receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. P3.0 TO P3.7 PORT3 is an 8-bit wide [pins 10 to 17], bi-directional port with internal pull ups. The Port3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. It also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. PSEN Program Store Enable [Pin 29] is the read strobe to external program memory. ALE Address Latch Enable [Pin 30] is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. EA External Access Enable [Pin 31] must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H upto FFFFH. RST Reset input [Pin 9] must be made high for two machine cycles to resets the devices oscillator. The potential difference is created using 10MFD/63V electrolytic capacitor and 20KOhm resistor with a reset switch.

Source: Magnum Technologies.


LCDs can add a lot to any application in terms of providing an useful interface for the user, debugging an application or just giving it a "professional" look. The most common type of LCD controller is the Hitatchi 44780 which provides a relatively simple interface between a processor and an LCD. Using this interface is often not attempted by inexperienced designers and programmers because it is difficult to find good documentation on the interface, initializing the interface can be a problem and the displays themselves are expensive. The most common connector used for the 44780 based LCDs is 14 pins in a row, with pin centers 0.100" apart. The pins are wired as:

lcd data write waveform DATA


R/_W E 450 nSec

Pins 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 - 14

Description Ground Vcc Contrast Voltage "R/S" _Instruction/Register Select "R/W" _Read/Write LCD Registers "E" Clock Data I/O Pins

The interface is a parallel bus, allowing simple and fast reading/writing of data to and from the LCD. The LCD Data Write Waveform will write an ASCII Byte out to the LCD's screen. The ASCII code to be displayed is eight bits long and is sent to the LCD either four or eight 3
Source: Magnum Technologies.


bits at a time. If four bit mode is used, two "nibbles" of data (Sent high four bits and then low four bits with an "E" Clock pulse with each nibble) are sent to make up a full eight bit transfer. The "E" Clock is used to initiate the data transfer within the LCD. Sending parallel data as either four or eight bits are the two primary modes of operation. While there are secondary considerations and modes, deciding how to send the data to the LCD is most critical decision to be made for an LCD interface application. The different instructions available for use with the 44780 are shown in the table below: R/S 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 R/W 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 D7 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 BF D D D6 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A * D D D5 12 0 0 0 0 0 1 A A * D D D4 11 0 0 0 0 1 DL A A * D D D3 10 0 0 0 1 SC N A A * D D D2 9 0 0 1 D RL F A A * D D D1 8 0 1 ID C * * A A * D D D0 7 1 * S B * * A A * D D Instruction/Description Pins Clear Display Return Cursor and LCD to Home Position Set Cursor Move Direction Enable Display/Cursor Move Cursor/Shift Display Set Interface Length Move Cursor into CGRAM Move Cursor to Display Poll the "Busy Flag" Write a Character to the Display at the Current Cursor Position Read the Character on the Display at the Current Cursor Position The bit descriptions for the different commands are: "*" - Not Used/Ignored. This bit can be either "1" or "0" Most LCD displays have a 44780 and support chip to control the operation of the LCD. The 44780 is responsible for the external interface and provides sufficient control lines for sixteen characters on the LCD. The support chip enhances the I/O of the 44780 to support up to 128 characters on an LCD. From the table above, it should be noted that the first two entries ("8x1", "16x1") only have the 44780 and not the support chip. This is why the ninth character in the 16x1 does not "appear" at address 8 and shows up at the address that is common for a two line LCD. The Character Set available in the 44780 is basically ASCII. It is "basically" because some characters do not follow the ASCII convention fully (probably the most significant difference is 0x05B or "\" is not available). The ASCII Control Characters (0x008 to 0x01F) do not respond as control characters and may display funny (Japanese) characters. 4
Source: Magnum Technologies.


The last aspect of the LCD to discuss is how to specify a contrast voltage to the

Shift Register LCD Data Write

Data Data Clock E Clock R6 D0 D1 Dn E

+Vcc Display. Pin-3 Contrast 10K pot Experts



0 0


typically use a potentiometer wired as a voltage divider. This provide an easily variable voltage between Ground and Vcc, will

LCD Contrast Circuit


will be used to specify the contrast (or "darkness") of the characters on the LCD screen. You may find that different LCDs work differently with lower voltages providing darker characters in some and higher voltages do the same thing in others.

Liquid crystal panel service life 100,000 hours minimum at 25 oC -10 oC 3.3 definition of panel service life Contrast becomes 30% of initial value Current consumption becomes three times higher than initial value Remarkable alignment deterioration occurs in LCK cell layer U nusual operation occurs in display functions

If the LCD panel breaks, be careful not to get the liquid crystal in your mouth. If the liquid crystal touches your skin or clothes, wash it off immediately using soap and plenty of water.

