IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 54, NO. 2, APRIL 2007
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ZeroSteadyStateError InputCurrent Controller for Regenerative Multilevel Converters Based on SinglePhase Cells
Pablo Lezana, Member, IEEE, César A. Silva, Member, IEEE, José Rodríguez, Senior Member, IEEE, and Marcelo A. Pérez, Member, IEEE
Abstract—Multicell converters are one of the alternative topolo gies for mediumvoltage industrial drives. For an application requiring regenerative capability, each power cell must be con structed with a three or singlephase pulsewidthmodulation (PWM) rectiﬁer as front end. The choice of singlephase PWM rectiﬁers for the input of the cells results in a reduced number of power switches and a simpler input transformer than the three phase equivalent. However, its control is not as straightforward. This paper proposes the use of higher order resonant controllers in the classical control structure of the singlephase PWM rectiﬁer. This ensures zero steadystate tracking error of the reference cur rent at fundamental frequency. A detailed description of the design criteria for the position of the zeros and poles of the controller is given. Experimental results showing the good performance of the singlephase input cells and its proposed control are included.
pulsewidthmodulation
(PWM) rectiﬁers, resonant controller.
Index
Terms—Multilevel
converter,
I. INTRODUCTION
T HE use of mediumvoltage variablespeed drives based on voltagesource converters has become increasingly wide
spread in the last ten years. A wealth of multilevel topologies has been developed to achieve the mediumvoltage range using available semiconductors [principally, the insulatedgate bipo lar transistor (IGBT)] [1]. These topologies also allow for lower distortion of the output ac voltage of the converter. One of the alternatives of multilevel topologies is known as a multicell converter [2] and is based on the series connection of several singlephase inverters per output phase. The classical multicell converter [2], using diodes to obtain a dclink voltage of each output inverter, is not able to regenerate power from the load. To achieve regeneration, the use of three and singlephase pulsewidthmodulation (PWM) rectiﬁers has been proposed [3], [4]. These PWM rectiﬁers produce good
Manuscript received January 21, 2006; revised December 18, 2006. Abstract published on the Internet January 14, 2007. This work was supported in part by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, in part by the Chilean Research Council (Conicyt) under Grant Fondecyt 1050357, in part by the Millennium Nucleus on Industrial Electronics and Mechatronics P04048F (MIDEPLAN), and in part by the postgraduate support program of the Fundación Andes under Grant C14055. The authors are with the Departamento de Electrónica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, 2390123 Valparaíso, Chile (email: pablo.lezana@ usm.cl; cesar.silva@usm.cl; jrp@elo.utfsm.cl; marcelo.perez@usm.cl). Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TIE.2007.891994
quality inputcurrent waveforms in addition to their regenera tive capability; this allows operation at high power factor (very near unity). The use of the threephase PWM rectiﬁer as the front end of the cells has some operational advantages but requires more semiconductors, sensors, and a more complex input transformer than the singlephase alternative. Another important difference between the three and single phase frontend alternatives is the way in which the current con trol is implemented. In threephase PWM rectiﬁers, the current control is normally performed in a synchronous rotating frame, converting measured ac currents into dc values. This allows the use of conventional proportional–integral (PI) controllers for the current control, achieving zero stationary error [5]. This technique is not directly applicable in singlephase systems, resulting in steadystate reference tracking error if PI current controllers are used. This tracking error affects the current amplitude and phase, deteriorating the power factor. The use of resonant controllers in stationary frames have been proposed for the control of ac currents with zero steady state tracking error [6]–[8]. In [6], a proportional + pure resonant element is proposed for current control of three and singlephase PWM rectiﬁers. In [7], the derivation of a resonant controller through the frequency transformation of a standard PI controller is proposed for current control of inverters. Both techniques result in inﬁnite controller gain at the resonant fre quency, hence achieving zero steadystate current tracking error at this frequency without coordinate rotations. Nevertheless, in both cases, the proposed resonant controllers are somehow derived from PI structures, resulting in restrictions on the zero locations, and fail to take full advantage of the design ﬂexibility of resonant biproper controllers. This paper proposes new controller designs for the single phase voltage PWM rectiﬁers of a multicell inverter for the classical cascade control structure. These controller designs consist of a resonant biproper controller for the inner current loop with unrestricted zero locations and an external voltage loop closed with a modiﬁed PI. The voltage controller includes the dclink voltage ﬁlter to give a clean sinusoidal reference for the inner current loop. This conﬁguration ensures a good quality inputcurrent waveform and, hence, highpowerfactor operation. A detailed discussion of the controller design criteria and experimental results that shows their good performance is presented.
