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# Chapter 2

Name:_________________________ Period:______

Basic Motion

## How do scientists measure and predict motion?

day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

material due at the start of class None Hw1a & 1b All: Hw2a Honors: Hw2b Hw3a All: Hw3b Honors: Hw3c Hw4a & 4b All: Hw5a, 5c Honors: Hw5b None None Lab6b Hw6a Hw8a Lab8, Hw7a, 7b Hw8b Hw9 None Rocket models

classtime activity Lsn1: Displacement & Velocity Lsn2: Short Xf Equation Lsn3: Acceleration Practice Lsn4: Long Xf Equation Lab4: Rolling Time Lab Reg: Practice Honors: Jousting lesson Quiz1, brainstorm for labs Lab4a: Water Balloon Drop Lab4b: Paper Drop Lsn5: Tossing Up and Down Lsn6: Cars Off Cliffs Lab6: Cliff Lab, work on Hw7a & 7b Quiz2, Introduce Rocket Project Build Rockets Review Test Repair Tests, End-of-Chp Readings, Prepare 1 rockets for launch Launch rockets

homework to work on each night Hw1a & 1b All: Hw2a Honors: Hw2b Hw3a All: Hw3b Honors: Hw3c Hw4a & 4b All: Hw5a, 5c Honors: Hw5b None None Lab6b Hw6a Hw8a Lab8, Hw7a, 7b Hw8b Hw9 Flashcards & rockets rockets

4
BIGGER PICTURE
DATE NAME

CURRENT UNIT

Basic Motion

UNIT SCHEDULE

UNIT MAP

Moving objects

## Lesson 6: Horizontal projectiles

Lesson 2: Short Xf Equations Lesson 3 Acceleration Lesson 4: Long Xf Equation Lesson 5 Tossing Up and Down

How is displacement different from distance? How is velocity different from speed? How do you use equations to predict motion? Why can acceleration be positive and negative? How do you know what variables to match with numbers in story problems? How can you tell what equation to use to solve a problem? How can we make new equations to help us?

steps

2 6
UNIT RELATIONSHIPS

## Words for Spell Check:

Displacement distance travelled Velocity speed and direction Acceleration change in velocity Equation mathemetical relationship Variable unknown quantity Initially at the start Stationary standing still Derivation to come up with something Coordinate a number for a location Origin the starting point Customary the usual way Exhibition a showing Predominant: most common Galileo: smart guy Contradictory: opposite meaning Experiment: lab activity Volatile: easily turned to gas Vaporized: turned to gas Quadratic: expressions with x2 Chandelier: A fancy hanging light Projectile: object going through the air The displacement equation is X = Xf - Xi Velocity is speed and direction. Acceleration is the change in velocity per unit time We have 4 general equations this chapter The variable for displacement is X Objects are initially located at Xi If an object is stationary, it is standing still We will learn the derivation of a couple equation this chapter The location of an object is its coordinate The origin is where x=0 it is customary for positive values to be to the right of the origin We will have a car exhibition this chapter Galileo challenged the predominant views of science. Galileo wrote about a famous though experiment. Galileos experiment demonstrated contradictory results We will do many experiments this chapter The ACT practice deals with volatile gases The ACT practice deals with comets becoming vaporized Honors will use the quadratic equation to solve problems. A story problem deals with a falling chandelier. Projectile motion is when objects fall in an arching path.

## What does the quote on the back cover mean?

______________________________________________________________________

KILL A MYTH
Myth: Velocity is the same as speed. Acceleration means speeding up Fact: Words often have a different meaning when applied to science. Velocity means speed and direction. Acceleration can mean speeding up or slowing down. Myth: Bullets stay in the air a lot longer because they are moving so fast Fact: All materials fall at the same rate, no matter how they are moving (if you ignore forces on things like airplane wings. Well study those forces in Chp11) Equations: Chp 1 F = 9/5 C + 32
1 mile = 5,280 feet 1 inch 2.54 centimeters 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 liter 1.057 quarts 1 English short ton = 2,000 lbs 1 pound = 16 ounces 1 mile 1.6 kilometers 1 yard=0.914 meters 1 quart = 2 pints 1 quart = 2 pints 1 kilogram 2.2 pounds 28 grams = 1 ounce

K = C+273

Vf= Vi + at 3

## Lesson 1 Displacement and Velocity

Before We Begin: See unit organizer, Do the ACT practice. Activate Your Brain: A) In a laboratory experiment, what is a control and what is a variable? B) Convert 86 centimeters to meters. C) Convert 10 inches to meters.

D) How did police catch speeders before the invention of hand-held radar? E) What words/phrases mean that an objects speed = 0 mph? Todays Goal: Learn the differences between speed & velocity. Big Idea: Both displacement and velocity indicate direction. Distance and speed do not.

## 2) Read as X sub i means the

x = x - x
f
7) Read as change in x or ____________________________________ or ______________________________________. This can be thought of as distance and direction travelled. 8) Displacement can be positive or negative, depending on the direction of travel. Displacement has magnitude (number = how far) and direction (sign = left/right or up/down) 9) Measures that include magnitude and direction are called______________________.

3) both are measured in relation to some point called the________________________ This can be put anywhere we want to, but often a situation will lead to an obvious easiest choice. 4) A _________________________________ is made up of the origin and arrows showing which way is positive. This is a number line used in the problem. 5) Another name for this is___________________ 6) It is ____________________________ (or a tradition) to put positive values to the right of or above the origin.

Draw arrows from the starting point to the ending point. Then find the x: 6m 10) -0+0 -9 m 11) -6 m 11m

Xi

Xf

Xf

Xi

- 0 +

12) A car is located 3 miles to the right of a river. Later, it is 8 miles to the left. What is the displacement?
picture with coordinate system/variable box/circles raw equation: substitutions with units: answer:

In your homework, you only have to show one of these three (picture/box/circles).

## 14) Read as _______________________ or bar v

v = x t

13) Time is traditionally measured in for most equations, though in this chapter you will have plenty of problems with minutes or hours.

15) This is NOT a synonym for speed. Since x can be __________________, so can v. Speed is always positive. 16) Objects moving in the ____________ direction will have negative average velocity. 17) Velocity is a ___________________. It has magnitude (The number is how fast its moving) and direction (the sign tells us left/right or up/down) 18) Units will be a distance over time, such as:
19) How long would it take a car to go 16 miles if it travelled to the left at a speed of 45 miles/hour?
Picture/box/circles raw equation: substitutions with units: answer:

20) How long would it take a car to go 2300 cm if it travelled at a speed of 36 m/s? (note we are not given directions)
Picture/box/circles raw equation: substitutions with units: answer:

Steps to doing story problems: 1 Label what you know. Adjust signs and units if needed. 2 Determine what you want to find. 3 Write an equation that connects the known with unknown. 4 Substitute in the known values and solve. Extra Discusssion: When should you put the origin under the initial location of an object?

Note: all ___________ must match before you solve the problem. 5

## Science Sidebar The Speed of the Universe

Professor Steven Weinberg was a researcher of high energy physics who won the Nobel prize in physics. He wrote in the journal Scientific American: how surprising it is that the laws of nature and the initial conditions of the universe should allow for the existence of beings who could observe it. Life as we know it would be impossible if any one of several physical quantities had slightly different values. What are these initial conditions that he spoke of? Utilizing only naturalistic assumptions (assuming the unprovable idea that nothing outside of matter and energy exists), the scientific theory of the Universes origin is that the entire universe is expanding from a single point of space. Most estimates agree that this expansion started about 12-15 billion years ago. Some estimates are as small as 9 billion or as big as 19 billion years ago, but they are usually in that range. When studying the Big Bang theory, it is important to understand that it claims that not only protons and electrons and other bits of matter that are rushing away from this single point. It is all of space itself that is expanding. The universe is getting bigger and bigger as we sit here and think about it. For many years it was hotly debated as to the nature of the expansion of the universe. Was it expanding so fast that it will continue forever? Is it slow enough that gravity will eventually cause things to come to a stop and then pull back together in a Big Crunch? An unexpected answer came at the end of the last century. The universe is currently expanding at faster and faster rates. The reason for the acceleration is unknown at this time. Some currently unknown type of force is pushing the universe outwards. Researchers currently call the cause of the expansion Dark Energy until they can figure it out. (It might just be another form of a currently known force.) Further studies in the early history of the universe have come to other surprising results. It turns out that the speed of the universes expansion at early moments of the universe must have had values that lie within a very narrow range if the universe was to be able to have life. If the expansion were one part in a million faster( 0.00001% faster), then no elements besides hydrogen and helium would have formed. Obviously, this precludes any collection of molecules that could be considered to be a living organism. Other elements would not form because the hydrogens and heliums would get too far away from each other before gravity and other forces could bring them together to eventually form stars. On the other hand, the expansion could not be much slower. Steven Hawking, a well-known researcher in the history of the universe, wrote: "If the rate of expansion one second after the big bang had been smaller by even one part in a hundred thousand million million (0.000000000000001% slower), the universe would have re-collapsed before it ever reached its present state." This is true because the longer materials are close together, the more effective gravity (and other forces) is at pulling them together. All matter would quickly pull together similar to how a black hole pulls all nearby matter into it. What do you think of that?

## Lab 1 Velocity lab

(This is to take 12 minutes, including explanation.) Goal: to ___________________ how long it will take an object to cross a finish line.

v =
Procedure:

/t

1) Be sure you fully wind the toy, but do not force it too much. Place the front tip of the toy on the dotted edge of Starting Line #1. Measure how far it is to the dotted edge of the finish line in centimeters. Distance:________ cm 2) Time how long the toy takes to travel so its front tip touches the dotted edge of the finish line. Time: _______(include units) 3) Determine the toys speed. raw equation: substitutions with units: answer with units: 4) Predict the time for the toy to go from the Starting Line #2 to the finish line. raw equation: substitutions with units: answer with units: 5) Measure the actual time needed for the toy to travel the second distance. Time: _______(include units) 6) Determine the percent error in your prediction by using this equation: % error = difference between prediction and reality x 100 reality Error:_________

7) Extra Discussion: What are your sources of error?_______________________________________________ 8) Extra Discussion: How could you reduce some of the error?______________________________________ 9) Extra Discussion: Go around to other lab teams and get their speeds. In a race, which toy would win?

10

Starting Line #2

Starting Line #1

11

Finish Line

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Hw 1a
The following 2 questions are from the Science Sidebar: 1. What would have happened to the universe if its early expansion was a tiny bit faster? (Know this for the quiz.) 2. What would have happened to the universe if its early expansion was a tiny bit slower? (Know this for the quiz.) Direct and Inverse Relationships: In the equation, V = x/t, the V and the x are both in the numerator, therefore they are directly related to each other. For a given value of time, if you double x you end up doubling V. If you divide x by 3 you will end up dividing V by 3. Whatever you multiply or divide one variable by, you do the SAME thing to the other variable. Since t is in the denominator, V is inversely related to t. For a given distance, if you double the time allowed, you need to divide V by 2. If you divide the time by 3 you have to triple the V. Whatever you multiply or divide one variable by, you do the OPPOSITE thing to the other variable.

NEW INFO

Directly related

V =

/t

V =

/t

Inversely related
3) On Tuesday, Bob walked 18 miles during the afternoon by moving at an average 3 mph. On Wednesday, he wants to ride a bike and get 4 times as far in the same time. How fast will he have average on his bike?

4) Yesterday, Sally ran 20 miles to train for a marathon by going an average of 5 mph. Today she plans on going half that distance in the same time. How fast does she need to average today?

5) If JimmyJoe wanted to travel 5 times as far in the same period of time as he did yesterday, how would he have to change his speed?

6) If BillyBob wanted to travel just as far as he did yesterday, but in half the time, how would he have to change his speed?