A void static electricity as this can damage the CMOS LSI. The LCD panel is plate glass; do not hit or crush it. D o not remove the panel or frame from the module. 5
Source: Magnum Technologies.


The polarizing plate of the display is very fragile; handle it very carefully Mounting and Design M ount the module by using the specified mounting part and holes. To protect the module from external pressure; leave a small gap by placing transparent plates (e.g. acrylic or glass) on the display surface, frame, and polarizing plate D esign the system so that no input signal is given unless the power-supply voltage is applied. K eep the module dry. Avoid condensation; otherwise the transparent electrodes may break. Storage Store the module in a dark place, where the temperature is 25 oC - 10 oC and the humidity below 65% RH. D o not store the module near organic solvents or corrosive gases.

ULTRASONIC MOTION DETECTOR (electronicsviaweb) The ultrasonic motion detector is a project that uses an ultrasonic sensor as its base to detect movement or moving object in small places. It is design to be a low cost ultrasonic motion detector. The transmitter sensor use to generate signal in that area. When the signal is block by moving or movement the receiver will gets the signal and amplifies the signal using transistor. The transistor is use as an amplifier to the receiver circuit. The Led and buzzer in the circuit use to see if there is movement detect by the sensor. The relay use to trigger another circuit when there is movement detects. The signal generate by the sensor is about 40khz. This is a fully hardware design project plus it is built to be a portable ultrasonic motion detector.

Source: Magnum Technologies.


INTRODUCTION Human, animal or anything can produce sound. This sound is creating by the physical movement whether the movement is fast or slow depends on the medium that create the sound. Eventually these movements can be detected by using an ultrasound sensor. Ultrasonic sound waves are sound waves that are above the range of human hearing and, thus, have a frequency above about 20,000 hertz. Any frequency above 20,000 hertz may be considered ultrasonic. An ultrasonic sensor typically comprises at least one ultrasonic transducer which transforms electrical energy into sound and, in reverse, sound into electrical energy, a housing enclosing the ultrasonic transducer or transducers, an electrical connection and, optionally, an electronic circuit for signal processing also enclosed in the housing. Ultrasonic sensors have typically been used in applications such as detecting and identifying solid objects, measuring the shape and orientation of a work piece, detecting possible collisions between objects to avoid the collisions, room surveillance, flow measurement, and determining a type of material by measuring the absorption of sound. By combining parts of electronic to the ultrasonic sensor it become an ultrasonic motion detector. A motion detector is an electronic device that detects the physical movement in a given area and transforms motion into an electric signal. The motion detector may be electrically connected to devices such as security, lighting, audio 2 alarms. Motion sensors are used in a wide variety of applications. Motion detectors are mainly used in for security systems. Now days in the market there are many kind of ultrasonic motion detector sell, basically this project is to design an ultrasonic motion detector use to detect physical movement of human, animal, or anything that move. The design is to improving the use of sensor in detecting motion. Also to reduce the cost to built an ultrasonic motion detector The circuit consists of the following major blocks 1. Transmitter 2. Receiver 3. Transistor Amplifier Circuit 4. Opamp Amplifier 5. Opamp Comparator 6. Pi Filter 7. Schmitt Trigger 8. Darlington pair Amplifier 7
Source: Magnum Technologies.


1. Transmitter The transmitter circuit consists of mainly an astable multivibrator circuit using IC 4093. The capacitor and resistor values are adjusted to obtain a frequency of 40 kHz which is fed to the ultrasonic transmitter. The transmitter produces ultrasonic waves of 40 kHz frequency which travel around the room, get reflected and fall on the receiver. 2. Receiver The receiver is an ultrasonic transducer. After transmission, the signal gets reflected from the surroundings. This signal is received at the receiver transducer and is then sent to process for the presence of motion. 3. Transistor Amplifier Circuit The first part of the receiver circuit consists of an amplifier section using a BC547. The ultrasonic waves from the transmitter get reflected and fall on the receiver. The receiver is connected to an amplifier circuit having a gain of 20. The amplitude of waves falling on the receiver is very small, the amplifier amplifies the noise. 4. Opamp Amplifier The LM741 series are general purpose operational amplifiers which feature improved performance over industry standards like the LM709. They are direct, plug-in replacements for the 709C, LM201, MC1439 and 748 in most applications. The amplifiers offer many features which make their application nearly foolproof: overload protection on the input and output, no latch-up when the common mode range is exceeded, as well as freedom from oscillations. This is the second stage of the amplifier section. This part further amplifies the noise received by the ultrasonic receiver. This also integrate the output of the amplifier 5. Opamp Comparator One input consists of the shifted, negative clipped amplified output of the Opamp amplifier and the positive clipped amplified output. The output of the comparator is by default high and when the positive clipped portions exceed the negative clipped part due to noise, the Opamp inverts.

