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Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree


Under the guidance of

(Assistant Professor)


Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology

Bachupally, Hyderabad-500090

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

This is to certify that the major project entitled AUTOMATIC SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM USING PLC & V/F DRIVE done by


(09241A0258) (09241A0281) (09241A0299) (09241A02A0)

Of Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering , is a record of bonafide work carried out by them. This major project is done as a partial fulfillment of obtaining Bachelor of Technology Degree to be awarded by Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyde rabad. The matter embodied in this project report has not been submitted to any other university for the award of any other degree.

Prof. P. M. Sarma (HOD, EEE) GRIET, Hyderabad.

Mrs.V.V.S.Madhuri (Assistant Professor) (PROJECT GUIDE)

Signature of the Examiner

This is to place on record our appreciation and deep gratitude to the persons without whose support this project would never seen the light of day.

We wish to express my propound sense of gratitude to Mr. P. S. Raju, Director, G.R.I.E.T for his guidance, encouragement, and for all facilities to complete this project.

We also express my sincere thanks to Mr. P. M. Sarma, Head of the Department, Department of Electrical Engineering,G.R.I.E.T for extending his help.

We have immense pleasure in expressing my thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my guide Mrs.V.V.S.Madhuri Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, G.R.I.E.T for her guidance throughout this project.

We express my gratitude to Mr. E. Venkateshwarlu, Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Coordinator, G.R.I.E.T for his valuable recommendations and for accepting this project report.

We are also thankful to Mr. M. Chakravarthi, Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, G.R.I.E.T who helped us a large with his excellent guidance.

Finally we express my sincere gratitude to all the members of faculty and my friends who contributed their valuable advice and helped to complete the project successfully.


(09241A0258) (09241A0281) (09241A0299) (09241A02A0)

The solar tracker is used to orient various payloads toward the sun in order to trap the energy to the maximum extent. Payloads can be photovoltaic cells, reflectors, lenses or other optical devices. This tracker circuit finds the sun at dawn, follows the sun during the day, and resets for the next day. Here the payload is a Solar Photo Voltaic Panel. Sunlight has two components, the "direct beam" that carries about 90% of the solar energy, and the "diffuse sunlight" that carries the remainder .The diffuse portion is the blue sky on a clear day. As the majority of the energy is in the direct beam, maximizing collection requires the sunlight to fall straight onto the panels as long as possible. This is where the tracker comes. The tracker is basically a mechanical device consisting of an induction motor and moves according to the command from the controller in response to the suns direction. The controller used is Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Speed and direction of the motor is controlled by the V/f Drive. The tacking is done by programmed Time-Delayed movement of the panel throughout the day. The delay is set in the PLC and the step-by-step movement is achieved by proximity sensor which senses the teeth of a Cog wheel there by providing the feedback to the PLC. The output of the panel which is DC Voltage is measured with multi meter.

CONTENTS Chapter number

1 2 Introduction Description 2.1 Hardware setup 2.2 Procedure 2.3 Delay calculation 2.4 PLC logic program Solar Photo Voltaic Panel 3.1 Information 3.2. Theory and Construction 3.2.1. Overview 3.2.2 structure of solar cell 3.3 Efficiency 3.4. Working 3.4.1. Converting Photons to Electrons Three-Phase Induction Motor 4.1. Star connection 4.2. Delta Connection 4.3. Reversing a Three-Phase Induction Motor 4.4. Methods of Starting Three-phase Induction Motors 4.4.1. Direct-On-Line Starting (D.O.L.) 4.5. Speed Control Methods 4.5.1. Changing Applied Voltage 4.5.2. Changing applied frequency 4.5.3. Changing the number of stator poles 4.5.4. Changing the rotor resistance Programmable Logic Controller 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Types of PLC 5.2.1 XD 26 PLC 5.2.2 CD 12 PLC 5.2.3 CB 12 PLC 5.2.4 CD 20 PLC 5.2.5 CB 20 PLC 5.3 Thrifty series AC to DC converter 5.4 Advantages of PLC


Page number
1 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 21 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 27 28 28

Software Development 6.1 Information 6.2 Ladder Language 6.3 Function Block Diagram Language (FBD) 6.4 Operating Modes 6.5 FBD Program in Edit Window 6.5.1 a) Edit Window in Program View 6.5.1 b) Edit Window in Settings View 6.5.2 Supervision Window 6.6 Discrete-Type Inputs 6.7 Discrete-Type Outputs Variable-Frequency Drive 7.1. Introduction 7.2. System Description and Operation 7.2.1. Operator interface 7.2.2. Drive operation 7.3. Emerson Commander SK AC Drive Miscellaneous components 8.1 Proximity Sensor 8.2Relay Module Result Conclusion & Future Scope References Appendices DATA SHEET OF XD 26 PLC