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Fig. 1.
Multicell converter.
II. MULTICELL CONVERTER
The multicell converter is based on the series connection of the output of multiple cells. Each cell is composed of an inverter Hbridge fed by an isolated dc supply, as shown in Fig. 1. With this conﬁguration, the perphase output voltage of the converter is
v xN =
k
y =1
v _{x}_{y} ,
x = a, b, c
(1)
where v _{a}_{y} is the output voltage of the yth cell connected to phase a. The classical multicell converter [2] uses a diode bridge rectiﬁer as the front end of each cell [Fig. 2(a)]. By using a complex shifted input transformer, this conﬁguration achieves cancellation of the lower frequency inputcurrent harmonics. For an application that requires regeneration, PWM rectiﬁers must be used to feed the dclink of each cell. This additionally improves the quality of the waveforms of the input current, allowing operation at a high power factor (very near unity). There are two main alternatives for the implementation of the cell PWM rectiﬁers, namely, three or singlephase rectiﬁers, as proposed in [3] and [4], respectively. Both alternatives are shown in Fig. 2(b) and (c). The threephase front end has some operational advantages:
First, it allows the implementation of the current control in a synchronous (d−q ) frame, achieving zero steadystate current tracking error with simple PI controllers [5]. Second, when op erating with a sinusoidal input current, it draws constant power from the mains, producing low voltage ripple in the dc link. On the other hand, the singlephase front end has advantageous constructive characteristics: It requires less power semicon ductors, less current sensors, and a simpler input transformer. This makes it an attractive alternative for regenerative multicell converters where the savings in part count are multiplied by the number of cells of the converter. For these reasons, this is the topology considered in this paper. As shown in Fig. 3, the singlephase PWM voltagesource rectiﬁer uses four controlled switches in bridge connection in order to produce a controlled dclink voltage v _{D}_{C} in capacitor C, by means of controlling sinusoidal input current i _{s} in inductor L _{s} . This is achieved
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 54, NO. 2, APRIL 2007
because the input current can be freely handled by proper con
_{4} , for any condition of v _{s} , provided
that v _{D}_{C} > vˆ _{s} [9]. This allows any combination of active and reactive power at the input side, even regenerative operation. The simple construction and the smaller part count of the multicell converter built with singlephase PWM rectiﬁers come at the cost of losing the previously mentioned operational advantages of the threephase implementation. In other words, the synchronous rotating frame cannot be directly used, and the rectiﬁers draw pulsating power from the mains, resulting in a dclink voltage ripple at 2f _{s} . In the following section, a solution to the aforementioned difﬁculties based on the use of resonant controllers is presented.
trol of switches S _{1} ,
,S
_{I}_{I}_{I}_{.} _{P}_{R}_{O}_{P}_{O}_{S}_{E}_{D} CONTROLLER DESIGN
A. Cascade Control Scheme
The typical cascade control scheme for the singlephase active rectiﬁer is shown in Fig. 4. A slow voltage control loop is used to keep the dclink voltage constant at a value v _{D}_{C}
above vˆ _{s} . The output of the voltage controller C _{v} is the value
ˆ
of the dc current i _{s} required by the dclink capacitor to keep
its voltage at reference value v _{D}_{C} . To obtain the reference
for
typically a sinusoid of the same frequency and phase as v _{s} . A fast control loop is used for the input current (C _{i} ), obtaining the commanded value for v _{A}_{F}_{E} . This commanded voltage is converted into drive pulses for S _{1} −S _{4} by a PWM modulator. If the input current is successfully controlled to a sinusoidal waveform that is in phase with the input voltage, the input power drawn by the cell is
i _{s} is multiplied by the desired waveform, which is
∗
ˆ
i _{s} ,
P _{i}_{n} (t ) = i _{s} sin(ω _{s} t ) × v _{s} sin(ω _{s} t )
=
i _{s} × v
s
2
[1 − cos(2 ω _{s} t )] .
