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DISSERTATION

ENDORSEMENT

Dissertation Title : Knowledge Management in Top Level Management of De La Salle University - Dasmarias Proponent : Paulino H. Gatpandan In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor in Information Technology, the dissertation mentioned above, has been adequately prepared and submitted by the proponent and is hereby endorsed by the undersigned for thesis proposal oral examinations.

______________________ Dr. Daniel M. Vistro Adviser Date: ________________

Dissertation Committee

____________________ Dr. Nestor Calvan Chairman

____________________ Dr. Irene Taguinod Member Approved by:

____________________ Dr. Lillian Gumban Member

_____________________________ Dr. Alma dela Cruz Vice-President, Academic Affairs

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TABLES

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CONTENTS

Title Endorsement Letter Table of Contents

Page 1 2

CHAPTER 1 Introduction A. Overview of the Study.................................................................... 3 B. Introduction to Current State of Technologies............................... 4 C. Motivation...................................................................................... 6 D. Problem Statement........................................................................ 6 E. Objective of the Study.................................................................... 8 F. Scope and Limitations.................................................................... 9 G. Original Contributions....................................................................10 H. Definition of Terms........................................................................11 CHAPTER 2 Related Literatures A. Literature 1.....................................................................................13 B. Literature 2.....................................................................................14 C. Literature 3.....................................................................................15 D. Literature 4.....................................................................................16 E. Literature 5.....................................................................................17 CHAPTER 3 Research Methodology A. Conceptual Framework..................................................................19 B. System Methodology.....................................................................20 C. Research Design...........................................................................24 D. Research Instrument.....................................................................25 E. Statistical Treatment......................................................................25 CHAPTER 4 Expected Results.........................................................26 CHAPTER 5 Dissertation Plan.........................................................28 CHAPTER 6 References...................................................................29 ABOUT THE AUTHOR

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I.

Introduction This chapter discusses the overview of the study, introduction to the current state of technologies, motivation, problem statement, objective of the study, scope and limitations, original contributions and definition of terms.

A.

Overview of the Study Creating, managing and transferring knowledge is at the top of

agenda for a growing number of organizations. As the transition from the industrial age to a global knowledge economy gathers pace, it is imperative for organization to understand and develop knowledge management business strategies and tools (Chase, 1997). Therefore, practice of

knowledge management is essential in an organization. Knowledge management is an approach in identifying, acquiring, applying, sharing, creating, developing, preserving and measuring the knowledge of the organization. The purpose of knowledge management must not be to just become more knowledgeable, but to be able to create, transfer and apply knowledge with the purpose of better achieving objectives. The key concepts include converting data, organizational insight, experience and expertise into reusable and useful knowledge that is distributed and shared with the people who need it.

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Leadership is all about getting people to work together to make things happen that might not otherwise occur or prevent things from happening that ordinarily would takes place. (Taylor, 1993). Leadership is about setting a new direction for a group in an organization, directing and controlling according to established principles. Leadership management is being able to use leadership skills in a management position. The main purpose of this study is to identify, acquire process, analyze, and discover new knowledge about top level management and Knowledge Management perceived benefits.

B.

Introduction to Current State of Technologies The accounting department uses Accounting Information System

developed by Information Communication Technology Center of De La Salle University Managers are aware about the strategic importance of technology in delivering value and competitive advantage to their organization. The

management of Technology for business benefit requires effective processes and systems to be put in place to ensure that the technological resources within the organization are aligned with its needs, now and in the future. Technology road mapping is process to aid strategic decision-making technique which is applied to science, technology, and product strategic

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planning. Technology road mapping process can accelerate new product development more efficient. Roadmap can take various forms, time-based chart, linking technology development, investment to organization

capabilities and business drivers. The proponent will develop a Web-based Knowledge Management application that will cater the core business process of Academics and Research, and Finance and Administrative Services. The proponents will use common software tools used for building a web-based application: The products and technology that proponent will use in developing a Web-based Knowledge Management are the following: Web Server. Internet Information Services (IIS) version 7.5 Operating System. Microsoft Server 2008 (Evaluation Copy) Development Framework. Microsoft .NET, Visual C#, and ASP.NET Database Platform. Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 Express The proponent will use Orchard Content Management System in developing the knowledge management application to lessen the time of development. Orchard Content Management System is a free, open source content management system that allows users to rapidly create web sites on the Microsoft ASP.NET platform. It is built on a flexible extensibility framework that enables developers and customizers to provide additional functionality through extensions and themes.