29 29 29 30 30 31 31 33 33 34 35 36 36 36 37 37 39 42 42 43 44 45 46 47

9 10

List of Figures:
Fig: 2.1. Power and Logic Circuit------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Fig: 2.2. Flow Chart --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 Fig: 2.3. PLC Logic --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Fig: 3.1. Solar Panel --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 Fig: 3.2. Inner view of solar pane ------------------------------------------------------------- l8 Fig: 3.3. Structure of Solar panel-------------------------------------------------------------- 10 Fig: 4.1. Terminal block arrangement for a motor connected in star ------------------------- 13 Fig: 4.2. The schematic diagram and the star graphical symbol ------------------------------ 14 Fig: 4.3. The terminal block arrangement for a motor connected in delta -------------------- 14 Fig: 4.4. The schematic diagram and the delta graphical symbol----------------------------- 15 Fig: 4.5. Cut-away View of a Three-Phase Induction Motor --------------------------------- 15 Fig: 4.6. Connections for Clockwise Rotation ------------------------------------------------ 16 Fig: 4.7. Connections for Anti Clockwise Rotation------------------------------------------- 16 Fig: 4.8. Starting Torque vs Speed characteristics -------------------------------------------- 20 Fig: 4.9. The torque speed characteristics for different rotor resistances -------------------- 22 Fig: 5.1 PLC ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23 Fig: 5.2.1 XD 26 PLC ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 Fig: 5.2.2 CD 12 PLC ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 Fig: 5.2.3 CB 12 PLC ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26 Fig: 5.2.4 CD 20 PLC ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26 Fig: 5.2.5 CB 20 PLC ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 Fig: 5.3.Thrifty series converter--------------------------------------------------------------- 28 Fig: 6.1 Ladder Network ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 29 Fig: 6.2 Function Block Diagram ------------------------------------------------------------- 30 Fig: 6.5.1 Edit Window in FBD Language---------------------------------------------------- 32 Fig: 6.6 Discrete-Type Inputs ----------------------------------------------------------------- 34 Fig: 6.7 Discrete-Type Outputs --------------------------------------------------------------- 35 Fig: 7.1. Power Conversion ------------------------------------------------------------------- 36 Fig: 7.2. Quadrant Operation ------------------------------------------------------------------ 37 Fig: 7.3. Emerson Commander SK AC Drive ------------------------------------------------ 40 Fig: 7.4. Voltage Preset Mode ---------------------------------------------------------------- 41 Fig: 8.1. Proximity sensor --------------------------------------------------------------------- 43 Fig: 8.2. Relay module ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 44 Fig: 9.1. Automatic Solar Tracking System -------------------------------------------------- 45

The Automatic Solar Tracking system is used to track the Sun automatically with the incorporation of the PLC and VFD. The tracker works on the principle of the movement of the Sun along the horizon from east to west which takes twelve hours. The panel is made to track the sun by programming of PLC. The VFD controls the motors direction of rotation as well as the speed. The panel is made to rotate in steps with the help of Proximity Sensor-Cog Wheel setup. The VFD itself is controlled by PLC but the motor control is achieved by preset values set in it. The cog wheel teeth are detected by the proximity sensor which sends the signal to the PLC. In the PLC, it is programmed to stop the motor for every teeth undetected. The detection of tooth starts the motor with a preset delay of 32 minutes. The delay is incorporated to track the sun as it moves along the horizon. An 8-channel Relay is used to automate the switches of the VFD which control the direction of the motor. The input of the relay is given from the PLC and the output is connected to the VFD by overriding its switches. The panel rotates in steps till evening 6 PM and then it starts rotating forward without stopping till it reaches its original position. Or it can also be made to rotate reverse till it reaches original position. Either of the two movements can be achieved. The output of the Solar Panel is measured in multi meter or a bulb can be made to glow to check the output

The Automatic Solar Tracking is done by using PLC. Power supply to the PLC and the Proximity sensors is given by the AC-DC Convertor whose input voltage is 230V AC and the output is 24V DC. The PLC is programmed in Computer. Output of the PLC is given to 8-Channel Relay Module. The Speed and Direction Control of the motor is done by the VFD. The Drive is connected to the motor input. The speed of the motor is preset and the direction is controlled by the input switches provided to the drive. The drive is controlled by the PLC by overriding the switches through the Relay Module. The input of the PLC is the proximity sensor which provides feedback to the PLC. The sensor is made to sense the teeth of the Cog Wheel. The power supply for the sensor as well is provided by the converter. The output of the panel is checked with the help of a multi meter.

2.1. Hardware Setup

The Hardware setup of the tracker consists of: Solar Photo Voltaic Panel 3 Phase 0.5 HP Induction Motor Crouzet Millenium 3XD26 Programmable Logic Controller Thrifty Series AC-DC Converter Emerson Control Commander SK VFD 8-Channel Relay Module Proximity Sensor Cog Wheel Computer

The entire setup is placed on a pair of railings on which the motor base made of wood is placed as well as two stands on whom the shaft is placed with the help of bearings. The solar panel is attached to the shaft rod by means of clamps. A cog wheel is framed as well. The proximity sensor is affixed right below the cog wheel teeth with the help of an L-shaped clamp which is fixed to one of the stands. The balancing of the panel is done with the help of a wooden solid cuboid affixed to the rod with two tall bolt-nut arrangements which is perpendicular to the panel.

Fig: 2.1. Power and logic circuit

2.2. Procedure
1. The input power supply to the motor is given by the VFD which applies the required voltage and frequency so as to rotate the motor at a preset speed. 2. The preset speed is set by applying the AV.Pr mode in the V/f Drive. 3. The speed is preset at 5 rpm. 4. The direction of the motor can be changed by the command from the PLC to the V/f drive. 5. The logic is written in the millennium software for the PLC.

6. The PLC output is given to an 8-Channel Relay module which is in turn connected to the V/f Drive. 7. A proximity sensor is placed beneath the teeth of the Cog Wheel which is placed on the same shaft. It provides feedback to the PLC.

2.3. Delay Calculation 1 Day Cog Wheel Delay Total Revolution of Cog Wheel Frequency = 24 Hours = 44 teeth =32.72 minutes =15* 32.72 = 5 Hz = 1440 minutes =1440 minutes

8. The motor starts with a delay of 32 minutes at 5.40 am in the morning 9. As soon as the next tooth is detected by the sensor, the motor is programmed to stop and delay is incorporated. 10. The procedure is continued till 6 pm in the evening and then it is programmed to rotate continuously forward without stopping in steps till it reaches the original position. 11. The reading of the power output of the panel is recorded using a multi meter.

