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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem GPRS & EGPRS Qos and Algorithms / B8 B9 evolution

3FL12180AAAAWBZZA Edition 04 September 2006

TRAINING MANUAL

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9


All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Copyright 2005 by Alcatel - All rights reserved Passing on and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization from Alcatel

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Safety Warning Both lethal and dangerous voltages are present within the equipment. Do not wear conductive jewellery while working on the equipment. Always observe all safety precautions and do not work on the equipment alone. Caution The equipment used during this course is electrostatic sensitive. Please observe correct anti-static precautions. Trade Marks Alcatel and MainStreet are trademarks of Alcatel. All other trademarks, service marks and logos (Marks) are the property of their respective holders including Alcatel. Users are not permitted to use these Marks without the prior consent of Alcatel or such third party owning the Mark. The absence of a Mark identifier is not a representation that a particular product or service name is not a Mark. Copyright This document contains information that is proprietary to Alcatel and may be used for training purposes only. No other use or transmission of all or any part of this document is permitted without Alcatels written permission, and must include all copyright and other proprietary notices. No other use or transmission of all or any part of its contents may be used, copied, disclosed or conveyed to any party in any manner whatsoever without prior written permission from Alcatel. Use or transmission of all or any part of this document in violation of any applicable Canadian or other legislation is hereby expressly prohibited. User obtains no rights in the information or in any product, process, technology or trademark which it includes or describes, and is expressly prohibited from modifying the information or creating derivative works without the express written consent of Alcatel. Alcatel, The Alcatel logo, MainStreet and Newbridge are registered trademarks of Alcatel. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Alcatel assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of the information presented, which is subject to change without notice. 2004 Alcatel. All rights reserved. Disclaimer In no event will Alcatel be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages, including lost profits, lost business or lost data, resulting from the use of or reliance upon the information, whether or not Alcatel has been advised of the possibility of such damages. Mention of non-Alcatel products or services is for information purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation. Please refer to technical practices supplied by Alcatel for current information concerning Alcatel equipment and its operation.

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Course title : Reference :

G PRS and EG PRS Q oS and algorithm s / B8 B9 evolution 3FL12180AAAAZZZZA Teaching la ngua ges : English, French Training m ethods

Sta nd ard duration

30

Theory and exercices.

Total dura tion (hrs)

30

Sequence : 8 (O nly applicable to c-learning and v-learning)

M axim um num ber of participants :

A udience : Alcatel and O perator radio engineering team , BSS optim ization and quality system engineers. O b jectives : D uring the course, the trainee w ill be able to describe the new B9 counters and indicators and the new B9 radio algorithm s in order to m onitor and im prove the (E)G PRS Q oS. By the end of the course, the participant w ill be able to: - D escribe the new B9 radio algorithm s and the related param eters. - Interpret the B9 BSS G PRS PM counters used in the com putation form ulae of Q oS indicators. - Interpret the BSS G PRS Q oS indicators attached to new B9 BSS G PRS procedure or algorithm having an im pact on Q oS. Prerequisites : Training m odule Introduction to G PRS (3FL 10472 AC AAZZZZA), G PRS and EG PRS Radio Algorithm s D escription (3FL 11830 AAAAZZZZA) and Introduction to G PRS and EG PRS Q os M onitoring (3FL 11829 AAAAZZZZA) or equivalent level N ew BSS Resources M anagem ent and Course contents: associated counters/indicators -Autonom ous packet resource allocation N ew N C 2 counters/indicators -SPD C H allocation N ew C ell Reselection feature : -TBF allocation N AC C /(P)SI Status and associated -Extended UL TBF m ode - counters/indicators -8-PSK in U L -IR in UL -N AC C and PSI status -N C 0 -N C 2 -Enhanced packet cell reselection -Load criterion -N ew U L TBF release m anagem ent: D elayed Final PUAN with extended U L TBF and associated counters/indicators -U L TBF Establishm ent, Failures : new counters -D L TBF Establishm ent, Failures : new counters N ew D ata Transfer Establishm ent Q oS Indicators -TBF Acceptable Release m odifications and Associated counters/Indicators N ew U L M C S Adaptation and Associated C ounters/Indicators
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Note: Please print this document with comments pages

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1 PRINCIPLES

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

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1 PRINCIPLES

Session Presentation
6

Objective: to be able to describe the main GPRS mechanisms and concepts Program:
1.1 Service Overview 1.2 Alcatel GPRS Architecture 1.3 Main Transactions

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 6

1 PRINCIPLES

1.1 Service Overview

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 7

1.1 Service Overview

Data Transfer with GSM: Circuit Switching


8

Air Interface

Access Node

Internet GSM Network

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Circuit switching: Transaction is offered in connected mode. Allocation of a continuous radio resource UL/DL until the completion of the transfer. One circuit = one channel allocated per user. The traffic multiplexing is achieved inside the BSS, over the Ater interface. HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data A technology that allows the multislot allocation to one user. An important throughput can be achieved (up to 64 Kbit/s constant) but there is no optimization of the use of the channel. (no dynamic allocation when data services are mainly carried in a bursty mode) The billing is time based like in GSM. Is likely to lead to an important congestion situation. Not offered by Alcatel.

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1.1 Service Overview

Data Transfer with GPRS: Packet Switching


9

Air Interface

GPRS Network Internet

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

GPRS provides end-to-end packet-switched data transmission between MS users and fixed packet data networks. GPRS is a GSM feature. GPRS provides an efficient use of the radio resources: multislot operation, Flexible sharing of radio resources between MSs, Resources are allocated only when data are transmitted. Charging is based on the volume of data transmitted, not on connection time.

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1.1 Service Overview

MS Classes
10

Three MS classes are defined:


class A:
simultaneous GPRS and GSM traffic

class B:
simultaneous GPRS and GSM attach but not simultaneous traffic an MS can be paged for a GSM call while performing a GPRS transfer

class C:
only GPRS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Do not confuse with the multislot class of an MS, or the MS capacity, which characterizes the number of TSs one MS can monitor in the UL and the DL simultaneously. For the detail of the MS multislot class, see the next slide. The main traffic class available on the market is Class B. Class C is preferred for PDA devices when Class A is not popular in the phone industry.

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1.1 Service Overview

MS Multislot Class (1/2)


11 Multislot class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 to 29 like 10 Type 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 Rx 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 x Tx 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 x Sum 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Ttb 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Tra 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 0 Trb 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

MS type Type 1 are simplex MSs, i.e., without duplexer: they are not able to transmit and receive at the same time. Type 2 are duplex MSs, i.e., with duplexer: they are able to transmit and receive at the same time. Rx The maximum number of received time slots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The received TSs shall be allocated within window of size Rx, but they do not need to be contiguous. For SIMPLEX MS, no transmitted TS shall occur between received TSs within a TDMA frame. This does not take into account the measurement window (Mx). Tx The maximum number of transmitted time slots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The transmitted TS shall be allocated within the window of size Tx, but they do not need to be contiguous. For SIMPLEX MS, no received TS shall occur between transmitted TSs within a TDMA frame. SUM The maximum number of transmitted and received time slots (without Mx) per TDMA frame. The meaning of Ttb, Tra et Trb changes according to the MS type. For SIMPLEX MS (type 1): Ttb is the minimum time (in time slot) necessary between the Rx and Tx windows. Tra is the minimum time between the last Tx window and the first Rx window of the next TDMA in order to be able to open a measurement window. Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window. For DUPLEX MS (type 2): Ttb is the minimum time necessary between 2 Tx windows belonging to different frames. Tra is the minimum time necessary between 2 Rx windows belonging to different frames in order to be able to open a measurement window. Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window.