12

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Hw1b
1) A plane is located 1000m above the ground. If the origin is on the ground, then this location be considered
a) positive b) negative

8-10) A 2-lane bridge spans a deep river valley. A Continued bundle of 3 balloons is located 4 m above a bridge. The bundle floats downward until it is 8 m below the bridge. What is the bundles displacement?
9) Where should you consider the origin to be located? a) The river b) The bridge c) The initial location of the balloons 10) Will any of the values in this problem be negative? a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) 8 11) Which picture goes with this situation? a) B) c)

## 2) A dog is located 2 m to the left of the origin. This location be considered

a) positive b) negative

## 3) A rocket is moving upward at 900 m/s. This velocity be considered

a) positive b) negative

4-7) A balloon is located 6 m to the right of a tree. It floats to the right over a puddle until it is 9 m on the right of the tree. What is its displacement?
4) Where would be the best place to put the origin? a) The puddle b) Tree c) The balloons initial location raw equation: 5) Will any of the values in this problem be negative? a) 6 b) 9 c) Both d) Neither substitutions with units: 12) answer:

## 13) A train is moving left at 90 m/s. This velocity be considered

a) positive b) negative c) neither

6) a)

## 14) A rock is falling at 10 m/s. This velocity be considered

Xi = Xf =

Xi = 6m 6m Xf = 9m 9m

Xi = 6m Xf = 9 m

## 15) A car is moving right at 90 m/s. This velocity be considered

a) positive b) negative c) neither

7)

## What is the displacement? Raw equation: Substitutions: Answer:

16) A car is sitting still 9 m to the left of the origin. Its velocity be considered
a) positive b) negative c) neither

13

17-19) A robot is moving to the left down a hallway at 0.3 m/s for 2.1 minutes. How far will it go?

picture/box/circles

Continued 17) Where should you consider the origin to be located? a) the end of the hallway b) the robots initial location c) the middle of the hallway
18) Will any of the values in this problem be negative? a) 0.3 b) 2.1 c) both d) neither picture/box/circles

## raw equation: substitutions with units: 25) answer:

26) Review: A student measured a toys speed to be 12.3 cm/s. It actually was going 12.8 cm/s. Find the students percent error.____
raw equation: substitutions with units: answer:

## raw equation: substitutions with units: 19) answer:

27 Review: Convert 3 cm = _______m 28) Honors: Which plane is faster: Plane #1 goes a short distance in 15 minutes. Plane #2 goes a longer distance in 15 minutes.______ 29) Honors: Which truck is faster: Truck #1 goes to town in 16 minutes. Truck #2 goes the same distance in 15 minutes.______ 30) Honors: Which object is faster: Object #1 goes across town in a matter of a few heartbeats and Object #2 goes across a street in the time of few class periods. _______

20-22) A remote-controlled toy car going across a road is moving to the right at 9 m/s. How long would it take to go 11 meters?
20) Where should you consider the origin to be located? a) the edge of the road b) the middle of the road c) the cars initial location 21) Will any of the values in this problem be negative? a) 9 b) 11 c) both d) neither picture/box/circles raw equation: substitutions with units: 22) answer:

## 31) Honors: An elevator goes down at 1.5 cm/second.

How long will it take to go 3 yards? (NOTE UNITS)
raw equation: substitutions with units: answer:

Continued

23-25) A probe on Mars is sitting next to a rock. The probe then moves for 6 seconds at a steady speed until it reaches a point 4 meters past the rock. It stops when it can see a crater. How fast is it moving?
23) Where should you consider the origin to be located? a) crater b) rock c) final location of the probe 24) Will any of the values in this problem be negative? a) 4 b) 6 c) both d) neither

32) Honors A remote-controlled toy car is moving at 9 in/s. How long would it take to go 2 feet?
(NOTE UNITS)
picture/box/circles raw equation: substitutions with units: answer:

14

15

## Lesson 2 The Short Xf Equation

Before We Begin: Todays goal: The Main Idea: Grade Hw1, See the unit organizer. Find the final location of an object that is moving at a steady speed. We can combine and rearrange equations to derive new ones. Activate Your Brain: A) Find an objects displacement if it starts 3 m to the right of the origin and finishes 8 meters to the left of the origin. B) Find an objects average velocity is it moves 91 m to the left in 3.3 seconds. C) A car starts at the origin. Where does it end up if it travels at 30 m/s for 9 s? D) (We havent learned an equation for problem, but see if you can figure it out anyway) A car starts at a point 50 m to the right of the origin. Where does it end up if it travels at +30 m/s for 9 s? E) (Repeat the previous problem, but instead of using numbers, we are only given variables instead of numbers.) A car starts at a point A meters to the right of the origin. Where does it end up if it travels at a speed of B meters per second for C seconds?

1. Rewrite the average velocity equation and rearrange to have displacement by itself

2. Combine this equation with the definition of displacement and then get the final location by itself.

## When do you use this?

3. Darrell Green, one of the fastest pro football players, started on the 5 yard line. He ran toward midfield at an average velocity of 8.31 m/s for 4.4 s. Where did he finish?
Draw picture with a coordinate system . Draw picture with a coordinate system. Make adjustments

## Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

16

4) Your teacher is flying a home-made airplane. He starts off 1 km north of his home and flies south. After 60 sec of flight he is located 200 m south of his home. What was his average velocity?
Draw picture with a coordinate system.

Raw equation:

## Substitutions with units:

Important to Remember: Homework problems may describe the motion of objects as speed of 23 m/s or rate of 2 mph or travels at 5 in/hr. You must decide if these relate to positive or negative velocities.
Extra Discussion: a) What do you do if you can use more than one equation to solve a problem? b) If you double the velocity, do you double the final location? c) Are velocity and final location directly related, inversely related, or neither?

## Jigsaw Problems (if time permits):

1. A car is initially 30 m on the left of the sign. During the next 5 seconds, it moves to the right at 20 m/s. Where does it end up? 2. A car is initially 40 m on the right of the sign. During the next 8 seconds, it moves to the left at 10 m/s. Where does it end up? 3. A train is moving to the left at 45 m/s. It starts off 250 m to the left of the bridge. How long does it take to get 600 m from the bridge? 4. A train is moving to the right at 30 m/s. It starts off 100 m to the right of the bridge. How long does it take to get 140 m from the bridge? 5. A plane is moving at 100 m/s to the right. It moves from its starting position to a location 700 m to the right of the control tower in a period of 8 seconds. Where did it start? 6. A plane is moving at 250 m/s to the right. It moves from its starting position to a location 500 m to the left of the control tower in a period of 6 seconds. Where did it start? 17

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Hw2a
As with all homework and assessments, use the traditional coordinate system. Be sure to adjust signs and units as needed. 1) What variable represents the initial location of an object? 2) What variable represents the final location of an object? 3) What variable represents the time of motion?
_

7) Jack starts off 30 m on the right side of the house. Forty seconds later, he is 270 m on the right side of the house. What was Jacks average velocity?
Picture/box/circles

## 4) In this equation Xf = Xi + Vt, what kind of velocity is

represented by V? a. Initial velocity when speeding up b. Final velocity when speeding up c. Average velocity over a distance

5) Bob is 15 meters on the left side of a sign. He drives at a steady 10 m/s to the right. Where is he located at the end of 3 seconds?
Picture/box/circles

## Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

8) During the middle of its flight, a model rocket rises from an altitude of 30 yd to 50 yd at a uniform rate of 9 ft/s. How long did it take to go between these two altitudes? (note: you can convert to all yd or ft or m)
Picture/box/circles .

6) Sally is using a rope to repel down a very high cliff. She starts off 200 feet above the ground. She climbs down at a constant rate of 1 ft/s. How high is she after 1 minute? (hint: beware of units)
Picture/box/circles

Raw equation: Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units: Answer with units: Substitutions with units:

18 Continued

8)

Rvw

## Convert: 37.2 mm = _______ m

9) Rvw : Why do some researchers make their topic sound so scary? 10) Rvw: Are statistics reliable to prove a point?__ 11) Rvw: What must you know before you extrapolate? 12) A very dangerous flying bicycle is 100 m below a stationary blimp. It climbs in altitude at a steady rate of 30 cm/s. How long will it take to get to be 60 m below the blimp?
Picture/box/circles .

14) Review Lesson 1: The toy started at a place 7 m to the left of the door. It ended up 2 m on the left. What was the displacement?

15) Rvw The object covered 15 m of displacement in 7 seconds. What was the average velocity?

16) Rvw What do you call a measure that gives both a magnitude and a direction? Regular: How long did this Hw take?
Raw equation: Substitutions with units:

17) Honors: Xerxes is flying his own home-made airplane. He starts off at 12:02 pm exactly 3 km south of his home and flies north at an average speed of 8 m/s. What time will it be when he reaches a point 1 km north of his home?
Picture/box/circles

13) Suppose the X-43 scramjet was launched from a B-52 about 400 km west of California and flew eastward at a steady speed for 100 seconds and crashed on land 200 km on the east side of the California coast. What was the planes velocity?
Picture/box/circles

## Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

18 ) Honors: Mr Anderson started on the 30 yard line. He ran toward mid-field at an average speed of 8.31 yd/s for 1.4 s. He turned around and walked at 0.91 yd/s for 40 seconds. Where did he finish?
Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Show work:

## C2Hw2b Position vs. Time graphs (Honors Only)

GRAPH A: The following is a plot of position vs time. Assume the traditional coordinate system. 10 8 6 4 2 0

Position (m)

0 1 2 3 4 5 time (s)
1) Where is the object located at time = 0 seconds? 2) Where is the object located at time = 5 seconds? 3) From this, we can see that as time goes on, the object _____ a) moves to the right away from the origin b) moves to the right to be closer to the origin c) stays in the same spot d) moves to the left away from the origin e) moves to the left closer to the origin

4) Use the information from the previous two questions to determine the velocity of the object during the first 5 seconds (include the sign). 5) Find the slope of the graph (include the sign).

GRAPH B: The following is a plot of position vs time. Assume the traditional coordinate system.

Position (m)

10 8 6 4 2 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 time (s)
6) Where is the object located at time = 0 seconds? 7) Where is the object located at time = 5 seconds? 8) From this, we can see that as time goes on, the object _____ a) moves to the right away from the origin b) moves to the right to be closer to the origin c) stays in the same spot d) moves to the left away from the origin e) moves to the left closer to the origin

9) Use the information from the previous two questions to determine the velocity of the object during the first5 seconds (include the sign). 10) Find the slope of the graph (include the sign).

20

Continued

21

GRAPH C: The following is a plot of position vs time. Assume the traditional coordinate system. Position (m)
10 8 6 4 2 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 time (s)
11) From this, we can see that as time goes on, the object _____ a) moves to the right away from the origin d) moves to the left away from the origin b) moves to the right to be closer to the origin e) moves to the left closer to the origin c) stays in the same spot 12) Use the information from the previous question to determine the velocity of the object during the first 5 seconds. 13) Find the slope of the graph. 14) In the last 3 graphs, what is the relationship between the slope of the graph and the velocity of the object? 15) Just by glancing at these position/time graphs, which object moved faster? (left, middle, or right)
5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

16) Just by glancing at a position vs. time graph, how can you tell which direction that an object is going? GRAPH D: The following is a plot of position vs time. Assume the traditional coordinate system. +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5

Position (m)

9 10 time (s)

For the following questions, there may be more than one appropriate time. Write all correct times. 18) In the graph above, when is the object moving closer to the origin? 19) When is the object on the right side of the origin?

22) When is the object sitting still? 23) When is the object moving to the right? 24) When is the object moving to the left? 25) When is the object moving the fastest?

20) When is the object on the left side of the origin? 26) At time=6 seconds, is the object moving? 21) When is the object at the origin?

22

Lesson 3 Acceleration
Before We Begin: Grade Hw1, see the unit organizer. Activate Your Brain: Do the ACT practice on the following page Todays Goal: Learn to use equations to calculate acceleration. Honors: Also calculate the average velocity of an object with steady acceleration. The Big Idea: 1) The equation for acceleration is similar to the equation for velocity

Define: Acceleration is any change in ___________________ per unit time. (faster OR slower)

2) Since velocity has two parts, you accelerate if either one of the parts changes. So if you change ________________________ or change _____________________________ you experience acceleration.
Discuss amusement park rides

3) Is something accelerating if it is slowing down?_____ 4) Think about Lesson1. There we learned that velocity is the rate of changing position per unit time. If acceleration is the rate of changing velocity per unit time, what is the equation for acceleration? (We will not be calculating the acceleration of an object due to change of direction.) 5) Derive 3 different versions of the equation with acceleration. When would you use each?