(2)
From (2), it is noted that the input power has a pulsating
component 2f _{s} . This results in a dclink voltage ripple at this
frequency. If this ripple is fed back into the control system, will also have a harmonic component at 2f _{s} . This results in
i _{s} ^{∗} having harmonics at f _{s} and 3f _{s} due to the multiplication
ˆ
i
s
ˆ
of i _{s} by sin(2πf _{s} t ). To avoid this harmonic distortion in the
inputcurrent reference (and, hence, in the actual value of the input current), a power ﬁlter in the dc link, a dclink voltage measurement ﬁlter, or a low cutoff frequency for the voltage control loop must be used. For highpowerfactor operation, a resonant controller is used as C _{i} in the control scheme of Fig. 4. Additionally, a modiﬁed PI controller for C _{v} , with additional ﬁltering capability, is proposed to avoid the detrimental inﬂuence of the 2f _{s} voltage harmonic in the current reference.
B. Resonant Current Controller
The tuning of this controller is made considering the circuit shown in Fig. 5 as the plant. Then, the plant transfer function is
i _{s} (s) =
^{1}
L _{s} s + R _{s}
(v _{s} (s) − v _{A}_{F}_{E} (s)) .
(3)
LEZANA et al.: ZEROSTEADYSTATEERROR INPUTCURRENT CONTROLLER FOR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS
735
Fig. 2.
Cells for multicell converter: (a) nonregenerative cell and regenerative cell with (b) threephase PWM rectiﬁer and (c) singlephase PWM rectiﬁer.
Fig. 3.
Singlephase PWM rectiﬁer in bridge connection.
In this system, the mains voltage v _{s} appear as a disturbance in the control loop, while the actuation variable is the input voltage of the cell v _{A}_{F}_{E} . As discussed in Section IIIA, the reference for the current control loop i _{s} ^{∗} is sinusoidal with frequency f _{s} . For perfect reference tracking at this frequency, the controller must have inﬁnite gain at f _{s} , meaning that the controller transfer function must have two resonant poles at ±jω _{s} , where ω _{s} = 2πf _{s} . These poles are equivalent to the pole in s = 0 on PI controllers for tracking of a continuous reference. In addition, in order to get a fast response, the controller must have a proportional gain, i.e., the controller transfer function must be biproper. Therefore, the generalized secondorder resonant controller has the following structure:
C _{i} (s) = K _{p}
s ^{2} + as + b
s ^{2} + ω
2
s
(4)
where a, b, and K _{p} are the controller parameters to be designed. One approach [6], [7] is to design a standard PI controller (5)
for the plant (3) and use a transformation to obtain the resonant controller, i.e.,
PI _{i} = K _{p} + ^{K} ^{i} .
s
In [6], the transformation used is
leading to
1 s ^{}
ω s
s ^{2} + ω
2
s
C _{i} (s) = K _{p}
s ^{2} + ω
2
s
1 +
p
K
K
i
s ^{2} + ω
2
s
(5) 

(6) 

. 
(7) 
This forces the openloop zeros of the controller to be placed on the imaginary axis of s plane, as shown in Fig. 6(a), leading to a poor phase margin of the closedloop system. Better results are obtained in [7] using the transformation
1 _{}
s
2s
s ^{2} + ω
2
s
.
(8)
The controller obtained with this transformation is
C _{i} (s) = K _{p}
K
s ^{2} + 2 _{p} s + ω s ^{2} + ω
i
K
2
s
2
s
.
(9)
Although, the response of the closed loop using (9) is im proved, with respect to that obtained using (7), this technique also restricts the location of the openloop zeros, as shown in Fig. 6(b). This is a consequence of using the two degrees of freedom of a PI (K _{p} and K _{i} ) to adjust the three degrees of freedom of the resonant structure of (4). The unrestricted allocation of the zeros of the resonant con troller is proposed in this paper, making full use of the degrees of freedom of (4) to obtain good closedloop performance, i.e., high closeloop bandwidth and good phase margin. The design of the controller is made directly in z plane in order to obtain an expression that can be implemented directly in a digital signal
processor (DSP), so (4) is transformed in
C _{i} (z ) = K _{p}
z ^{2} + 2a _{i} z + b _{i}
z ^{2} − 2 cos( ω _{s} h )z _{+} _{1}
(10)
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Fig. 6.