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1.1 Service Overview

MS Multislot Class (2/2)


12

Class 4 (3+1):
0 Rx 1 Rx 2 Rx 3 4 5 6 Mx 7

DL

Ttb UL 0 Tx 1 2

Tra

Class 8 (4+1):
0 Rx 1 Rx 2 Rx 3 Rx 4 5 6 Mx 7 DL

Ttb UL 0 1 Tx 2 3

Tra

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Ttb is the minimum time (in time slot) necessary between the Rx and Tx windows. Tra is the minimum time between the last Tx window and the first Rx window of the next TDMA in order to be able to open a measurement window. Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window. All multislot classes are supported with the following limitations: type 1 MSs (simplex MSs) are limited to 2 UL slots and 4 DL slots. type 2 MSs (duplex MSs) are limited to 5+5 configuration. allocations with hole between slots of the same direction are not supported. The O&M parameters Max_PDCH_Per_TBF may limit the number of PDCHs allocated to a TBF.

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13

1 PRINCIPLES

1.2 Alcatel GPRS Architecture

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

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1.2 Alcatel GPRS Architecture

General Architecture
14

TC

MSC/ VLR

PSTN

HLR BSC BTS BTS Abis Ater Mux MFS GGSN Gb SGSN Gn
IP Backbone

Gs

Gr

GSM Core Network

Gi

Internet Intranet

Radio Access Network

Charging Gateway

DNS/ DHCP

Border Gateway

GPRS & EGPRS Core Network

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The BSS is used for both circuit-switched and GPRS services. A GPRS core network (also called GSS, an IP backbone) offers the interconnection between the PDN and the BSS. The BSS has 2 clients: The MSC, for circuit-switched services (through the A interface). The GPRS backbone network, for packet-switched services (through the Gb interface). The A interface is unchanged. PDN X25 is not supported anymore by 3GPP.

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1.2 Alcatel GPRS Architecture

Main Entities - Interfaces


15

Um

BSS

MSC

HLR

SMSGMSC

Mobile GPRS

Gs Gb Gr

Gd

Gc SGSN Gn Signaling + data Pure Signaling SGSN GGSN

Gi

PDN

GPRS Network
All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

GPRS network = IP network Note: Additional IP routers might be used to route the information between the GSNs (intra-PLMN backbone network). All the elements connected to this backbone have private permanent IP addresses. Signaling protocols: MAP/TCAP/SCCP/MTP on Gr, Gd and Gc (through the SGSN for the latter), GTP/UDP/IP on Gn, BSSAP+/SCCP/MTP on Gs, GMM/SM/LLC on Gb/Um. Gc: for Network-Requested PDP contexts Activation (the GGSN asks the HLR for SGSN Routing Information). Gs: defines the Network Mode of Operation I. It allows to perform LA + RA combined Location Update, and PS and CS Paging Coordination. Gr: exchange of Subscription Information at Attachment Phase. Additional interfaces: Gf (to the EIR). Gd to deliver the SMS to the mobiles via the GPRS network (SGSN option and subscriber feature).

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1.2 Alcatel GPRS Architecture

PCU
16

A Packet Control Unit is defined by the GSM standard:


It handles RLC/MAC functions It may be in the BTS, in the BSC or, in the SGSN Alcatel choice:
PCU in a network element called the MFS smooth and cost-effective introduction of the GPRS

BTS BSC BTS BSC

AterMux

MFS

SGSN

Gb

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The standard specifies that the PCU function shall be implemented in one of the 3 following entities: BTS, BSC, after the BSC (in the SGSN for instance) The implementation of the PCU functions determines the position of the Gb interface. ALCATEL chooses the MFS integration in order to offer a faster implementation inside the BSS as well as an easier maintenance and supervision. MFS: Multi BSS Fast packet Server.

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1.2 Alcatel GPRS Architecture

M-EGCH principle

B9
17

An M-EGCH organizes the transmission resources (pool of Abis nibbles and Ater nibbles) given to a TRX for its PS traffic 3 types of nibbles are considered
BASIC nibbles shareable between all TREs of a given cell BONUS and EXTRA nibbles shareable between all TREs of a given BTS
Bonus Extra
TRX 3

Basic

M-EGCH 3 TRX 2

Abis
TRX 1

M-EGCH 2

Ater

M-EGCH 1

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Basic Abis nibbles: One Basic Abis nibble is initially linked to one RTS. The number of Basic Abis nibble in a given cell corresponds to the number of RTS. They have the following characteristics: They carry either CS or PS traffic. They are shareable at cell level (among all the TREs). Bonus Abis Nibbles: The basic Abis nibbles whose RTSs are currently used for BCCHs and static SDCCHs are called bonus Abis nibbles. They have the following characteristics: They only carry PS traffic. They are shareable at BTS level (among all the TREs). Extra Abis Nibbles: Considering one (E)GPRS capable BTS, the Operator can defined additional GCHs: the Extra Abis nibbles. They have the following characteristics: They only carry PS traffic. They are shareable at BTS level (among all the TREs). The multiplexing capacity of the GCH link on the AterMux belongs to the granularity chosen. 1 Ater TS GPRS dedicated = 1 GCH when allocated The number of 64 Kbit/s time slots assigned to PS traffic and signaling is configured by the Operator from the OMCR, with the following granularity: 4, 8, 15, 22, and 29 per PCM.

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1.2 Alcatel GPRS Architecture

Transmission Plane
18

MS Application IP SNDCP LLC RLC MAC

BTS

MFS

SGSN

SNDCP LLC Relay RLC BSSGP MAC Relay L2-GCH GSM RF L1-GCH L2-GCH L1-GCH NS L1bis NS L1bis BSSGP

GSM-RF

Um

Abis/Ater(mux)

Gb

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

For the exact purposes of the tracing, please refer to Introduction to GPRS & E-GPRS Quality of Service Monitoring. It can be said from this protocol stacks diagram that after allocation of a GCH by the BSC to the MFS, the data carried over the GCH are transparent for the BSC. The RLC function defines the procedures for segmentation and reassembly of LLC PDUs into RLC/MAC blocks and, in RLC acknowledged mode of operation, for the Backward Error Correction (BEC) procedures enabling the selective retransmission of unsuccessfully delivered RLC/MAC blocks. In RLC acknowledged mode of operation, the RLC function preserves the order of higher layer PDUs provided to it. The RLC function also provides link adaptation. In EGPRS, in RLC acknowledged mode of operation, the RLC function may provide Incremental Redundancy (IR). The MAC function defines the procedures that enabled multiple mobile stations to share a common transmission medium, which may consist of several physical channels. The function may allow a mobile station to use several physical channels in parallel, i.e., use several time slots within the TDMA frame. For the mobile station originating access, the MAC function provides the procedures, including the contention resolution procedures, for the arbitration between multiple mobile stations simultaneously attempting to access the shared transmission medium. For the mobile station terminating access, the MAC function provides the procedures to queue and schedule access attempts.

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1.2 Alcatel GPRS Architecture

Signaling Plane
19

MS GMM/SM LLC

BTS

BSC

MFS

RR/RRM RR Relay L2-RSL GSM RF L1-RSL

RLC RRM Relay BSCGP L2-GSL L1-GSL

Relay BSSGP

BSCGP NS L2-GSL L1-GSL L1bis

L2-RSL L1-RSL

GSM-RF

Um

Abis

Ater

Gb

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

2 GSLs at 64Kbit/s per GPU. RSL: refer to Dimensioning rules for GSM

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20

1 PRINCIPLES

1.3 Main Transactions

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

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1.3 Main Transactions

Session Management: Attach Procedure


21

Aim: to access GPRS services, the MS must first make its presence known to the network by performing a GPRS attach procedure with the SGSN Results:
a logical link between the MS and the SGSN is created the MS is in Standby state and may activate a PDP context the MS location is known (RA accuracy) the MS is available for PS paging via the SGSN

A combined GPRS and IMSI attach is possible for class A/B MS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Each signaling procedure taking place between the MS and the GSS involves UL and DL TBFs. Each GMM/SM message triggers the establishment of a TBF. The complete attachment procedure in GPRS may involve up to 7 TBFs (4 UL and 3 DL). These TBFs are usually short (a few RLC blocks), thus the optimization of the TBF establishment time is very important, as well as the TBF establishment success rate.