6) A spaceship changes velocity from +60 m/s to +20 m/s in 4 seconds. What is the acceleration?
Raw Equation: Substitutions: Answer with units:

7) What is the unit for acceleration? ____________What does this mean? 8) How fast is the spaceship going at the end of 5 seconds?______ 6 sec?_____7 sec?_____ 8 sec?___ 9) A car changes velocity by +10 m/s in 20 seconds. What is the acceleration?
Raw Equation: Substitutions: Answer with units:

9) A plane is taxiing at 5 m/s to the right. The pilot accelerates at 4 m/s 2 for 23 seconds to take off. How fast is the plane going at the end of this time? How fast is it going after each succeeding second?
Raw Equation: Substitutions: Answer with units:

## Lab3: Finding Acceleration

Goal: Find the acceleration of a Hot Wheels car going down the ramp. Materials: photogate, stopwatch, ramp, car Procedure: You decide

23

Data:

## Equation & Work:

observer #1

Mo tor For ce

1) A skateboarder takes physics and decides to apply his new knowledge to his sport. He attaches a 12 cc motor to a skateboard. He pushes off and coasts at 2 m/s. Then he kicks in the engine. In 4 seconds the force of the motor pushes the board to a speed of 9 m/s. Find the acceleration of the skateboard according to Observer #1.
Raw Equation: Substitutions: (note the direction is to the left according to the observer) Answer with units:

mo tio n

Hw 3a

observer #2

## 2) Find the acceleration of the same skateboarder according to Observer #2.

Raw Equation: Substitutions: (note the direction is to the right according to the observer) Answer with units:

NEW INFO

In Q#1-2, the observers are seeing the same object speeding-up, but they measure the acceleration to be different. One observer sees the acceleration to be positive and the other sees it negative. Therefore, you need to recognize that the sign of the acceleration does NOT indicate if it is speeding up or slowing down.
I see him going to my left. I see him going to my right.

After achieving the speed of 9 m/s, the skateboarder turns the engine off. Frictional forces of many sorts push back and slow the board to a speed of 5 m/s in 6 seconds. 3) Find the acceleration of the skateboarder according to Observer #1.

mo tio n Fric

tion For

observer #1 Raw Equation: Substitutions: (note the direction is to the left according to the observer) Answer with units:

ce

observer #2

## 4) Find the acceleration of the same skateboarder according to Observer #2.

Raw Equation: Substitutions: (note the direction is to the right according to the observer)

24

Name:____________________________________Per_____

NEW One observer sees the acceleration to be negative and the other sees it positive. Therefore, you need to recognize INFO6) that the sign of the acceleration NOT indicate whether it is According speeding up slowing down (a) what is the Look at Questions 1&2 where does the skateboarder is speeding up. toor the first observer:
sign of the acceleration?________(b) what is the sign of the force that is causing this acceleration?_______ 7) Look at Questions 1&2 where the skateboarder is speeding up. According to the second observer: (a) what is the sign of the acceleration?_______(b) What is the sign of the force that is causing this acceleration?_______ 8) Look at Questions 3&4 where the skateboarder is slowing. According to the first observer: (a) what is the sign of the acceleration?________(b) What is the sign of the force that is causing this acceleration?_______ 9) Look at Questions 3&4 where the skateboarder is slowing. According to the second observer: (a) what is the sign of the acceleration?________(b) What is the sign of the force that is causing this acceleration?_______

In Q#3-4, the 2 observers are seeing the same object slowing down, but they measure the acceleration differently. C2Hw3a continued

NEW INFO

10) Look at the sign of each acceleration and the arrows labeled motion and force. What is the pattern?
a) acceleration has the same sign as the force changing the motion. b) acceleration has opposite sign as the force changing motion. c) there is no relationship between the signs of acceleration and force

11-14) A car is going +30 m/s down the road. It changes velocity at a rate of -2 m/s 2.
11) According to the traditional coordinate system, is the car moving right or left?____________ Draw a picture here: 12)The phrase changes velocity at a rate of -2 m/s 2 means that for every second, the velocity changes by -2 m/s. Therefore, after 1 second the car is going 28 m/s. After 2 seconds the car is going 26 m/s. How fast is it going after 3 seconds?_________ 4 sec?________ 13) Think which way a force must be pushing on the car in order to change the velocity in this way. Draw a thick arrow on your picture above to indicate this force. What is the sign of this force?________ This is the same as the sign of the ___________________. 14) In this situation, the sign of the acceleration is ___________________(same as/opposite) the sign of the velocity. This indicates that the object is __________________________(slowing/speeding up)

15-18) A car is going -30 m/s down the road. It accelerates at -2 m/s 2.
15) Is the car moving right or left? ___________ Draw a picture here: 16) After 1 second the car is going ______ m/s. After 2 seconds the car is going ______ m/s. After 3 seconds it is going _________ m/s. 17) Is the car getting faster or slower?_______ 19) In this situation, the sign of the acceleration is ________________(same as/opposite) the sign of the velocity. This indicates that the object is ___________________(slowing/speeding up)

18) On your picture above, draw a thick arrow to show the force that is changing the cars velocity. What is the sign of this direction?_________

20-23) A car is going +30 m/s down the road. It accelerates at +2 m/s 2.
20)Is the car moving right or left? ____________ Draw a picture here: 21)After 1 second the car is going ____ m/s. After 2 seconds the car is going ___ m/s 22)Is the car getting faster or slower?__________. 23) On your picture above, draw a thick arrow to show the force that is changing the cars velocity. What is the sign of this force?________

24-27) A car is going -30 m/s down the road. It accelerates at +2 m/s 2.
24) Is the car moving right or left? ___________ 25) After 1 second the car is going ____ m/s. After 2 seconds the car is going ___ m/s. 26) Is the car getting faster or slower?_________ 27) Is the force pushing on the car acting to the right or left? ____________

NEW causing the acceleration is acting to the right. However, if the story problem says that the speed changes at a INFO rate of 8 m/s2 or some other phrase besides acceleration then you cannot assume acceleration is positive.
You have to read the whole situation and determine which way the force is acting and make the acceleration have the same sign. 28-29) A train is going 25 m/s to the right. It slows at a rate of 3 m/s 2.
28) Is the force on the car acting to the right or left? ____________29) Is the acceleration positive or negative? ____________

If a problem states acceleration = 8 m/s2 then you can assume that acceleration is positive and the force

## 30-31) A train is going 25 m/s to the left. It speeds up at a rate of 3 m/s 2.

25

30) Is the force on the train acting to the right or left?____________31) Is the acceleration positive or negative? ____________

Remember to adjust signs and units of variables as needed. 32) During the middle of its flight, a model rocket speeds up at a rate of 50 m/s2. During 3 seconds of this acceleration, how much does velocity change?
What variable are you looking for?___________ Picture/box/circles

Question #35 continued: Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

36) Jimmy Joe gets a lead on the dog, but the dog continues the chase with evil howls. Unfortunately, Jimmy Joe gets tired his movement to the right gradually slows from 12.7 m/s to 3.2 m/s. Fear tears at his heart the entire time. If his rate of slowing was 0.1 m/s2, how long did he take to slow down to the final speed?
Picture/box/circles

## Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

33) A 2 kg ball rolls at a steady rate of 3 m/s for 5 s. What is the acceleration? -

## Raw equation: Substitutions with units:

34) How much does a cars velocity change in 2.1 s if the driver slams on the brakes and changes speed at a rate of 23 m/s2?
What variable are you looking for?___________ Picture/box/circles

37) The dog runs to the right over a hill in pursuit of the biker. The dog then sees Jimmy Joe standing next to the dog catcher. The dog takes 0.04 minutes to slow to a stop with a constant rate of 5 m/s2. Evil still lurks in the dogs eyes as it assesses the new situation. He growls as he decides who hes going to chomp first. Find the initial velocity of the dog before it started to slow down.
Picture/box/circles

Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units Raw equation: Substitutions with units:

35) Jimmy Joe is initially peddling a bike to the right at a speed of 7 m/s. A dog starts to chase the bike. JimmyJoe sees this and tries to get away by speeding up at a rate of 2 m/s2 for 3 sec. What is Jimmy Joes velocity at the end of this time?
Picture/box/circles 38)

A 1000 kg car goes a constant 50 mph for 3 hours. What is the acceleration?

26

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Hw3b:
NEW velocity. The average velocity is the middle value between the two extremes. This is found merely by taking INFO the average of the first and last velocities.
Example: An 8-kg object speeds up from 10 m/s to 18 m/s in 3 seconds. What is the average velocity? _ Solution: V = Vi + V f 2 _ V = 10 m/s + 18 m/s = 28 m/s 2 2 _ V = 14 m/s Please Note: The time of the acceleration is irrelevant to finding the average velocity. In this example, the average velocity will be 14 m/s whether the acceleration took place over 3 seconds or 13 seconds or 23 seconds. The average velocity is always just the middle value between the first and last velocities. 1) An object changes velocity from 50 m/s to 38 m/s. What is the average velocity?
Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

When an object has a constant acceleration (or accelerating at a steady rate), we can easily find the average

3) A ball is tossed up at a velocity of 30 m/s. After 6 seconds it is going down at 30 m/s and is caught. What is its average velocity? (HINT: consider the directions in each velocitywhat do you need to change?)
Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

2) A 50-kilogram rock is dropped from a 200 foot-high bridge. It accelerates from -10 to -30 m/s in about 3 seconds. What is the average velocity?
Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

4) A car skids to a stop from a speed of 26 m/s. What is the average velocity during the skid?
Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

27

28

## C2Hw3c Velocity vs Time Graphs (Honors)

Important! You must keep in mind that velocity vs. time graphs show information in different ways than the position vs. time graphs we had earlier. Do not try to apply rules from one graph to the other!

GRAPH A: The following is a plot of velocity vs time. Assume the traditional coordinate system.
10 8 6 4 2 0

Velocity (m/s)

0 1 2 3 4 5 time (s)

1) From this graph, what do we know about the object at time = 0 seconds? 2) From this graph, what do we know about the object at time = 5 seconds? 3) Do we know where the object is located at any particular time? 4) From this graph, we can see that as time goes on, the object _____ (choose more than one) a) moves to the right c) moves to the left e) is on the left side of the origin b) is slowing down d) is on the right side of the origin f) is speeding up 5) Use the information from the previous questions to determine the acceleration of the object during the first 5 seconds (include the sign). 6) Find the slope of the graph (include the sign).

GRAPH B:
Velocity (m/s)
10 8 6 4 2 0

The following is a plot of velocity vs time. Assume the traditional coordinate system.

0 1 2 3 4 5 time (s)
7) From this graph, what do we know about the object at time = 0 seconds? 8) From this graph, what do we know about the object at time = 4 seconds? 9) Do we know where the object is located at any particular time? 10) From this, we can see that as time goes on, the object _____ (choose more than one) a) moves to the right c) moves to the left e) is on the left side of the origin b) is slowing down d) is on the right side of the origin f) is speeding up 11) Use the information from the previous questions to determine the acceleration of the object during the first5 seconds (include the sign). 10) Find the slope of the graph (include the sign).

29

Continued

30

GRAPH C: The following is a plot of velocity vs time. Assume the traditional coordinate system.
0 1 2 3 4 5 time (s)
-0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 12) From this graph, what do we know about the object at time = 0 seconds? 13) From this graph, what do we know about the object at time = 3 seconds? 14) From this, we can see that as time goes on, the object _____ (choose more than one) a) moves at a steady speed c) moves to the left e) is on the left side of the origin b) is slowing down d) is on the right side of the origin f) is speeding up g) is stationary 14) Use the information from the previous two questions to determine the acceleration of the object during the first 5 seconds. 15) Find the slope of the graph. 16) In the last 3 graphs, what is the relationship between the slope of the graph and the acceleration of an object? 17) Just by glancing at two velocity/time graphs, how can you tell which object is accelerating more?