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C.

Motivation The proponent is part of the middle level management of the De La

Salle University, the proponent inspired to conduct the study that would be a great help to the top level management to document all the informal process to explicit process. There are problems in the business process of top level management that needs to be improved. The proponent finds that one solution to improve the business process under top level management is through the development of knowledge management application.

D.

Problem Statement General Problem The general problem of the study intends to solve is to improve the

business processes of top level management in the area of Academics and Research and Finance and Administrative Services of De La Salle University Dasmarias.

Specific Problem The study sought to answer the following specific problem. 1.) What are the perceptions of Knowledge Management in terms of:? a.) Organizational Culture

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b.) c.) d.) 2.)

Processes People Infrastructure What are the business processes of the institution in the

area of? a.) b.) 3.) Academics and Research Finance and Administrative Services What are the problems encountered in the business processes in the area of? a.) b.) 4.) Academics and Research Finance and Administrative Services What workflow of business process needs to be simplified and improved in the area of? a.) b.) 5.) Academics and Research Finance and Administrative Services What information sources, services, tools and paradigm used in developing knowledge management applicaiton?

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6.)

What security measures will be implemented in the design and developing of the knowledge management application?

7.)

What are the benefits that knowledge management can provide in the Top Level Management of the institution?

E.

Objective of the Study General Objective The general objectives of the study is to design and develop a Web-

based Knowledge Management of Top Level Management of De La Salle University - Dasmarias 1.) The proponent will determine the perceptions of the intended beneficiaries of the study on the knowledge management concepts. 2.) The proponent will determine the business processes of the Academics and Research and Finance and Administrative Services.

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3.)

The

proponent

will

determine

the

problems

encountered in the business processes of the Academics and Research and Finance and Administrative Services. 4.) The proponent will simply and improves the workflow of the business processes of Academics and Research and Finance and Administrative Services. 5.) tools and The proponent will determine sources of information, paradigm in developing knowledge management

application. 6.) implemented To in determine the design the and security measures of to be

developing

knowledge

management application. 7.) The identify the benefits that a knowledge

management application can provide in Top Level Management of De La Salle University - Dasmarias.

F.

Scope and Limitations The study is limited to the top level management of the institution in

two areas such as academics and research and finance and administrative services. The study will determine the business activities of the two areas and find out possible enhancement of the business activities to the top level management of the institution.

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The business processes of Academics and Research are the following: (1) Hiring and Retention of High Caliber Faculty Member (2) Strategic Planning (2.1) Faculty Development Program (2.2) Curriculum (2.3) Research (2.4) Linkages The business processes of Finance and Administrative Services are the following: (1) Hiring of Competent Workforce (2) Strategic Planning (2.1) Non Teaching Development (2.2) Campus Planning and Development Program The study does not include the business process of employees promotion since it involves complex process and many factors and criteria to be considered in employees promotion. The proponent will provide the

workflow process of employees promotion as information dissemination.

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Another limitation of the study it does not cover the business process of allocation of budget. G. Original Contributions The study assists and guides the proponent to gain relative information in knowledge management that would help the DLSU-D community to achieve better goals and objectives. The proponent identified the core business processes of the two areas and identified some possible knowledge management application that would help the top level management in improving the business processes of the institution. The study will help the policy makers and decision makers or top level management of the institution to have an effective and efficient execution of policies and objectives. It will serve also as a reference to top management of other organizations. The development of knowledge management applications will help the University to achieve its vision to become a leading institution nationally and globally competitive in the fervent spirit of service, love for learning and excellence through holistic formation of its members.

H.

Definition of Terms

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Knowledge Management. Collection of processes that govern the creation, dissemination and utilization of knowledge. Academic and Research. Provides leadership and guidance amongst

administrators, as well as faculty and students by supervising the different programs, projects and offices relevant to the academic functions of the University. Finance and Administrative Services. Provides leadership on the offices under finance and administrative services by supervising the programs, projects and activities relevant to the operation of the University. Practices. A method, procedure, process or rule used in a particular field or profession. Process. A continuous action, operation or series of changes taking place in a definite manner. Leadership. Ability to motivate a group of people toward a common goal. Leadership Style. Manner and approach of providing direction,

implementing plans, and motivating people. Tacit Knowledge. Personal knowledge embedded in individual experience and involves intangible factors such as personal beliefs, perspective and values system.