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1.3 Main Transactions

Session Management: PDP Context Activation


22

Aim:
in order to send and receive GPRS data, the MS must activate the PDP address it wants to use

Results:
the MS is known in the corresponding GGSN (the GGSN knows the SGSN where the MS is located) and data transmission with external data network can begin

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The PDP context activation procedure is fairly close to the call establishment of the GSM including the CCCH and the SDCCH phases (between the Channel Request message of the MS on RACH to the Alert message). It is important to control the overall PDP context activation duration for a good overview of the GPRS QoS as it involves MS, MFS, SGSN, GGSN. The duration is longer than the GSM call establishment.

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1.3 Main Transactions

Mobility Management: Definitions


23

For GPRS, as paging is more frequent than in GSM, RAs have been defined smaller than LAs An RA is a subset of one and only one LA The MS location in Standby state is known in the SGSN at the RA level The MS is paged in its RA when MT traffic arrives at the SGSN One RA is served by only one SGSN

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

2 types of PCH/PPCH use shall be kept distinct for PS procedures: DL transfer establishment for MS in Ready State: mapping of the DL Immediate Assignment message DL transfer establishment for MS in Standby State (PS Paging Procedure): mapping of the Packet Paging Request message The first type will obviously be used quite often but does not affect the dimensioning of the RA (the message is sent in one cell only). The second type of paging message is sent over the RA and will occur more often that CS Paging as the transfer mode of most external servers is bursty, so the rate of arrival of the PDU inside the SGSN is irregular. This is the reason why an RA shall be dimensioned smaller than an LA if we want to achieve a battery use relative to GPRS Paging procedures equivalent to the GSM one. For Mobility Management constraints in the CN, it is not recommended to split one RA over 2 LAs (the routing information for a CN originated Paging Message being the BSC, a given BSC shall belong to a unique LA as well as a unique RA).

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1.3 Main Transactions

Mobility Management: MS States


24

MS MM states MS RR states

"Idle"
GPRS Attach Packet Idle Mode Packet Transfer Mode T_READY expiry GPRS Detach

"Ready"

PDU Transmission

"Standby"
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Idle: the MS is not attached to the network: paging is not possible. Standby: the MS is attached to the network: paging is possible. the MS location is known in the CN with the RA accuracy. Ready: the MS location is known with the cell accuracy. timer T_READY keeps the MS in the Ready state just after data transfer. Packet Idle Mode: no Temporary Block Flow exists. Upper layers can require the transfer of an LLC PDU which, implicitly, may trigger the establishment of TBF and transition to packet transfer mode. the MS listens to the PBCCH and to the paging sub-channel for the paging group the MS belongs to in idle mode. If PCCCH is not present in the cell, the mobile station listens to the BCCH and to the relevant paging sub-channels. Packet Transfer Mode: In packet transfer mode, the mobile station is allocated radio resource providing a Temporary Block Flow on one or more physical channels. Continuous transfer of one or more LLC PDUs is possible. Concurrent TBFs may be established in opposite directions. Transfer of LLC PDUs in RLC acknowledged or RLC unacknowledged mode is provided. When selecting a new cell, the mobile station leaves the packet transfer mode, enters the packet idle mode where it switches to the new cell, reads the system information and may then resume to packet transfer mode in the new cell. The timers regulating the transition between states are SGSN timers, not tunable in the BSS. Caution: Idle mode in GPRS and Idle mode in GSM are two different states. A GSM MS in Idle mode is attached to an MSC and can be paged. A GPRS MS in Idle mode is NOT attached to an SGSN, so it cannot be paged but can monitor the GPRS information broadcast in the SI13 of the BCCH. Standby is the closest GPRS MS state to Idle GSM. The MS state in the SGSN shall be considered apart from the Packet Transfer Mode in the BSS: MS in Standby mode can be in Packet Transfer Mode. MS in Ready mode can be in Packet Idle Mode. The detach procedure is usually triggered by the MS. Three other types of detach are triggered by the CN: HLR Detach, SGSN Detach upon SGSN overload, SGSN Detach upon timer. Page 24

1.3 Main Transactions

Mobility Management: MS Location Management


25

The MS enters a new cell

New cell inside the current RA MS in Ready state

New cell belongs to a new RA

New cell belongs to a new LA

RA update Cell update

RA/LA update Only in NMO I

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

When the MS is in Ready State, it performs a Cell Update. The MS sends any LLC frame in the new cell with its TLLI in the header. The Cell and RAC information is added by the BSSGP at the programming of the BSSGP frame. RA Update: The MS sends an RA Update Request message containing the identity of the MS, the old RAI and the Update Type. The update type is either enter a new RA or periodical RA update. The BSS adds the cell global Identity when transferring the message into a BSSGP frame towards the SGSN.

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1.3 Main Transactions

Interactions Between the SGSN and the MSC/VLR


26

The Gs interface between the MSC and the SGSN is needed Following actions are possible:
IMSI attach/detach via the SGSN LA update via the SGSN CS paging via the SGSN

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The Gs interface carries signaling between the P-VLR (SGSN) and the VLR (MSC). Whether Gs is provided or not, it does NOT belong to the BSS release as it is a CN feature. The presence of the Gs interface is given by the NMO information inside the SI13 and the CN feature in the PSI1. The Gs interface carries only MAP signaling between the P-VLR and the VLR of the MSC.

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1.3 Main Transactions

Network Mode of Operation


27

Mode

CS paging channel PCH/PPCH

PS paging channel PPCH PCH NA PCH PPCH NA

Remarks Gs interface Gs interface Gs interface no Gs interface no Gs interface no Gs interface


Packet idle mode Packet transfer mode w MPDCH Packet idle mode Packet transfer mode

PCH PACCH

wo MPDCH

II

PCH PCH

III PCH

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

All the possible combinations with the MPDCH are: NMOIII, NMOI with MPDCH. According to the NMO offered and the packet mode of the MS (Packet Transfer Mode or Packet Idle Mode), the routing of the PS paging and the CS paging changes. The NMO setting is done from the OMC-R via the NETWORK_OPERATION_MODE parameter.

Page 27

1.3 Main Transactions

CS/PS Paging During a Packet Transfer/Call (1/3)


28

CS paging during packet transfer (class B MS):


according to the GSM standard, a class B MS may or may not (implementation dependent) listen to the PCH channel during a packet transfer if the MS listens to the PCH channel:
some RLC blocks are lost the MS receives all the CS paging messages the MS can start a CS call at the end of the call, the MS triggers an RA updating procedure Refer to Suspend/Resume for Class B MS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The Class A and Class C GPRS mobiles do not face these problems. The former is able to handle simultaneously CS and PS traffic (no traffic disruption), whereas the latter is not reachable in one domain while it is attached to the other domain. The Class B situation is the most complex one and shall be considered since Class B GPRS mobiles are the most popular for the manufacturers. It shall be remembered that the most important service in the GSM network where GPRS is activated is the speech. Therefore, an MS shall be given the opportunity to listen to any CS paging. It is then up to the operator and to the MS to decide whether or not the CS call shall be answered.