Velocity (m/s)

GRAPH D: The following is a plot of position vs time. Assume the traditional coordinate system.
+5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 0 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 23) What do we know about the object at t = 0.5 s? a) speeding up b) slowing c) has steady speed 24) At 2 sec, the object is moving____ at 0.5 sec. a) faster than b) slower than c) just as fast as
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 time (s)

Velocity (m/s)

24) What do we know about the object at t = 3 s? a) comes to a stop b) moves right c) moves left 25) What is happening to the object at 8 s? a) moving left b) slowing c) speeding up d) coming closer to the origin 26) What do we know about the object at t = 6.5 s? a) moving left b) moving right c) not moving 26) What do we know about the object at t = 6.5 s? a) speeding up b)slowing c) steady speed 29) When is the object at the origin? a) 0 s b) 5 s c) 10 s d) never know for sure 30) When is the object getting faster? 31) When is the object getting slower?

18) What does a positive velocity indicate? 19) When is the object moving to the right? 20) When is the object moving to the left? 21) What do we know about the object at t = 5 s? a) moving left b) moving right c) not moving 22) At time = 3.5 seconds, the object is___ a) moving left b) moving right c) not moving

31

## Lesson 4: The Long Xf Equation

Go into detail as to how this equation works. Also spend time to explain Xf=Xi + Vit Honors: examples include problems that will be 2 step. Always start off with the equation that gives the answer. Use other equations to determine needed variables. Activate Your Brain A) Write an equation for the final location Xf of an object if it is initially located at Xi
and it doesnt move.

## _ B) Derive the equation Xf = Xi + V t

C) For each measurement, state if it refers to the variable x, v or a: a) m/s d) km/hr2 b) km e) cm/min c) m/s2 f) m

D) Honors: What is the quadratic formula?_______________ What is it used to do? Todays Goal: Calculate the final location of an accelerating object. ___

## Remember from a previous lesson we had

Xf = Xi + V t
Final Location = Initial Location + Change in Location Due to a Steady Average Velocity _

1) Question: Which travels further: a car that starts from rest and constantly accelerates at 3 m/s 2 for 6 seconds, or a truck that travels at a constant 9 mph for 6 seconds? Solution: During this time, the cars velocity is constantly and steadily changing from 0 to 18 m/s. During this time the cars average velocity is 9 m/s. Because of the steady nature of this change, the car will travel the same distance as the truck. What is the equation for the distance that an object will go if it accelerates from the origin from a standstill for t seconds?

2) How do you continue to expand the short Xf equation if the object is accelerating?

32

1) A model rocket is km high when the engine runs out of fuel. It is moving at 150 m/s. Air friction and gravity slows it down at a rate of 13 m/s2. How high is it after 10 seconds of coasting?
1a. Draw picture and label with variables that you know from the problem: 1b. Do you need to change any of these values to be negative?_____If so, show the change. 1c. Do you need to convert any of these units?_____ If so, show the change. 1d. What variable are you looking for? Show it. 1e. What equation will be used? 1f. Substitutions with units: 1g. Answer with units:

2) A model rocket launches with an acceleration of 100 m/s 2. How high is it after 2 seconds of flight when the fuel runs out?
2a. Draw picture and label with variables that you know from the problem: 2b. Do you need to change any of these values to be negative?_____If so, show the change 2c. Do you need to convert any of these units?_____ If so, show the change. 2d. What variable are you looking for? Show it. 2e. What equation will give you the answer? 2f. Substitutions with units: 2g. Answer with units:

3) Where do you put the origin if the story problem doesnt refer to any specific locations? 4) Honors: How long does it take to accelerate from 10 m/s to 50 m/s if you can do it over a distance of 0.1 km?
4a. Draw picture and label with variables that you know from the problem: 4b. Show adjustments in signs and units. 4c. What variable are you looking for? Show it. 4d. What equation will give you the answer? Show work:

5) Honors: An object has Vi = 1 m/s and a = 2 m/s2. Find time to move from Xi = 20 m to Xf = 30 m.

33

## Lab4 Rolling Time Lab

Purpose: To predict where an object will be after a specific period of constant acceleration Materials: Hot Wheel car, Track on a long board, stopwatch, meter stick. Have the track with a very small incline so it takes 4 or more seconds to complete a run. Prediction #1. A car rolls 2 meters down a ramp in 10 seconds. How long will it take to roll 1 meter? Procedure: 1) Assume the finish line is the origin. Measure the initial location of the car when it is at the starting line. (have the front wheels of the car on the starting line). Is the initial location positive or negative?

2) Time the car rolling to the finish line. Do this five times and find the average. Times:__________ ___________ __________ __________ __________

Average time to roll down the full track:_____________ Honors: Find the standard deviation of your data:

3) From your data, find the acceleration of the car. Acceleration of car: ____________ 4) Prediction #2: Use the long Xf equation to predict how long it will take for the car to roll down half the track.

Prediction #2: calculated time to roll down half the track:__________ Does this coincide with your Prediction #1 at the top of the page?________ 5) Time how long it takes the car to roll down half the track. Actual time to roll down half the track:__________ 6) Find the percent error in your Prediction #2.__________ Show work: 7) State 2 sources of error in your Prediction #2:__________________________________ 34

8) Prediction #3: Where the car will be in 3 seconds?____________ Test the prediction. How many centimeters were you off?__________

35

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Hw4a
1) Jimmy Joe is driving a go-cart around and around an oval track. After tootling around the track with a constant speed of 12 m/s, he decides to speed up. When he is 10 m before the starting line he speeds up at a constant 2 m/s2 for 5 seconds. Where is he at the end of this time?
Raw equation: Substitutions with units:

5) A bird is flying with a velocity of -3 m/s. It accelerates at -1 m/s2. Is it getting faster or slower? 6) A bird is flying with a velocity of +3 m/s. It accelerates at -1 m/s2. Is it getting faster or slower? 7) What does it mean if acceleration is negative? 8) What does it mean if the velocity is positive? 9) What does it mean if an items location is negative?

10) What does it mean if acceleration is zero? 11) What is the velocity of an object that sits still? 12) In the traditional coordinate system, what does a negative acceleration mean? 13) What 2 variables show an items initial location? 14) What 2 variables indicate objects final location? 15) What variable indicates the difference between the initial and final location of an object?

2) Billy Bob is running cross-country with a constant speed of 5 m/s. For 2 s, he runs with a constant acceleration. During this time, he goes from a spot 7 m to the left of tree to a spot 11m on the right of the tree. What is his acceleration?
Raw equation: Substitutions with units:

16) What variable shows an items average velocity? 17) What 2 variables show an items final velocity? 18) What variable indicates the time that passes? 19) An object is slowing down. What do you know about the signs of the variables a and v? 20) A bird is flying with a velocity of +3 m/s. It accelerates at +1 m/s2. Is it getting faster or slower?

3) A rocket launches with a steady acceleration of 30 m/s2. How long does it take to get an altitude of 0.667 km if it accelerates the whole time? (Hint: beware of units!)
Raw equation: Substitutions with units:

4) A ball is thrown downwards from a height of 100 m. It takes 2 seconds to fall to a height of 40 m. During this time, its speed changes at a rate of 10 m/s2. What was the initial velocity?
Raw equation: Substitutions with units:

21) A wagon is moving to the right. A person changes its velocity by pushing on it to the left. Will the acceleration be + or - ? 22) A car is moving to the right. A force causes it to slow down. Will the acceleration be + or - ? 23) A car is moving to the left. A force causes it to speed up. Will the acceleration be + or - ? 24) How is velocity different from speed?

25) What does X2 mean? 26) What is another variable for V2?

36

Continued

C2Hw4b

10) Chp 1: How many mm in a cm?____ 11) Chp 1: How many mm in a meter?____ 12) Chp 1: How many g in a kg?____ 13) Chp 1: How many m in a km?____ 14) Review of Chp 1: Bob measures the mass of a bag of beans to be 232 g. The correct answer is 240 g. What is the percent error?
Show work:

1) What does V mean? 2) What does X mean? 3) A car is moving to the left at 40 m/s. It slows at a rate of 3 m/s2. Will the value of the acceleration be positive or negative? 4) A car is moving to the right at 25 m/s. It speeds up at a rate of 6 m/s2. Will the value of the acceleration be positive or negative? 5-9) Review of Chp 1: Here is a mixed-up list of the parts to the traditional scientific method: A. observing B. drawing a conclusion based on observation, C. forming a hypothesis D. conducting an experiment E. organizing data F. comparing data. Read the following story of a research project. Label each step with the parts A-F above that best describe each step. A researcher is given the task to find the best fuel for a rocket-powered lawnmower. The researcher reads a bunch of material about rockets, lawnmowers, and explosive fuels. Step 1. ___The researcher chooses the four fuels that appear to be the best fuels Step 2. ___The researcher puts each fuel into standard rocket powered lawnmowers and starts them operating Step 3____The researcher reads data from the thrust-o-meter on each lawnmower Step 4.____The researchers records the data in a table and graph. Step 5. ___The researcher looks at the table and graph and sees which is the highest value. Step 6. ___The researcher writes a report to the boss indicating which fuel worked the best.

15) Review of Chp 1: A student measures a line to be 43.3 cm long. It really is 44.1 cm. Find the percent error.
Show work:

Regular: How long did Hw4a and Hw4b take?____ 16) Honors: A car is traveling at a speed of 78 km/h. The car is 100 m away from a cat on the road and so the driver brings the car to a stop with a constant deceleration. How much time will it take the car to stop 1 m in front of the cat?
Show work:

17) Honors: A jet plane lands with a velocity of 100 m/s to the right and can slow at a maximum rate of 5 m/s2 as it comes to a rest. How long of a runway does it need to land?
Show work:

37 Continued

## 18) Honors: A car with an unknown initial speed

gets faster and faster at a rate of 2 m/s 2 for 6 s. Its final speed is 20 m/s. It starts off 300 m north of town and is moving northward. Find the location of the car after this time.
Show work:

20) Honors: An object is initially moving at a rate of 20 m/s to the right. It increases its speed at a rate of 8 m/s2. It starts off 30 m from a wall. How long does it take to hit the wall?
Show work:

21) Honors: An aircraft sits at one end of the runway. It needs to have a speed of 120 m/s in order to take off. What is the minimum acceleration required if the plane is to be airborne after using 250 m of runway?
Show work:

19) Honors: A motorcycle initially goes 10 m/s and speeds up to 30 m/s over a distance of 4.5 km. How much time did this take?

## 18) Honors: A car with an unknown initial speed

gets faster and faster at a rate of 0.92 m/s 2 for 3.6 s. Its final speed is 9.89 m/s. It starts off 3.1 km north of town and is moving northward. Find the location of the car after this time.
Show work:

## How long did this assignment take you? 38

Name:____________________________________Per_____

## C2Hw5a (Regular Only)

For all Qs, use the traditional coordinate system. 1) A model rocket is moving upwards at 50 m/s. It is speeding up at a rate of 5 m/s2. Will this acceleration be positive or negative? 2) A model rocket is moving upwards at 50 m/s. It starts to slow down at a rate of 5 m/s2. Will this acceleration be positive or negative? 3) A model rocket starts to move downward at 22 m/s. It speeds up at a rate of 4 m/s2. Will this acceleration be positive or negative? 4) A model rocket is moving downwards at 33 m/s. Its parachute comes out and slows the rockets fall a rate of 12 m/s2. Will this acceleration be positive or negative? 5) A helicopter is flying at 3.8 m/s to the right through a cloud. Upon leaving the cloud, the pilot sees that she is 59 m from hitting a cliff. The pilot pulls back on the controls and makes the helicopter have an acceleration of -2.1m/s2 for 3 sec. Where is it after this time? (Hint: The 59 m is NOT X)
Picture/box/circles Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units: Raw equation: Substitutions with units:

7) A model rocket is floating down with a parachute. It has a steady descent rate of 30 m/s. How much time does the rocket to fall 4.3 km?
Picture/box/circles

8) A space probe is 10,000 km from an asteroid and is moving at 400 m/s toward an asteroid. Mission control sends a signal to it for it to slow at a rate of 2.89 m/s2 for 18.9 s. Where will the probe be located at the end of that time?
Picture/box/circles

Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Raw equation: Answer with units: Substitutions with units:

6) A model rocket launches from a pad with an acceleration of 69 m/s2. How far up is it after 8.2 seconds? (Hint: you can tell initial velocity and initial location)
Picture/box/circles