Location of openloop controller zeros (a) according to transformation (6) and (b) according to transformation (8).
Fig. 7.
Root locus of the current controller.
Fig. 8.
Closedloop Bode diagram.
where h is the sample period and ω _{s} is the desired resonant frequency. The values of the currentcontroller gain K _{p} and the zero locations (determined by constants a _{i} and b _{i} ) are obtained through rootlocus analysis, as shown in Fig. 7. In addition, it can be noted that a pure delay has been included, in order to model the sample processing time required by the DSP. As expected, due to the resonance, the closedloop Bode diagram presents perfect reference tracking at f _{s} = 50 Hz, as shown in Fig. 8. The controller resonance also completely eliminates the effect of the input disturbance produced by the fundamental mains voltage v _{s} . This can be seen on the input
disturbance Bode diagram of Fig. 9, which exhibits very high attenuation at frequency f _{s} . For this reason, there is no need for a feedforward term to cancel v _{s} in the control loop.
C. Voltage Controller
Due to the fact that the dclink voltage reference v _{D}_{C} is con stant regardless of the currentcontrol method, the PI controller is the obvious choice for the voltage control loop. The tuning of this controller can be done assuming fast response of the inner current loop. In this way, plant G _{v} can be considered as a pure capacitor C in parallel with two current sources, as shown in Fig. 10. The current value i _{D}_{C} is determined by the input current of the cell and corresponds to the actuation variable. On the other hand, the current source i _{o} is determined by the con trolled output current of the inverter Hbridge (output section of the cell); therefore, it acts as an independent disturbance. Thus, the transfer function of the plant is
∗
1
v _{D}_{C} (s) = _{C}_{s} (i _{D}_{C} − i _{o} )(s).
(11)
In Section IIIA, the limit on the bandwidth of the voltage loop or the ﬁltering of the dclink measured voltage has been established as a way to avoid the undesired effects of the dclink pulsating voltage, i.e., harmonic distortion and fundamental
LEZANA et al.: ZEROSTEADYSTATEERROR INPUTCURRENT CONTROLLER FOR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS
737
Fig. 11.
Root locus of the voltage controller.
Fig. 12.
Closedloop Bode diagram.
phase shift on the input current of the cell. In this section, the use of a controller that includes the ﬁlter characteristic in its structure is proposed. Although this technique is similar to the conventional use of an independent ﬁlter in the voltage measurement, the inclusion of the ﬁlter poles and zeros as part of the controller structure increases the design ﬂexibility, allowing to obtain better performance of the control loop. The ﬁnal controller structure is
C _{v} (z ) = K _{v}
z − a _{v} z ^{2} − 2η cos(2 ω _{s} h )z + η ^{2}
z − 1
z ^{2} + b _{v} z + c _{v}
(12)
where K _{v} and a _{v} are the gain and the zero location of the PI controller, respectively. 2ω _{s} is the central frequency of the bandstop ﬁlter, b _{v} and c _{v} determine the location of the ﬁlter poles, and η 1 is a coefﬁcient used to limit the Qfactor of the ﬁlter. The design of the PIcontroller + ﬁlter is illustrated in the zdomain rootlocus diagram of Fig. 11. The zeros of the ﬁlter, which are placed near the unit circle to reject the 2f _{s} frequency, are clearly identiﬁable. The complex poles are placed near the ﬁlter zeros in order to obtain a narrowenough ﬁlter response. Finally, the PI zero and gain are chosen with no further con sideration than to obtain a sufﬁciently large bandwidth and adequate damping factor. As shown in Fig. 12, the closedloop Bode diagram presents perfect tracking at dc and a bandwidth of just below 100 Hz. In
Fig. 13.
Antiwindup structure.
addition, Fig. 12 shows an important attenuation at 2f _{s} ; this is caused by the ﬁlter zeros of the controller at this frequency. As
ˆ
a result, the actuation i _{s} will be ﬁltered, avoiding the undesired
harmonic distortion on the inputcurrent reference i ^{∗} s .