Fig: 2.2. Flow chart

2.4. PLC Logic Program

Fig: 2.3. PLC Logic The Logic for the entire tracking is done in the PLC software Millenium 3. The Logic consists of following steps : 1. Starting of the motor 2. Presetting Delay of 32 minutes 3. Detection of Depression of the Cog wheel by proximity sensor 4. Automatic Stopping of the motor on the detection of depression 5. Automatic restarting of the motor after 32 min delay 6. Counting of the no. of teeth i.e. 44 teeth 7. After attaining the above step, either reverse motion of the motor or continuous forward motion till original position is attained, is to be started 8. The whole process is to be restated the next day early morning


3.1. Information
A solar cell (also called a photovoltaic cell) is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. It is a form of photoelectric cell which, when exposed to light, can generate and support an electric current without being attached to any external voltage source. A solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each panel is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts. The efficiency of a panel determines the area of a panel given the same rated output - an 8% efficient 230 watt panel will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt panel. Because a single solar panel can produce only a limited amount of power, most installations contain multiple panels. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of solar panels, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and or solar tracker and interconnection wiring.

Fig: 3.1. Solar Panel

3.2. Theory and Construction

Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can either be the top layer or the back layer. Cells must also be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most solar panels are rigid, but semi-flexible ones are available, based on thin-film cells. These early solar panels were first used in space in 1958. Electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage and/or in parallel to provide a desired current capability. The conducting wires that take the current off the panels may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals. The cells must be connected electrically to one another and to the rest of the system. Externally, popular terrestrial usage photovoltaic panels use MC3 (older) or MC4 connectors to facilitate easy weatherproof connections to the rest of the system. Bypass diodes may be incorporated or used externally, in case of partial panel shading, to maximize the output of panel sections still illuminated. The p-n junctions of mono-crystalline silicon cells may have adequate reverse voltage characteristics to prevent damaging panel section reverse current. Reverse currents could lead to overheating of shaded cells. Solar cells become less efficient at higher temperatures and installers try to provide good ventilation behind solar panels. Some recent solar panel designs include concentrators in which light is focused by lenses or mirrors onto an array of smaller cells. This enables the use of cells with a high cost per unit area (such as gallium arsenide) in a cost-effective way. 3.2.1. Overview We decided that for our car we would build panels of solar cells to make them easier to construct and more interchangeable. We did not want to use off the shelf panels because they used lower grade solar cells and were too heavy (consisting of large amounts of glass). Because our car will be 1.8m wide, and we had a >3m area clear of most obstructions at the back, and the cells are 100*100mm, we decided to initially target the rear area of 17*30 cells. Since 5 and 6 divide 30, and since 6 + 5 + 6 is 17, we decided to make 5*6 cell panels, and tile them across 7

this area (3 panels across the car and five or six panels along the area). Using a 2mm gap between cells and at the edges of the panel, this gives a panel size of 512*614mm. These panels will also be used alongside the drivers cockpit (two on each side) for a total of 20 panels (600 cells). Additional cells will be mounted on the car as space permits. Each cell has four contact wires (tabs) coming off it, two positive ones on the bottom (about 8.5mm in from the edge) and two negative ones immediately on the edge. These are joined together via fine wires on the cell. Consecutive cells need to be joined positive to negative all the way along the panel. For each cell on the panel, five holes are drilled, one for each contact, plus one "air" hole under the centre of the cell which helps to avoid cracking by preventing pressure from building up. The 3mm holes for the positive tabs are drilled 7mm from the edge of the cell; the holes for the negative tabs are drilled 1mm outside the cell edge. No attempt at "air cooling" was made, although some people recommend cutting a large hole out underneath the center of the cell for this purpose - this was considered too fragile for our needs. Since we did not want any drilled holes directly on the edge of the panel, we arranged them as shown which allowed most of the cells to be easily connected together to the next cell in the circuit, but kept the negative contact points on the edge of the cell away from the edge of the panel.

Fig: 3.2. Inner view of solar panel The basic idea is to tab the cells, and place the double sided tape on the back of the cells. Then drill small holes in the fibreglass panels, and place the cells onto the panels carefully passing the solar cell tabs through the holes in the fibreglass panel.

3.2.2. Structure of a Solar Cell

A typical solar cell is a multi-layered unit consisting of a: Cover - a clear glass or plastic layer that provides outer protection from the elements. Transparent Adhesive - holds the glass to the rest of the solar cell. Anti-reflective Coating - this substance is designed to prevent the light that strikes the cell from bouncing off so that the maximum energy is absorbed into the cell. Front Contact - transmits the electric current. N-Type Semiconductor Layer - This is a thin layer of silicon which has been mixed (process if called doping) with phosphorous to make it a better conductor. P-Type Semiconductor Layer - This is a thin layer of silicon which has been mixed or doped with boron to make it a better conductor. Back Contact - transmits the electric current.

N-Layer- is often formed from silicon and a small amount of Phosphorus. Phosphorus gives the layer an excess of electrons and therefore has a negative character. The n-layer is not a charged layer- it has an equal number of protons and electrons-but some of the electrons are not held tightly to the atoms and are free to move. P-Layer- is formed from silicon and Boron and gives the layer a positive character because it has a tendency to attract electrons. The p-layer is not a charged layer and it has an equal number of protons and electrons. P-N Junction - when the two layers are placed together, the free electrons from the n-layer are attracted to the p-layer. At the moment of contact between the two wafers, free electrons from the n-layer flow into the p-layer for a split second then form a barrier to prevent more electrons from moving from one layer to the other. This contact point and barrier is called the p-n junction.