9) A car driver slams on the brakes to avoid a collision. The car was originally travelling at 55 m/s. The car is completely stopped after 6 seconds. What was the rate of acceleration?
Picture/box/circles

Continued 39

## Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

10) How do you know if a negative acceleration represents an object speeding up or slowing down? 11) 600 mL = ______________L 12) 42.3 kg = ______________g Regular: How long did this assignment take you? 13) Honors: A baseball is pitched at 46 m/s to the right. Air friction slows the ball at a rate of 4 m/s 2 . Find the final velocity when it reaches home plate which is 60.5 ft away.(hint: flight time < 1 s)
Show work:

16) Honors: A car is stuck behind a slow truck that is going 30 m/s. The car driver wants to pass the truck before the car enters a tunnel which is km down the road. Assume the car constantly accelerates for 0.25 minutes until it enters the tunnel. Find the ending velocity when it enters the tunnel
Show work:

17) Honors: How long does it take a 100-ft long semi-truck to completely pass over a train-track if the truck is moving at 30 m/s? (hint: Watch your units. Also, consider the nose of the truck. Draw a picture of the beginning and end of the time period) Show work 14) Honors: A car is going down the highway at 45 mph. When the car is 2 miles out of town, there is a sign saying the speed limit in town is 25 mph. The car steadily slows down to meet the new speed limit. How long did it take the car to reach the city limits? (find the answer in terms of hours)
Show work:

18) Honors: A 200-m long train is going to go over a 300-m bridge. The train is moving at 50 m/s. For how many seconds is the bridge supporting at least part of the trains weight? (hint: Again, just consider the nose of the train. Draw a picture of the beginning and end of the time period) Show work

15) Honors: A truck is trying to pass a slow vehicle. The truck accelerates from 50 m/s to 65 m/s in 128 m. What is the trucks acceleration?
Show work:

## How long did this assignment take you?

40

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Hw5b
1) Honors: Jimmy Joe and Billy Bob are jousting on motorcycles from a distance of 50 m. Jimmy Joe is going south at 20 m/s. Billy Bob is going north at 34 m/s. How long will it take to collide?
Picture/box/circles: :

3) Honors: Billy Bob continues north at 29 m/s. Jimmy Joe turns around and chases Billy Bob at 50 m/s. How long will it take for him to catch Billy Bob if they start 1 km apart?
Picture/box/circles:

Raw equation:

## Substitutions with units: Answer with units:

2) Honors: During their jousting run, Jimmy Joe and Billy Bob miss each other. Billy Bob continues north at 29 m/s. Jimmy Joe continues south at 15 m/s. How long will it take for them to get 1 km apart?
Picture/box/circles:

4) Honors: A runner is going 8 m/s down a street. An evil street-cleaner is going 10 m/s down the same street in the same direction as the runner. The runner is 6 m ahead. How long will it take the cleaner to splash the runner?
Picture/box/circles:

Raw equation: Raw equation: Substitutions with units: Substitutions with units:

41 Continued

5) Honors: Jimmy Joe and Billy Bob are doing a duel. They stand back to back and then walk away from each other. Billy Bob walks at 3 ft/s. Jimmy Joe walks 2 ft/s. How far will Billy Bob have walked when the two gentlemen are 30 feet apart?

8) Honors: Two trains are headed for each other on the same track. The northbound train is 1000 meters north of a station, moving at a constant 30 m/s. The southbound train is moving at a constant 40 m/s and is 6000 meters north of the station. Relative to the station, where do they collide? (Hint: its a multiple-step problem.)

6) Honors: Jimmy Joe and Billy Bob are jousting. Jimmy Joe is driving his riding lawnmower at 4 ft/s southward. Billy Bob is driving his Segway scooter at 5 ft/s to the north. They start out 36 ft apart. How far will Billy Bob have travelled when they crash?

9)

Honors Two trains are headed for each other on the same track. They are 7 km apart. The northbound train is moving at a constant 55 m/s and is just passing a bridge. The southbound train is moving at a constant 20 m/s. In relation to the bridge, where do they collide?

10) Honors: What is a vector? How long did this assignment take you?

7) Honors: Two trains leave the station at the same time. Both go north. One train travels at a uniform speed of 40 m/s. The other train has a uniform speed of 60 m/s. How far will the faster train be from the station when the two trains are 2 km apart?

42

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Hw5c
1) Define: coordinate system

12) A train is 400 m south of a station. It moves at a steady 50 m/s away from a station. How far away will the train be after 1 minute of travel? Use the traditional coordinate system.
Picture/box/circles:

## 2) What is the traditional way of setting up a coordinate system?

3) Define: displacement
Raw equation: Substitutions with units:

4) Define: velocity

## 5) Define: frame of reference

6) A car is sitting still and is located at -5 m. What does the negative mean? 7) What is a vector? 8) A car is moving at -8 m/s. What does the negative mean? 9) Give 3 examples of units for velocity.

13) The train engineer notes that he is 300 km from the next station at exactly 12:02 pm. He is traveling at an average speed of 1.2 km/min. How long will it take the train to get 100 km from the station?
Picture/box/circles:

## 10) Give 3 examples of units for displacement.

11) At 11:52 a.m. a train enters a long tunnel. It comes out 15 minutes later. At what time does the train leave the tunnel?

43

Continued

14) A train is 32 miles to the right of a station. It moves at an initial speed of 50 m/s to the left. After 100 seconds, it is moving at 55 m/s. Find the acceleration.
Picture/box/circles:

16) A train is 136 m long and is going an average velocity of 26 m/s. How long does it take the entire train to pass by a railroad sign?
Picture/box/circles:

## Raw equation: Substitutions with units:

15) A train is located 10 miles east of a station. 30 minutes later, it is 20 miles on the west side of the station. During this time, what is the trains displacement?
Picture/box/circles:

17) A train is 136 m long. Its going 26 m/s. As it passes a sign that says slow: intersection 200 m ahead it brakes. It takes 11 s to travel 100 m as it steadily slows. Find the rate of slowing.
Picture/box/circles:

Raw equation:

## Substitutions with units:

Answer with units: 18) Chp1: Do researchers have an official 8-step scientific method?

19) Chp1: 1 kg = ___________ g 20) Chp1: How many cm in a m?_______ 21) Chp1: How many mm in a m?_________ 22) Chp1: Convert 34 cm = _____________m 23) Chp1: Convert 34 g = _______________kg 24) Chp1: What is the role of peer review in science?

## 44 How long did this take?

Name:____________________________________Per_____

## C2Lab6a: Water balloon Drop

Goal: To use water balloons to find the acceleration due to gravity. Materials: water balloons, ____________________________________________________ Procedure:

## Data and Results: Individual data: Individual calculations and results:

Class data:

Class results: Analysis: What is one way that can we quantify the error due to reflex time? 45

Name:____________________________________Per_____

## Lab 6b: Paper Drop

Goal: To find the acceleration due to gravity if air friction is removed. Materials: paper, stopwatch Background: With the water balloon drop, the acceleration value was affected to some degree by air friction. It can be argued that this was very small compared to the errors of reflex time, but none the less friction did play a role. There are ways of calculating the acceleration if air friction did not exist. Some researcher has such a huge budget that they have built tall towers (or deep wells) that get the air sucked out of them and then experiments can be dropped a significant distance without air friction. Sadly, we dont have such a tower at our disposal. Another way that researchers attack this kind of problem is to repeat an experiment many times, each time getting closer and closer to the ideal situation. The results slowly change during the repeated trials. Gradually the results get closer to the result that would exist if the ideal situation really did exist. Therefore, we will drop a single object many times. Each time we will make the object smaller and smaller. With smaller surface areas, that air friction plays a smaller role. Everything else will stay the same: The mass of the object, the height of the drop, the type of material dropped, the method of timing. We will plot the results of the acceleration each time. From the best fit curve we will be able to extrapolate the results if the surface area were zero (and the air friction were zero). Although we are still just imagining zero surface area, our results are going to be more valid than Galileos imagination because we have data to go along with it. Procedure: Read the whole procedure and decide how to create a table for ALL your data. Consider how Excel could help you calculating, plotting and extrapolating.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Get a large sheet of paper. Record its area in m2. Hold the paper horizontally at a height of 1.92 meters (from 1 meter above the lab tables to the floor). Drop it so it falls with this horizontal orientation. Record the time of 3 drops. (retime any trial with significant problems such as collisions, etc) Calculate and record its acceleration due to gravity. Fold the paper in half, and record its area, record 3 drop times. Repeat the previous step for a total of 7-8 trials Plot your data. Extrapolate to find what the acceleration would be if the size were 0 m 2.

46

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Lab6b (cont.)
Data Table:

Results:

Questions: 1) Why did you need to hold and drop the paper with a horizontal orientation? (why not a vertical orientation?) 2) Why did you repeat the drop 3 times with each size of paper? 3) Why did we stop at 7-8 trials? Why not more trials?

47

## Lesson 6 Thought Experiments

Before We Begin: Todays Goal: The Big Idea: See video of cliff divers To understand what a though experiment is. We can SOMETIMES learn stuff just by imagination.

See video of Apollo Astronaut, do book drop

48

Lesson 6 Continued

## Tossing Up and Down

1) The acceleration due to gravity is the same for ALL falling objects. In the metric system, it is about ________ m/s2. In the English system it is________ft/s2. (these numbers vary slightly around the world according to altitude and the geology of the area.) All our work in this class will assume that air friction will not be significant. This assumption is not always true, but it makes things easy enough for us to calculate. 2) A 38 m high dive once went very badly and ended in a belly-flop. How much time did it take to fall?_____