D. Antiwindup Scheme
As in any real plant, the actuation v _{A}_{F}_{E} and i _{s} are limited and can saturate, producing windup of the controllers. Solutions for this problem are well known for PI controllers. Nevertheless, for the more complex control structures presented in this paper, the classical PI antiwindup techniques cannot be used. An antiwindup technique for any minimumphase biproper controller, as control rules (12) and (10), is described in [10] and will be used for their implementation. The block dia gram of Fig. 13 shows the implementation of this antiwindup scheme, where C (z ) is a minimumphase biproper controller and c _{∞} = C (z ) _{∞} is its dc gain. If u _{m}_{i}_{n} < u˜ (t ) < u _{m}_{a}_{x} , the saturation is not active, so the transfer function for the scheme is
ˆ
U (z )
E (z ) ^{=}
=
=
c ∞
1 + c _{∞} [ C ^{−} ^{1} (z ) − c
^{c}
^{∞}
1
−
∞
]
1 + c _{∞} C ^{−} ^{1} (z ) − 1
C (z ).
(13)
Otherwise, when saturation occurs, the states of the con troller are always driven by its real output, achieving protection against windup.
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
To verify correct operation of the proposed control scheme and to contrast its performance against that of more classical control structures, a single cell has been simulated using the software PSIM. The control scheme corresponds to that shown in Fig. 4 and has been discussed in extenso in Section IIIA. The circuit parameters are those of the experimental prototype described in the following section and are summarized in Table I. The value of the cell’s singlephase input voltage used for the simulation is 50 V peak. For comparison purposes, two variations on this control structure were simulated: The ﬁrst one consists of standard PI controllers for dclink voltage and input current. The second alternative is the resonant structure pro posed in this paper. In this case, a controller with resonant poles at the mains frequency is used in the inner currentcontrol loop, and a PIcontroller + ﬁlter is used for the voltage loop. The current resonant controller is tuned with the same direct gain K _{p} as the standard current PI and its zeros are located to achieve the same closedloop bandwidth of 300 Hz, as shown in Fig. 14. The 0dB gain and the 0 ^{◦} phase shift of the resonant controller at the mains frequency is an improvement with respect to the
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TABLE
I
PARAMETERS OF THE POWER CIRCUIT
Fig. 14.
alternative controllers, namely, standard PI and resonant controller.
Closedloop Bode diagram of the simulated current loop using both
ampliﬁcation (0.59 dB) and lagging phase shift (5 ^{◦} ) introduced by the standard PI. Additionally, for voltage control, the same PI tuned for a closedloop bandwidth of 80 Hz was used for both alternative implementations, although a second order bandstop ﬁlter was included for the resonant structure voltage PI. The time response of both alternative controllers, under the same dclink voltage reference and load, is shown in Fig. 15. For the control structure using only standard PI, the current reference is not perfectly sinusoidal and contains some small harmonic distortion, as shown in Fig. 15(a). Additionally, this distorted reference is tracked with the phase lag and a small ampliﬁcation as expected from the closedloop Bode plot of Fig. 14. On the other hand, the use of the ﬁlter in the dclink voltage controller avoids the distortion on the current reference, as shown in Fig. 15(b). Furthermore, the resonant current controller follows this reference without any tracking error, obtaining the desired highpowerfactor operation shown in this ﬁgure. The effect of the 2f _{s} ripple on the dclink voltage in both schemes is better appreciated in the spectral analysis of the steadystate response shown as the percentage of respective fundamental reference current in Fig. 16. In the case of the standard PI, the current reference has a clear thirdharmonic component, which is expected from the partial compensation of this dclink voltage variation. This reference is followed by the currentcontrol loop, causing a 3% third harmonic in the actual input current [Fig. 16(b)]. In the case of the resonant
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 54, NO. 2, APRIL 2007
Fig. 15. Simulated steadystate response of both control structures:
(a) standard PI and (b) resonant controller.
Fig. 16. Spectral analysis of the simulated response of the (a) standard PI reference current, (b) standard PI actual current, (c) resonant controller reference current, and (d) resonant controller actual current.
solution, the ﬁlter in the voltage prevents the voltage controller to react to the 2f _{s} dclink voltage component, producing a purely sinusoidal current reference and the actual cell input current, as shown in Fig. 16(c) and (d), respectively.