Fig: 3.3. Structure of Solar panel

Once the layers have been joined, there is a negative charge in the p-layer and a positive charge in the n-layer section of the junction. This imbalance in the charge of the two layers at the p-n junction produces an electric field between the p-layer and the n-layer. If the PV cell is placed in the sun, radiant energy strikes the electrons in the p-n junction and energizes them, knocking them free of their atoms. These electrons are attracted to the positive charge in the n-layer and are repelled by the negative charge in the p-layer. A wire can be attached from the p-layer to the n-layer to form a circuit. As the free electrons are pushed into the n-layer by the radiant energy, they repel each other. The wire provides a path for the electrons to flow away from each other. This flow of electrons is an electric current that we can observe. The electron flow provides the current, and the cells electric field causes a voltage. With both current and voltage, we have power, which is the product of the two.

3.3 Efficiency
Depending on construction, photovoltaic panels can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but usually cannot cover the entire solar range

(specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or diffused light). Hence much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar panels, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated


with monochromatic light. Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into different wavelength ranges and direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges. This has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. Currently the best achieved sunlight conversion rate (solar panel efficiency) is around 17.4% in new commercial products typically lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation. The most efficient mass-produced solar panels have energy density values of up to 16.22 W/ft2 (175 W/m2).

3.4. Working
Converting sunlight to electricity Know that solar energy is the radiation from the sun that reaches the Earths surface Explain how solar cells are used to generate electricity Understand that solar energy doesnt release carbon dioxide therefore helping to reduce green house gas emissions Use a voltmeter to measure energy produced by a solar panel

In Advance Solar or photovoltaic (PV) cells are made up of materials that turn sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) technologies including solar thermal hot water are renewable energy technologies and are clean energy alternatives compared to non renewable energy technologies that burn fossil fuels. PV cells are composed of layers of semiconductors such as silicon. Energy is created when photons of light from the sun strike a solar cell and are absorbed within the semiconductor material. This excites the semiconductors electrons, causing the electrons to flow, and creating a usable electric current. The current flows in one direction and thus the electricity generated is termed direct current (DC). One PV cell produces only one or two watts which isnt much power for most uses. In order to increase power, photovoltaic or solar cells are bundled together into what is termed a module and packaged into a frame which is more commonly known as a solar panel. Solar panels can then be grouped into larger solar arrays.


3.4.1. Converting Photons to Electrons

The following two demonstrations will introduce students to a number of concepts key to Understanding how solar cells work. Set the stage by using a prop to introduce the PV cell and component parts to the students. Display three calculators (or other common object that the students can relate to) at the front of the room: one that plugs into an outlet, one that runs on batteries, and one that is solar powered.

During the demonstrations highlight the following: Light energy (photons) strikes the PV cell. The silicon cells absorb some of the light energy. The absorbed energy knocks some of silicons electrons loose. Electrons flow creating an electrical current. Current flows through metal contacts on the top and bottom of the PV cell. The metal contacts or leads can direct the current through wires that are attached to a battery or motor.



This motor is very robust and, because of its simplicity and trouble free features, it is the type of motor most commonly employed for industrial use. There are only three essential parts, namely the stator frame, the stator windings and the squirrel cage rotor. The stator frame may be constructed from cast iron, aluminium or, rolled steel. Its purpose is to provide mechanical protection and support for the stator laminated metal core, windings and arrangements for ventilation.

4.1. Star connection

To make a star connection, the three finish ends are connected together. This connection point is referred to as the star point. The three-phase supply is connected to the three start ends.

Motor Terminal Block

Two Links W2 U2 V2

U1 V1 W1





Fig: 4.1. Terminal block arrangement for a motor connected in star.


Motor Windings connected in Star




V2 U2 W2


V1 W1


STAR Symbol


STAR Point

Fig: 4.2. The schematic diagram and the star graphical symbol

When connected to a 400 Volt three-phase supply, a star connected motor will have 230 Volts across each winding. Some three-phase motor windings are only suitable for 230 Volts. If connected in delta in this situation, they will quickly burn-out. (Check motor nameplate ).

Warning: Under no circumstances should the three-phase supply be connected to the star point of the motor i.e. onto W2-U2-V2 as this will cause a short circuit across the supply.

4.2. Delta Connection

To make a delta connection, the finish end of one winding is connected to the start end of the next winding and so on.
3 Links
W2 U2 V2

PE U1 V1 W1





Fig: 4.3. The terminal block arrangement for a motor connected in delta 14

Motor Windings connected in Delta


U1 W2
ELECTRICAL SUPPLY 400V 3 Phase 400V 400V


W1 V1

DELTA Symbol



Fig: 4.4. The schematic diagram and the delta graphical symbol l A three-phase motor having windings rated for 400 Volts should be connected in delta to a 400 Volt three-phase supply. If connected in star in this situation it will only develop one third of its output power, and will stall under load. (Check motor name plate). A three-phase motor having windings rated for 230 V may be connected in delta to a 230 Volt threephase supply OR in star to a 400 Volt three-phase supply. This type of motor is referred to as a Dual Voltage Motor. (The windings are rated for the lower of the two voltages).

Cooling Fan

Terminal Block

Stator Winding


Fan Cover


Stator Frame

Fig: 4.5. Cut-away View of a Three-Phase Induction Motor



4.3. Reversing a Three-Phase Induction Motor

The phase sequence L1 (Brown), L2 (Black), L3 (Grey), applied to the stator windings, which causes the magnetic field to rotate in a clockwise direction. If the field rotates in a clockwise direction the rotor also rotates in a clockwise direction.