## 3) How fast did he land?_____

1)

```

4) BillyBob drops a rock down a hole. He hears it hit bottom after 3.0 seconds. How many feet deep is the hole?

5) Honors: BillyBob and JimmyJoe are on a 90 m platform. BillyBob throws JimmyJoe downward at 5 m/s. How many seconds does it take JimmyJoe to hit the ground?

49

6) A ball is tossed up with a velocity of 30 m/s. It lands 6 seconds later. Find the speed at each second. Time 0s 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s Velocity . +29.4 m/s . ________ . . . . . . 7) From this chart, we can see that an object will hit the ground at ______________________________ as it left the ground but with an ______________________________. (Ask what your teacher means by the
question how fast is the object going when it hits the ground?)

8) The speed at the top is ________m/s at the exact __________________________________ of the flight time.

9) The acceleration at ______________________during the flight is _______ or _______. This acceleration is caused by gravity. Throughout the flight, gravity is in the same direction and to the same strength. 10) A cheerleader is tossed with a velocity of 7.8 m/s. How long is she in the air? (see video of what NOT to do.)
Labeled picture: Raw equation Substitutions

11)

Honors: A ball is tossed up and is in the air for 2.3 seconds. How high is the toss?
Labeled picture: Raw equation Substitutions

12) A ball is launched from the ground straight upward. It is in the air for 4 seconds. How fast was it launched?
Labeled picture: Raw equation Substitutions Answer

Extra Discussion: Suppose we calculated the motion of a tossed object but include the effects of air friction. In what kinds of cases would the results differ significantly? In what kinds of cases would the effects be negligible?

50

51

Name:____________________________________Per_____

Grades: _____/6 correct______/6 completed 7.At what speed in m/s would the diver hit the water?
Raw equation: Substitutions

C2Hw6a
1. What is a thought experiment?

2. When a thought experiment leads to contradictory results, what is one proper conclusion?

8. The worlds longest free-fall ride (like the Giant Drop at Great America) gives the riders 5 seconds of free-fall. How far in feet do they fall during this time?
Variables: Raw equation: Substitutions =5 =?

3. Define the word predominant as it is used in the 2nd paragraph of the reading in Lesson 6.

4. At one time, the world record freefall into an airbag was about 300 m. How much time did the fall take?
Variables: Raw equation: Substitutions = 300 =?

## 5. At what speed in m/s did the person land on the airbag?

10) A free-fall ride at Wisconsin Dells gives people about 2.5 seconds of free fall. Do people fall half the distance of the ride in Q#5a?
Variables: = 2.5 =?

Raw equation:

## Raw equation: Substitutions

6. A diver falls 24.5ft to hit the water. How much time does it take a diver to fall that far?
Variables: Raw equation: Substitutions Answer =24.5 =?

11). A hole is 30 feet deep. A rock is dropped. How many seconds pass before it hits the bottom?
Variables: Raw equation: Substitutions = 30 =?

52

Continued

12. BillyBob and JimmyJoe are standing by a very high cliff. Unfortunately, a fly gets in BillyBobs ear and he dances around until he falls off the cliff. Not to let this fine opportunity to do one last great physics calculation, JimmyJoe counts how long BillyBob falls and calculates his fall height. JimmyJoe counts 4.1 sec. How far in meters does BillyBob fall?
Picture/variable box

17. Honors: A chandelier started to fall with an initial speed of 3 m/s. How long will it take to fall 3 m to the floor? Show work.

## Raw equation: Substitutions

18. Honors: Would your answer to the previous problem be a larger or smaller number if the situation was on the moon?_______ 19. Honors: Explain your answer to the previous question.

13. How would your solving of these problems change if we lived on Mars (a smaller planet)?

## 14. Review Chp1 How do researchers judge the validity of a theory?

20. Honors: A falling piano has a velocity of 24 mph when it is 20 feet above the ground. How much longer does the gentleman have to live? NOTE UNITS Show work

15. Honors: How would your answer to question 12 change if the person was falling through water to the bottom of a lake? (Would he fall a larger or smaller distance?) 16. Honors: A person initially holds some dishes 2.7 m above the ground. She flicks her wrists to throw the dishes with an initial velocity of 5 m/s downward. How long will it take to hit the counter which is 1.4 m above the ground?
show work

53

C2 Hw6b

Name:__________________________Per__

54

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Hw7a
1) A ball is thrown straight up with a velocity of 20 m/s. What will be its speed after a) 1 second of flight?_____ b) 2 seconds of flight?_____ c) 3 seconds of flight?_____ 2) A ball is thrown straight up with a velocity of 25 m/s. How long will it be in the air?

We didnt do any examples exactly like Questions 6-11. 6) A ball is thrown straight up and goes 30 m high. How long does it take to get up the top of its flight?

7) A ball is thrown straight up and goes 50 m high. How long does it take to get to the top of the flight?

3) A ball is thrown straight up with a velocity of 50 m/s. How long will it be in the air?
Raw equation: Substitutions

8) Honors: A circus acrobat stands on a see-saw and is projected up at 8 m/s. How high does the person go?

4) Honors: A basketball is tossed up and is in the air for 1.4 seconds before it is caught. How high did it go? (see notes line 6)
Raw equation: Substitutions

9) A ball is thrown straight up and goes 40 m high. How long is it in the air? (remember the relationship between the total flight time and the time to get to the top!)

10) Honors: A firecracker is placed under a tin can and explodes. The can is projected upwards at 12 m/s. How high does it go?

5) Honors: A baseball is tossed up and is in the air for 2.1 sec before it is caught. How high did it go?
Raw equation: Substitutions

11) A ball is thrown straight up and goes 72 m high. How long is it in the air?

55

Continued

## 12-21) A ball is thrown straight up at an initial speed of 28 m/s.

12. What is the acceleration the moment the ball is airborne? 13. What is the acceleration at the very top of the trajectory? 14. What is the acceleration as the ball starts to fall downwards? 15. What is the acceration the moment before it hits the ground? 16. What is the velocity after 1 second of flight? 17. What is the velocity after 2 seconds of flight? 18. What is the velocity at the very top of the trajectory? 19. What is the velocity after 1 second of falling downward? 20. What is the velocity after 2 seconds of falling downward? 21. What is the velocity the moment as it hits the ground?

22) A football punt goes straight up and is in the air for 8 seconds. How fast did it get kicked?

23) A kid bounces a superball on a sidewalk. The ball is in the air for 10 seconds before it hits the childs toe. At what speed did the ball strike the toe?
Raw equation: Substitutions

Danger: Beware of Falling Cows Copyright 2007 The Associated Press. Nov 6 02:27 PM
MANSON, Wash. (AP) - Charles and Linda Everson were driving back to their hotel when their van was struck by falling 600-pound cow. The Eversons were unhurt but the cow, which had fallen off a cliff, had to be euthanized. The year-old cow fell about 200 feet from the cliff and landed on the hood of the couple's minivan, causing heavy damage. A Chelan County fire chief, Arnold Baker, said the couple missed being killed by a matter of inches in the accident Sunday on a highway near Manson. Everson didn't see the cow falling and didn't know what happened until afterward. He said he kept repeating: "I don't believe this. I don't believe this." Convert data from the article: 24) Rvw Chp 1 600 lb = ________g =_______mg 28) Rvw Lesson 1 How fast would the cow have been going at the moment of impact?
Raw equation: Substitutions

## 25) Rvw Chp 1 200 ft = _______cm = _______m

26) Rvw Chp 1 49 yrs = _______________hours 27) Rvw Lesson 1 Read the article above. How long would it have taken a cow to fall 200 ft?
Raw equation: Substitutions

29) Honors: If the cow had been thrown down at an initial speed of 15 m/s, how long would it have taken the cow to hit the van? (who would do such a mean
thing?)

## Raw equation: Substitutions:

How long did this HW take? How long did this HW take?

56

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Hw7b
To get credit, you must show your work.
A firecracker is placed under a tin can and lit. The explosion causes the can to go up at a rate of 9 m/s. 2) How long is it in the air before it hits the ground again?
Raw equation: Substitution:s

A firecracker is placed under a tin can and lit. The explosion causes the can to go up at a rate of 9 m/s. 3) How fast does it hit the ground? 1) A television projector falls from the ceiling (no resistance from wires or air). How long does it take to fall the 3.5 m to the floor?
Label the picture above with variables Raw equation: Substitutions

4) 5) 6) 7)

How fast is it a the top of the trajectory? What is its acceleration on the way up? What is the acceleration on the way down? What is the acceleration at the top of the flight?

2) Mr. Anderson gets tired of his computer not working. He drops it out his window. He hears a crash 1.2 seconds later. How far did it fall?

## 8) Honors: A cow jumps straight up and lands

after 420 seconds of flight. How fast did it jump?
Raw equation: Substitutions

1) Mr. Anderson gets tired of his computer not working. He drops it out his window. He hears a crash 1.2 seconds later. How fast in m/s did it hit the ground? Show work:

Continued

57

9) Review Chp1: What are the pros and cons of computer models?
Pros Cons:

12) Honors: See the cartoon below. If the computer has an initial upward velocity of 3 m/s and it finally hits the ground 8 seconds later, how high is the roof? (hint: you are looking for Xi.)
Raw equation: Xf = Xi + Vit + at2

10) Review Chp1: What are the pros and cons of statistics?
Pros: Cons:

Substitutions

11) Honors: Mr. Anderson violently throws his computer down out off the roof of the building. The initial velocity downward is 7 m/s. How long does it take to hit the ground 10 m below?
Raw equation: Substitutions

13) Honors: A football punter is standing on a roof. The ball is punted almost straight up at 11 m/s. The ball hits the ground 10 seconds later, how high is the roof? (hint: you are looking for Xi.)
Raw equation: Substitutions Xf = Xi + Vit + at2

## How long did this HW take?

58

Name:____________________________________Per_____

## C2Lab 2 Superball Lab

1) Bounce a superball as straight up as you can. (Ignore any sideways motion it may have.) 2) How can we determine the time between the first and second bounce most accurately?

3) What equation can we use to determine the height of the bounce? Show your work:
4) Picture/Variables:

5) 6)

## Raw equation Substitutions

7)

8) What equation can we use to determine the velocity of the ball as it bounced off the cement? Show your work:
9) Picture/Variables:

10) 11)

12)

59

## Lesson 8 Cars Off Cliffs (& other horizontal projectiles)

Activate Your Brain: 1. How long will it take a 50 pound ball of silly-putty to fall 84 feet? (See video)

3) Do review problems in the next homework assignment Before We Begin: Todays Goal: The Big Idea: Refer to the unit organizer. See videos of cars off cliffs To calculate the location where a car will land if it goes off a cliff. Vertical aspects of the problems are dealt with separately from the horizontal aspects.

1) To be projected horizontally means that it is initially moving only horizontally, but then it leaves the edge of a surface and becomes airborne and falls in an arcing path. Therefore, _____ = some value and ______ = 0. There are two aspects of this motion that you have to understand before you can make predictions. 2) The horizontal motion of a falling object does not affect the time of falling. This can be seen in the world famous Horizontal projectile demonstration 3) The act of falling does not affect the horizontal motion of an object (See the bomber picture, see the ballistics car)

Suppose the dark ball is dropping straight down and the light ball is simultaneously thrown horizontally with Vx=1 m/s. Note how the dark ball falls progressively farther each moment. Why is that? 4) Draw the positions of the light ball at t=1 s, 2 s, etc. 5) Draw the path of a horizontal projectile: 6) As time passes, Vy steadily increases 7) As time passes, Vx stays constant 8) This kind of motion is called _____________ 9) Label the range in the diagram:

## Object falling straight down Horizontal projectile at t=0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 meters

10) How do you predict the range of a horizontally projected object? Step 1: Find the ____________ of falling by using ____________________________ Step 2: Find the range by using __________ which can be rearranged to be_________

60

11) A skateboarder goes down a hill and gets a speed of 10 m/s. If the skateboarder leaves the end of the dock completely horizontally about 1.5 m above the water, where will the splash occur?
Initial drawing with labels: Step 1: Step 2:

12) BillyBob gets a job as a stunt driver and is planning a scene for a movie. The car will be driven at 40 m/s off a 10 m high cliff and land on a passing barge. Where will the barge need to be located?
Initial drawing with labels: Step 1: Step 2:

13) The director of the movie decides that the landing area on the barge needs to be located 80 m from the cliff. How fast will BillyBob have to drive the car?
Initial drawing with labels: Step 1: Step 2:

Extra discussion: How would the effects of air friction change our results? Extra discussion: A friend insists that a bullet stays in the air longer than a bullet that is just dropped. How would you convince your friend that is wrong?
Think About Your Learning: Fill out part of the graphic organizer on page 46. Draw a star by the key points of the notes.

61

Name:____________________________________Per_____

## C2Lab 8 Hot Wheels Lab

Activate Your Brain: A. How long will it take a toy ball to fall 110 cm? B. A toy truck is going 3m/s. How far does it move horizontally during 2.5s? C. A marble goes 4 m/s horizontally off a shelf that is 1.85 m high. Find the range. D. Read the next page.