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Explicit Knowledge.

Can be articulated into formal language, including

grammatical statements, mathematical expressions, specification, manuals, etc. Technology Roadmapping. A technology roadmap is a plan that matches short-term and long-term goals with specific technology solutions to help meet those goals. It is a plan that applies to a new product or process, or to an emerging technology.

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II.

Related Literature This chapter discusses the review of related literature of the proposed system

According to the research study of Kumar, Kumar (2006) entitled IT Based KM in Indian Higher Education System: Addressing Quality Concerns and Setting the Priorities Right , the Quality of Education being offered in institutions of Higher Education is a question being debated widely. With the growing cost of Higher Education in India, the question has become especially pertinent for all its stakeholders students to policymakers alike. The study attempts to look into IT based Knowledge Management as a techno-management tool for redressing the concerns. Various probable avenues are discussed where IT based KM interventions

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could make an impact on the existing Indian Higher Education system. An insight about the priorities assigned to various IT based KM interventions in different areas of Indian Higher Education System is statistically analyzed, based on the inputs from a cross-section of Indian Academia. Adoption of the proposed system shall not only improve the Quality of Service (QoS) but also decrease the economics of Higher Education in India. The relation of the review of related study by Kumar and Kumar to the proposed study is that both of the study aims to improve the service capability of faculty, officers and staff of the organization.

According to the study of Kumar and Varma (2007) entitled Effecting KM Interventions for Sustaining Quality in Institutions of Higher Education, increased stakeholder concern about the return on investments in a resource constrained environment fraught by the challenges of Globalization, Information Explosion and Accountability, has reinforced the concern for quality in Institutions of Higher Education (IHE). While considering the quality parameters propounded and accepted by acclaimed bodies, the present study explores the characteristic areas that most frequently impact Quality in IHE. Knowledge Management (KM)

interventions have been evaluated for such characteristic constituent areas of an IHE viz Curriculum Development, Institutional Research and Development, Institutional Planning, Student Affairs, etc. and their role and extent for effecting quality has been established. A questionnaire

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elucidating the relevant areas and processes therein was sent to persons sensitive to higher education. Based upon statistical analysis of the

responses receives, KM interventions in each area have been prioritized. Further, such KM interventions which spread across multiple constituents areas of IHE have also been identified as would affect quality in general. The study claims that the identified KM interventions shall not only give a complete facelift to the way in which IHEs are today run and managed, but also assist then in sustaining quality as demanded by society and other stakeholders. The relation of the review of related study by Kumar and Verma to the proposed study, both of the study discusses the institutional planning and development, research and curriculum of the organization to improve the services.

According to the research study of Thomas E. Ward, II entitled Implementing Knowledge Management To Support Executive

Decision-Making In A Joint Military Key Enablers And Obstacles , examined the use of knowledge management from the perspective of supporting executive decision making in the extremely dynamic environment of joint military operations. It used a sequential qualitative quantitative methodology to analyze and synthesize data obtained primarily from senior U.S. Flag Officers, with a cross section that included the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force.

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This project extends existing theoretical frameworks used to frame and describe knowledge management and domains of organizational knowledge. An overarching conclusion was that knowledge management initiatives did not directly manage knowledge. Instead, knowledge management initiatives manage the organization's internal and external environment to enable and encourage information sharing that results in new knowledge generation, coupled with effective capture and presentation of that knowledge to decision makers. Dissemination of new knowledge and of executive decisions to the organization completes and renews the circular knowledge management cycle. Conclusions include five principles for executives wishing to implement a knowledge management initiative and a hierarchical knowledge management integrating, domain technology framework that distinguishes information between, while and

infrastructure,

management,

knowledge management. A three-level stair step model for incremental implementation of a knowledge management project accompanies the knowledge domain framework. The relation of the review of related study by Thomas Ward II to the proposed study, both of the study aims to achieve better information for decision makers information that increases knowledge.