Connections for Clockwise Rotation

Motor Starter
L1 L2 L3 L2 L1

M 3


Fig: 4.6. Connections for Clockwise Rotation

Changing any two of the phase connections to the stator windings, reverses the rotating magnetic field and this in turn, reverses the direction of rotation of the rotor.

Connections for Anti-Clockwise Rotation

Motor Starter
L1 L2 L3 L3 L2 L1

M 3

Fig: 4.7. Connections for Anti Clockwise Rotation To reverse any three-phase induction motor, reverse any two line connections. For example, reverse either L1 and L3, or L1 and L2, or L2 and L3.


4.4. Methods of Starting Three-phase Induction Motors

Motor requires an efficient method of starting and stopping, which takes into account the starting current of the motor. There are several methods employed for starting three-phase induction motors.

Direct-On-Line Starting Resistance Starting Reactance Starting Auto-transformer Starting Star-Delta Starting Part-Winding Starting Solid State Starting

During this course we will only consider the Direct-On-Line (D.O.L) method of starting. This is the simplest and most commonly used method.

4.4.1. Direct-On-Line Starting (D.O.L.)

Unlike the other starting methods listed above, the D.O.L. starter does nothing to limit the starting current of the motor. This starting current may be as high as six to seven times the Full Load Current (FLC). This can cause supply difficulties such as dimming and flickering of lights and disturbances to other apparatus due to voltage drop. The limit to the size of motor, which may be started by this method, is almost entirely dependant upon the conditions of the supply.


4.5. Speed Control Methods:

Unlike D.C. Motors, A.C. Induction Motors are not suitable for variable speeds. Their speed control and regulation is comparatively difficult when compared with D.C. Motors. These are some of the methods which are commonly used for the speed control of squirrel cage induction motors: Changing Applied Voltage Changing Applied Frequency Changing Number Of Stator Poles Changing the rotor circuit resistance

Of the above four methods first three can be used for both squirrel cage and slip ring induction motors, where as forth method is only applicable for slip ring induction motor.

4.5.1. Changing Applied Voltage:

As we know the Electromagnetic torque developed by the motor is given by the equation is

Where S = Slip of the motor, E2= Rotor induced EMF at standstill condition, R2= Rotor resistance, X2= Rotor winding reactance at standstill condition

At normal working conditions the Slip of the induction motor is very low and for constant torque load, Therefore equation can be written as



sE22 = constant

Since the Rotor induced EMF is directly proportional to the applied voltage to the Stator,

Since the synchronous speed (N s) is constant, by changing the applied voltage V, it is possible to vary the Rotor running speed (N r). Though it is the easiest method, it is rarely used due to following reasons: For small change in speed, there must be a large variation in voltage. This large change in voltage, it results in large change in flux density there by disturbing the magnetic distribution of the motor. This method also requires large power electronic circuit.

As the slip is inversely proportional to the square of the voltage, to increase the speed above the synchronous speed, voltage has to be increased more than the rated; therefore v/f ratio greatly increases. Thereby the flux density increases and causes some abnormal condition.

4.5.2. Changing applied frequency:

We all know that the synchronous speed of the induction motor is given by

Ns = 120f / P

So from this relation, it is evident that the synchronous speed and thus the speed of the induction motor can by varied by the supply frequency.

Limitations of these methods are: The motor speed can be reduced by reducing the frequency, if the induction motor happens to be the only load on the generators.


If supply is taken from the GRID, It requires a cyclo-converter circuit at the stator side which is very complex.

Even then the range over which the speed can be varied is very less. This method is famous in some electrically driven ships although not common in shore.

V/f control:
For the speeds below rated speed for large variation of voltage, small change in speed occurs. Therefore normally v/f control is used. In this method, voltage and frequency are varied with respect to each other, so that the ratio is maintained constant. Therefore the flux density will be maintained constant. This method combines the advantages of both above two methods. But this method requires A Converter- Inverter circuit at the stator side.

Fig: 4.8. Starting Torque vs Speed characteristics

4.5.3. Changing the number of stator poles:

As we know the relation between the synchronous speed and the number of poles,

Ns = 120f/P

So the number of poles is inversely proportional to the speed of the motor. This change of number of poles can be achieved by having two or more entirely independent stator windings in the same slots. Each winding gives a different number of poles and hence different synchronous speed.


Since the Induction motors are normally designed for a Specific number of poles, by changing the number of poles it works with less efficiency. And by using this method only two sets of speeds can be achieved.

4.5.4. Changing the rotor resistance:

As we discussed in the voltage control,

For a constant torque and constant applied voltage, the slip to rotor resistance ratio is constant. Therefore

S = kR2
By increasing the rotor resistance, it is possible to increase the slip; thereby we can control the speed of the induction motor.

This method of speed control of is also useful for starting of the induction motor. Since rotor is short circuited, at the time of starting motor will draw large currents into the rotor. So to reduce the starting current this method is used. This method not only reduces the starting current but also increases the starting current.

As we know the torque equation of induction motor is


And the starting torque is

And the slip corresponding to maximum/Breakdown torque is

S = R2 / X2

By considering all the above points Torque-slip or Torque speed characteristics are given as below.

R2> R1> R0

Fig: 4.9. The torque speed characteristics for different rotor resistances


5.1 Introduction
A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a digital operating electronic a programmable memory for internal apparatus which uses

storage of instruction for implementing specific

function such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic to control through analog or digital input/output modules various types of machines or process. Control engineering has evolved over time. In the past humans was the main method for controlling a system. More recently electricity has been used for control and early electrical control was based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relays to make simple logical control decisions. The development of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most common choice for manufacturing controls.

