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# CE5314 HYDRAULIC ENGINNERING

TUTORIAL 02

Name

: Ranatunga S.P.

Q1.

= 0.572 2

1 2 2 3 = 0

## If 0 = tan 0.30 = 0.0052 (0.572)5/3 1 = 2/3 0.00521/2 0.03 2 = 0.597 3 /

Sensitivity of bed slope angle and the mannings roughness coefficient over the water discharge.

1 2 2 3 0

According to the above equation we can see that water discharge is directly proportional to square root of bed slope. So that increase of bed slope is caused to increased of water discharge in channel. Vise versa for decreasing of bed slope. According to the above equation we can see that mannings roughness coefficient is inversely proportional to water discharge. So that increase of mannings roughness coefficient is caused to decrease of water discharge. Also decrease of mannings roughness coefficient is caused to increase of water discharge.

Q2. According to Muskingum method outflow hydrograph can be obtained by following equation.

O2 = I1

t+2k t+2k 2k

+ I2

t 2k t+2k 2k

+ O2

t+2k 2k t+2k 2k

i.e. 2 = 1 0 + 2 1 + 1 2 First thing to do is finding of theses C0, C1, C2 coefficients. According to given question we can obtain

C0 = C1 = C2 =

= =

## = 0.36 = 0.09 = 0.55

3+26260.15 3+26260.15

## 2 = 0.361 + 0.092 + 0.551

= ( + (1 )) t 8.00 a.m. 11.00 a.m. 2.00 p.m. 5.00 p.m. 8.00 p.m. 11.00 p.m. 2.00 a.m. 5.00 a.m. 8.00 a.m. 11.00 a.m. I (m3/s) 2.5 5 25 50 35 21 13 7.5 2.5 2.5 O(m3/s) 2.5 2.725 5.55 16.55 30.25 31.13 25.85 19.57 13.69 8.65 S (m3) 54000 66231 182898 465858 668790 636346.8 516726 383605.2 259448.4 166914

Possibility of having the outflow hydrograph in one (01) hour resolution with the available inflow data Yes, Its possible. To get outflow hydrograph in one hour resolution what we want is inflow hydrograph with one hour resolution. But the provided inflow hydrograph is have 3 hour resolution. What we want to do is simply interpolate values of 3 hour interval data to obtain 1 hour data. After obtaining 1 hour interpolated values, then we have to find new C0, C1, C2 by changing t = 1 hrs, then easily we can find new outflow hydrograph with one hour resolution.

The Muskingum method is not applicable when flow overtops the riverbanks and running in the flood plains. Muskingum routing is a storage routing method based on the storage equation which is an expression of continuity = So that if the flow overtops the riverbank and running in the flood plains it cant be assumed that prism storage is proportional to outflow. Prism storage O As well as wedge storage cant be assumed as its proportional to (I-O). There may be some loss of water if flow is overtops the riverbank.

Q3.

Figure 03 The equation for the curve on graph drawn on figure 3 can be mentioned like this, = + 2 2

E in this equation known as specific energy, in other words its total head above the channel bottom. There is a particular energy value that called Ec , which is the minimum energy value that want for the flow to move through in a given channel and for given discharge. The flow with energy less than this value wont flow. This minimum energy is called critical energy for flow. For this critical energy Ec have minimum depth of flow which call critical depth. For any value more than Ec have two possible depths for two regions which are called supercritical region and subcritical region. For supercritical region d<dc For subcritical region d>dc So variation of specific energy and mean depth of flow for an open channel flow with constant discharge can be idealize like on figure 3.

Why a hydraulic jump is formed when the flow changes from supercritical to subcritical, Because the flow to change form supercritical to subcritical it needs some energy to increase the depth of flow but if it goes through critical energy its impossible to increase energy to get subcritical flow depth. Therefore there is a sudden change of energy which cause to little loss of energy (E which marked on figure 3) which cause to occur hydraulic jump.

How a hydraulic jump is formed when the flow changes from supercritical to subcritical, When the flow change from the supercritical to subcritical the depth will be gradually increased with the decrease of the energy brought about by the turbulent when water flow high velocity to low velocity. In this process it would need an increase of energy for the depth to increase beyond the critical depth. But because it is getting in to a deeper zone an increase of energy is not possible. Therefore there is a sudden change in energy form supercritical to subcritical (1 to 2) without going through critical energy as show in below figure 4.

3m
2

Figure 5

25 2 3 9.81 1/3

=
1/3 1

3 =

= 1.92

Therefore 1 = =

1.92 2

= 0.96

## 25 3 / = 3 0.96 2 V= 8.68 m/s

1 = 1 2

8.68

1 9.81 0.96

= 2.83

2 = 2 =

1 + 8( 1 )2 1 1 + 8(2.83)2 1

0.96 2

2 = 3.392

## Energy at section 1-1 1 = 1 + Energy at section 2-2 2 = 2 +

2 2 2.462 = 3.392 + = 3.7 2 2 9.81

## How the required tail-water depth may be provided in practice

There are several ways to provide required tail water depth By changing discharge By changing surface roughness of spillway By changing falling height By using energy dissipaters (still basing or bucket type) By using different type of spill way (smooth vs stepped)