According to the study of A. Keramati, and M. A. Azadeh (2007) entitled Exploring the Effects of Top Managements Commitment on

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Knowledge Management Success in Academia: A Case Study , the effects of top management commitment on knowledge management activities has been analyzed. This research study has been conducted as a case study in an academic environment. The data collection was carried out in the form of semi-structured interview with an interview guide. This study shows the effects of knowledge management strategic plan developing in academia strategic plan on knowledge management success. This study shows the importance top management commitment factors including strategic plan, communication, and training on knowledge management success in academia. In particular the most important role of Strategic planning in knowledge management success is clarified. This study explores one of the necessary organizational infrastructures of successful implementation of knowledge management. The idea of this research could be applied in the other context especially in the industrial organizations. The relation of the review of related study by Keramati to the proposed study, both of the study discusses the important role of strategic planning and training on Knowledge Management success. According to the research study of Petros Belsis and Spyros Kokolakis (2005) entitled Information Systems Security from a Knowledge Management Perspective, information systems security

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management is a knowledge-intensive activity that currently depends heavily on the experience of security experts. However, the knowledge

dimensions of IS security knowledge and the potential role of an IS security knowledge management system. The results of the study are based on field research involving five organizations (public and private) and five security experts and consultant. The study illustrates the structure of IS security knowledge in an organization. The findings of the study states that successful security management largely depends on the involvement of users and other stake holders in security analysis, design, and implementation, as well as in actively depending the IS. However, most stakeholders lack the required knowledge of IS security issues that would allow the stakeholders to play an important role in IS security management. Knowledge management aspect of IS

security management is highlighted. The basic sources of security-related knowledge have been identified and a model of IS security knowledge has been created. The activities to be supported by a security-focus KM system have been identified. Thus, the basis for the development of specialized security KM systems is set.

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The relation of the review of related study by Belsis and Kokolakis to the proposed study, both of the study discusses the involvement of users in successful security management

Human Focus: Create and Sense

Human Focus: Organize, Personalize and Capture

III.

Practices Methodology Manuals / Policies This chapter discusses the

Area: Academics and Research Finance and conceptual framework, system Administrative Services

methodology, research design, research instrument and statistical treatment. A. Web-based knowledge management Conceptual Framework application focused in the area of Academics and Research and Finance and Administrative Services

Observation Interview Survey Automation of Major Processes

Technology Focus: Share, Collaborate and Access

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Figure 1.0 Knowledge Management Model by Botha et alcontributes (2008) Knowledge Management framework will help to the Top Conceptual Framework of the Study

Level Management of De La Salle University Dasmarias (DLSU-D). The framework will identify the practices, manuals/polices in the area of Academics and Research and Finance and Administrative Services. Data of the study will be gathered through interview and survey. The expected

results of the study will come up with a Web-based Knowledge Management application focused in the areas of a.) Finance and Administrative Services. Academics and Research b.)

B.

System Methodology There are three (3) system methodologies that the proponent

considers in developing the software product.

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The following system methodology are (1) Rapid Application Development (RAD) (2) Joint Application Development (JAD) (3) Prototyping Model Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a development lifecycle designed to give much faster development and higher-quality results than those achieved with the traditional lifecycle. It is designed to take the

maximum advantage of powerful development software that has evolved recently. (James Martin)

Figure 2.0 Martin Approach to Rapid Application Development Model

The structure of the RAD lifecycle is thus designed to ensure that developers build the systems that the users really need. This lifecycle,

through the following four stages, includes all of the activities and tasks required to scope and define business requirements and design, develop, and implement the application system that supports those requirements.

Requirements Planning

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Also known as the Concept Definition Stage, this stage defines the business functions and data subject areas that the system will support and determines the systems scope.

User Design Also known as the Functional Design Stage, this stage uses

workshops to model the systems data and processes and to build a working prototype of critical system components.

Construction Also known as the Development Stage, this stage completes the

construction of the physical application system, builds the conversion system, and develops user aids and implementation work plans.

Cutover Also known as the Deployment Stage, this stage includes final user

testing and training, data conversion, and the implementation of the application system.

Joint Application Development (JAD) is a development technique used to help IT developers build systems. In this technique, a team is formed of members of different backgrounds. These members are made up of end-users, management, and IT staff. This team meets and discusses the current project in a number of workshops or sessions. These workshops are used to define the project and to design a solution. Since the team includes actual users of the current system, the system

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analyst will have a better picture of what the clients would want in a new system.

Prototyping model is a systems development method in which a prototype (an early approximation of a final system or product) is built, tested, and then reworked as necessary until unacceptable prototype is finally achieved from which the complete system or product can now can be developed. It is an iterative, trial-and-error process that takes place between the developers and the users.

Figure 3.0 Prototyping Model The prototyping comprised of the following steps: Requirements gathering similar to the conceptualization phase of the waterfall model, but not as comprehensive. The

information collected is usually limited to a subset of the complete system requirements.

