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User's Guide WinProp Phase Property Program Version 2009 By Computer Modelling Group Ltd.

User's Guide

WinProp

Phase Property Program

Version 2009

By Computer Modelling Group Ltd.

User's Guide WinProp Phase Property Program Version 2009 By Computer Modelling Group Ltd.
User's Guide WinProp Phase Property Program Version 2009 By Computer Modelling Group Ltd.

This publication and the application described in it are furnished under license exclusively to the licensee, for internal use only, and are subject to a confidentiality agreement. They may be used only in accordance with the terms and conditions of that agreement.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or otherwise, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage/retrieval system, to any party other than the licensee, without the written permission of Computer Modelling Group.

The information in this publication is believed to be accurate in all respects. However, Computer Modelling Group makes no warranty as to accuracy or suitability, and does not assume responsibility for any consequences resulting from the use thereof. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.

Copyright © 1987-2009 Computer Modelling Group Ltd. All rights reserved.

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WinProp uses Intel(R) Compilers.

WinProp, CMG, and Computer Modelling Group are registered trademarks of Computer Modelling Group Ltd. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Computer Modelling Group Ltd.

Office #150, 3553 - 31 Street N.W.

Calgary, Alberta Canada T2L 2K7

Tel: (403) 531-1300

Fax: (403) 289-8502

E-mail:

cmgl@cmgl.ca

Preface

WinProp is CMG's equation of state (EOS) multiphase equilibrium and properties determination program. WinProp features techniques for characterizing the heavy end of a petroleum fluid, lumping of components, matching laboratory PVT data through regression, simulation of first and multiple contact miscibility, phase diagrams generation, asphaltene and wax precipitation modelling, compositional grading calculations as well as process flow simulation.

This User's Guide presents a comprehensive description of the steps involved in obtaining a PVT data suitable for inclusion in data files for CMG's GEM, STARS or IMEX simulators. This User's Guide is aimed at reservoir engineers who want to use WinProp to predict phase behavior of reservoir fluids as well as characterize these fluids for reservoir simulation. It requires some knowledge of phase behavior as it pertains to the different fluid types found in reservoirs.

Every attempt has been made in the preparation of this User's Guide to provide the user with all the necessary details. If questions arise, please contact:

Computer Modelling Group Ltd.

#150, 3553 – 31 Street N.W. Calgary, Canada T2L 2K7

Telephone: (403) 531-1300

Fax: (403) 289-8502

E-mail: cmgl@cmgl.ca

Confidentiality: All components of CMG technology including software and related documentation are protected by copyright, trademark and secrecy. CMG technology can be used only as permitted by your license from CMG. By the license, you have agreed to keep all CMG technology confidential and not disclose it to any third party. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or otherwise, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage/retrieval system, to any party other than the licensee, without the written permission of Computer Modelling Group.

Corrections/Errors: CMG ENDEAVORS TO PRODUCE TECHNOLOGY OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY; NEVERTHELESS ERRORS OR DEFICIENCIES IN SUCH TECHNOLOGY ARE INEVITABLE. IF YOU FIND AN ERROR OR DEFICIENCY, YOU ARE REQUESTED TO PROVIDE DETAILS OF IT AND ILLUSTRATIVE DATA SET(S) TO CMG SUFFICIENT TO PERMIT CMG TO REPRODUCE THE ERROR OR DEFICIENCY. CMG SHALL ENDEAVOR TO REMEDY A DEFICIENCY IN A TIMELY MANNER AND SHALL PERIODICALLY REPORT TO YOU AS TO THE STEPS BEING TAKEN TO REMEDY THE DEFICIENCY. THE RESPONSE TIME FOR A DEFICIENCY MUST BE PRIORITIZED FOR THEIR GENERAL APPLICATION TO CMG MEMBERS AND WHETHER THEY FORM PART OF A CMG PROGRAM. CMG DOES NOT WARRANT THAT DEFICIENCIES WILL BE REMEDIED.

Limited Liability: CMG does not warrant the accuracy or usefulness of the technology and software - Refer to your license.

Contents

New Features

1

New Features in WinProp 2009.10

1

New Features in WinProp 2008.10

1

New Features in WinProp 2007.10

2

New Features in WinProp 2006.10

3

New Features in WinProp 2005.10

3

New Features in WinProp 2004.10

3

New Features in WinProp 2003.11

4

New Features in WinProp 2003.10

4

New Features in WinProp 2002.10

5

New Features in WinProp 2001.10

6

New Features in WinProp 2000.15

6

New Features in WinProp 2000.10

7

New Features in WinProp 1999.10

8

New Features in WinProp 98.00

11

New Features in WinProp 97.00

13

Introduction

17

What is WinProp?

17

Use of this Manual

18

Installation

18

Confidentiality

18

Template Data Files

19

Tutorial Section

21

Overview 21

Getting On-Line Help

Creating, Opening and Saving Data Files 21

22

Copying Between Different Data Files 23

Running, Viewing Output and Creating Plots

21

Setting Up a Regression Run

23

Using the Update Component Properties Feature of WinProp

23

User's Guide WinProp

Contents i

View the Keyword Data File Created by WinProp

24

Selecting a User-Defined Editor

24

Editing the Data Set

24

Table Import Wizard

25

Overview

25

Using the Table Import Wizard

26

Data Set Structure

31

Overview

31

Editing Data Set

32

Titles/EOS/Units Selection

33

Overview

33

Data Input

33

Comments

33

Title 1, Title 2, Title 3

33

Equation of State

34

Units

34

Feed

34

Components

35

Component Selection and Definition

35

Library Components

35

User Component with Known Properties

36

User Component with Known SG, T b and MW

37

Component Properties

38

Notes on Component Properties

39

Interaction Coefficients

43

Hydrocarbon-Hydrocarbon Interaction Coefficients

44

Other Interaction Coefficients

46

Viscosity Parameters

46

Jossi-Stiel-Thodos Correlation

46

Pedersen Correlation

47

Aqueous Phase

48

Aqueous Phase Salinity

48

Henry’s Law Constant Correlation

49

Activation of Second Set of Component Properties

49

GEM Fluid Model Generation and Component Properties Printing

50

Importing Components with the Table Import Wizard

51

ii Contents

User's Guide WinProp

Common Data Required for All Options

53

Overview 53

Composition Specification 53 Initial K-Values 55

55

Stability Test Level 55

Output Level

Two-Phase Saturation and Phase Boundary Calculations

57

Overview 57

Saturation Pressure

Saturation Temperature 58

57

Phase Boundary and Quality Line Calculations

58

Envelope

Specification

59

Envelope Construction Controls 61

62

Critical Point Calculation 62

Cricondenbar/Cricondentherm Calculation

Flash Calculations

63

Overview 63 Common Input for Two-Phase Flash, Multiphase Flash and Asphaltene/Wax Modelling Calculations 63

Two-Phase Flash Calculations

64

Multiphase Flash Calculations

64

Asphaltene/Wax Modelling

65

Theoretical Background 65 Input Data - Asphaltene/Wax Modelling 67

Single-Phase Calculation

70

Isenthalpic Flash Calculations

70

Theoretical Background 70 Input Data - Isenthalpic Flash 72

Three-Phase Boundary Calculation

73

Background 73

Input Data

73

Envelope Specification Tab

73

Envelope Construction Controls Tab 75

76

Initial K-Values Tab

User's Guide WinProp

Contents iii

Component Splitting and Lumping

77

Overview

77

Characterization of Multiple Related Samples

78

Splitting the "Plus" Fraction

78

Importing Extended Analysis Data with the Table Import Wizard

82

Numerical Cleaning of Mud-Contaminated Samples

83

Lumping of Components

84

Transferring Results to Other Data Sets

85

Laboratory Calculations

87

Overview

87

Recombination of Separator Oil and Gas

87

Compressibility Calculation

90

Constant Composition Expansion

90

Differential Liberation

92

Constant Volume Depletion

94

Separator Test

97

Swelling Test

101

Importing Laboratory Experiment Data with the Table Import Wizard

103

Multiple Contact Miscibility Calculations

105

Overview

105

Data Input

106

Regression

109

Overview

109

Organization of the Input Data

109

Parameter Selection

110

Automatic Regression Parameter Selection

112

Grouping Regression Variables

112

Regression Variable Bounds

113

Regression Control Parameters

114

Transferring Results to Other Data Sets

114

Compositional Grading

117

Overview

117

Data Input

118

iv Contents

User's Guide WinProp

STARS PVT Data Generation

121

Overview 121

Use of the STARS PVT Generation Option

121

Input Data (STARS)

122

Basic STARS PVT Data 122 Gas-Liquid K-Value Tables 124

125

Gas-Liquid and Solid-Liquid K-Value Tables 126 Feed and K-Value Plotting Controls 127

Gas-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid K-Value Tables

Process Flow

129

Overview 129 Data Input - Process Flow 130

Black-Oil PVT Data Generation

Overview Laboratory Procedure Input Data

References

List

Appendix A

133

133

142

142

147

147

151

Case Studies

151

Case Study Number 1:

Gas Condensate Modelling

151

Case Study Number 2: Solubility of CO 2 in Brine

161

Case Study Number 3: Asphaltene Precipitation Modelling

172

Appendix B

181

Equations

181

Cubic Equation of State

181

Phase Stability Test

186

Two-Phase Flash Calculation

188

Saturation Calculation

189

Cricondenbar/Cricondentherm Equations

191

Phase

Diagram Construction

191

Three Phase Flash Calculation with Equation of State

195

User's Guide WinProp

Contents v

Three Phase with Isenthalpic Flash Calculation

196

Flash Calculation Involving Water

198

Critical Point Calculations

201

Viscosity Correlation

202

Solution of Non-Linear Equations

204

Plus Fraction Characterization

205

Interfacial Tension Calculations

209

Regression

209

Introduction

209

The Regression Method

210

Application of the Regression

211

Properties of Components

214

User Components

216

Interaction Coefficient

218

Nomenclature

220

References for Appendix B

222

vi Contents

User's Guide WinProp

New Features

New Features in WinProp 2009.10

Numerical Cleaning of Mud-Contaminated Samples

A new feature has been added to WinProp in the Component Splitting and Lumping section.