Page 28

1.3 Main Transactions

CS/PS Paging During a Packet Transfer/Call (2/3)


29

Suspend/Resume for Class B MS:


The MS enters in GSM dedicated Mode (Ongoing GPRS
transfer or not)

MS

BSC

End of on-going TBF DL LLC PDUs are discarded MFS SGSN

1. Suspend (TLLI, RAI)

2 Suspend 3 Suspend (TLLI, RAI, suspend cause) 4 Suspend Ack (TLLI, RAI, SRN) 5 Suspend Ack

End of the GSM call 6 Resume (TLLI, RAI, SRN) 7 Resume

Normally, no more paging messages sent by the SGSN

9 Resume Ack 10 Channel Release 11 Routing Area Update Request The MS leaves the GSM dedicated mode The MS listens to Channel Release message content
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

8 Resume Ack

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Suspend Reference Number (SRN) 1) The GPRS suspension procedure is initiated by the MS by sending an RR Suspend (TLLI, RAI, suspension cause) message to the BSC. 2) The BSC sends a Suspend (TLLI, RAI, suspension cause) message to the MFS, via the GSL link. The BSC shall store TLLI and RAI in order to be able to request the SGSN (via the MFS) to resume GPRS services when the MS leaves dedicated mode. 3) The MFS sends a Suspend (TLLI, RAI) message to the SGSN. 4) The MFS receives a Suspend Ack from the SGSN, in which there is a Suspend Reference Number which will have to be used in the resume step. 5) The MFS sends a suspend acknowledgement to the BSC, with the Suspend Reference Number information. 6) The BSC determines that the circuit-switched radio channel shall be released (typically upon circuit-switched call completion). If the BSC is able to request the SGSN to resume GPRS services (i.e., the suspend procedure succeeded and the BSC received the Suspend Reference Number, no external handover has occurred), the BSC shall send a Resume (TLLI, RAI, Suspend Reference Number) message to the MFS. 7) Upon receipt of a Resume message from the BSC, the MFS sends a Resume (TLLI, RAI, Suspend Reference Number) message to the SGSN. 8) The MFS receives a Resume Ack from the SGSN. 9) Upon receipt of the Resume Ack from the SGSN, the MFS sends a Resume Ack message to the BSC. 10) The BSC sends an RR Channel Release (GPRS Resumption) message to the MS and deletes its suspend/resume context. 11) The MS resumes GPRS services by sending a Routing Area Update Request message in the following cases: reception of a Channel Release with GPRS Resumption = NOK reception of a Channel Release without GPRS Resumption IE T3240 expiry Alcatel BSS does not support the suspend/resume procedure in case of inter-BSC reselection. In this case, MS shall resume the GPRS service by sending a Routing Area Update Request message to the SGSN. When a mobile station operating in class B mode of operation suspends its GPRS activity during circuit-switched activities, RRM forces the release of the on-going TBF(s). Once the TBF(s) has(ve) been released, the MS context is kept for T_MS_Context_Lifetime seconds before being deleted. T_MS_Context_Lifetime is an MFS parameter. The default value is 120s and it cannot be set at OMC-R level.

Page 29

1.3 Main Transactions

CS/PS Paging During a Packet Transfer/Call (3/3)


30

CS paging during packet transfer (class B MS):


if the MS does not listen to the PCH channel:
CS paging messages are lost if the duration of the packet transfer is higher than the duration of the repetition of CS paging messages

if Gs interface is available:
CS paging messages are sent via the PACCH channel

PS paging during a GSM call (class B MS):


the MS does not receive PS paging messages

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

If CS paging repetitions are viewed as a GSM QoS problem, the situation shall be avoided. A missed PS Paging during a CS call is less of a problem as the traffic in GPRS is under the influence of the GSS capacity to store the PDU originated from an external Packet Data Network. When the delay of transfer is not a requirement for the service, there is no direct impact of a missed MS Paging.

Page 30

1.3 Main Transactions

TBF Establishments
31

Data Transfer establishment UL TBF establishment DL TBF establishment

MS in MM Ready state

MS in MM Ready state

MS in MM Standby state PS Paging

MS in PIM

MS in PTM

MS in PIM MS in PTM

on CCCH 1-Phase 2-Phase

on PCCCH 1-Phase 2-Phase

DL TBF running

on CCCH DRX Non-DRX

on PCCCH DRX Non-DRX

UL TBF running

T3192 running

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

There are 5 types of UL TBF establishment: 1. 1-Phase access on CCCH when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and no PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS does not need more than 1 PDCH and wants to transfer blocks in RLC acknowledged mode. 2. 2-Phase access on CCCH: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and no PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS needs more than 1 PDCH or wants to transfer blocks in RLC unacknowledged mode. 3. 1-Phase access on PCCCH: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS does not need more than 1 PDCH and wants to transfer blocks in RLC acknowledged mode. 4. 2-Phase access on PCCCH: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS needs more than 1 PDCH or wants to transfer blocks in RLC unacknowledged mode. 5. During a DL TBF: when the MS is in Packet Transfer Mode in the DL. There are 6 types of DL TBF establishment: DRX mode on CCCH: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and no PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS is listening to all PCH channels of its CS paging group. Non-DRX mode on CCCH: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and no PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS is listening to all AGCH channels. 3. DRX mode on PCCCH: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and a PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS is listening to all PPCH channels of its PS paging group. 4. Non-DRX mode on PCCCH: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and a PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS is listening to all PPCH channels of its PCCCH channel. 5. During a UL TBF: when the MS is in Packet Transfer Mode in the UL. 6. When T3192 is running: when a DL TBF has been released at the MS side and before the previously used radio resources are released (at T3192 expiry).

Page 31

B9
32

2 RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 32

2 RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Session Presentation

B9
33

Objective: to be able to describe the algorithms of Resource Management and the related parameters Program:
2.1 (E)GPRS Channels NewB9 2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation 2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation 2.4 TBF Release Routine Modified B9 2.5 Exercises

Modified B9

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 33

B9
34

2 RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 34

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

Overview
35
physical channel control channel logical channel traffic channel signaling associated control channel logical channel category

PDCH

Master PDCH

Slave PDCH

Primary MPDCH

Secondary MPDCH

PBCCH

PCCCH

PTCH

PTCCH

PPCH

PAGCH

PRACH

PDTCH

PACCH

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 35

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

GPRS Physical Channel, PDCH (1/2)


36

Packet Data Channel (PDCH): a physical channel which carries GPRS logical channels
1 TDMA frame = 4.615 ms 0 7 0 7 0 7

2 The 52-multiframe= 240 ms

49 50 51

8 121317 21 25 26 30 34 383943 47 51 Frame B3 B4 B5 X B6 B7 B8 PTCCH B9 B10B11 X Block

B0 B1 B2

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

PDCH frame: Made up of 52 TSs of the same rank belonging to 52 consecutive TDMA frames. The 52 TSs are divided into blocks of 4 consecutive TSs. 12 blocks are created and 4 single TSs: TS12 and TS38 for the Timing Advance, TS25 and TS51 are pseudo Idle TS for transmission purposes (synchronization with the occurrences of SACCH on the GSM 26-multiframe). According to the PDCH design, a maximum of 8 PDCHs can be created with one TRX. A PDCH can be entirely allocated to a single user, which is close to the principle of circuit in GSM.

Page 36

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

GPRS Physical Channel, PDCH (2/2)


37

1 RLC PDU uses 1 PDCH block


Except in MCS-7 to MCS-9 where 2 RLC PDUs use 1 PDCH block

2 kinds of physical channel PDCH


master PDCH (MPDCH)
A PDCH which carries the PCCCH and PBCCH logical channels For signaling purpose

slave PDCH (SPDCH)


A PDCH which carries PTCH logical channels For traffic purpose

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The MPDCH has been introduced with the B7 release. The use of GSM CCCH for the GPRS traffic offer can lead to QoS problem in GSM (PCH use more specifically).

Page 37

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

(E)GPRS Logical Channels (1/4)


38

Different GPRS logical channels mapped on PDCH, which are shared on a block basis:
PTCH: PDTCH and PACCH Packet Timing advance Control Channel (PTCCH) Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH) Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 38

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

(E)GPRS Logical Channels (2/4)


39

Packet Traffic Channel (PTCH):


used for user data and associated signaling transmission Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH):
unidirectional channel used for user data transmission mapped on one PDCH up to 8 PDTCHs may be allocated to an MS on different PDCHs with the same frequency parameters

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Issue: the network shall control the multiplexing of several users on a unique UL PDCH avoiding collision occurrence. This is achieved by the RLC/MAC functions and the use of USF, RRBP and TFI fields of the RLC/MAC header. The number of PDTCHs allocated to one MS belongs to: The MS capabilities (multislot class), The traffic in the BSS, Operator configuration of the BSS parameters. NB: max number of PDTCHs to one MS = 8 because the MS has to be allocated TSs on a unique TRX, and one TRX can support 8 PDCHs max.