## Before We Begin: Todays Goal: The Big Idea:

Correct Hw3a. Open-note quiz on Lessons 1 and 2. Refer to the unit organizer. You will first predict where a toy car will land after running off the countertop. Then you will place a target on the ground at the predicted location and see if the car truly lands where you think. This is just like problem C in the warm-up questions, except you do the measurements.

## DO NOT TEST YOUR CARS RANGE WITHOUT YOUR TEACHERS OK ..

Any unauthorized testing will result in your grade being reduced by 11%. If it takes you more than 15 minutes to do, you will be penalized 11% 1) Describe the setup with enough detail so that another person can replicate your experiment to get the same results. Do not add needless details (e.g. the color of the track). ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Draw a diagram of the setup. Include any important measurements.

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3) Measure the height of the counter.______________ (INCLUDE UNITS) 4) Set up the track on the lab table. Find the cars speed through the gate. The speedometer gives km/hr. Trial #1 = __________ Trial #2 = __________ Trial #3 = ________ Average:_________ 5) Convert the speed of the car to m/s. Show work here:

## 6) Determine the range of the car. Show work here:

Time of Flight: Include units! Range of Flight. Include units!

Grading: If it takes you more than 15 minutes to do, you will be penalized 11% first try and your work is shown, you get a 100% works on the second try, you get a 89% works on the third try, you get a 79% works on the fourth try, you get a 69% never works but your work is shown, you get a 65%
(trivia: Fastest fingers through photogate:88.30 km/hr)

63

Name:____________________________________Per_____

1. See the cartoon to the right. The researcher is 100 meters above the ground. His horizontal velocity is 10 m/s. How far from the base of the building will the researcher land? Label the picture to the right
Step 1 Raw equation: Substitutions step 2: raw equation: Substitutions:

2. See the cartoon below. The slingshot is 2 m above the floor. The cook sees the guy in the green jacket 9 m away. How fast would the potato have to fly to land at the customers feet? (assume the potato starts with only a horizontal velocity)
Step 1 Raw equation: Substitutions step 2 raw equation: Substitutions:

3. The worlds fastest baseball pitch was about 45 m/s. If this pitch was thrown horizontally from the top of the Sears Tower, what is its range? The Sears Tower is about 413 m tall.
Step 1 Raw equation: Substitutions step 2: raw equation: Substitutions:

4. A car crashes off a winding mountain road. The car went through the guard rail and down a 19 m cliff. The car landed 18 m from the base of the cliff. The driver says that he was not exceeding the speed limit (10 m/s). The police suspect he was speeding. Was he?
Step 1 Raw equation: Substitutions step 2: raw equation: Substitutions:

64

5) Rvw A car changes velocity from 9 m/s to 3 m/s in 2 seconds. What was Continued the acceleration?
Variables: Raw equation: Substitutions: = 9 m/s = 3 m/s =2 s =?

6) Rvw A car increases its velocity from 9 m/s at a rate of 0.3 m/s2 for minutes. What was the distance travelled during the acceleration?
Variables: Raw equation: Substitutions: =9 =3 =1/2 =?

The following review Chp 2: 8) How many cm are in a m?_______ 9) Convert 45 cm = _____________m 10) Convert 7 cm = ______________m 11) How many mm are in a m?________ 12) Convert 39 mm = _____________m 13) Convert 8 mm = ______________m 14) Convert 983 mm = ____________m 15) Convert 728 cm = _____________m 16) Convert 14.6 m/s =______________ mph (show work)

7) Rvw Chp 2 The box is labeled as containing 3.2 kg of stuff. When it is measured by an advocacy group, it is found to contain only 3.1 kg of stuff. What is the percent error in the label? (consider the correct mass to be 3.1 kg)
Raw equation: Substitutions:

## 17) Convert 8.7 in = ________________ m

(show work)

18) Honors: A car changes velocity from 9 m/s to 3 m/s in 2 seconds. How far does it travel in this time?

## How long did this HW take? 65

Name:____________________________________Per_____

C2Hw8b Review
FIND RANGE OF HORIZONTAL PROJECTILE 1) A car drives off a 60 ft cliff at 30 m/s. Find its range in meters. (note units)
Picture with labels:

5) Mr. Anderson needs to jump from his deck into his kids pool on his tricycle. The pool is 1 foot below the deck. The pool is 3 feet away from the deck. How fast would he have to ride? Do you think he could do it?
Show Work:

2) A sharpshooter climbs a 100 m tower and has a rifle that horizontally fires a bullet at 200 m/s. What is its range?
Picture with labels:

FIND TIME TO DROP: 6) A penny is dropped from the Burj Dubai, one of the tallest buildings in the world (2,684 ft) . With no air friction, how long will it take to hit the ground?
Raw equation:

Show Work:

Substitutions:

14) Mr. Anderson rides a tricycle at 3 m/s over a cliff that is 24 inches high (he never claimed to be athletic or brave). What is his range?
Picture with labels:

7) A penny is dropped from the Taipei 101 building (one of the worlds tallest buildings at over 509 m) Ignoring air friction, how long will it take to hit the ground?
Raw equation: Substitutions:

FIND REQUIRED SPEED 4) A stuntman needs to jump from one building to another on a motorcycle. The second building is 5 m shorter than the first building. The two buildings are 10 m apart. How fast must the motorcycle go?

FIND HEIGHT OF DROP: 8) A hiker comes across a dark hole in the ground. The hiker drops and rock into the hole. The thud is heard 2.3 seconds later. How far did it fall?
Raw equation: Substitutions:

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9) A hiker sees a dark hole in the ground. The hiker drops and rock and hears an ouch 3.1 seconds later. How far did it fall?
Raw equation: Substitutions:

17) Honors: Two jousters ride at each other at 20 m/s and 22 m/s. They start out 40 m apart. How long does it take to collide?

TOSSING FACTS 10) A ball is tossed up at 20 m/s. What is its velocity when it hits the ground? 11) A ball is tossed up at 20 m/s. What is its velocity at the top of the trajectory? 12) A ball is tossed up at 20 m/s. What is its acceleration as it flies up? 13) A ball is tossed up at 20 m/s. What is its acceleration at the top of the trajectory? 14) A ball is tossed up at 20 m/s. What is its acceleration as it falls downward? FIND TIME 16) Mr. Anderson tries to toss a watermelon up and catch it on his nose. He tosses it up with a speed of 4 m/s . How long does he have to live?

18) Honors: Two jousters ride away from each other. One goes at 3 m/s and 5 m/s. They start out 40 m apart. How long does it take to get 68 m apart? Find Displacement and Average Velocity 19) An object moves from a position of -4 m to +8 m. What is the displacement? 20) An object moves from a position of -7 m to -9 m. What is the displacement? 21) An object moves 9 m to the left during a period of 8 s. What is the average velocity? 22) An object moves at an average velocity of 9 m/s for 6 seconds. How far does it go? Find final location with steady velocity 23) An object starts 6 m to the right of the origin. It moves to the left at 8 m/s for 3 seconds. Where does it end up? Find Acceleration. 24) An object changes velocity by 5 m/s in 3 sec. What is the acceleration? 25) An object speeds up to 80 m/s during 10 second period. Its original speed was 60 m/s. What is the acceleration? Find final location with acceleration 26) A car is initially100 m on the west side of town going 20 m/s to the east. During the next 10 sec, it speeds up at a rate of 2 m/s2. Where is it located at the end of the time?

FIND HEIGHT OF A TOSS 17) Honors: A ball is tossed up and is in the air for 12s. How high does it get?

18) Honors: A ball is tossed up and is in the air for 3.9 s. How high does it get?
Raw equation: Substitutions:

## Honors Relative Motion Problems

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Name:____________________________________Per_____

## C2Hw9 Review of Chapter 2

1. What is the acceleration due to gravity in the metric and English system?_____ 2. What did Galileo discover about falling objects? _______________________________________________ 3. A ball is tossed upward. What is the acceleration of the object as it moves upward? (in metric system)_____ 4. A ball is tossed upward. At the very top of its toss, what is its speed? (in metric system) _____ 5. A ball is tossed upward. At the very top of its toss, what is its acceleration? (in metric system) _____ 6. A ball is tossed upward. As it falls back down, what is its acceleration? (in metric system)_____ 7. A ball is tossed upward at 30 m/s. Just before it hits the ground, what is its velocity? (in metrics) _____ 8. A ball is dropped 50 ft. What value of a would you use in conjunction with the 50 to find the fall time? ___ 9. A ball is dropped from a height of 50 feet. What equation would be best to find the time of the fall?
a. Vf =Vi + at b. Xf = Xi + Vit + a t2 c. X = Vx t

10. As a projectile like a cannonball goes through the air, what is true of the velocitys horizontal component?
a. constant b. always decreasing c. always increasing d. Sometimes increasing, sometimes decreasing

11. As a projectile like a cannonball goes through the air, what is true of the velocitys vertical component?
a. constant b. always changing at a steady rate c. changing at various rates

12. A marble rolls off a horizontal counter that is 0.85 m above the ground. The marble lands 0.35 m from the base of the counter. How do you find the balls velocity as it rolled off the counter?
a. one step using Vf =Vi + at c. two steps using Vf =Vi + at and X = V x t b. one step using X = Vx t d. two steps using Xf = Xi + Vit + a t2 and X = Vx t

For Q13-17: A marble rolls off a horizontal counter at 2 m/s. The counter is 1.2 m above the ground. 13. What variable has a value of 2? a. Vx b. t
a. Vf =Vi + at
a. 0.521 s b. 0.495 s

c. g

d. y
c. X = Vx t
d. 0.398 s

14. What equation would be best for you to use to find the time of flight?
b. Xf = Xi + Vit + a t2
c. 0.412 s

## 15. How long is the marble in the air?

16. What equation would be easiest to use to find the marbles range?
a. Vf =Vi + at b. Xf = Xi + Vit + a t2 c. X = Vx t

## 17. What is the marbles range?

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Continued

a. 0.990 m

b. 2.40 m

c. 0.588 m

d. 1.35 m

18. An object is launched straight upwards from the ground. Its initial speed is 20m/s. What equation could you use to find how long it is in the air?
a. Vf =Vi + at b. Xf = Xi + Vit + a t2 c. X = Vx t

19. An object is dropped. It falls for a total of 3.5 seconds. What equation could be used to find how fast it is moving after 3.5 s?_____
a. Vf =Vi + at b. Xf = Xi + Vit + a t2 c. X = Vx t

20. An object is launched straight upwards from the ground. Its initial speed is 30 m/s. What is the velocity as hits the ground?
a. +9.8 b. -9.8 c. -15 d. -30 e. 0

21. An object is launched straight upwards from the ground. Its initial speed is 20 m/s. What is the velocity at the top of trajectory?
a. +9.8 b. -9.8 c. -15 d. -30 e. 0

22. An object is launched upwards from the ground. It is in the air for 11 seconds. What equation would be easiest to find how high it got?______
a. Vf =Vi + at b. Xf = Xi + Vit + a t2 c. X = Vx t

23. An object is launched upwards from the ground. It is in the air for 11 seconds. You use the equation
Xf = Xi + Vit + a t2 to find the height of the toss. What is the value of t? a. 11 b. 5.5 c. 9.8 d. 32

24. An object is launched straight up from the ground. It is in the air for 11 seconds. What equation would be easiest to find how fast it was thrown?______
a. Vf =Vi + at b. Xf = Xi + Vit + a t2 c. X = Vx t

25. Honors: An object is thrown downward from 15 m above the ground. It is thrown downward at 30 m/s. How long is it in the air?_______
a) Less than 0.5 sec b) between 0.5 and 1 sec c. more than 1 sec

26. Honors: 27. Honors: What did Galileo do? (choose all that apply) a) experimented by dropping things from Tower of Pisa
c) experimented in his lab with rolling balls down ramps

## How long did this HW take? 69

fins 4. See the note at the bottom of the page about types of glues

3,4, or 5 fins (or more?) Fins may have different orientations, but theyMUST be verticalnot angled. You may cut your own fin shapes with teacher approval. Half-sized fins do not work well. No canards above 1/3 from the bottom.

## 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Construction Notes:
Use hot glue only on the fins and launch lug (looks like a straw) Use plastic glue only on nose cone. Use Elmers glue on the materials inside the rocket tube. Donate unused fins and decals to your teacher.

Safety Notes:
1. Do not approach the launch pad unless directed by the person doing the launching. 2. Do not approach a dud rocket for one minute. 3. Do not chase after other peoples rockets. You may chase after your own rocket AFTER you see the streamer/parachute deploy. 4. Do not use AC power to ignite a rocket. 5. Stand at least 30 feet from the launch pad.

____ (1 point) Are all fins on the lower half of the rocket? ____ (2 points) Do the fins line up on the guidelines? ____ (3 points) Is the engine block in the correct place? ____ (3 points) Is the shock cord glued in the correct place? ____ (2 points) Is the parachute/streamer packed correctly? ____ (2 points) Is the wadding packed correctly? ____(1 point) Are the students names written on the fins?

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____ (2 points) Honors: Is there any white showing on the rocket? ____ (1 point) Honors: Is there a rocket name displayed prominently on the side?

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## How Rockets Launch (to be done together in class)