WinProp now can determine the original composition of the reservoir fluids from mud-

contaminated samples. WinProp uses the skimming method, subtraction method or a

combination of both methods to numerically clean the mud-contaminated samples. If the level

of mud contamination is available and the mud composition is also provided, a direct

subtraction method will be used to numerically clean the contaminated sample. If the level of mud contamination is not available but the mud composition is provided, a combination of the skimming method and subtraction method will be used to estimate the level of contamination first, and then numerically clean the contaminated sample. If there is no information about the level of contamination and mud composition, WinProp can use skimming method to numerically clean the contaminated sample based on the first and last SCN in the mud. Please see the Component Splitting and Lumping section of the User’s Guide for more details. Use of the feature is illustrated in the mudclean_split.dat template data set.

New Features in WinProp 2008.10

STARS PVT Generation

A number of enhancements have been made to improve the liquid density parameters. The feed

composition is flashed at reference pressure and temperature so that a stable liquid composition

is used for all calculations. Once this is done, Compressibility, first and second thermal

expansion coefficients are determined from a perturbation calculation. Finally the cross coefficient (P and T) is determined by optimization to best fit surface conditions and a user-

specified range of reservoir condition densities. These changes result in a decreased sensitivity

to the choice of reference conditions, more accurate compressibility parameters, and a better

match between the EOS and STARS fluid model densities, which are now shown in a table in the .out file.

The reference phase for components can now be specified as AQUEOUS, the previous default was that all components are OLEIC. This means that K-values for gas-water systems can be generated.

In addition, the solid K-value table generation has been improved, as well as the map of

WinProp EOS vs. STARS k-value flash results.

User's Guide WinProp

New Features 1

Aqueous Phase Property Models

Accurate models for the Henry’s constants of CO 2 , N 2 , H 2 S and CH 4 have been implemented, taking into account pressure, temperature and salinity (salting-out coefficient). These models are activated by selecting the option button for “Harvey’s Method (1996)” on the “Aqueous phase” tab of the Component properties dialog. These correlations are also implemented in GEM 2008.10. The existing aqueous phase solubility models are still available in WinProp.

The Kestin correlation is now used for aqueous phase viscosity when the OGW flash is specified in WinProp.

Calculation of Temperature-Dependent Asphaltene Parameters

It is now possible to enter multiple asphaltene onset pressures at different temperatures in the asphaltene flash dialog. These values are used to calculate the temperature-dependent parameters of the asphaltene precipitation model.

New Features in WinProp 2007.10

IMEX Volatile Oil PVT Table Generation

Black oil PVT tables can be generated for the new IMEX volatile oil option. Undersaturated gas compressibility and viscosity may be represented using only the dry gas and saturated gas endpoints, or with a complete table of values between these endpoints. The “endpoints” form uses the new PVTVO table. To allow modelling of nonlinear effects in the gas compressibility and viscosity, undersaturated gas property tables are used in conjunction with the PVTCOND table, as for the Gas-Water with Condensate model in IMEX.

Other Enhancements for IMEX PVT Table Generation

For all IMEX PVT tables, the user can now choose to generate gas formation volume factors, gas expansion factors, or gas Z-factors. This applies to the saturated tables (PVT, PVTG, PVTCOND and PVTVO) as well as the undersaturated gas tables, which can now take the form BGUST, EGUST or ZGUST.

For IMEX PVTCOND and PVTVO tables, calculation of the condensate/gas ratio at low pressures has been modified for improved performance in the simulator.

Scaling Differential Liberation Oil FVF and GOR to Bubble Point Oil Volume

For the differential liberation experiment, oil formation volume factor and solution gas/oil ratio can be scaled to the bubble point oil volume rather than the residual oil volume. This provides oil shrinkage and cumulative gas released per volume of bubble point oil, and eliminates the need for the EOS to accurately represent the residual oil volume. The scaled values can be used in regression. Summary plots show both the original data and the scaled values.

STARS PVT Generation

For STARS PVT generation, new methods have been implemented to generate the component liquid viscosity table. Apparent liquid viscosities of light components can be generated by perturbing the dead oil at each temperature, which will give accurate liquid viscosities of solvent components which may vaporize at higher temperatures ("match dead oil" method). Smooth curves for all component viscosities may be generated by scaling the liquid viscosities at low temperatures, then extrapolating to higher temperatures ("scale viscosities" method).

2 New Features

User's Guide WinProp

More accurate determination of phase viscosity and density, and reduced sensitivity to choice

of reference condition, have been achieved by using stable liquid properties in STARS

component property calculations.

Saturation Pressure/Regression Enhancement

Saturation Pressure calculation results are checked for stability. This prevents the regression algorithm from converging to an unstable two-phase saturation condition, within a three-phase region.

New Features in WinProp 2006.10

Enhancements of existing features and code clean up.

New Features in WinProp 2005.10

A number of WinProp’s calculation options have been enhanced, including the following:

Irreversible Asphaltene Calculation

The asphaltene flash has been enhanced to allow specification of an equilibrium constant for conversion of reversible to irreversible asphaltene. The irreversible asphaltene can be interpreted as flocculated solid particles. This technique has been designed to allow the simulation of laboratory forward and reverse contact experiments with series of asphaltene flash calculations.

Oil-Gas-Water (OGW) Flash Calculations

The OGW flash has been improved to give greater stability and better convergence characteristics for difficult problems, for example light and intermediate hydrocarbons with steam.

STARS Aqueous-Liquid and Aqueous-Vapor K-Value Generation

In addition to the improvements of the OGW flash listed above, the generation of STARS K-

values including aqueous phases has been enhanced with improved extrapolation algorithms.

New Features in WinProp 2004.10

A number of WinProp’s calculation options have been enhanced, including the following:

Compositional Gradient Calculation

For the non-isothermal model, temperatures are now output to the summary table, error trapping has been improved, and the input of the temperature gradient has been modified so that positive gradient values now indicate increasing temperature with depth.

Viewing Simulator PVT Models

Menu items have been added to allow easy viewing of the files generated for GEM, IMEX or STARS component models, analogous to the WinProp output file viewing procedure.

User's Guide WinProp

New Features 3

Temperature-Dependent Volume Shifts

The Rackett’s Z-Factor is now re-calculated during lumping or regression calculations, so that the temperature-dependent volume shift technique will maintain consistency with pseudocomponent specific gravities.

STARS PVT Model Generation

Liquid-phase component viscosities for light components are now back-calculated from live oil and dead oil viscosities, rather than computing them directly from the WinProp viscosity model.

New Features in WinProp 2003.11

Gamma Distribution Characterization Enhancements

The following enhancements have been implemented for the gamma distribution characterization: (1) Specification of the bounds on the molecular weights has been improved when using the “variable molecular weight interval” method for fitting the distribution parameters to extended analysis data. (2) When specific gravity data is available with the extended analysis, coefficients in the specific gravity-molecular weight correlation are adjusted to best fit the data. (3) Use of the gamma distribution to extrapolate extended analysis data to higher carbon numbers has been improved to provide better consistency with input physical property data.

Separator Calculation for Gas Condensates

Calculation of dry gas and wet gas formation volume factors has been implemented when the separator calculation is used with gas condensate fluids. The dry gas FVF is defined as the volume of gas at the dew point pressure divided by the volume of gas from all separator stages evaluated at standard conditions. The wet gas FVF is defined as the volume of gas at the dew point pressure divided by a hypothetical surface wellstream volume, calculated under the assumption the entire wellstream is in the gas phase with a Z-factor of one. The condensate/gas ratio is also reported.

In addition, the average separator gas gravity from all separation stages is now being output for oil and condensate fluids.

New Features in WinProp 2003.10

IMEX GASWATER_WITH_CONDENSATE PVT Table Generation

The black oil PVT option has been expanded to allow generation of PVT tables for the IMEX GASWATER_WITH_CONDENSATE fluid model. This model allows description of condensate liquid dissolved in the gas phase or present as a free liquid in the reservoir and at surface conditions. This option may be used for dewpoint fluids (gas condensates) only. The tables are generated by simulating a constant volume depletion experiment. For each pressure level in the constant volume depletion, a row in the *PVTCOND table for the saturated properties is written. Individual *BGUST and VGUST tables are written for the gas formation volume factors and gas viscosities corresponding to each saturation pressure in the *PVTCOND table. Use of the feature is illustrated in the imex_condensate.dat template data set.

4 New Features

User's Guide WinProp

Regression on Secondary Stream Mole Fraction

The ability to select the mole fraction of the secondary stream, used to define the feed composition for a calculation option, has been added to the regression calculation. The feed composition can be defined as a mole fraction weighted mixture of the primary and secondary compositions. This mole fraction can be adjusted during regression to match any

of WinProp’s allowable experimental data types. One application of this feature is to

determine the mole fraction of a separator gas stream necessary to recombine with a separator oil stream to achieve a specified GOR. Use of this feature is illustrated in the template data set regress_stream-frac.dat .

Automatic Selection of Regression Parameters

For users with limited experience in tuning equation of state parameters to match experimental data, a facility is provided to automatically select regression parameters based on the types of experimental data entered in the calculation options within the regression block. WinProp will select a combination of critical properties of the heavy end pseudocomponents, volume shift parameters, hydrocarbon binary interaction parameter exponents and viscosity parameters to be adjusted during regression, depending on the experimental data entered. The automatic parameter selector will not remove any parameters already selected by the user. Also, once the automatic parameter selection process is complete, you may add or remove regression parameters manually.

New Features in WinProp 2002.10

Minimum Miscibility Enrichment Level

A minimum miscibility enrichment level option has been added to the multi-contact miscibility

calculation. This feature allows calculation of the minimum fraction of rich gas required to be

added to a lean gas stream to achieve multi-contact miscibility with an oil at a specified pressure. A minimum rich gas fraction and a number of gas fraction steps are specified. WinProp performs multiple-contact calculations for each step in the rich gas fraction, and

interpolates to determine the minimum enrichment level for multi-contact miscibility. Results

of the calculations for each solvent gas mixture tested are displayed on ternary diagrams.

This feature is an addition to the existing multi-contact calculation for determination of the minimum miscibility pressure for a given oil and solvent.

K-Value Plotting

The phase property plotting feature has been enhanced to allow generation of K-value plots for the 2-phase flash, multiphase flash, and the STARS K-value calculation options. Gas- Liquid, Liquid-Liquid and Aqueous-Liquid K-value plots may be generated. The results are shown as the log of the K-value for each component, plotted against pressure, temperature or composition, depending on which independent variable has been specified for the flash.