Page 39

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

(E)GPRS Logical Channels (3/4)


40

Packet Traffic Channel (PTCH):


Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH):
A bidirectional channel used to transmit control and acknowledgement messages Mapped on one PDCH:
- if a single PDTCH is allocated to an MS, the PACCH is allocated on the PDCH carrying the PDTCH - if multiple PDTCHs are allocated to an MS, the PACCH is allocated on one of the PDCH carrying the PDTCHs (Alcatel BSS)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Caution: PACCH blocks are used to carry the BSS signaling but not the GSS signaling. The scheduling of PACCH blocks in the UL and the DL is monitored by the MFS. The most frequent use of the PACCH blocks is for Packet Ack/Nack messages. It can be used as well for CS Paging message when Master Channels are not available. It is necessary for the MS to update the PSI13 on a regular basis in order to achieve proper RLSs and Power Control mechanisms. The PSI13 content can be sent to the MS in Packet Transfer Mode via a PACCH.

Page 40

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

(E)GPRS Logical Channels (4/4)


41

Bu ess Acc

rst

e sag Mes TA

MFS

Packet Timing advance Control Channel (PTCCH):


bidirectional channel (DL: TA messages; UL: Access Burst for TA calculation) used by the continuous timing advance mechanism the PTCCH of one MS is carried by the PDCH carrying the PACCH Timing Advance Index (TAI), used for the scheduling of the AB, is part of the radio resources allocated to an MS.
The TAI is a PDCH parameter The TAI takes 16 values

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The Access Burst in the UL and the Timing Advance Messages in the DL are scheduled in time manner on TS12 and TS38. The TAI is part of the GPRS radio resources allocated by the MFS to the MS. Each mobile needs to have a TAI. The TAI range value is a limitation to MS multiplexing on a same TS, as both MS in the UL transfer and MS in the DL transfer send their AB in the UL and receive their TA value in the DL. 16 values for TAI means that each MS sends an AB every 1.96 s, when the content of the TA Messages is updated every 480 ms (every 4 occurrences of TAM).
A.B. scheduled for MF51 N N N+1 N+1 N+2 On PTCCH TS number 12 38 12 38 12 15 N+7 38 TAM 4 idem TAM 0 TAM 0 TAM 0 TAM 0 TAM 1 Idem 4 repetitions of the 16 TA values (4 TA values updated)

TAI value 0 1 2 3 4

TA Message

Page 41

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

Multiplexing of (E)GPRS Logical Channels (1/3)


42

PDCH 1
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11

PDCH 2
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11

PDCH 3
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11

TBF with TFI = 5

TBF with TFI = 17

TBF with TFI = 24

Temporary Block Flow (TBF): a unidirectional flow of data between the MS and the MFS for the transfer of one or more LLC PDUs (refer to GSM 04.60) Several TBFs can be transmitted on one PDCH (TFI 5) One TBF can be served on several PDCHs (TFI 17 & 24) A TBF is identified by a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Temporary Flow Identity (TFI): Each TBF is assigned a TFI by the MFS. Important: It is possible to establish 32 TBFs per TRX. TBF: a group of blocks dynamically allocated to one MS for one transfer of RLC blocks in one direction inside one cell. A Temporary Block Flow is a temporary, unidirectional physical connection across the Um interface, between one mobile and the BSS. The TBF is established when data units are to be transmitted across the Um interface and is released as soon as the transmission is completed. There is still a 3 RTS shift between Rx and Tx, on the TDMA frame.

Page 42

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

Multiplexing of (E)GPRS Logical Channels (2/3)


43

Downlink PDTCH and PACCH blocks multiplexing


USF = 5
PDTCH PDTCH PACCH

TFI17

TFI24

TFI24

DL PDCH N 2 +1
PDTCH / PACCH

TFIUL

UL PDCH N 2

Uplink PDTCH and PACCH for a UL TBF multiplexing


GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Downlink PDTCH and PACCH blocks multiplexing: The multiplexing of the different MSs is performed thanks to the TFI which is present in the RLC block header. An MS decodes all the blocks of all its allocated PDCHs and keeps the blocks carrying its TFI in the RLC header. Uplink PDTCH and PACCH for a UL TBF: At UL TBF establishment, an MS receives a USF (Uplink State Flag, 8 values, MAC header) per allocated PDCH. If the MS receives its USF on the downlink block n of PDCH i, it can transmit in uplink using the block n+1 of PDCH i.

NB: the values of the USF are entirely dedicated to PDTCH and PACCH transfers. See further (MPDCH and RRBP) The TFI is used in the UL as well: each mobile shall put its TFI in the UL header of the UL blocks during a UL TBF, as well as in the RLC header of the UL PACCH blocks of a DL TBF. So we can say that the de-multiplexing of the blocks is achieved by the use of a TFI.

Page 43

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

Multiplexing of (E)GPRS Logical Channels (3/3)


44

Uplink PACCH for a DL TBF scheduling:


TFI24 S/P false TFIXX USF = 000
PDTCH

TFI17 USF = 5

PDTCH

PACCH

DL PDCH N 2
RRBP = +3

Packet DL Ack/NAck message

UL PDCH N 2
Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

RRBP: Relative Radio Block Period Allocation of a PACCH block for the sending of acknowledgements in the UL of blocks received in the DL: The MS has no USF because it is involved in a DL TBF Use of the RRBP field transmitted in the downlink (MAC header) in association with the TFI of the DL TBF in the RLC header. At the exact occurrence of the RRBP, a special USF value is used for the UL TBF taking place on the same PDCH: USF=no emission.

It is a semi-boolean parameter. The RRBP field of an RLC/LAC block is checked each time by the MS whose TFI is written in the RLC header. When S/P is false, no UL PACCH is scheduled. When the RRBP field is valid, the value gives the number of blocks to wait before sending its PACCH block in the UL. S/P is false means the MS has to send an acknowledgement message to the MFS.

Page 44

TFI24

TFIUL

PDTCH / PACCH

PACCH

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

MPDCH (1/5)
45

Logical channels dynamically multiplexed:


PBCCH, PCCCH

Identified by the PCCCH group (used for paging purposes) Primary Master Channel
PBCCH carrier, indicated in SI13 Static allocation

Secondary Master Channels: additional MPDCH


PRACH, PPCH and PAGCH carrier

NB_TS_MPDCH = Number of TSs reserved for MPDCHs (Primary + Secondary)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In order to configure the number of master channels (primary and secondary) in a cell, the operator sets the value of NB_TS_MPDCH (Range 0 to 4) from the OMC-R. Primary MPDCH allocation: A PBCCH is scheduled by the MFS and SI13 is updated by the BSC indicating the PBCCH. The MS reads SI13 once every 30s (or on PSI 13 for MS in packet transfer mode). Once the MS is aware of the establishment, it reads the complete PSI cycle (read PSI1 within 10s for MS in packet transfer mode). During this 30s period of time (to be achieved for a complete MPDCH alloc): Paging messages are mapped on both PCH and PPCH. UL TBF establishments are answered either by a AGCH or by an PAGCH (whether the request is sent on RACH or on PRACH).

Secondary MPDCH activation: Presence indicated on PS12. The MS must read the new PSI1 and the new PSI2. It can take the MS 30 s (establishment duration). A Paging reorganization procedure is triggered {PAGE MODE IE = (1,0)}. The MS recalculates its Packet Paging Group.

Page 45

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

MPDCH (2/5)
46

Master channels configuration


On the BCCH TRX Starting from the left BCCH and SDCCH are not overwritten

Example
NB_TS_MPDCH = 4

0
BCCH

4
SDCCH

: MPDCH

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In order to configure the number of master channels (primary and secondary) in a cell, the operator sets the value of NB_TS_MPDCH (Range 0 to 4) from the OMC-R. The NB_TS_MPDCH radio time slots are then configured automatically on the TRX carrying the BCCH, starting from the left. The BCCH and SDCCH time slots are not overwritten.