V. EXPERIMENTAL _{R}_{E}_{S}_{U}_{L}_{T}_{S}
The proposed control scheme was implemented on a ﬁxed point TMS320F2812 DSP and tested on a laboratory proto type. The schematic diagram of the power circuit is shown in Fig. 17 and corresponds to a sevenlevel singlephase output multicell converter. The hardware implementation of the de scribed converter is shown in Fig. 18. Each board shown in this ﬁgure is built around a PM20CSJ060 Mitsubishi power module. We use 20A/600V rated threephase IGBT bridges, out of
LEZANA et al.: ZEROSTEADYSTATEERROR INPUTCURRENT CONTROLLER FOR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS
739
Fig. 17.
Singlephase output prototype multicell converter.
Fig. 18. 
Hardware implementation of the sevenlevel singlephase multicell 
converter. 
which only two output phases are used to form the converter Hbridges. Each board also includes dclink capacitors, gate drive circuits, and current and voltage measurements. The boards are connected back to back in pairs to build a single cell, and the three cells are series connected to form the converter. The transformers at the bottom of Fig. 18 are multiple output transformers used for isolated power supplies for the gate drives and measurement circuits on each board. This converter is connected to the network through a Yy0 380/140V 2.1kVA threephase transformer. The singlephase secondary windings are connected independently to each cell, and the input voltage is adjusted by a variable autotransformer to obtain approxi mately 55 V peak at the cells’ input. The main parameters of the power circuit, including the equivalent impedance seen at the connection point of cells R _{s} and L _{s} , are listed in Table I. Finally, the PWM frequency for both the rectiﬁer and the inverter Hbridge of each cell was set at 4 kHz with a dead time of 2 µs. The steadystate operation of the multicell converter is shown in Fig. 19. The characteristic sevenlevel output voltage and the resulting sinusoidal load current are shown in Fig. 19(b). The steadystate input current of the cell is shown in Fig. 19(c). The good phase relation between this current and the input voltage is clear from this ﬁgure, while the current waveform is highly sinusoidal, leading to a highpowerfactor operation. Fi nally, the stationary response of the dclink voltage [Fig. 19(a)] shows a signiﬁcant spurious 2f _{s} component; nevertheless, this
Fig. 19.
Steadystate operation of the multicell converter.
Fig. 20.
current and voltage.
Transient from loading to regeneration. (a) DClink voltage. (b) Input
is expected due to the ﬁltering characteristic of the voltage controller that avoids reacting to this component. Furthermore, due to this ﬁltering characteristic, the voltage distortion has no effect in the phase and harmonic content of i _{s}_{u} , achieving the highpowerfactor operation of Fig. 19(c). The response to a large load impact, such that the rectiﬁer goes from consuming power from the mains to regenerating, is presented in Fig. 20. During operation in rectiﬁcation mode, an almost sinusoidal current waveform in phase with the mains voltage can be observed. When the load impact is applied, the dclink voltage, as shown in Fig. 20(a), responds with a short
740
transient, after which it continues regulating at its reference value. This is achieved by an inversion of the inputcurrent reference, which is followed by the current loop without phase error [Fig. 20(b)]. This result shows the inherent regenerative characteristic of the converter, the fast response of the proposed voltage control, and the highpowerfactor operation obtained with the resonant current controllers for both loading and regenerative operation.
VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper, a multicell converter built by the connection of regenerative cells with singlephase PWM rectiﬁers has been made to work with very high power factor. This improved power factor is achieved by the use of higher order controllers, i.e., a biproper resonant current controller and a modiﬁed PI for the outer voltage loop. This means that the problems normally associated with the use of singlephase PWM rectiﬁers have been solved purely by careful control design and without any hardware changes. The structure of the proposed controllers have been theoretically justiﬁed. The design criteria for the high number of controller parameters have been given based on rootlocus analysis using computational aided tools. However, it would be possible to determinate them through recursive methods as genetics algorithms. The proposed control strategy, including antiwindup, has been programmed in a ﬁxedpoint DSP and tested experi mentally, demonstrating the feasibility of such controllers in practical implementations.