STARS Fluid Model Generation Enhancements

The options for treatment of surface streams for STARS production reporting can now be specified in WinProp. This includes specifying the surface pressure and temperature, the flash options *SEGREGATED or *KVALUE and also the new option for specifying K-values which are used only for the surface flash. The ability to specify these K-values separately from the K-value tables allows the pressure and temperature range for the tables to be

User's Guide WinProp

New Features 5

concentrated on the expected reservoir conditions, but still calculate accurate surface phase splits. Both Gas-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid K-values at the surface can be specified.

The extrapolation algorithm for determining component K-values outside of the range of convergence of the flash calculations has also been improved.

New Features in WinProp 2001.10

Thermal Compositional Gradient Model

Beginning with the 97.00 release, WinProp has had the capability to perform isothermal gravity/chemical equilibrium calculations for the determination of compositional grading due

to gravity. The 2001.10 release includes the option to incorporate thermal effects on the

gradient calculation. The model equations are developed based on the zero mass flux condition. Calculations may be performed without thermal diffusion (passive thermal

gradient case) or with thermal diffusion coefficients determined from correlations or entered

as constant values for each component.

New Features in WinProp 2000.15

STARS PVT Data Generation Enhancements

A number of features for creating STARS component property and K-value data have been

added to WinProp. For component properties the following features have been implemented:

optional use of WinProp’s viscosity model for component viscosities as opposed to the corresponding states model, optional output of viscosity versus temperature table instead of correlation coefficients, and the generation of viscosity and density nonlinear mixing functions. For K-value data, the features added include: generation of liquid-liquid and gas- liquid K-value tables simultaneously, generation of composition dependent K-value tables,

use of STARS defaults for water K-values, indication of which K-values have been extrapolated in the tables, and output of a map comparing the WinProp calculated phase split

to that determined from the K-value tables.

Please see the STARS PVT Data Generation section of the User’s Guide for more details.

WinProp-ModelBuilder Integration

Several features have been introduced to enhance the data flow between WinProp and ModelBuilder. The concept of PVT “Meta-Data” has been introduced; this refers to the equation of state model and mixture composition used to generate the PVT data for IMEX or STARS (for GEM, the equation of state model used is the same as in WinProp, so Meta-Data

is not required). In this release of WinProp, the PVT Meta-Data will be written out to the file

with the IMEX fluid model. When this file is imported into ModelBuilder, the Meta-Data will be read in and stored in the simulator data set. If it is desired at a later date to analyze or modify the PVT data in some way, WinProp can be launched from within ModelBuilder and the Meta-Data EOS description will be restored to WinProp.

The GEM EOS model can also be sent to WinProp by launching from within ModelBuilder.

In this case, compositions determined from the initial conditions section will be transferred to

WinProp as well.

6 New Features

User's Guide WinProp

Additional PVT Tables

An alternate format for black oil PVT tables has been added to the existing options for creating various IMEX or extended black oil PVT tables. The alternate format includes writing of the PVT table in order from highest to lowest pressure, and writing out a table of

multiplying factors for the undersaturated oil compressibilities and viscosities. Enhancements

to the extrapolation methods for generating PVT properties above the original saturation

pressure of the oil have also been implemented.

Laboratory Experiment Enhancements

The maximum number of separators which may be specified with the constant volume depletion experiment and also for the black oil PVT data generation option has been increased to 8.

Liquid dropout for the constant composition and constant volume depletion experiments can now be specified as a percentage of the cell volume at the saturation pressure, or as a percentage of the cell volume at the current pressure step.

Interface Enhancements

The differential liberation and constant volume depletion experiment data entry forms have been redesigned to allow entry of pressure step data in row format, for improved compatibility with experimental PVT reports. Data for material balance and consistency check calculations is now entered on a separate table which is linked to the main table with the pressure information.

Pasting of data to any grid which allows a variable number of rows has been modified to automatically increase the number of rows in the table if required to hold all of the data being input.

New Features in WinProp 2000.10

Automatic Generation of Quality Lines on Phase Diagrams

A feature has been added to the 2-phase envelope calculation option to allow the user to select

lines of constant mole or volume fraction to be calculated and displayed on the plot of the phase envelope.

In addition the algorithm has been improved so that the initial guess for the starting point is

generated internally. The user no longer needs to initialize phase envelope calculations with a

flash or saturation pressure calculation or provide a good guess for the starting point directly.

It should now be possible to generate a 2 phase pressure temperature envelope with default

selections reliably.

Additional PVT Tables

For CMGL’s IMEX simulator, WinProp can now generate Gas-Water PVT tables.

“Extended” Black Oil type PVT tables can be generated including the R v data describing oil solubility in the vapor phase. These data are generated by simulating a constant volume depletion or a differential liberation laboratory experiment. Oil properties are obtained by material balance calculations or directly through EOS separator calculations. A number of methods are available for extrapolating individual curves beyond the original saturation pressure. These tables are output in a generic format. The user can then customize this data for use with specific extended black oil reservoir simulation programs.

User's Guide WinProp

New Features 7

Additional Experimental Data

The constant composition expansion experiment option has been enhanced to allow regression on the following experimental data: viscosity, density, compressibility factor and single phase oil compressibility. These data are included in the regression only when the corresponding property can be calculated by the program. For example single phase oil compressibility data will not be used in regression for a dew point fluid.

Asphaltene Precipitation Modelling Case Study

A new case study is included in the User’s Guide and on-line help which describes the

development of a model for prediction of asphaltene precipitation from a black oil under

pressure depletion. The case study illustrates characterization of the oil, regression to match fluid phase behavior data, specification of the asphaltene model parameters, and calibration

of the model with experimental precipitation data.

All of the case studies are now included in Appendix A.

Interface Enhancements

A feature has been added to allow calculation options to be temporarily excluded from the

data set, rather than deleting them entirely. Options are excluded/included from the main control form by right-clicking on the desired row and making a selection from the pop-up menu. One application of this feature is to temporarily reduce the number of calculation options within a regression block to try and obtain a match to some key data. After an initial regression run, the component properties can be updated and calculation options that were excluded can be included again for further regression runs.

Data entry and navigation on the grids has been improved by enabling use of the left and right arrow keys, in addition to the up, down and enter keys.

New Features in WinProp 1999.10

Enhancements to Aqueous Phase Solubility Calculations

WinProp supports calculation of solubility of light gas and hydrocarbon components in the aqueous phase using Henry’s law. This feature is enabled by selecting flash type OGW (Oil- Gas-Water) on the OGW/EOS Multiphase Flash form. Henry’s law constants can be entered by the user or calculated internally using correlations fit to experimental solubility data. Two new features have been added for modelling aqueous phase solubility.

First, modification of the internally calculated Henry’s constants to account for salinity of the aqueous phase has been implemented. By default, the internal Henry’s constants are for pure water. To predict solubility of components in brine, all that is required is brine salinity, in terms of equivalent NaCl concentration. This is entered on tab Aqueous phase of the Components Selection/Properties form.

The second feature implemented is regression on the aqueous solubility parameters to match experimental solubility data. Component reference Henry’s constants, i.e. Henry’s constant at a specified reference pressure, and molar volume at infinite dilution can be adjusted to match experimental data. Please see the “Components” section for further description of Henry’s constants.

8 New Features

User's Guide WinProp

Case Study number two, in the “Tutorial” section, illustrates the use of both of these new features.

Pedersen Viscosity Correlation

WinProp now allows use of the Pedersen corresponding states viscosity correlation in addition to the Jossi-Stiel-Thodos (JST) correlation. The Pedersen correlation is expected to give better liquid viscosity predictions for light and medium gravity oils than the JST model. The Pedersen correlation is not dependent on having accurate density predictions as the JST technique is. Parameters in either correlation may be adjusted during regression to match experimental viscosity data. Please see the “Components” section for more information on viscosity models.

Generation of PVT Properties for CMG’s IMEX Simulator

WinProp can now generate the PVT data corresponding to the light oil and the pseudo- miscible models of CMG’s IMEX simulator. Earlier releases targeted the black oil model only. In addition, the aqueous phase properties can now be estimated from built in correlations as an alternative to entering the values directly. The PVT fluid model data with the associated IMEX keywords is written to an output file with the extension (.imx). This file can be referenced as an include file in an IMEX data file. Please refer to the “IMEX PVT data generation” chapter of this manual for a complete discussion.

Consistency Checks and Material Balance Calculations

A

number of tools are available in WinProp for evaluating the quality of PVT data provided

to

the reservoir engineer from laboratory or field measurements. The data is typically used to

tune the EOS model. It is imperative therefore that the PVT data is analyzed critically prior to

any detailed regression calculations. The tools available include Hoffman plots and material balance calculations.

Material balance calculations for the constant volume depletion (CVD), differential liberation (DL) and separator options are performed if the required data is entered. For these experiments, the required data are generally reported in a typical PVT report from a laboratory.

A Hoffman plot is generated for the recombination option based on the entered oil and gas

compositions. Hoffman plots are also created with the CVD, DL and separator options if sufficient data is entered to calculate the oil phase compositions from a component material balance. Refer to the chapter on “Laboratory Calculations” for more detail as well as template cases matbal-bo.dat and matbal-gc.dat.

Changes to the Multiple Contact Miscibility (MCM) Option

A number of enhancements have been made to the MCM option with the objectives of 1)

alleviating difficulties in interpreting the program results and 2) determining and reporting multiple and first contact miscibility pressures directly. With respect to point one, the criteria

used for stopping the forward and backward contact flash calculations are reported in the output file. The most likely reasons are either miscibility is achieved or there is no change in the oil and gas compositions from the previous contact. With respect to point two, the user can now enter a range of pressures for the calculation. If multiple and/or first contact miscible pressure(s) are found in this pressure interval then these values are reported at the end of the output listing. Ternary diagrams are also automatically created at designated intervals.

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New Features 9

Specification of Mole Fraction Steps for Flash Calculations

The ability to specify steps in the primary mole fraction making up the feed to a flash calculation has been implemented for two-phase, multiphase and asphaltene/wax flash calculations. This allows the specification of flashes for a number of mixtures of the primary and secondary compositions on a single flash form. This feature is similar to the existing capability for specifying pressure and temperature steps. These steps can be defined with the feed specification on the first tab of each flash calculation.

Plotting Capability Added to Two-Phase and Multiphase Flash

When a series of flash calculations have been specified by setting temperature, pressure or mole fraction steps, plots of the phase properties can be generated. Up to three phase properties, such as molecular weight, compressibility factor or phase mole fraction, can be selected for each flash calculation. One plot is generated for each property and each phase.