Fig: 5.1 PLC


The above Fig: 5.1.Shows the XD 26 PLC. This is the heart of the project. I t works on the software of MILLENIUM 3 Programming Language

5.2 Types of PLC

There are different types of PLCS used for various methods of projects. The following types of PLCS are given below.

5.2.1 XD 26 PLC

Fig: 5.2.1 XD 26 PLC

Description of XD 26 PLC Part Number 88970162 Power Supply 24 V DC Inputs Output

16 digital (of which 10 Discrete Static 6 are analogue) Relay Outputs

The numbering for the XD 26 PLC is given in such a way

that as it is containing 16

Digital (of which 6 are analog) inputs and 10 discrete static relay outputs. And the sum of these inputs and outputs gives us 26. Similarly for the other PLCS it is done in the same manner.


5.2.2 CD 12 PLC

Pow er supply Inputs Outputs

Fig: 5.2.2 CD 12 PLC

Description of CD 12 PLC Part Number 88970045 Power Supply 12V DC Inputs 8 digital (including 4 analogue) Outputs 4 relays 8 A

The numbering for the CD 12 PLC is given in such a way

that as it is containing 8


Digital (of which 4 are analog) inputs and 4 relay outputs. And the sum of these inputs and outputs gives us 12. Similarly for the other PLCS it is done in the same manner.

5.2.3 CB 12 PLC

Fig: 5.2.3 CB 12 PLC Description of CB 12 PLC Part Number 88970840 Power Supply 12 V DC Inputs 8 digital (including 4 analogue Outputs 4 solid state 0.5 A (including 1 PWM)

5.2.4 CD 20 PLC

Fig: 5.2.4 CD 20 PLC 26

Part Number 88970051

Power Supply 24 V DC

Inputs 12 digital (including 6 analogue)

Outputs 8 relays 8 A

5.2.5 CB 20 PLC

Fig: 5.2.5 CB 20 PLC Description of CB 20 PLC Part Number 88970033 Power Supply 100 240 V AC Inputs 12 digital Outputs 8 relays 8 A


5.3. Thrifty series AC-DC converter

The power supply for the PLC is 24 V DC which is given by the AC_DC converter which converts the 240V AC supply to 24 v dc supply by means of a step down transformer and a converter. The converter used is PHEONIX Contacts Thrifty series converter. The power supply for the proximity sensor as well is taken from the same

Fig: 5.3.Thrifty series converter

5.4. Advantages of PLC

Shorter project implementation time. Easier modification. Project cost can be accurately calculated. Shorter training time required. Design easily changed using software (changes and addition to specifications can be processed by software).

A wide range of control application. Easy maintenance. High Reliability.



6.1 Information
The Software used for this project is MILLENIUM 3 Programming Language. The controller offers two programming languages: LD Language:- LADDER Language FBD Language: Function Block Diagram Language

These Languages use:

Predefined Function blocks such as Timers and Counters Specific Functions such as Time Management, Character String, Communication, etc.

6.2 Ladder Language

Ladder Language (LD) is a graphic Language. It can be used to transcribe relay diagrams, and is suited to combinational processing. It provides basic graphic symbols: contacts, coils, blocks. Specific calculations can be executed within the operation blocks. Example of a program in Ladder Language:

Fig: 6.1 Ladder Network


6.3 Function Block Diagram Language (FBD)

FBD mode allows graphic programming based on the use of predefined function blocks. It offers a large range of basic functions: timer, counter, logic, etc. Example of a program in FBD Language:

Fig: 6.2 Function Block Diagram

6.4 Operating Modes

There are several operating modes for the programming workshop: Edit Mode : Edit mode is used to construct programs in FBD mode, which corresponds to the development of the application. Simulation Mode : In simulation mode the program is executed offline directly in programming workshop .In this mode, each action on the chart (changing the state of input, output forcing) updates the simulation windows. Monitoring mode: In Monitoring mode, the program is executed on the controller; the programming workshop is connected to the controller (PC controller connection). the an

In this project we have done the software program or developed the program in the Function Block Diagram Mode. Since it has the components or the blocks which is pictorially understood and easy for


verification. Now let us go in detail or let us study in deep about the Function Block Diagram Language.

6.5 FBD Program in Edit Window

FBD mode allows graphic programming based on the use of predefined function blocks and predefined or archived Macros. In FBD programming, there are two types of window and two displays: The Edit Window: It consists of Program View and Settings View. The Supervision Window

6.5.1 a) Edit Window in Program View The edit window is made up of three zones: The wiring sheet, where the functions and Macros that make up the program are inserted. The Inputs zone on the left of the wiring sheet where the inputs are positioned The Outputs zone on the right of the wiring sheet where the outputs are positioned

The I/O is specific to the type of controller and extension chosen by the user. The program in the edit window corresponds to the program that is: Compiled. Transferred to the Controller. Compared to the contents of the controller Used in simulation mode Used in supervision mode


The figure below shows an example of an edit window in FBD language:

Fig: 6.5.1 Edit Window in FBD Language The table below lists the different elements in the edit window which is shown in the figure: 6.5.1. Number Description

Function block input zone.

2 3 4

Connection between two function blocks Function bar Function block.

Wiring sheet.

Functions block number.

Output function block zone.


6.5.1 b) Edit Window in Settings View The Settings view can be accessed in Edit mode using the automation functions with parameters used in the application. The general interface allows the user to view all the information: Block: function block diagram Function: Timer, Counter, etc. Block num: function block ID Parameters: the target value for a counter, etc. Modification authorized: indicates whether or not parameter modification is possible from the controller front panel Comment: comments associated with the function. button. It is used to list all

To adjust the various parameters, double-click on the desired line.