Page 46

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

MPDCH (3/5)
47

MPDCH configuration
Downlink multi-frame
primary MPDCH: the first BS_PBCCH_BLKS blocks of the ordered list (B0, B6, B3, B9, B1, B7, B4, B10, B2, B8, B5, B11) are reserved for PBCCH Secondary MPDCH: the first BS_PBCCH_BLKS blocks of the ordered list above are reserved for PAGCH BS_PAG_BLKS_RES: number of blocks reserved for PAGCH, after reservation of PBCCH blocks remaining blocks are used for PPCH, PAGCH

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Switching from the PPCH to the PBCCH is always possible for an MS in Packet Idle Mode, since I frames (TS12 and TS38 of the 52-multiframe) and X frames (TS25 and TS51 of the 52-multiframe) always precede a PBCCH block. Note: PDTCH and PACCH are not multiplexed on MPDCHs (to avoid problems of inconsistent assignments).

Page 47

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

MPDCH (4/5)
48

Example of DL Primary Master Channel:


BS_PBCCH_BLKS=2 BS_PAG_BLKS_RES=6

B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11
PBCCH blocks

PAGCH blocks PPCH, PAGCH blocks

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

CAUTION: animated slide. For PAGCH, the simple rule is that all blocks not reserved for PBCCH usage may be used for PAGCH purposes: Up to (12 - BS_PBCCH_BLKS) radio blocks on the Primary Master Channel. Up to 12 radio blocks on any Secondary Master Channel. Different rules apply to the PPCH: First, for proper operation of the Discontinuous Reception (DRX) mechanism, all Master Channels in the cell have the same number of radio blocks allowed for the PPCH. Second, for configuration flexibility, the operator may decide to limit the PPCH to a subset of allowed blocks. As a matter of fact, the GPRS standards rather define the number of blocks per multiframe where neither the PPCH nor the PBCCH can be mapped. This is the BS_PAG_BLKS_RES parameter, under operators control from the OMC-R. It is defined per cell. Its value ranges from 0 to 11 blocks. As a result, the number of radio blocks allowed for the PPCH is: Up to (12 - BS_PBCCH_BLKS - BS_PAG_BLKS_RES) radio blocks on all Master Channels.

Page 48

2.1 (E)GPRS Channels

MPDCH (5/5)
49

MPDCH configuration
Uplink multi-frame
PRACHs occur on any PDCH carrying MPDCH PRACH blocks are statically allocated on the BS_PRACH_BLKS first blocks of the ordered list: B0, B6, B3, B9, B1, B7, B4, B10, B2, B8, B5, B11 blocks are marked by USF=free

Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In the uplink path of each Master Channel, radio blocks have to be reserved for a PRACH, the remaining blocks being available for signaling purposes. This is done through the BS_PRACH_BLKS parameter ranging from 1 up to 8 blocks per multiframe. There is the same amount of reserved PRACH blocks on all Master Channels present in the cell. There is no PRACH dynamic load control and the Packet Queuing Notification message is not handled (no UL PRACH queuing). The USF is coded over 3 bits, so 8 values are available to traffic minus 1 (free) for PRACH blocks minus 1 (no emission) for UL Ack of DL TBF with the RRBP mechanism. So, 6 USF values are available for PDTCH traffic on one PDCH.

Page 49

B9
50

2 RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 50

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Definitions: SPDCH Group (1/2)


51

SPDCH group = time slots usable for PS traffic


Only 1 SPDCH group per TRX contains TS
belonging to the same TRX having the same frequency configuration without hole

MPDCHs are not part of the SPDCH group

Up to 16 PDCH groups per cell A TRX is PS/CS capable only if TRX_PREF_MARK = 0


TRX_PREF_MARK <> 0 then the TRX is only CS capable

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Any TRX should possibly support one SPDCH group except for one case: Concentric cell or multi-band cell design, an SPDCH group can NOT belong to the inner zone. An SPDCH group can be supported by both hopping and non-hopping TRXs. Only one Mobile Allocation (MA) is supported in a cell.

Page 51

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Definitions: SPDCH Group (2/2)


52

Example: BBH is used, NB_TS_MPDCH=0


TRX_PREF_MARK

0
TRX1 SPDCH group1

BCCH SDCCH

TRX2 SDCCH SPDCH group2 SPDCH group2 Null

TRX3 SPDCH group3

TRX4 SPDCH group4 SPDCH group4 Null

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

CAUTION: animated slide.

Page 52

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Definitions: 8-PSK High Power Capability (1/3)


53

GMSK
constant envelope (amplitude) modulation one bit per modulated symbol over the radio path

dB PN

8-PSK
Envelope modulation not constant 3 bits per modulated symbol over the radio path

(147 bits)

542.8 s

dB
0

0,1, 0 0,0, 0 0,0, 1

0,1, 1 1,1,1

PN
-20

(147 bits)

1,0, 1 1,0, 0

1,1, 0

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

GMSK = the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying belongs to a subset of phase modulations 8-PSK = 8-state Phase Shift Keying 8-PSK is not a constant envelope modulation. Part of the information is conveyed by the amplitude of the carrier which varies over time. An 8-PSK signal carries three bits per modulated symbol over the radio path, which allows to triple the data transmission rates. GMSK Modulation type Channel spacing Gross bit rate per carrier Carrier envelope Packet radio service Modulation gross bit rate The normal burst is divided into 156.25 symbol periods. A normal burst has a duration of 3/5.2 seconds (577 s). (3GPP TS 05.02). For GMSK modulation, a symbol is equivalent to a bit (3GPP TS 05.04). A GMSK burst is composed of 156.25 bits (6 tail bits + 26 training sequence bits + 116 encrypted bits + 8.25 guard period (bits)). Modulation gross bit rate = (156.25 bits) / (3/5.2 seconds) = 270 Kbit/s For 8-PSK modulation, one symbol corresponds to three bits (3GPP TS 05.04). An 8-PSK burst is composed of 156.25 x 3 = 468.75 bits (18 tail bits + 78 training sequence bits + 348 encrypted bits + 24.75 guard period (bits)). Modulation gross bit rate = (468.75 bits) / (3/5.2 seconds) = 810 Kbit/s.
Page 53

8-PSK Phase modulation 200 KHz 810 Kbit/s Amplitude varies EGPRS

Frequency modulation 200 KHz 270 Kbit/s constant GPRS / EGPRS

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Definitions: 8-PSK High Power Capability (2/3)


54

G4 TRE characteristics
TRAG TRAGE EDGE+ TAGH TAGHE EDGE+ TRAD TRADE EDGE+ TADH TADHE EDGE+

Type Frequency band GMSK output power

Medium power

High power

Medium power

High power

900

1800

45 W 46,53 dBm

60 W 47,78 dBm

35 W 45,44 dBm

60 W 47,78 dBm

8-PSK output power

15 W 41,76 dBm

30 W 44,77 dBm

25 W 43,98 dBm

30 W 44,77 dBm

12 W 40,79 dBm

30 W 44,77 dBm

25 W 43,98 dBm

30 W 44,77 dBm

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

G3 TREs are not able to handle the 8-PSK modulation. Only G4 TREs (also called TRA) are EDGE capable. The TRA sensitivity is as follows: GMSK: - 111 dBm. 8-PSK: - 108 dBm for MCS5, - 99 dBm for MCS9.

Page 54

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Definitions: 8-PSK High Power Capability (3/3)


55

The GMSK output power is:


The minimum value among the maximum TRE output power in:
One cell One frequency band

The maximum output power in the cell

The 8-PSK output power


Is given for one TRE by the modulation_delta_power
= [Maximum output power in the cell] [8-PSK TRE output power]

And a possible attenuation, in order not to exceed the GMSK power in the cell (case of BS_TXPWR_MAX <> 0 dB)

8-PSK High Power Capability


G4 HP TRE if the modulation_delta_power < 3dB G4 MP TRE if the modulation_delta_power > 3dB The 8-PSK High Power Capability is used in the TRX ranking process

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

CAUTION: do not confuse MP and HP given as a TRE hardware characteristic and MP and HP defined by the 8-PSK High Power Capability. The first ones represent the maximum power a TRE can transmit (in GMSK or 8-PSK). The second ones represent the capability of a TRE to emit with an 8-PSK power close to the maximum GMSK power in a given cell.