When plotting is activated, steps can be specified in one or two of the variables: pressure, temperature and mole fraction. If steps are specified for only one variable, the plots are generated with that variable as the independent variable, and the phase property as the dependent variable. Up to 100 steps in the independent variable are allowed. When steps are specified for two variables, one variable is treated as a parameter variable, and curves of the phase property are displayed for each value of the parameter variable. Up to 8 steps in the parameter variable are allowed.

The phase properties to be plotted are selected on tab Plot Control of the flash calculation forms.

Plotting Capability Added to Asphaltene/Wax Flash

The asphaltene/wax flash has a plotting feature similar to the one described above for the two-phase and multiphase flashes. This allows generation of plots such as weight % precipitate as a function of solvent concentration or pressure.

A special plotting feature implemented for the asphaltene/wax flash is the generation of a pseudo-ternary diagram to display the results of flash calculations in terms of the predicted phase split, i.e. liquid-vapor, solid-liquid etc. The results are shown for a number of dilution lines defined by the user.

Plot specification is done on tab Plot Control of the asphaltene/wax flash calculation.

Three-Phase Envelope Automatic Plot Generation

Automatic plot generation has been implemented for the three-phase boundary calculation. Excel plots can now be created for three-phase P-T, P-X and T-X diagrams. These plots can be created by selecting File|Create Excel plots after running a data set with a three-phase envelope calculation option.

Ternary Diagram Two-Phase Envelope Generation

The capability to create ternary or pseudo-ternary two-phase boundaries has been added to the two-phase envelope calculation option. This calculation locates points in composition space defining the two-phase vapor-liquid phase boundary on a triangular diagram. This can be considered a static or single-contact calculation, as opposed to the multiple contact calculation option which performs a dynamic simulation of multiple contact miscibility processes.

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User's Guide WinProp

This feature is enabled by selecting Pseudo-Ternary Phase Envelope on the Two-phase envelope calculation option form.

Table Import Wizard

A Table Import Wizard has been implemented in WinProp to assist the user in importing data into

WinProp from existing Excel or ASCII format files. The wizard guides the user through the steps

of selecting data to be imported, defining units and performing unit conversions, and inserting the

imported data into the correct locations in WinProp’s data structure. Table import is available for the following forms: Component Selection/Properties, Plus Fraction Splitting, Constant Composition Expansion, Differential Liberation, Constant Volume Depletion and Swelling Test. An example illustrating the use of the Table Import Wizard is given in the “Tutorial” section of the manual. Information regarding the specific implementation for the forms listed above may be found in the “Components”, “Component Splitting and Lumping”, and “Laboratory Calculations” sections.

Interface Enhancements

Two toolbars are provided for easier access to items previously available through the menus alone. The main toolbar contains buttons corresponding to items in the File and Edit menus. This toolbar targets frequently performed tasks such as opening and saving files, generating the results, viewing the output file and creating plots. This toolbar is not customizable and is permanently displayed. A second toolbar contains buttons corresponding to often used calculation options. These buttons are grouped to mirror the organization of the menus. This toolbar is customizable. The user can remove any of the buttons selected by default and add buttons corresponding to options not originally chosen. Once the toolbar is customized the settings are saved for subsequent sessions. The options toolbar can also be removed from the interface and reinstituted at a later time.

The menu system is revised with the objective of creating more intuitive classes. Similarly,

the names of the forms corresponding to the calculation options are modified to be more descriptive. Forms for the constant volume depletion, separator test and differential liberation are redesigned in light of the additional data that can now be entered for material balance calculations. Other enhancements include the addition of progress bars in specific situations.

A progress bar is shown when loading or saving the component form for example.

New Features in WinProp 98.00

Additional Methods for Heavy Fraction Characterization

The three-parameter gamma distribution is now available in WinProp to describe the molecular weight versus mole fraction relationship for the heavy fraction of a petroleum

fluid. The Gaussian quadrature method is used in evaluating the integral of this distribution function. The molecular weight of the pseudo components selected corresponds to the quadrature points. Good VLE results are obtained with this method with a small number of pseudo components. In addition the Gamma distribution and Gaussian quadrature can be used

to generate a single set of pseudo components for multiple related samples with different plus

fraction molecular weight and specific gravity. Related mixtures have the same compounds but in varying proportions, for example saturated oil and its equilibrium gas or fluids from different depths in a reservoir with a compositional gradient. Parameters of the Gaussian

User's Guide WinProp

New Features 11

distribution function are obtained by nonlinear regression if extended analysis data is entered or from generalized correlations if only plus fraction specific gravity and molecular weight are available. Where multiple samples are involved each sample can have extended analysis data entered if available. Please refer to the “Component Splitting and Lumping chapter of this manual for a more extensive discussion.

Generation of PVT Properties for IMEX Black Oil Model

WinProp can now generate the PVT data corresponding to the “black oil” model of CMG’s IMEX simulator. This data is written out to an output file with the extension blk. This file can then be referenced as an include file in an IMEX data file. The properties of the oil phase (formation volume factor, gas oil ratio) are generated by flashing the equilibrium liquid at each stage of the “differential liberation” directly through the user specified separator train. The range of the PVT table can be extended to include pressures above the original oil bubble point pressure by generating the swelling curve. This way the table can handle variable bubble point scenarios arising for example from gas injection or solution gas migration followed by re- pressurization. This option can be found under Options | "Black oil model PVT data." Please refer to the “Black oil PVT data generation chapter of this manual for a complete discussion.

Process Flow and Isenthalpic Flash Options

Data entry forms for the Process flow and Isenthalpic flash options have been added to WinProp. The process flow option can be added to the data file by selecting Calculations | Process flow from the menu and isenthalpic flash by selecting Calculations | Isenthalpic flash. For the process flow sample template are process1.dat, process2.dat and process3.dat. For isenthalpic flash the sample templates are isenth1.dat, isenth2.dat and isenth3.dat. Please refer to the chapter titled “Process flow” for detailed discussion of the process flow option and the “Flash calculations chapter for more details on the isenthalpic flash option.

Support for Multiple Hydrocarbon-Hydrocarbon Binary Interaction Exponents

Hydrocarbon components are identified by a value of 1 on the HC column of the component table on the Component form. Binary interaction coefficients between two hydrocarbon components are calculated from a correlation, which involves the critical volume of each component and an exponent parameter. In contrast to previous versions of WinProp where all HC-HC binaries were calculated based on a single exponent parameter, the user can now group pairs of binary and specify a different exponent parameter value for each group. These individual group exponents can be also selected as regression parameter(s). Please see the chapter entitles “Components and “Regression for more details.

Handling of the “Regression Block” in a Data File

In WinProp the regression block refers to the calculation options that are between the “Regression” and “Start regression” forms. For a case to run successfully all options in this block must have at least one piece of experimental data entered and all options outside the regression block are required not to have any experimental data entered. WinProp will now attempt to ensure that these requirements are met when the user attempts to run a given case while preserving the data that has been entered. For example if there an option within the regression block then this option will be moved out of the regression block. If there is an option with experimental data outside the regression block then the experimental data will be written out to the data file with the accompanying keyword(s) commented out.

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User's Guide WinProp

This will also allow the user to retain the experimental data that were entered for regression when regression is removed from the data file, that is “Regression” and “End regression” forms are removed. The entered experimental data will be shown where appropriate with the program predictions on plots even if there is no regression involved in the run.

Interface Enhancements

The list of the five most recently files accessed by WinProp is now available on the File menu. This is a faster way of selecting a case than through the file open dialog box.

Interface enhancements include the ability to redirect the screen diary to an output file. To redirect select “Redirect to file DBPROP.XXX” under File | Screen menu. The user can now select an editor other than Notepad by invoking the Editor | “User editor select” option under the File menu. This will open a file dialog box. Using the file dialog select the executable file corresponding to the desired editor.

WinProp allows up to open up to 8 different cases (data files) to be open simultaneously, primarily to allow various calculation option forms to be copied between different data files. This saves the user from having to type in data values multiple times. The MDI capability also facilitates comparing the data entered for a given form across data files. A number of checks have been implemented to avoid violating the internal design limitations of this option. For example forms can be opened only when a single case is loaded and a case cannot be closed until all the open forms are closed.

In previous versions of WinProp the data in a table (grid) could be changed via a text box positioned outside the table. With WinProp 98.00 a floating text box positioned exactly on the desired cell is used for table (grid) edits. To erase the current value or text in a cell and enter a new value or text, position the cursor on that cell and start typing. To edit the contents of a cell, position the cursor on that cell and double click with the left mouse button. The cell contents are updated when the carriage return (Enter) key is pressed or if the cursor is moved to another cell. Please note that changing the focus to a new control will not update the grid (table) contents.

New Features in WinProp 97.00

Compositional Grading Calculations

Significant compositional variation with depth can occur in deep reservoirs with near critical fluids or for fluids where there is a large variation in molecular weight between the light and heavy constituents. This effect is important in estimating materials in place as well as field development and operation strategy. WinProp now has the capability of simulating this phenomena based on the isothermal gravity/chemical equilibrium (GCE) formulation. This option can be found under Calculation Options|Compositional Gradient. A complete discussion can be found in the chapter titled Compositional Grading.

Generation of PVT Properties for STARS

STARS is CMG's steam and additive thermal simulator. WinProp can generate the complete PVT data required by STARS. This includes component partial densities, compressibility and thermal expansion factors as well as liquid component viscosity coefficients. WinProp can also generate tabular K-value data between any two phases that STARS supports. STARS used K-values to determine the number of phases in equilibrium and the composition of each phase. The PVT data is printed in a format suitable for direct inclusion in a STARS data file.

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New Features 13

The output of this option is directed to a file with a suffix .tbl. This option can be found under Options|Print STARS PVT Table. Please refer to the STARS PVT Data Generation chapter of this manual for a more extensive discussion.

Regression Enhancements

It is now possible to specify more than one component for a given property such as the

critical pressure as a single variable in regression. The members of the group will in general have individual initial values and bounds. In regression the same increment is applied to all members of the group. This feature can be useful if it is desired to maintain a certain trend or symmetry for a given property or in avoiding regressing on a property belonging to a component with a small mole fraction. For information on how to define group variables refer to the Regression chapter of this manual.

Summary plots showing before regression, after regression and experimental data are now generated automatically when Excel plots are created from a regression run. Individual plots showing calculated results are still available, with new titles indicating before or after regression calculations.