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Quick Design once the initial layer of the requirements information is collected, or new information is gathered, it is rapidly integrated into a new or existing design so that it maybe folded into the prototype. Building Prototype the information from the design is rapidly rolled into a prototype. This may mean the creation / modification of paper information, new coding, or modifications to the existing coding. Customer Evaluation the prototype is presented to the customer for review. Comments and suggestions are collected from the customer. Refining Prototype information collected from the customer is digested and the prototype is refine. The developer revises the

prototype to make it more effective and efficient. Engineer Product in most cases, the system is rewritten once requirements are understood. Sometimes, the iterative process eventually produces a working system that can be the corner stone for the fully functional system.

C.

Research Design The character of developmental research is the distinctions between

doing and studying design and development provide further clarification of developmental research activities. These distinction can be describes in

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terms of examining the focus, techniques, and tools of developmental research. The general purpose of the developmental research is to describe as knowledge production, understanding and prediction. It involves situations in which a product development process used in a particular situation is described and analyzed and the final product is evaluated.

D.

Research Instrument The interview method will be used to gather primary data. Sample

population of the study will be the Vice Chancellor and Assistant Vice Chancellor in the area of Academic and Research and Finance and Administrative Services. According to Kendall (2004), interviewing is an important method for collecting data since it reveals information about feelings and opinions of the interviewee, current state of the system, organizational and personal goals, and informal procedures. Survey will be used to gather primary data. A questionnaire will be constructed to obtain answers from the constructed problem statement of the study.

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The data gathering procedure that will be done by the proponent is through personnel appointment with the key personnel of the institution.

E.

Statistical Treatment The data gathered from the respondents were recorded, tabulated

and interpreted using the statistical technique such as mean and standard deviation. Mean will be used to determine the average value of the

respondents perceptions on the concepts of knowledge management.

IV.

Expected Results The expected results of the study is to develop a Web-based

Knowledge Management Application for the Top Level Management of DLSU-D Knowledge Research Process: A web-based application that contains the following workflow of hiring of employee (teaching and nonteaching personnel) information of teaching evaluation dynamic page for monitoring of employees career growth Management Application for the Academics and

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document management system forecasting on the possible training of the faculty Repository of : academic policies and guidelines of an institution curriculum revision efforts research interests within an institution linkages Knowledge Management Application for Finance and Administrative Services: A web-based application for Finance and Administrative Services information of strategic plans forecasting on the possible training of the staff / nonteaching personnel. Information on campus planning and development program Some Benefits for the Knowledge Management Application: enhanced quality of curriculum and programs improved speed curriculum revision and updating improved services effectiveness and efficiency of administrative

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improved ability to support the trend toward decentralized strategic planning and decision making, better information leads to better decisions.

improved sharing of internal information to minimize redundant efforts

V.
#

Dissertation Plan
Task Requirements Gathering Planning and System Development System Testing Implementation
WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5 WEEK 6 WEEK 7 WEEK 8 WEEK 9 WEEK 10

Task Interview and Survey Data Analysis and Interpretation Revising Chapter 1 - 3 and Preparing Questionnaire Writing Chapter 4 - 5 Manuscript Finalization and Revision

WEEK 11 WEEK 12 WEEK 13 WEEK 14 WEEK 15 WEEK 16 WEEK 17 WEEK 18 WEEK 19 WEEK 20

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VI.

References Kumar, Asnish and Kumar, Arun. (2006). IT Based KM In Indian

Higher Education System: Addressing Quality Concerns And Setting The Priorities Right. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Vol. 7, No. 3, September 2006. Kumar and Varma. (2007). Effecting KM Interventions for Sustaining Quality in Institutions of Higher Education Keramati, A. and Azadeh, M.A. (2007). Exploring the Effects of Top Managements Commitment on Knowledge Management Success in Academia: a Case Study.

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Thomas E. Ward, II. Implementing Knowledge Management To Support Executive Decision-Making In A Joint Military Key Enablers And Obstacles. Petros Belsis and Spyros Kokolakis. (2005). Information Systems Security from a Knowledge Management Perspective. Botha et. al (2008) Knowledge Management Model. [online]. Available http://www.knowledge-management-tools.net/three-km-

models.html date accessed: (2012) Kendall and Kendall (2004). System Analysis and Design 6 th Edition Pearson Education, Incorporated.