Page 55

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Definitions: TRX Ranking (1/2)


Input / Output
Inputs TRE Characteristics 8-PSK High Power Capability (G4 HP, G4 MP, or G3) DR TRE capability (FR or DR) TRX_PREF_MARK PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX TRX or cell Characteristics Radio cell configuration (nb of SPDCHs per TRX) TRX id (0,1,,14, or 15) E-GSM, P-GSM, GSM850 or DCS TRX
Modified B9

B9
56

Outputs

TRX Ranking function

TRX Ranking Table TRX Rank

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Once the TRXs are mapped to the TREs (after a possible TRX adjustment), the TRX Ranking function is computed. This function consists in ranking the TRXs in order to ensure that the CS and PS allocations will be consistent. HP means there is less than 3 dB of difference between the maximum power of the GMSK TRXs and the maximum power of the 8-PSK TRXs in the cell. On the contrary, MP means the difference is more than 3 dB.

Page 56

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Definitions: TRX Ranking (2/2)


Ranking criteria (from the highest preference for PS allocation to the lowest)
Concerns only PS capable TRX: TRX_PREF_MARK = 0 PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX
= 0 (no specific preference) then the BCCH TRX is managed as a non-BCCH TRX = 1 then the BCCH TRX has the highest preference = 2 then the BCCH TRX has the lowest preference (B9 MR4)

B9
57

HW TRE capability: G4 HP > G4 MP > G3 DR TRE capability: FR > DR E-GSM TRX preference: E-GSM TRXs > P-GSM/GSM850/DCS TRXs TRX(s) having the maximum SPDCH group size TRX having the lowest TRX index

Modified B9

Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The TRX with the lowest Rank value has the highest preference for PS allocations. Step 01: Separation of non-PS and PS capable TRXs The first step consists in removing the non-PS capable TRXs, i.e., the TRXs having a non-null TRX_PREF_MARK. Only the PS capable TRXs are then kept for the TRX ranking. Step 02: Ranking of the PS capable TRXs First criterion: PS allocations preferred on the BCCH TRX If the BCCH TRX is a PS capable TRX and the parameter PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX is set to 2, then the BCCH TRX has the highest rank in the TRX Ranking Table. This means that this TRX is selected last for PS allocations. If the BCCH TRX is a PS capable TRX and the parameter PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX is set to 1, then the BCCH TRX has the lowest rank (i.e., Rank 1) in the TRX Ranking Table. This means that this TRX is selected first for PS allocations. If the parameter PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX is set to 0, then the rank of the BCCH TRX is determined by the remaining criteria. Second criterion: HW TRE capability The TRXs mapped on a G4HP TRE are ranked first, then they are followed by the TRXs mapped on a G4MP TRE, finally by the TRXs mapped on a G3 TRE. Third criterion: DR TRE capability Among the TRXs having the same HW TRE capability, select first the FR TRX, then the DR TRX. Fourth criterion:E-GSM TRX preference Among the TRXs having the same HW TRE capability and the same DR TRE capability, select first the E-GSM TRXs, then the PGSM/GSM850/DCS TRXs. Fifth criterion: Maximum SPDCH group criterion Among the TRX having the same HW TRE capability, the same DR TRE capability and the same E-GSM TRX preference, rank first the TRX having the maximum number of consecutive SPDCHs per TRX. Note that this is a static information given by the O&M configuration of the TRX. Sixth criterion: TRX identity Among the remaining TRXs, select first the TRX having the lowest TRX id. This criterion aims at having a deterministic criterion at the end of the TRX Ranking function. Note: The TRX ranking function does not take into account the current traffic load. Page 57

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

BSS Resources reservation


Allocated PDCH: MIN_PDCH = 1

B9
58

Air
PDCH

BTS

BSC

MFS

Established TRX: MIN_PDCH = 1 and EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS = enabled

Air
PDCH

TRX

Abis
M-EGCH

AterMux
M-EGCH

BTS
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

BSC

MFS
All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The 3 following states are handled, for a PDCH: allocated TS: timeslots allocated to the MFS. not-allocated TS: timeslots allocated to the BSC de-allocating TS: transitory state, TS allocated to the MFS but must be given back to the BSC

Page 58

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Fast Initial PS Access


If EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS = enabled
1 PDCH is always available for (E)GPRS traffic This PDCH is located
on an established TRX with at least N_GCH_FAST_PS_ACCESS (=1) GCHs allocated on this TRX

B9
59

Mandatory rule:
MIN_PDCH NB_TS_MPDCH + 1 Since MIN_PDCH is the number of master and slave PDCHs that are permanently allocated

Otherwise, the rule is MIN_PDCH NB_TS_MPDCH

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The first TRX of the cell having some allocated RTSs is identified thanks to the latest RR Allocation Indication message received from the BSC. When considering the sorted TRX list in the latest RR Allocation Indication message, it is the TRX supporting the first RTS allocated to the MFS, according to the SPDCHs_Allocation bitmap.

Page 59

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Principle (1/2)

B9
60

The BSC indicates regularly to the MFS in the RR Allocation Indication message:
The number of TSs allocated for PS traffic
MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT

The location of those SPDCHs on the PS capable TRXs


Using the SPDCHs_Allocation bitmap

The MFS sends to the BSC the RR Usage Indication message to:
Confirm the allocated / de-allocated TSs to the BSC (Acknowledgement) Indicate the PS usage state of those TSs This message is sent:
Periodically After the reception of the RR allocation Indication from the BSC

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Contrary to the previous BSS releases, the MFS no longer needs to request additional SPDCH to the BSC, as all the usable PS capable radio time slots are explicitly allocated to the MFS through the RR Allocation Indication message. Nevertheless, a coordination is performed between the MFS and the BSC to allocate radio time slots for the PS traffic. The protocol between the MFS and the BSC to handle radio resources uses two BSCGP messages which are new in B9 release: They replace the Radio Allocation Request/Confirm and Radio Deallocation Command/Complete used in B8 release by the MFS and the BSC. Moreover the Load Indication message used in B8 release is no more used in B9 release.

Page 60

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Principle (2/2)
MFS / BSC Synchronization
BSC RR Allocation Indication RR Usage Indication RR_ALLOC_PERIOD (2) x TCH_INFO_PERIOD RR Allocation Indication RR Usage Indication TCH_INFO_PERIOD RR Usage Indication MFS

B9
61

TCH_INFO_PERIOD (5s)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The RR Allocation Indication message: Is sent from the BSC to the MFS to provide the MFS with the location of the allocated SPDCH. Is transmitted periodically every RR_ALLOC_PERIOD * TCH_INFO_PERIOD seconds = 2 * 5 seconds. Contains the SPDCH_Allocation bitmap which indicates whether available time slots in the cell are allocated or not to the MFS. The RR Usage Indication message: Is sent from the MFS to the BSC periodically (every TCH_INFO_PERIOD seconds) or in response to a Radio Resource Allocation Indication message. Contains 3 bitmaps: The SPDCHs_Confirmation bitmap. The role of this bitmap is to indicate the status of each SPDCH from the point of view of the MFS and also to acknowledge the allocation of SPDCH newly granted by the BSC and the deallocation of SPDCH given back to the BSC. The value of each bit in the SPDCHs_Confirmation bitmap has the following meaning: - 1: this SPDCH is allocated to the MFS (SPDCH allocation state is allocated or de-allocating). - 0: this SPDCH is not allocated to the MFS (SPDCH allocation state is not allocated). The SPDCHs_Usage bitmap: - 1: this SPDCH is allocated to the MFS and used (one TBF, RT PFC or one UL block has some radio resources allocated on it, and/or if its basic Abis nibble is being used by a GCH channel or is still switched to an Ater nibble in the BSC). - 0: this SPDCH is either allocated to the MFS and unused (*), or is not allocated to the MFS. The SPDCHs_RadioUsage bitmap: - 1: this SPDCH is allocated to the MFS and there is at least one TBF allocated on it. - 0: this SPDCH is either allocated to the MFS and there is no TBF allocated on it, or is not allocated to the MFS. The bitmaps are present for all the available PS capable TRXs of a cell, even if no SPDCH is allocated to the MFS for a given TRX.