Conversion from CMGPROP to WinProp Format

A conversion utility is provided within WinProp to translate files created for CMGPROP on

UNIX or PC platforms. This utility can be invoked by selecting Options|Convert from Cmgprop to WinProp. The user is advised to open each form and verify the results of the conversion carefully. Please use the Save As option under the File menu to save the WinProp compatible data file to avoid overwriting the original CMGPROP data file. The original file will be an important aid in case difficulties are encountered in conversion and in verifying the conversion. There are a number of situations that can pose difficulties for the converter including the use of wildcards in specifying array values and presence of comment marker on a line where array values are stipulated. Please edit the CMGPROP data file eliminating these situations prior to using the conversion utility.

MDI Capability

The Multiple Document Interface (MDI) Feature is now implemented in WinProp. This allows the user to open up to eight files at once. This has significant advantages for example when the user desires to compare output files for two or more cases or in the ease with which data corresponding to various calculation options may be copied between different data files. Refer to the section copying between different data files under the Tutorial chapter of this manual.

Update Component Properties Feature

Upon completing a splitting, lumping or regression calculation where the number of components are changed or the component properties modified, WinProp writes out the revised component information in an output file with the suffix .rls. With the previous version

of WinProp the user would run a file, for example test1.dat with a splitting calculation, use

File|Open to open test1.rls, use File|Save As to rename to test2.dat for example and then continue working with this file by appending calculation options to it. This procedure is now automated with the introduction of the update component properties selection under the

Options menu. The user still runs the splitting calculation with test1.dat. Once the calculation

is carried out, update component properties is invoked. This updates the information on the

Composition and Component forms. The user then removes the splitting calculation from the

14 New Features

User's Guide WinProp

data file and appends the desired calculation options. Optionally the user may wish to save this file with a different file name say test2.dat to retain a complete work record of the session.

Addition of Bounds Tab on the Regression Form

An additional tab showing the initial value and the lower and upper bound selected by WinProp for each regression variable specified has been added to the Regression form. The user may subsequently edit the bounds. The capability to restore values back to their default selections is provided as well. This provides the user greater flexibility in arriving at an EOS description based on the specific characteristics of the fluid being considered and the PVT data available.

Volume Shift Specification

Additional flexibility is introduced in selecting values for the volume shift parameter for each component. Previously the default was a value of zero for all components. The new default is a value generated from the correlation for library components and a value of zero for user defined components. The user may apply the correlation values to all components by selecting Reset to Correlation Values from the Volume Shift menu on the component form. Alternatively the user may revert to the older default by selecting Reset to Zeros. The user can still specify a value for any component which is different from either correlation or zero by editing the cell directly.

Support of Two Sets of EOS Parameters

WinProp now supports the concept of two different EOS models. When two sets are enabled the first set is used for calculations at reservoir conditions and the second set for surface or separator conditions. With this provision it is possible to match PVT experimental data at surface conditions (typically separator API and GOR data) independently from data at reservoir conditions. This makes it possible to obtain much more accurate predictions over the wide range of conditions encountered as the fluid is produced and processed on the surface with a realistic number of components for compositional simulation. Please refer to the Component and Regression chapters for details.

Extended Separator Option

The conventional separator operation involves the liquid phase output from a given separator becoming the feed for the next separator in sequence downstream and the vapor phase joining the gas product stream. This arrangement is not always optimal particularly for rich gas condensates. For modeling alternative separation strategies the separator option is enhanced to allow additional product streams such as LPG and in providing flexibility in the selection of the destination of the liquid and vapor stream from each separator. Please review the section on separator calculation in chapter Laboratory Calculations for more information of this feature.

Multicomponent Solid Precipitation Model

The solid precipitation model is now suitable for modeling both wax and asphaltene precipitation scenarios. The thermodynamic model has been enhanced as follows: the precipitate is now modeled as a multicomponent solid in contrast to the earlier single component pure solid phase assumption, non-isothermal conditions are treated, and up to three fluid phases in equilibrium with the solid are allowed.

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New Features 15

Introduction

What is WinProp?

Welcome to WinProp, the Windows version of CMGPROP.

WinProp is CMG's equation of state multiphase equilibrium property package featuring fluid characterization, lumping of components, matching of laboratory data through regression, simulation of multiple contact processes, phase diagram construction, solids precipitation, and more. Laboratory experiments considered in WinProp include recombination of separator oil and gas, compressibility measurements, constant composition expansion, differential liberation, separator test, constant volume depletion and swelling test.

You can use WinProp to analyze the phase behavior of reservoir gas and oil systems, and to generate component properties for CMG's compositional simulator GEM, black oil simulator IMEX and steam and additives thermal simulator STARS.

WinProp contains a graphical interface that allows you to prepare data, run the phase property calculation engine, view the output with an editor, and create plots with Excel™.

WinProp creates keyword data files to drive the phase behavior calculation engine. Besides the regular keywords that were required by the CMGPROP program, these data files contain special control character strings for the graphical interface. A conversion utility is provided within WinProp for users who have been using CMGPROP on a UNIX platform or on the PC to facilitate the migration to WinProp.

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Introduction 17

Use of this Manual

This User's Guide describes the different forms and options for entering data into WinProp. It is also available as on-line help. This User's Guide is aimed at reservoir engineers with some background knowledge on the phase behavior and characterization of reservoir fluids. Good references on these topics can be found in Ahmed [1], Pedersen, Fredenslund, and Thomassen [30] and McCain [17] (see the “References” section). For more details on phase equilibrium thermodynamics, please see Sandler [35] or Walas [37].

Every attempt has been made in the preparation of this User's Guide to provide you with all of the information necessary to run the program and understand the calculations being performed. If questions arise, please contact:

Computer Modelling Group Ltd. #150, 3553 – 31 Street N.W. Calgary, Canada T2L 2K7 Telephone: (403) 531-1300 Fax: (403) 289-8502

Email: support@cmgl.ca

Website: www.cmgl.ca

Installation

All CMG software must be installed from the CD-ROM by running the Setup program. Please refer to the detailed installation instructions that are packaged with the software for additional information.

Confidentiality

All components of CMG's technology including software and related documentation are protected by copyright, trademark and secrecy. CMG technology can be used only as permitted by your license from CMG. By the license, you have agreed to keep all CMG technology confidential and not disclose it to any third party. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or otherwise, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage/retrieval system, to any party other than the licensee, without the written permission of Computer Modelling Group Ltd.

18 Introduction

User's Guide WinProp

Template Data Files

A number of example data files are located in the "TPL" directory located under the

WINPROP directory.

A brief description of each of the available template data files is shown below:

Data file name

Description

case_study-1.dat

Data for case study number 1 (See Appendix A)

case_study-2.dat

Data for case study number 2 (See Appendix A)

case_study-3-asph.dat

Data for case study number 3 (See Appendix A)

case_study-3-regress.dat

Data for case study number 3 (See Appendix A)

case_study-3-split.dat

Data for case study number 3 (See Appendix A)

cce.dat compgrad-blackoil.dat compgrad-voloil.dat compress.dat cricon.dat critical.dat cvd.dat diflib.dat

Constant composition expansion calculation Compositional gradient calculation - black oil Compositional gradient calculation - volatile oil Single-phase liquid compressibility calculation Cricondenbar and cricondentherm calculation Critical point calculation Constant volume depletion simulation Differential liberation experiment simulation

envel_2ph-pt.dat

Two-phase pressure-temperature envelope construction

envel_2ph-px.dat

Two-phase pressure-composition envelope construction

envel_2ph-tern.dat

Two-phase pseudo-ternary diagram construction

envel_3ph-pt.dat

Three-phase pressure-temperature envelope construction

envel_3ph-px.dat

Three-phase pressure-composition envelope construction

extended_blackoil.dat

Extended black oil PVT tables with oil vaporization

flash-2ph.dat

Two-phase EOS flash calculation

flash-3ph.dat

Three-phase EOS flash calculation

flash-isenth1.dat

Isenthalpic flash - 2 component system

flash-isenth2.dat

Isenthalpic flash - 6 component system

flash-isenth3.dat

Isenthalpic flash - single component system

flash-ogw.dat

Three-phase oil-gas-water Henry's law flash calculation

format2_blackoil.dat

Alternate format black oil PVT tables

imex_condensate.dat imex_voloil.dat imex-blackoil.dat

IMEX gas-water with condensate PVT model data generation IMEX volatile oil PVT model data generation IMEX PVT model data generation

labpvt-bo1.dat

Lab PVT experiment simulations – black oil no. 1

labpvt-bo2.dat

Lab PVT experiment simulations – black oil no. 2

labpvt-bo3.dat

Lab PVT experiment simulations – black oil no. 3

labpvt-gc1.dat

Lab PVT experiment simulations – gas condensate no. 1

labpvt-gc2.dat

Lab PVT experiment simulations – gas condensate no. 2

labpvt-gc3.dat

Lab PVT experiment simulations – gas condensate no. 3

lumping.dat

Lumping "plus fraction" components

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Introduction 19

matbal-bo.dat matbal-gc.dat mcm-condensing.dat

Material balance checks for black oil PVT experiments Material balance checks for condensate PVT experiments Condensing gas drive multicontact miscibility calculation

mcm-vaporizing-co2.dat

Vaporizing CO 2 drive multicontact miscibility calculation

process-cvd.dat process-mcm.dat process-plant.dat recombine.dat

Process flow – simulation of constant volume depletion test Process flow – simulation of multiple contact experiment Process flow – simulation of a gas plant Recombination of separator oil and gas streams

regress-blackoil1.dat

Black oil no. 1 regression

regress-blackoil2.dat

Black oil no. 2 regression

regress-compress.dat

Liquid compressibility regression

regress-condensate1.dat

Gas condensate no. 1 regression

regress-condensate2.dat

Gas condensate no. 2 regression

regress-critical.dat

Critical point regression

regress-flash_2ph.dat

Two-phase flash regression

regress-flash_3ph.dat

Three-phase EOS flash regression

regress-flash_ogw.dat regress-lightoil.dat regress-multicontact.dat regress-sat_pres.dat regress-separator.dat regress-singlephase.dat regress-viscosity.dat sat-pressure.dat sat-temperature.dat separator.dat singlephase.dat solid-asph_plots.dat

Three-phase Henry's law flash regression Light oil regression Multiple contact data regression Saturation pressure regression Separator data matching with 2 nd EOS set parameters Single phase properties regression Regression for viscosity matching Saturation pressure calculation Saturation temperature calculation Separator calculation Single-phase fluid properties calculation Plot construction for single component asphaltene model

solid-asph1.dat

Single component solid asphaltene precipitation

solid-asph2.dat

Heavy oil with 2 component solid precipitation

solid-phenanthrene.dat

Pure component solid (phenanthrene) precipitation

solid-wax.dat

Multicomponent wax precipitation

split-mw_analysis.dat

Characterization - MW versus mole fraction data

split-mwsg_analysis.dat

Characterization - MW, SG versus mole fraction data

split-mwsg_plus.dat

Characterization – plus fraction MW and SG only

split-mwsgtb_analysis.dat

Characterization - MW, SG ,TB versus mole fraction data

stars-comp_props.dat

Component PVT properties generation for STARS

stars-vl_kvalues.dat

Vapor -Liquid K-values generation for STARS

stars-vlaq_kvalues.dat

Vapor -Liquid-aqueous K-values generation for STARS

stars-vls_kvalues.dat

Vapor -Liquid-solid K-values generation for STARS

swelling.dat

Swelling experiment simulation

20 Introduction

User's Guide WinProp

Tutorial Section

Overview

This chapter includes information on the mechanics of creating, editing, saving and running data sets in WinProp, as well as viewing the output files and creating plots.