REFERENCES
[1] J. Rodríguez, J. S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, “Multilevel inverters: A survey of topologies, controls, and applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 49, pp. 724–738, Aug. 2002. [2] P. W. Hammond, “A new approach to enhance power quality for medium voltage drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 202–208, Jan./Feb. 1997. [3] J. Espinoza, M. Pérez, J. Rodríguez, and P. Lezana, “Regenerative
mediumvoltage AC drive based on a multicell arrangement with min imum energy storage requirements,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 171–180, Feb. 2005. [4] J. Rodríguez, L. Morán, J. Pontt, J. L. Hernández, L. Silva, C. Silva, and P. Lezana, “Highvoltage multilevel converter with regeneration capabil ity,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 839–846, Aug. 2002.
[5]
voltageregulated PWM rectiﬁer in rotating and stationary frames,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 396–401, Aug. 1995. [6] Y. Sato, T. Ishizuka, K. Nezu, and T. Kataoka, “A new control strategy for voltagetype PWM rectiﬁers to realize zero steadystate control error in input current,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 480–486, May/Jun. 1998. [7] D. N. Zmood and D. G. Holmes, “Stationary frame current regulation of PWM inverters with zero steadystate error,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 814–822, May 2003. [8] X. Yuan, W. Merk, and J. Allmeling, “Stationaryframe generalized integrators for current control of active power ﬁlters with zero steadystate error for current harmonics of concern under unbalanced and distorted operating conditions,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 523– 532, Mar./Apr. 2002. [9] J. Rodríguez, P. Lezana, J. Espinoza, M. Pérez, and J. Pontt, “Input current harmonics in a regenerative multicell inverter with single phase
N. Zargari and G. Joóz, “Performance investigation of a currentcontrolled
active rectiﬁers,” in Proc. IEEE IECON, Seville, España, Nov. 5–8, 2002, pp. 932–937. [10] G. Goodwing, S. Graebe, and M. Salgado, Control System Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 2000.
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Pablo Lezana (S’06–M’07) was born in Temuco, Chile, in 1977. He received the M.Sc. and Doc tor degrees from the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Valparaíso, Chile, in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Since 2006, he has been an Assistant Researcher in the Departamento de Electrónica, UTFSM. His research interests include power converters and mod ern digital control devices (DSPs and FPGAs).
César A. Silva (S’01–M’02) was born in Temuco, Chile, in 1972. He received the Civil Electronic En gineer degree from the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile, in 1998, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K., in 2003. He presented his doc toral thesis on “Sensorless Vector Control of Sur face Mounted Permanent Magnet Machines Without Restriction of Zero Frequency.” Since 2003, he has been a Lecturer in the De partment of Electronic Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, where he teaches courses on electric machines, power electronics, and ac machine dives. His research interests include sensor less vector control of ac machines and control of static converters. Dr. Silva was granted the Overseas Research Students Awards Scheme to join the Power Electronics Machines and Control Group at the University of Nottingham, as a Postgraduate Research Student, in 1999.
José Rodríguez (M’81–S’83–SM’94) received the Engineer degree from the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile, in 1977, and the Dr.Ing. degree from the University of Erlangen, Nuremberg, Germany, in 1985, both in electrical engineering. Since 1977, he has been with the Departamento de Electrónica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, where he is currently a Professor and the President. During his sabbatical leave in 1996, he was responsible for the Mining Division, Siemens Corporation, Providencia, Chile. He has extensive consulting experience in the mining industry, especially in the application of large drives such as cycloconverterfed synchronous motors for SAG mills, highpower conveyors, controlled drives for shovels, and power quality issues. He has authored or coauthored more than 130 refereed journal and conference papers and contributed to one chapter in the Power Electronics Handbook (Academic, 2006). His research interests include power electronics and electrical drives. In past years, his research interests have included multilevel inverters and new converter topologies.
Marcelo A. Pérez (M’07) was born in Concepción, Chile, in 1976. He received the Engineer degree in electronic engineering, the M.Sc. degree in elec trical engineering, and the D.Sc. degree in electri cal engineering from the University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile, in 2000, 2003, and 2006, respectively. He is currently a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Departamento de Electrónica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile, conducting research in the area of power converters.
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