6.5.2 Supervision Window

The Supervision window can also be accessed from the following modes:

Simulation : the Mode/Simulation menu or using the simulation button bar.

on the controller

Monitoring: the Mode/Monitoring menu or using the monitoring button on the controller bar .

Now let us discuss the various function blocks that are used in this project. The blocks that are used in the Timer Program and even for the LDR circuit are discussed in this Chapter. The blocks used in these programs are Discrete Input Block, Discrete Output Block, TIMER PROG Block, Summer/Winter Block, Timer A-C Block, AND GATE, NOT GATE, OR GATE, Analog Input Block, Comparison Value Zone Block, Set-Reset Block, NUM Block.


All these blocks are explained thoroughly in this chapter. And these blocks are implemented with the program in the later Chapters.

6.6 Discrete-Type Inputs

The Discrete-type input is available for all controller types. Discrete inputs can be arranged over all the controller inputs. The inputs blocks are used to switch on the experiment and for closed loop operation (with Proximity Sensor) respectively. The type of Discrete input can be selected from the Parameters window. This is then displayed in the edit and supervision windows.

Fig: 6.6 Discrete-Type Inputs


6.7 Discrete-Type Outputs

The controllers feature two types of discrete outputs: a. Solid state outputs for certain controllers supplied with a DC voltage, b. Relay outputs for controllers supplied with an AC or DC voltage

Fig: 6.7 Discrete-Type Outputs



7.1. Introduction
A variable-frequency drive (VFD) (also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive) is a type of adjustable-speed drive used in electromechanical drive systems to control AC motor speed and torque by varying motor input frequency and voltage. VFDs are used in applications ranging from small appliances to the largest of mine mill drives and compressors. However, about a third of the world's electrical energy is consumed by electric motors in fixed-speed centrifugal pump, fan and compressor applications and VFDs' global market penetration for all applications is still relatively small. This highlights especially significant energy efficiency improvement opportunities for retrofitted and new VFD installations. Over the last four decades, power electronics technology has reduced VFD cost and size and improved performance through advances in semiconductor switching devices, drive topologies, simulation and control techniques, and control hardware and software. VFDs are available in a number of different low and medium voltage AC-AC and DC-AC

7.2. System Description and Operation

Fig: 7.1. Power Conversion


7.2.1. Operator interface The operator interface provides a means for an operator to start and stop the motor and adjust the operating speed. Additional operator control functions might include reversing, and switching between manual speed adjustment and automatic control from an external process control signal. The operator interface often includes an alphanumeric display and/or indication lights and meters to provide information about the operation of the drive. An operator interface keypad and display unit is often provided on the front of the VFD controller as shown in the photograph above. The keypad display can often be cable-connected and mounted a short distance from the VFD controller. Most are also provided with input and output (I/O) terminals for connecting pushbuttons, switches and other operator interface devices or control signals. A serial communications port is also often available to allow the VFD to be configured, adjusted, monitored and controlled using a computer.

7.2.2. Drive operation

Fig: 7.2. Quadrant Operation Electric motor speed-torque chart Referring to the accompanying chart, drive applications can be categorized as single-quadrant, twoquadrant or four-quadrant; the chart's four quadrants are defined as follows:

Quadrant I - Driving or motoring, forward accelerating quadrant with positive speed and torque

Quadrant II - Generating or braking, forward braking-decelerating quadrant with positive speed and negative torque 37

Quadrant III - Driving or motoring, reverse accelerating quadrant with negative speed and torque

Quadrant IV - Generating or braking, reverse braking-decelerating quadrant with negative speed and positive torque.

Most applications involve single-quadrant loads operating in quadrant I, such as in variable-torque (e.g. centrifugal pumps or fans) and certain constant-torque (e.g. extruders) loads. Certain applications involve two-quadrant loads operating in quadrant I and II where the speed is positive but the torque changes polarity as in case of a fan decelerating faster than natural mechanical losses. Some sources define two-quadrant drives as loads operating in quadrants I and III where the speed and torque is same (positive or negative) polarity in both directions. Certain high-performance applications involve four-quadrant loads (Quadrants I to IV) where the speed and torque can be in any direction such as in hoists, elevators and hilly conveyors. Regeneration can only occur in the drive's DC link bus when inverter voltage is smaller in magnitude than the motor back-EMF and inverter voltage and back-EMF are the same polarity. In starting a motor, a VFD initially applies a low frequency and voltage, thus avoiding high inrush current associated with direct on line starting. After the start of the VFD, the applied frequency and voltage are increased at a controlled rate or ramped up to accelerate the load. This starting method typically allows a motor to develop 150% of its rated torque while the VFD is drawing less than 50% of its rated current from the mains in the low speed range. A VFD can be adjusted to produce a steady 150% starting torque from standstill right up to full speed. However, motor cooling deteriorates and can result in overheating as speed decreases such that prolonged low speed motor operation with significant torque is not usually possible without separately-motorized fan ventilation. With a VFD, the stopping sequence is just the opposite as the starting sequence. The frequency and voltage applied to the motor are ramped down at a controlled rate. When the frequency approaches zero, the motor is shut off. A small amount of braking torque is available to help decelerate the load a little faster than it would stop if the motor were simply switched off and allowed to coast. Additional braking torque can be obtained by adding a braking circuit (resistor controlled by a transistor) to dissipate the braking energy. With a four-quadrant rectifier (active-front-end), the VFD is able to brake the load by applying a reverse torque and injecting the energy back to the AC line.