Example case studies with step-by-step instructions for performing some PVT modelling tasks are described in Appendix A.

Detailed instructions for using all of the calculation options available in WinProp are given in the remaining chapters.

Getting On-Line Help

Selection of Help on the menu provides you with the following options:

Contents Search for Help on Help on current form

The table of contents for the help file is displayed You can search for help on a particular topic The help on the current form is displayed

The help on current form can be also invoked by pressing the function key F1

Creating, Opening and Saving Data Files

You can create a new data file by selecting File|New from the menu. WinProp puts three undefined forms in the data set: Titles/EOS/Units, Component Specification/Properties,

and Composition. An existing data file can be opened by selecting File|Open browser will appear to assist you in the file selection.

You save a data file by selecting File|Save. A data file can be saved under a different file name by selecting File|Save As

By convention all data set names have the (.DAT) suffix. The following files are created when running WinProp:

A file

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Tutorial Section 21

File suffix

Description

.out

ASCII file containing calculation results.

.gem

Output of component properties in a format suitable for the compositional simulator GEM.

.gmz

Output of composition versus depth data in format suitable for inclusion within the GEM simulator data file.

.str

Output of PVT data in format suitable for inclusion within STARS simulator data file.

.imx

Output of the “black oil”, “light oil” or “pseudo-miscible” model PVT data in format suitable for inclusion within the IMEX simulator data file or extended black oil tables in a “generic” format.

.rls

Output of component properties from the regression or lumping and splitting procedure.

.srf

Output for plotting.

.xls

Excel™ file containing data and plots that are created from an .srf file.

The results are written to files with the (.out) suffix. When you invoke the regression or lumping or splitting procedures, WinProp also creates a file with the suffix (.rls.) This file can be opened to create a new data set (see Chapters on “Component splitting and lumping” and “Regression”). If you select the component printing option for CMG’s compositional simulator GEM on the form CMG GEM EOS Model, the component properties are printed to a file with the suffix (.gem) in a format suitable for GEM. If the CMG STARS PVT Data option is selected then an output file with the suffix (.str) is created. If the “Write GEM *ZDEPTH …” checkbox on the Compositional Gradient form is checked off then the composition versus depth information is written out to a file with the suffix (.gmz.). If the calculation option to generate PVT data for simulation studies with IMEX is included in the data set then a file with the suffix (.imx) is created. This file contains PVT data in a format compatible with IMEX and can be referenced as an include file in an IMEX data file.

Select File|Exit to exit WinProp.

Running, Viewing Output and Creating Plots

To run the current data set, select File|Run from the menu (or use F2 key).

The results of the calculations are in a (.out) ASCII file. To view this file with an ASCII text editor, select File|View output (or use F3 key). The default editor for output viewing is Windows Notepad. The option is also available to use another editor of your choice. You can specify which editor to use by selecting Preferences|Editor|User editor select from the menu. This will open a file dialog box. The desired editor is selecting by identifying the executable file for that editor.

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User's Guide WinProp

Certain calculation options will create data for plotting. The plot information is in the (.srf) file. To create these plots with Excel™, select File|Create Excel plots (or type F4). WinProp has its own Excel™ templates and macros to invoke Excel™ and generate the corresponding plots. These Excel™ plots are saved in an (.xls) file. If no plot data are available, a message will be issued.

To view an Excel™ plot that you have already created with WinProp, select File|View Excel plots.

Copying Between Different Data Files

With the MDI implementation of WinProp the user may open as many as eight data files or associated files (such as the output file) for side by side comparisons or to transfer data between data files. To transfer calculation options between data sets: open the source and target files, highlight the desired rows on the data set structure form of the source file and select Copy from the Edit menu or by pressing the Ctrl C key combination. Next, click on the row of the data set structure form of the target file to select the insertion location and select Paste from the Edit menu or type the Ctrl V key combination.

Setting Up a Regression Run

Certain calculation options including the simulation of laboratory PVT experiments allow the user to optionally enter experimental data which can be used to tune the EOS model. The Regression Parameters and End Regression forms bracket the calculation options for which data is entered. Note: All options that appear within the regression section must have at least one experimental data point. The Regression Parameters form is used to select the specific EOS component properties for tuning. For calculation options specified prior to the appearance of the Regression Parameters form the program uses the original component properties. For options appended after the End Regression form the component properties modified during regression are used. Note: WinProp only allows one Regression Parameters and one End Regression form per data set. To perform a second regression calculation first use the Update component properties feature located under the File menu.

Using the Update Component Properties Feature of WinProp

Quite often the user is in possession of limited information on the composition of the reservoir fluid. This typically means a breakdown from C1 to C5 with the heavy end lumped as C6+ for which only the molecular weight and specific gravity information is available. In order to obtain reasonably accurate results with an EOS the heavy end must be described by more than one pseudo-component. This step is known as characterization or splitting. Since this procedure requires approximating a continuous distribution with a number of discrete components with limited experimental data for the heavy end, the pseudo-components properties are considered to be approximate and therefore suitable candidates for tuning to match available PVT experimental data. The splitting - regression sequence needs to be done in two steps since prior to the splitting calculation the pseudo-components do not exist to enable various properties such Pc or Tc to be selected for regression. The execution of this two step process can be done efficiently with the help of the Update component properties feature of WinProp. The process generally involves the following sequence:

User's Guide WinProp

Tutorial Section 23

1. Set up the splitting calculation. Add the form for performing the splitting calculation to the WinProp data file. Open the Component Selection/Properties form. The compositional analysis up to C5 involves components with known properties. Add these components by selecting Add Component|LibraryComponent. Open the Composition form and enter the mole fractions as they appear on the laboratory report. Ignore the warning message about the sum not being equal to one. Open the Plus Fraction Splitting form and enter data for the plus fraction.

2. Run WinProp with the data file from step 1. Once the splitting calculation is performed WinProp writes out the full set of component properties including data for the pseudo-components in a special output file with the suffix (.rls). Open the File menu and select Update component properties option. WinProp will then read the (.rls) file and update the Composition and Component Selection/Properties forms based on the data in this file.

3. Remove the splitting form from the data set by highlighting the splitting calculation row on the data set structure form and selecting Edit|Cut from the menu. Proceed to set up the regression run as described in the section “Setting up a regression run”.

View the Keyword Data File Created by WinProp

Under the File menu item, selecting View data for current option loads the keywords corresponding to a given calculation option (or form) in a text window, while the entire keyword file can be viewed by selecting View data set. This can be a useful aid in troubleshooting if the results are unexpected or there is difficulty running the program.

Selecting a User-Defined Editor

Under the Preferences|Editor menu item, there are two choices for selecting the device used for viewing WinProp output: Windows notepad and a user defined editor. The default device for the user defined editor is the "DOS EDIT" program. To set this to another editor of your choice, choose the Select user editor option under Preferences|Editor. This will bring up a file dialog box. Browse to the folder where the executable file for the desired editor is located. Select the executable file (typically with extension (.exe) or .(com)) for the preferred editor. The selection made will be honored until a new choice is made.

Editing the Data Set

Editing Data Set Structure

In addition to inserting calculation options as described in the Section “Data Set Structure”, you can edit the data set by selecting Edit from the menu. The edit operations will apply to the calculation options that are currently highlighted. The following menu items are available:

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User's Guide WinProp

Undo

This will undo the previous edit function. This menu item is not available

Cut

if there is nothing to undo. This option will cut the options and the data associated with them into the

Copy

Clipboard. You cannot cut the Titles/EOS/Units or the Component Selection/Properties forms. This option will copy the options and the data associated with them into the

Paste

Clipboard. This option will paste the data from the Clipboard into the current data set.

You can use the Copy and Paste option to transfer information and calculation options within one WinProp data set or from one data set to another.

Editing Tables

On many forms, you enter data into tables (or grids). For most tables, you can use the menu item Table to insert a new row or delete rows.

You can highlight the data in different cells with the left mouse button. You can delete, cut and paste data corresponding to the highlighted cells with the standard Windows keystrokes:

DELETE for delete, CTRL+C for copy, CTRL+X for cut, and CTRL+V for paste. Note that DELETE clears the data in cells, but does not delete the corresponding rows. Please use Table|Delete rows if you want to delete rows.

Table Import Wizard

Overview

The Table Import Wizard is designed to assist the user in importing data such as component properties and laboratory experiment results into WinProp. The wizard is available for the following forms: Component Selection/Properties, Plus Fraction Splitting, Constant Composition Expansion, Differential Liberation, Constant Volume Depletion and Swelling Test. An example is given below illustrating the use of the Table Import Wizard. Information regarding the specific implementation for the forms listed above may be found in the “Components”, “Component Splitting and Lumping” and “Laboratory Calculations” sections of the manual. The wizard supports the following features:

1. Tabular information can be directly imported from Excel™ spreadsheets or ASCII format files.

2. Entire tables need not be imported. Parts of a spreadsheet/file can be extracted and imported into WinProp.

3. The regions being imported from the original table need not be contiguous.

4. The table imported into WinProp can be saved as a new file.

5. There is no restriction that the table being imported from has the same column arrangement as required in WinProp.

User's Guide WinProp

Tutorial Section 25

6. Unit conversions can be performed on the table before importing it into WinProp. Unit systems can be selected for the entire table. Units can also be selected for individual columns.