6. Pi-filter 8
Source: Magnum Technologies.


The capacitor-input filter, also called pi filter due to its shape that looks like the Greek letter pi, is a type of electronic filter. The pi-filter converts the fluctuating ac noise into dc and feeds into the Opamp comparator

7. Schmitt trigger The next part of the receiver circuit is the Schmitt trigger. The Schmitt trigger is a comparator application which switches the output negative when the input passes upward through a positive reference voltage. It then uses negative feedback to prevent switching back to the other state until the input passes through a lower threshold voltage, thus stabilizing the switching against rapid triggering by noise as it passes the trigger point. In this circuit the motion caused by the object causes distortion at the receiver output. The comparator output is by default high. When the noise levels detected are substantially high, the comparator inverts itself and the trigger is triggered. The output is fed to a Darlington pair. 8. Darlington pair This is a very high current gain section which when turned on by the trigger from the Schmitt trigger, starts conducting and the buzzer and led goes on


Source: Magnum Technologies.


COMPONENTS LIST R1 - 180 KOhm R2, R12 - KOhm R3, R8 - 47 KOhm R4 - 3.9 KOhm R5, R6, R16 - 10 KOhm R7, R10, R12, R14, R17 - 100 KOhm R9, R11 - 1 MOhm R13, R15 3.3 KOhm C1, C6 - 10uF/16V C2 - 47uF/16V C3 - 4.7 pF C4, C7 - 1 nF C5 - 10nF C8, C11 4.7 uF/16V C9 - 22uF/16V C10 - 100 nF C12 - 2.2 uF/16V C13 - 3.3nF C14 - 47nF TR1, TR2, TR3 - BC547 , BC548 P1 - 10 KOhm trimmer P2 - 47 KOhm trimmer IC1, IC2 - 741 OP-AMP IC3 - 4093 C-MOS R TRANSDUCER 40KHz T TRANSDUCER 40KHz D1, D2, D3, D4 - 1N4148


Source: Magnum Technologies.


Technical Specifications - Characteristics Working voltage: 12V DC Current: 30 mA


Source: Magnum Technologies.


WORKING OF THE CIRCUIT As it has already been stated the circuit consists of an ultrasonic transmitter and a receiver both of which work at the same frequency. They use ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers as output and input devices respectively and their frequency of operation is determined by the particular devices in use. The transmitter is built around two NAND gates of the four found in IC3 which are used here wired as inverters and in the particular circuit they form a multivibrator the output of which drives the transducer. The trimmer P2 adjusts the output frequency of the transmitter and for greater efficiency it should be made the same as the frequency of resonance of the transducers in use. The receiver similarly uses a transducer to receive the signals that are reflected back to it the output of which is amplified by the transistor TR3, and IC1 which is a 741 op-amp. The output of IC1 is taken to the non inverting input of IC2 the amplification factor of which is adjusted by means of P1. The circuit is adjusted in such a way as to stay in balance as long the same as the output frequency of the transmitter. If there is some movement in the area covered by the ultrasonic emission the signal that is reflected back to the receiver becomes distorted and the circuit is thrown out of balance. The output of IC2 changes abruptly and the Schmitt trigger circuit which is built around the remaining two gates in IC3 is triggered. This drives the output transistors TR1, 2 which in turn give a signal to the alarm system or if there is a relay connected to the circuit, in series with the collector of TR1, it becomes activated. The circuit works from 9-12 VDC and can be used with batteries or a power supply.


Source: Magnum Technologies.




High water application efficiency. Levelling of the field not necessary. Ability to irrigate irregular shaped fields. Allows safe use of recycled water. Moisture within the root zone can be maintained at field capacity. Soil type plays less important role in frequency of irrigation. Minimized soil erosion. Minimized weed growth


Expense. Initial cost can be more than overhead systems.


Source: Magnum Technologies.




Source: Magnum Technologies.

1. Suitable for horticulture and agriculture fields.


2. With slight modifications can be used as Weather Station. 3. Frequency is varied continuously to affect larger number of pests. 4. The circuit has no operational expenditure.

7.1: CONCLUSION In conclusion the greenhouse effect is a very controversial part in science. It is part good and part bad. There are some things we need from it and some things we don't, and until we find a way to block the bad part of the greenhouse effect, I hope we (the countries and continents) continue to help not pollute and ruin the atmosphere. After listing all the bad things
15 about the greenhouse effect I would like to say it is not just all bad,
Source: Magnum Technologies.

without it, it would be an average of -15 degrees Celsius every day. With it



Source: Magnum Technologies.