7.3. Emerson Commander SK AC Drive: The VFD drive used in the project is a product manufactured by Emerson. The figure shown below is Emerson commander sk ac drive. This is the AC drive used for controlling the speed of the 3-phase induction motor. In this drive we can adjust the voltage and frequency at a time, so the speed of the 3-phase induction motor is increased or decreased according to the values given. The Commander SK is an open loop vector AC variable speed inverter drive used to control the speed of an AC induction motor. The drive uses an open loop vector control strategy to maintain almost constant flux in the motor by dynamically adjusting the motor voltage according to the load on the motor. The AC supply is rectified through a bridge rectifier and then smoothed across high voltage capacitors to produce a constant voltage DC bus. The DC bus is then switched through an IGBT bridge to produce AC at a variable voltage and a variable frequency. This AC output is synthesized by a pattern of on-off switching applied to the gates of the IGBTs. This method of switching the IGBTs is known as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).

Fig : 7.3. Emerson Commander SK AC Drive



The specifications of V/F AC drive are: Model No.: SKA1200075

Voltage : (200-240)V

Current: 10.5A

Frequency: 50-60Hz

Driving capability: 3-phase 0-240V 0-1500rpm 4A

Description: The V/F drive being used has 9 different configurations i.e., the V/F drive can be operated in 9 different modes. Each mode or configuration has some pre-defined operation. There are three physical sizes comprising 15 different models. The input voltage ranges are single phase input, 200 to 240V, three phase input, 200 to 240V, three phase input 380 to 480V and are power dependent. The 9 different configurations are


Fig:7.4. Voltage Preset Mode Each mode has a pre-defined operation. The mode we are using in this project is AV.PR (voltage preset). In this mode three speeds can be preset. The figure below shows the basic terminals of the AC drive in AV.PR mode. Using this V/F drive not only the speed but also the direction of rotation of the motor can be controlled. The switches B4,B5,B6 denotes enable, run forward and run reverse. The motor rotates in forward or clockwise direction when both the switches B4 and B5 are closed or are in ON position. The motor rotates in reverse direction or anti-clockwise direction when the switches B4 and B6 are closed or in ON position. The switch B4 must be always ON or in closed position for ant operation to take place. The drive consists of switches name T1-T4 and B1-B7. The connections are made according to the one as shown in the fig below for the drive to operate in Av.PR mode. By operating or connecting the switches T4 and B7 as shown in the table below, the speed of the induction motor can be set to a preset value.



8.1. Proximity Sensor
A proximity sensor is a sensor which is able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal. The object being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor's target. Different proximity sensor targets demand different sensors. For example, a capacitive photoelectric sensor might be suitable for a plastic target; an inductive proximity sensor always requires a metal target. The maximum distance that this sensor can detect is defined "nominal range". Some sensors have adjustments of the nominal range or means to report a graduated detection distance. Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between sensor and the sensed object. Proximity sensors are also used in machine vibration monitoring to measure the variation in distance between a shaft and its support bearing. This is common in large steam turbines, compressors, and motors that use sleeve-type bearings.

Fig: 8.1. Proximity sensor


8.2 Relay Module

The relay module is a separate hardware device used for remote device switching. With it you can remotely control devices over a network or the Internet. Devices can be remotely powered on or off with commands coming from Clock Watch Enterprise delivered over a local or wide area network. You can control computers, peripherals or other powered devices from across the office or across the world. The Relay module can be used to sense external On/Off conditions and to control a variety of external devices. The PC interface connection is made through the serial port.

The Relay module houses two SPDT relays and one wide voltage range, optically isolated input. These are brought out to screw- type terminal blocks for easy field wiring. Individual LEDs on the front panel monitor the input and two relay lines. The module is powered with an AC adapter.

Fig: 8.2. Relay module



The Solar Tracking System thus rotated the Solar Panel in discrete steps according to the preset delay and in the preset speed. After completing the whole 44 steps, it rotated further forward without stopping till it reached the original position. The voltage output of the Solar Panel has been recorded in a multi meter as 6.41 V DC in the morning 7.30 am.

Fig: 9.1. Automatic Solar Tracking System


10.1 Conclusion
The Automatic Solar Tracker thus, is able to trace the sun in discrete steps from morning to evening without any manual intervention. This automation is achieved by the PLC thus rendering the setup more accurate and reliable. The PLC programming is User-Friendly and easier to program as it is Block-Programming. The V/f drive has made it easy to use the Induction Motor speed Control and the direction control. Different preset speeds could also be achieved by this drive.

10.2 Future Scope

The Future scope of the setup is to incorporate a more reliable balancing technique than that of the present one used. Along with that, a Cuk or Buck converter can be connected to the output of the Solar panel. MPPT (max power point tracking) also used to generate high power.



1]. Introduction to Photovoltaic Systems by Texas and Design of a Solar Tracker System for PV Power Plants by Tiberiu Tudorache, Liviu Kreindler 2]. DC-DC Converters via MATLAB/SIMULINK by Mohamed Assaf, D. Seshsachalam and Analsis, Design and Modeling of DC-DC Converter using SIMULINK by Saurabh Kasat. 3]. Programmable Logic Controllers: Programming Methods and Applications by John R. Hackworth and Frederick D. Hackworth and PLC Implementation of Supervisory Control by Prof. Tarun Kumar Dan. 4]. Speed control of Induction Machines by prof. Krishna Vasudevan, prof. g.sridara rao and prof p. shasidara rao. 5]. AC variable speed drive for 3 phase induction motors from 0.25kW to 7.5kW, 0.33hp to 10hp is a Technical Data Guide for AC variable speed drive for 3 phase induction motors. 6]. (Rashid, 2003).