Using the Table Import Wizard

The Table Import Wizard guides the user through the steps required to import data into WinProp. The wizard is launched by clicking on a command button labeled Table Import Wizard on the forms mentioned in the overview. An example illustrating the import of component property data from an Excel™ file is shown here.

Step 1: Provide file for table import from

In this step the file which contains the table to be imported is identified. This file could be an Excel™ spreadsheet or an ASCII file. Indicate the desired file type by clicking on one of the

option buttons labeled ASCII or Excel. Click on the Browse

button to locate the file.

or Excel. Click on the Browse button to locate the file. Click on Next to continue.

Click on Next to continue.

Step 2: Choose a worksheet

This step appears as step 2 if an Excel spreadsheet was selected in Step1. Since a spreadsheet can have several worksheets, this step requires the identification of the worksheet that contains the data to be imported. The worksheets are listed in a list box at the top right corner. Once a worksheet is highlighted, data from that worksheet is displayed as in the example below.

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User's Guide WinProp

Click on Next to continue. Step 4: Select regions to be imported and define column

Click on Next to continue.

Step 4: Select regions to be imported and define column names

Step 3 is relevant only when importing from ASCII files and is skipped since this example involves importing from a spreadsheet. In step 4, the regions from the original table to be imported are identified and names are defined for all imported columns. Multiple ranges of columns can be selected, but a common set of rows must be selected for all columns. Before selecting the data, the table rows and columns can be transposed. If your data is in row-wise format, it can be transposed to allow definition of data types by column, as required by the table import wizard.

Column names are selected by clicking on the right mouse button at the column header. This brings up a pop-up menu containing the available column names. Select the name that corresponds to the column from the menu.

In the view of Step 4 shown below, the data corresponding to all columns except the Watson K-factor has been selected, and the column names defined.

User's Guide WinProp

Tutorial Section 27

Click Next to continue. Step 5: Review table definition and edit data Step 5 can

Click Next to continue.

Step 5: Review table definition and edit data

Step 5 can be used to review the table selections and edit values in the table before going on to select the units for the columns. The table can be inverted by clicking the right mouse button on the table and selecting Invert table from the pop-up menu that appears.

The component table now appears as follows:

that appears. The component table now appears as follows: Click Next to continue. 28 • Tutorial

Click Next to continue.

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User's Guide WinProp

Step 6: Choose units of table columns

In this step, the units used in the source table need to be identified. A base unit system is defined first. Units can then be set for individual columns as required by right-clicking on the column header and selecting the unit for that column from the pop-up menu. The units corresponding to the critical properties for this example have been selected as shown below.

for this example have been selected as shown below. It is important to note that selection

It is important to note that selection of units in this step should correspond to the units used in the original file from which the table is being imported. No unit conversion is done at this stage.

At this point, the table import may be completed by clicking on the Finish button. Any conversions to the current WinProp unit system will be performed and the data will be entered into the WinProp table.

To view the table with quantities converted to different units or to save the table to a file, check on the box labeled Apply unit conversion and click Next to continue.

Step 7: Choose units for table columns to convert data to

In this step, the user has a choice of viewing the table with different units applied. Note that changing the units in this step does not affect what units will be used to display the data in WinProp. The table can also be saved to a separate file by clicking on the button labeled Save converted table to NEW file. In this example, the table from the previous step is shown after conversion to field units.

User's Guide WinProp

Tutorial Section 29

Click Finish to exit Table Import Wizard and complete the import of data into WinProp.

Click Finish to exit Table Import Wizard and complete the import of data into WinProp.

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Data Set Structure

Overview

Data Set Structure Overview This form contains the structure of the data set. This is the

This form contains the structure of the data set. This is the first form presented to the user when WinProp is invoked. The column of the table labeled Forms contains the title for each calculation form included in the data set. By default the required forms Titles/EOS/Units, and Component Selection/Properties are pre-selected and cannot be removed. The Composition form is also required following these forms, thus it is included by default as well.

The data entry form corresponding to a given row can be activated by double clicking on that row. Data can be entered and edited on each form.

To insert a calculation option: (1) select the row where the new calculation will be inserted by clicking on that row; (2) select a calculation option from the menu or by clicking one of the buttons on the calculation option toolbar.

The Inc (Included) column indicates whether or not a calculation option will be executed when the data set is run. A checkmark in this column indicates that the option will be included, while an X-mark indicates that the calculation will be excluded. Calculations can be included/excluded by right-clicking on the desired row and selecting Include Calculation or Exclude Calculation from the pop-up menu.

User's Guide WinProp

Data Set Structure 31

A “U” in the Stat (Status) column indicates that the data for the corresponding option are

undefined. Once data for a particular form are entered as described above, the “U” will be

cleared from the status column.

The text in the Comments column comes from the Comments text box on each form. These comments are also printed in the output file for each calculation option.

Editing Data Set

Editing Data Set Structure

In addition to inserting calculation options as described in the Section “Data Set Structure”,

you can edit the data set by selecting Edit from the menu. The menu items apply to the

calculation options that are highlighted. The following menu items are available:

Undo

This will undo the previous edit function. This menu item is not

Cut

available if there is nothing to undo. This option will cut the options and the data associated with them into the

Copy

Clipboard. You cannot cut the Titles/EOS/Units or the Component Selection/Properties forms. This option will copy the options and the data associated with them into

Paste

the Clipboard. This option will paste the data from the Clipboard into the current data set.

You can use the Copy and Paste option to transfer information and calculation options within one WinProp data set or from one data set to another.

32 Data Set Structure

User's Guide WinProp

Titles/EOS/Units Selection

Overview

This form is pre-selected by WinProp and appears as the first form in all WinProp data files. It is used for documenting the run, selecting the unit system and for choosing the equation of state (EOS) to be used for all calculations included in the data file.

to be used for all calculations included in the data file. Data Input Comments Enter your

Data Input

Comments

Enter your comments regarding this data set. These comments will be shown in the Data set structure form.

Title 1, Title 2, Title 3

Enter up to 3 titles to identify the runs.

User's Guide WinProp

Titles/EOS/Units Selection 33

Equation of State

Selection of the equation of state for the oil and gas phases. The default is PR (1978).

PR(1978)

Peng-Robinson equation of state with 1978 expression for

PR(1976)

constant "a". Peng-Robinson equation of state with 1976 expression for

SRK(G&D)

constant "a". This is the original equation of state. Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state with the constant "a"

SRK

proposed by Graboski and Daubert[6]. Original Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state.

Units

psia & deg F kPa & deg C

kg/cm 2 & deg C

Feed

Mole

Mass

Pressures in psia and temperatures in ºF. Pressures in kPa and temperatures in ºC.

Pressures in kg/cm 2 and temperatures in ºC.

The feed on Form Composition is in moles, mole fractions, or mole percent. The feed on Form Composition is in mass (e.g. kg), mass fractions, or mass percent.

When the Mass option is selected, WinProp converts all mass fractions to mole fractions using the component molecular weights. All outputs will contain the corresponding mole fractions and not the input mass fractions.

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User's Guide WinProp

Components

Component Selection and Definition

The equation of state requires the following properties for each component critical pressure (P c ), critical temperature (T c ), acentric factor (ω), and interaction coefficients between different components (δ ij ). The molecular weight is also required to calculate mass densities. Additional factors such as the volume shifts τ, and the parameters Ω a and Ω b can also be defined for each component to enhance the equation of state predictions. A complete description for all of the properties in the component table is given in the "Component properties" section of this chapter.

To select or edit components, double click on the row Component Selection/Properties of the data set structure form. This will bring up the Component Selection/Properties form.

You can select components from WinProp’s component library or define your own components as described below.

Library Components

To choose library components, select Options|Insert library components from the menu. The following form will be activated:

library components from the menu. The following form will be activated: User's Guide WinProp Components •

User's Guide WinProp

Components 35

Select components from the list by clicking on them with the left mouse button. Use the <Shift> and <Control> keys for multiple selections. Pure hydrocarbon components, light gases and water may be selected from the library, as well as generalized single carbon number (SCN) petroleum fractions FC6 through FC45. The specific gravities, molecular weights and boiling points of the SCN fractions are taken from Whitson (1983). The critical properties of these fractions are calculated with the Lee-Kesler correlations (Kesler and Lee, (1976)). The component molecular weights are shown in brackets for each component primarily to allow the user to select generalized SCN fractions to approximate a heavy end of known molecular weight. The order in which components are selected depends on the sequence of mouse clicks. Click on View selection order to view this order. The component order is important for lumping into pseudo-components, as only components that are adjacent to one another can be lumped together.

User Component with Known Properties

If you have a component with known critical properties, you can insert this component by choosing Options|Insert own component|Critical properties. This will activate the following form:

properties . This will activate the following form: The critical pressure, critical temperature, acentric factor

The critical pressure, critical temperature, acentric factor and molecular weight are required input. Values will be estimated for any of the OPTIONAL DATA parameter fields that are left blank. Critical compressibility is used only to calculate critical volume. Critical volume is used in the calculation of binary interaction parameters (see the section on “Interaction Coefficients” below). Specific gravity and boiling point temperature are used to estimate ideal gas enthalpy coefficients. Specific gravity is also used along with the critical properties to estimate Rackett’s compressibility factor, which is employed in calculating temperature dependent volume shifts.

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User's Guide WinProp

User Component with Known SG, T b and MW

For many heavy hydrocarbon fractions, the measured properties are specific gravity (SG), normal boiling point (T b ), and molecular weight (MW). These components can be defined by choosing Options|Insert own component|SG, TB and MW. The following form will be presented:

TB and MW. The following form will be presented: A minimum of two of the three

A minimum of two of the three properties must be entered. If one of the properties is not

entered, it will be estimated using the selected Physical Properties Correlation. Note that critical properties are calculated from specific gravity and normal boiling point; molecular

weight is used for determination of mass densities only. Thus if you enter SG and T b , the critical properties will be unaffected by the choice of Physical Properties Correlation. The stated ranges of accuracy for the correlations are as follows. Twu: T b up to 715 °C and SG up to 1.436 (Twu, 1984). Goossens: MW from 76 to 1685 (C120), Density from 0.63 to 1.08 g/cc and T b from 33 to 740 °C (Goossens, 1996). Riazi-Daubert: T b up to 455 °C and MW from 70 to 300 (Riazi and Daubert, 1980).

For petroleum fractions up to about C20, all three correlations give similar results. For heavier fractions, the Riazi-Daubert correlation shows larger errors than the other two. The Goossens correlation gives very good predictions of MW from the other properties for alkanes up to C120. It should be noted that the form of this correlation limits boiling points

to a maximum of 805 °C, regardless of the molecular weight and specific gravity.