Goal: To understand how a model rocket launches Activate Your Brain: Name the different uses of rockets 1) Basic launch sequence: Push button, engine ignites, rocket goes up with engine burning, then it coasts after the fuel runs out, then a second explosion pushes the nosecone off and the streamer out of the tube. The rocket floats down. 2) Show how to pack the wadding 3) The launch button is attached to the rocket by_____________________________________ 4) The launch button will _______________ if everything is attached correctly 5) When the button is pressed, ________________________ causes the igniter wire to get hot. 6) The ______________________ on the igniter will start to __________________ 7) The small fire on the igniter wire causes the ___________________ in the engine to ________ 8) The fuel is basically _______________________. Molecules that are stationary suddenly get very____________________, which means that they move _________________ 9) The molecules that happen to fly_______________ in the explosion_____________the rocket. 10) In turn, the rocket____________ those molecules __________________________________ 11) Molecules in the explosion that happen to fly sideways create forces that _________________ 12) After the rocket fuel is expended, the rocket ________________, leaving a trail of __________ 13) After 3 seconds (for A8-3 engines) a second explosion___________________ the streamer 72

14) To _______________ the streamer in the second explosion, we need to put in ______________ 15) The 2 purposes of the streamer are to ______________________________________________ 16) What safety concerns are there in launching a rocket?

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Flashcard Review
When using these cards, you may refer to the list of equations in Lesson 4. These will be given to you on the test. Be sure you can substitute values into the equations and solve for the needed variable. (this skill is not covered well by these cards. Review all your homework for a complete preparation for the test.

## 1) ___What is a coordinate system?

5) ___What is meant by x?

## 3) ___A car is located at -2 m. Where is it?

7) ___What is meant by xi or x1 ?

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4. The origin goes at the object from which things are measured or it is put at the original location of the moving object. Right and up is positive. Left and down is negative.

5 displacement. Change in location. Xf-Xi

1. The same as a frame of reference. The number line or grid system that is used to measure objects.

## 2. The zero mark of the coordinate system. 5. final location

6. Initial location

3. Two meters to the left of the origin or two meters under the origin.

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## 12) ___What are possible units for acceleration?

13) ___What is a frame of reference? 9) ___What is the difference between speed and velocity?

## 10) ___What is the traditional way of indicating a velocity to the left?

14) ___A car is moving at -30 m/s. It has an acceleration of 5 m/s2. Is it speeding up or slowing?

15) ___A car is moving at +30 m/s. It has an acceleration of -5 m/s2. Is it speeding up or slowing? 11) ___What are possible units for speed?

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12 m/s2, in/min2, mph/s, km/hr/min

## 8 Change in location, the distance travelled. Units: m, inch, mile, km, ft

13 Same as a coordinate system. It is what the objects are measured against.

9 Speed is always positive Velocity is positive or negative depending on direction

14 Slowing (because the sign of velocity and acceleration are opposite)

10 Negative velocity

## 15 Slowing (because the sign of velocity and acceleration are opposite)

11 m/s

ft/min

km/hr

mph

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20) ____What does v = 0 indicate? 16) ___A car is moving to the right at 30 m/s. It is getting slower at a rate of 5 m/s2. Should the acceleration be positive or negative?

21) ____What does v < 0 indicate? 17) ___What does a > 0 indicate?

## 19) ____What does a = 0 indicate?

23) ___JimmyJoe says the cars velocity is -10 m/s. Billy Bob says it is +10 m/s. How can they both be right?

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20)

## stationary, not moving,

16) negative (slowing objects have an acceleration that is the opposite sign of the velocity)

21) moving left or down

17) The object is accelerating due to a force in the positive direction

## 18) the object is accelerating due to a force in the negative direction

23) the two people are using different coordinate systems (looking from different perspectives)

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## 24) What does it mean if Xi is negative?

A car moves at 2 km/min. You want to find how long it will take to go 1000 m. 28) What equation would be best to use?

A car moves at 2 km/min. You want to find how long it will take to go 1000 m. 25) What variable would be equal to 2?

A car moves 15 m in 3 s. You want to find its average velocity. 29) What variable would be equal to 15?

A car moves at 2 km/min. You want to find how long it will take to go 1000 m. 26) Should any measure be converted?

A car moves 15 m in 3 s. You want to find its average velocity in m/s. 30) Should any measures be converted or should any variables be negative?

A car moves at 2 km/min. You want to find how long it will take to go 1000 m. 27) What variable are you looking for?

A car moves 15 m in 3 s. You want to find its average velocity. 31) What variable are you looking for?

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28) = x/t

## 24)It is initially located to the left or below the origin

29) x

25)

30) no

26) yes

31)

27) t

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A car moves from one side of a 15 m-long bridge to the other in 3 s. During this entire time it is accelerating at 0.2 m/s2. You want to find its initial velocity. 32) What equation would be best to use?

A dog is running at 8 m/s to the left. It slows at a rate of 3 m/s2 for 2 s. You want to find how fast is it moving at the end of this time 36) What equation will be easiest to use to solve this?

A dog is running at 8 m/s to the left. It slows at a rate of 3 m/s2 for 2 s. You want to find how fast it is moving at the end of this time 33) Should you convert any units or make anything negative?

A rocket flies upward and then goes wrong. It flips directions and heads down going a steady 50 m/s. You want to find how long it will take to go 100 km down. 37) What variable would be equal to 100?

A dog is running at 8 m/s to the left. It slows at a rate of 3 m/s2 for 2 s. You want to find how fast it is moving at the end of this time 34) What variable are you looking for?

A rocket flies upward and then goes wrong. It flips directions and heads down going a steady 50 m/s. You want to find how long it will take to go 100 km down. 38) Do any of these numbers have to be negative or do any units need to be converted?

A dog is running at 8 m/s to the left. It slows at a rate of 3 m/s2 for 2 s. You want to find how fast is it moving at the end of this time 35) What variable will equal 2?

39) A toy boat moves to the right. It speeds up by 6 m/s during a span of 2 seconds. What is its acceleration?

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## ANSWER 36) Vf =Vi + at

32) Xf = X i + Vi t + at2

37) x

33) The 8 should be negative

38) Yesthe 50 should be negative. The units of either meters and kilometers should be converted to be the same unit.

34) Vf

39) 3 m/s2.

35) t

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A plane is 20 mi to the left of town. It is going 30 mi/min to the right. You want to know when it is 40 miles on the right of town. 40) Should any of these numbers be negative?

A car goes left. It changes its speeds by 60 m/s over 10 sec. You want to know its acceleration. 44) What equation would be best to use?

A plane is 20 mi to the left of town. It is going 30 mi/min to the right. You want to know where it is located after 8 seconds of travel. 41) What variable are you looking for?

You want to know how far a car goes right as it slows to 15 m/s from a 25 m/s at a rate of 9.5 m/s2. 45) What variable would be equal to 9.5?

A plane is 20 mi to the left of town. It is going 30 mi/min to the right. You want to know where it is located after 8 seconds of travel. 42) What equation would be best to use?

46) According to naturalistic assumptions, what would have changed about our universe if the rate of expansion in the Big Bang were a bit faster?

A car goes left. It speeds to 60 m/s from 30 m/s over 20 sec. You want to know its acceleration. 43) Should any of these numbers be negative?

47) According to naturalistic assumptions, what would have changed about our universe if the rate of expansion in the Big Bang were a bit slower?

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44) a = v/t

## 40) 20 should be negative

45) a 41) Xf

46) only hydrogen and helium would exist. No life.

ANSWER 42) Xf = X i + t

47) Universe would have soon collapsed back to be a black holeNo life

## 43) 60 and 30 should be negative

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Honors: Two planes pass an airport at the same time going in opposite directions. One goes 300 m/s. The other goes 400 m/s. You want to find when they are km apart. 48) What is the relative velocity of the planes?

52) Honors: Yesterday, Sally ran to the store in 10 minutes. Today she plans on going the same distance in the a third of the time. How does she need to change her pace?

Honors: Two trains are 140 m apart and are going away each other on the same track. One goes 30 m/s, the other goes 40 m/s. when will they crash? 49) What is the relative speed of the trains?

53) Honors: Which is faster: an object that travels a short distance in 3 minutes or an object that travels a long distance in 180 seconds?

54) Honors: What can you tell about the object indicated by this position vs. time graph? Honors: Two trains are 140 m apart and are both going north on the same track. One goes 30 m/s, the other goes 40 m/s. You want to know when will they crash? 50) What is the relative speed of the trains? 10 8 6 4 2 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 time (s)

Honors: Two trains are 1 km apart and are going toward each other on the same track. One goes 30 m/s, the other goes 40 m/s. when will they crash? 51) What equation would be best to use?

55) Honors: What can you tell about the object indicated by this velocity vs. time graph? 10 8 6 4 2 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 time (s) 86

52) increase her speed by 3 times

48) 700 m/s

53) object travels a long distance in 180 seconds

49) 70 m/s

54) seconds 0-2: moving at 3 m/s to the right seconds 2-3: stationary at 8 m to right of origin seconds 3-5: moving at m/s to left. The object is always on the right side of origin. It never reaches the origin.

50) 10m/s

## 55) We can never tell the location of the object.

51) 70 m/s

Seconds 0-2 it is speeding up from 2 m/s to 8 m/s. It is moving to the right. Seconds 2-3: it is moving at a steady 8 m/s to right. Seconds 3-5: it is slowing down from 8 m/s to 6 m/s. It is still moving to the right (positive vel)

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Honors: How long does it take a 50 m-long train going 10 m/s to completely pass by a sign? 56) What variable would be equal to 50?

## 60) Honors: What is a vector?

Honors: How long does it take a 50 m-long train going 10 m/s to completely pass by a sign? 57) What variable are you looking for?

61) Honors: An object starts out travelling 10m/s to the right. After 4 seconds it is travelling 30 m/s. During this time, it travels 80 m. Find the average velocity of the object.

All Students: Remember that these flashcards only help you to study questions that have short answers. You still have to be able to other types of math problems that require a bit of work. Honors: How long does it take a 50 m-long train going 10 m/s to completely pass by a sign? 58) What equation would be best to use? Honors: You need to go back to your homework and check out problems that require 2 steps. These flashcards cannot be considered a 100% review of the material.

Honors: How long does it take a 50 m-long train going 10 m/s to completely pass by a sign? 59) What is the answer to the question?

62) You want to find how long it takes an object to fall 50 m. What equation do you use?

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ANSWER 60) a measure that indicates both magnitude (size) and direction. In this class, magnitude is the number and the direction is the sign. (in other classes, vectors may be handled in other ways called components.) 56) x

## ANSWER 57) t 61) 20 m/s

All Students: Remember that these flashcards only help you to study questions that have short answers. You still have to be able to other types of math problems that require a bit of work. Honors: You need to go back to your homework and check out problems that require 2 steps.

where

## Xf = 0 X i = 50 Vi = 0 a = -9.8 m/s2 t = unknown that we are finding

59) 5 s

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64) An object is tossed straight up at 20 m/s. How do you determine the time it is in the air before it lands?

68) An object is projected upwards and is in the air for 6 seconds. How do you determine how fast it was tossed up?

65) An object is dropped and it falls for 3 seconds. How do you find the velocity that it hits the ground?

69) A ball is tossed up and it falls down. What is the acceleration as a) It moves up b) It is at the top of the trajectory c) It falls down

66) Honors: An object is thrown downwards with an initial speed of 8 m/s from a height of 99m. How do you find the time it takes to hit the ground?

70) A ball is tossed up at 7 m/s. What is the velocity of the ball a. At the top of the trajectory b. As it hits the ground

67) Honors: An object is tossed up and is in the air for 5 seconds. How do you determine the height of the toss?

71) A car drives off a cliff at 30 m/s. The cliff is 20 m high. How would you find a. The time in the air b. The range of the car

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## ANSWER 67) Use Vf =Vi + at Where Vf= -Vi a = -9.8 m/s2.

where =30, t=from stepA, find X ANSWER 63) Use Vf =Vi + at Where Vf= -20 m/s, Vi = +20m/s, a = -9.8 m/s2

2 b)

-9.8 m/s

2 c)

-9.8 m/s

## ANSWER 69) a) 0 b) -7 m/s

ANSWER 65) use Xf = X i + Vi t + at2 Where Xf = 0 Xi= 99 m Vi = -8 m/s a = -9.8 m/s2 use quadratic formula to find t

## = 30, t = answer to previous,

ANSWER 70) a) use Xf = X i + Vi t + at2 Where Xf=0, Xi= 20m, Vi=0, a = -9.8 m/s2 t=unknown to find b) use = X/t

ANSWER 66) first step: Use Vf =Vi + at to find Vi (remember that Vf= - Vi) second step: Use Xf = X i + Vi t + at2 where t is half the flight time Xf = 0 Xi=unknown height Vi = 0a = -9.8 m/s 2 91

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~ Gandhi

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