Once the physical properties are known, the critical constants for the component are determined using the selected Critical Properties Correlation. The ranges of applicability

of the Twu and Riazi-Daubert correlations are as given above. The Lee-Kesler correlation

was developed for T b up to 650 °C, but is internally consistent for extrapolation above this temperature (Kesler and Lee, 1976).

For acentric factors, the Lee-Kesler correlation is recommended for petroleum fractions.

User's Guide WinProp

Components 37

Component Properties

After components have been selected or defined, their parameters and properties are shown on the form Component Selection/Properties. A typical example is illustrated below.

. A typical example is illustrated below. This form contains several tabs. The properties shown on

This form contains several tabs. The properties shown on Tab Component are listed in the table below. Additional explanation regarding some of the parameters is given in the notes following the table. Use of the temperature dependent volume shift feature is described under “Rackett’s compressibility factor” in the notes.

Heading

Parameter or property

Component HC P c (atm) T c (K)

Component name (maximum 8 characters) Hydrocarbon flag (=1 for hydrocarbons) Critical pressure in atm Critical temperature in K Acentric factor Molecular weight Volume translation (dimensionless)

Acentric fact.

Mol. weight

Vol. shift

Z

(Rackett)

Rackett’s compressibility factor

V

c (l/mol)

Critical volume in l/mol

V

c (viscosity)

Critical volume in l/mol for viscosity calculations

Omega A

Ω a EOS parameter

Omega B

Ω b EOS parameter

SG

Specific gravity (water = 1)

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User's Guide WinProp

T b (deg F | deg C) Parachor Ref. Henry (atm)

Normal boiling point in °F (field units) or °C (SI units) Parachor IFT parameter Reference Henry’s constant in atm

V

inf. (l/mol)

Molar volume at infinite dilution

P

ref. (atm)

Reference pressure for Henry’s constant in atm

Enth. Coeff. A Enth. Coeff. B Enth. Coeff. C Enth. Coeff. D Enth. Coeff. E Enth. Coeff. F Heating Value

Ideal gas enthalpy coefficient A (for units see note below) Ideal gas enthalpy coefficient B (for units see note below) Ideal gas enthalpy coefficient C (for units see note below) Ideal gas enthalpy coefficient D (for units see note below) Ideal gas enthalpy coefficient E (for units see note below) Ideal gas enthalpy coefficient F (for units see note below) Heating value (for units see note below)

Notes on Component Properties

Hydrocarbon (HC) Flag: Binary interaction parameters between components with HC flags set to 1 are calculated via a correlation as described in the section on “Interaction coefficients” below. The interaction parameters between all other pairs of components may be set individually. Thus, if you wish to set individual interaction parameters between one component and all others, change the value of the HC flag for that component to 0. Note that the HC flags for CO 2 and H 2 S have special values and should not be changed.

Volume Shift: The volume translation technique of Peneloux et al. (1982) is available for improving the prediction of phase density with the equation of state. Volume shift parameters are set to zero by default. The correlation of Jhaveri and Youngren (1988) can be applied to calculate volume shift parameters for all components by selecting VolumeShift|Reset to correlation values from the menu. To remove volume translation for all components select VolumeShift|Reset to zeros. Temperature dependent volume shifts can also be used by selecting the check box above the component table. The calculation of temperature dependent volume shifts is described next under “Rackett’s compressibility factor”. When printing component properties to the output file or for export to the GEM simulator, the most recently used volume shift values will be output.

Rackett’s Compressibility Factor (ZRA): Temperature dependent volume shifts are

implemented using a technique similar to that described by Kokal and Sayegh (1990). Component volume shifts are evaluated at any temperature by taking the difference between the saturated liquid molar volume of a pure component calculated from the equation of state and the saturated liquid molar volume calculated using a modified Rackett equation:

v

s

=

(RT

c

/ P

c

) Z

[1

RA

(1

+

T )

r

2 / 7

]

Rackett’s compressibility factors are available for all library components. For pseudo- components, Rackett’s compressibility factors are back calculated from the critical properties and specific gravity using the assumption that the specific gravity is approximately equal to the saturated liquid density at 60 °F.

Critical Volume: Critical volumes are used only in the calculation of hydrocarbon- hydrocarbon binary interaction parameters as described below under “Interaction coefficients”.

User's Guide WinProp

Components 39

Critical Volume for Viscosity: Critical volumes are used in the Jossi, Stiel and Thodos viscosity correlation (Reid et al., 1977) as described in this chapter under “Viscosity parameters.” These critical volume values are used only for the calculation of viscosity, and thus may be modified via regression to match experimental viscosity data without affecting the calculation of any other properties.

Omega A and Omega B: The default values for Ω a and Ω b for the Peng-Robinson equation of state are 0.45723553 and 0.077796074 respectively. For the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state, these values are 0.4274802 and 0.08664035 respectively.

Specific Gravity and Normal Boiling Point: Specific gravity is defined as the

liquid density of the component at 60 °F and 1 atm divided by the density of water at 60 °F and 1 atm. For components with normal boiling points below 60 °F, the liquid density is taken as the saturated liquid density at 60 °F.

If SG and T b have been used to calculate critical properties and acentric factors, changing SG and T b in the table will not affect the other properties. If you wish to recalculate the properties of a particular component with revised values for SG and T b , please delete that component from the table using Options|Delete component, and insert a new component with revised values for SG and T b , using Options|Insert own component|SG, TB and MW.

Parachor: The parachor value is used for calculating interfacial tension. Parachors are available for all of the library components. For pseudo-components and user components, parachors are estimated based on molecular weight using a correlation proposed by Firoozabadi et al. (1988).

Reference Henry’s Constant, Molar Volume at Infinite Dilution and

Reference Pressure: These properties are used in calculating the solubility of components in the aqueous phase. There are three methods available for specifying these parameters: (1) Entering nonzero values for these properties in the component table, (2) entering zero values in the component table to allow internal estimation of Henry’s constants, (3) entering zero values in the table, but overriding the internal Henry’s constants with user input values entered for individual flash calculations.

If nonzero values for the solubility parameters are entered in the component table, Henry’s constants are calculated from:

ln H

i

=

ln H

o

i

+ ν

i

(p

p

o

i

) / RT

where the superscript “o” refers to the reference condition. If experimental solubility data is to be matched using regression, this method for defining the solubility parameters must be used. Correlation values can be entered in the table by selecting Aqueous Solubility| Calculate component solubility parameters from the menu.

Methods 2) or 3) will be used if the solubility parameters are all set to zero. This can be done by selecting Aqueous Solubility|Reset solubility parameters to zero from the menu.

If the reference solubility parameters are set to zero in the component table, Henry’s constants will be estimated internally for all components for each Oil-Gas-Water flash.

Method 2) may be overridden by specifying component Henry’s constants for individual Oil- Gas-Water flash calculations.

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User's Guide WinProp

Ideal Gas Enthalpy Coefficients: The ideal enthalpy at a given temperature T is calculated from a polynomial expression that takes the following form:

H

ideal

= H

A

+ H

B

*T + H

C

*T

2

+ H

D

*T

3

+ H

E

*T

4

+ H

F

*T

5

where the temperature T is in °R. The ideal enthalpy coefficients H A through H F should be specified in units to give H ideal in Btu/lb.

Component Heating Values: The heating value of a component is the heat of combustion assuming the reaction goes to completion i.e. the reaction takes place with excess oxygen and the final products are carbon dioxide and water. In SI system the units are kcal/gmol and in Field units are Btu/gmol.

Approximate values have been assigned to the Library components. These values were taken from the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 65 th edition, CRC Press Inc, 1984, pages D275-D280 (see table below).

WinProp will write out the HEATING_VALUES keyword and the associated values to the .gem output file. This file can then be referenced by a GEM data file using an include statement or the contents of the .gem file can be copied and pasted at the appropriate location in the GEM data file.

Currently for pseudo components created by WinProp’s splitting and or lumping options, no method has been coded for estimating the heating value; accordingly for pseudo components values of zero are assigned. However heating values for pseudo components can be estimated based on the values assigned to the library components given the actual composition of the pseudo component is known. Once these values are estimated simply edit the values in the last column of WinProp’s component properties form and save the form. For example for pseudo component c 2 -c 3 assuming a split of 50% c 2 and 50% c 3 and using the built in values in WinProp the heating value is calculated by mole fraction averaging as: 0.5*1478.46+0.5*2105.16 = 1791.81 Btu/gmol. Values for other pseudo components such as c 4 -c 6 can be estimated in a similar manner. For the plus fraction such as C 10+ if the breakdown of the carbon number vs. mole fraction is known then mole fraction averaging can be applied. If the distribution is not known then assign the value corresponding to the presumed largest mole fraction carbon number, for example for C 10+ this might be C 12 . The heating value for the library component FC 12 of 7722.09 Btu/gmol would then be assigned to C 10+ .

GEM will calculate and report the heating value of all the well streams in the output file using the known composition of the stream by mole fraction averaging the entered component heating values supplied by the user.

Once the HEATING_VALUES keyword appears in a GEM data file a heating value for the separator gas stream for wells and groups will be calculated and be available for plotting with RESULTS.

The heating value assigned to the library components in WinProp are shown below.

For the carbon fraction FC 7 -FC 45 the heating value equals 1002.57 kcal/gmol + 157.44 kcal/gmol increment for every carbon number greater than 6. Same values are used for NC 6 and FC 6 and NC 7 and FC 7 etc. For pseudo components values of zero will be assigned, as at present there is no method implemented for estimating these values.

User's Guide WinProp

Components 41

Component Name

Heating Value (Btu/gmol)

H2S

0.0

N2

0.0

CO2

0.0

CH4 (or C1)

844.29

C2H6 (or C2)

1478.46

C3H8 (or C3)

2105.16

IC4

2711.54

NC4

2711.54

IC5

3353.66

NC5

3353.66

FC6

3975.91

FC7

4600.28

FC8

5224.64

FC9

5849.00

FC10

6473.36

FC11

7097.73

FC12

7722.09

FC13

8346.45

FC14

8970.82

FC15

9595.18

FC16

10219.54

FC17

10843.91

FC18

11468.22

FC19

12092.63

FC20

12717.00

FC21

13341.36

FC22

13965.72

FC23

14590.08

FC24

15214.45

FC25

15838.81

FC26

16463.17

FC27

17087.54