Page 61

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Functional Entities
LOAD_EV_PERIOD_GPRS NB_USED_CS_TS NB_USED_PS_TS Load Evaluation MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD MAX_PDCH MIN_PDCH NB_TS_MPDCH MIN_SPDCH MAX_SPDCH NB_TS Thresholds computation MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD Computation of MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT AV_USED_CS_TS AV_USED_PS_TS AV_UNUSED_TS

B9
62

NB_TS_DEFINED NB_TS_SPDCH

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT

CS/PS Margin

MARGIN_PRIORITY_CS MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD_GPRS THR_MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 62

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Thresholds Computation (1/2)


LOAD_EV_PERIOD_GPRS NB_USED_CS_TS NB_USED_PS_TS Load Evaluation MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD MAX_PDCH MIN_PDCH NB_TS_MPDCH MIN_SPDCH MAX_SPDCH NB_TS Thresholds computation MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD Computation of MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT AV_USED_CS_TS AV_USED_PS_TS AV_UNUSED_TS

B9
63

NB_TS_DEFINED NB_TS_SPDCH

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT

CS/PS Margin

MARGIN_PRIORITY_CS MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD_GPRS THR_MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 63

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Thresholds Computation (2/2)


MAX_SPDCH = Roundup [Min(MAX_PDCH NB_TS_MPDCH ; NB_TS_SPDCH) x Availability_TS_Ratio]

B9
64

MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD = Roundup [Min(MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD NB_TS_MPDCH ; NB_TS_SPDCH) x Availability_TS_Ratio] MIN_SPDCH = Roundup [(MIN_PDCH NB_TS_MPDCH) x Availability_TS_Ratio] Where Availability_TS_Ratio(k) = NB_TS(k) / NB_TS_DEFINED
evaluated at instant tk, every RR_ALLOC_PERIOD x TCH_INFO_PERIOD (10s) NB_TS(k) takes into account the possible TRX failures

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

NB_TS_SPDCH is the total number of TCH/SPDCH time slots in the cell, without taking into account the possible TRX failure. This parameter can be retrieved by the BSC from the O&M configuration of the cell. NB_TS_DEFINED is the total number of pure TCH, TCH/SDCCH, or TCH/SPDCH time slots, without taking into account the possible TRX failure. This parameter can be retrieved by the BSC from the O&M configuration of the cell. NB_TS is the total number of pure TCH, TCH/SDCCH, or TCH/SPDCH time slots (evaluated every 10s), taking into account possible TRX failures. A TCH/SPDCH is a TS which can be allocated for either CS traffic or PS traffic (i.e. mapped on a PS capable TRX and inside the SPDCH group). A pure TCH is a TS which can be allocated only for CS traffic (i.e. outside the SPDCH group). A TCH/SDCCH is a dynamic SDCCH (can be allocated as either a TCH or an SDCCH).

Page 64

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Load Evaluation (1/3)


LOAD_EV_PERIOD_GPRS NB_USED_CS_TS NB_USED_PS_TS Load Evaluation MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD MAX_PDCH MIN_PDCH NB_TS_MPDCH MIN_SPDCH MAX_SPDCH NB_TS Thresholds computation MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD Computation of MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT AV_USED_CS_TS AV_USED_PS_TS AV_UNUSED_TS

B9
65

NB_TS_DEFINED NB_TS_SPDCH

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT

CS/PS Margin

MARGIN_PRIORITY_CS MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD_GPRS THR_MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 65

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Load Evaluation (2/3)


The BSC computes 3 averaged values
AV_USED_CS_TS(k), AV_USED_PS_TS(k) and AV_UNUSED_TS(k) For each cell At sampling instant tk, every RR_ALLOC_PERIOD x TCH_INFO_PERIOD (10s) Using a sliding window, LOAD_EV_PERIOD_GPRS

B9
66

AV_USED_CS_TS(k) =

1 LOAD_EV_PERIOD_GPRS

LOAD_EV_PERIOD_GPRS -1 i= 0

NB_USED_CS_TS (k - i)

Same formula for AV_USED_PS_TS(k) and AV_UNUSED_TS(k) based on NB_USED_PS_TS(k) and NB_UNUSED_TS(k)
NB_UNUSED_TS(k) = NB_TS(k) NB_USED_CS_TS(k) MAX[MIN_SPDCH(k) ; NB_USED_PS_TS(k)]

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

NB_USED_CS_TS(k): number of available time slots handled by the BSC and carrying CS traffic in the cell at sampling instant tk. A time slot is taken into account in the evaluation of NB_USED_CS_TS(k) if: SPDCH allocation state = not allocated, Occupancy state = used. NB_USED_PS_TS(k): number of available time slots used for PS traffic in the cell at sampling instant tk. A time slot is taken into account in the evaluation of NB_USED_PS_TS(k) if: SPDCH allocation state = allocated or de-allocating, Occupancy state = used. These variables are updated every TCH_INFO_PERIOD (5s).

Page 66

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Load Evaluation (3/3)

B9
67

k-2

k-1

k+1

k+2

TCH_INFO_PERIOD = 5s NB_USED_CS_TS(k) NB_USED_PS_TS(k) NB_USED_TS(k) NB_UNUSED_TS(k)

RR_ALLOC_PERIOD * TCH_INFO_PERIOD

LOAD_EV_PERIOD_GPRS = 3

AV_USED_CS_TS(k) AV_USED_PS_TS(k) AV_UNUSED_TS(k)

AV_USED_CS_TS(k+2) AV_USED_PS_TS(k+2) AV_UNUSED_TS(k+2)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 67

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

CS/PS Margins (1/2)


LOAD_EV_PERIOD_GPRS NB_USED_CS_TS NB_USED_PS_TS Load Evaluation MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD MAX_PDCH MIN_PDCH NB_TS_MPDCH MIN_SPDCH MAX_SPDCH NB_TS Thresholds computation MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD Computation of MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT AV_USED_CS_TS AV_USED_PS_TS AV_UNUSED_TS

B9
68

NB_TS_DEFINED NB_TS_SPDCH

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT

CS/PS Margin

MARGIN_PRIORITY_CS MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD_GPRS THR_MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 68

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

CS/PS Margins (2/2)

B9
69

MARGIN_CS = MAX(MARGIN_PRIORITY_CS(k), AV_UNUSED_TS(k) / 2)


Where:
MARGIN_PRIORITY_CS = THR_MARGIN_PRIO_CS x (NB_TS MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD) THR_MARGIN_PRIO_CS = 100% - HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD_GPRS

MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS = THR_MARGIN_PRIO_PS x MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD


Where:
THR_MARGIN_PRIO_PS = 10%

These 2 margins are used to ensure that a certain number of TSs is kept available for the arrival of new calls / transfers between 2 RR Allocation Indication messages

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 69

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT Computation
LOAD_EV_PERIOD_GPRS NB_USED_CS_TS NB_USED_PS_TS Load Evaluation MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD MAX_PDCH MIN_PDCH NB_TS_MPDCH MIN_SPDCH MAX_SPDCH NB_TS Thresholds computation MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD Computation of MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT AV_USED_CS_TS AV_USED_PS_TS AV_UNUSED_TS

B9
70

NB_TS_DEFINED NB_TS_SPDCH

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT

CS/PS Margin

MARGIN_PRIORITY_CS MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD_GPRS THR_MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 70

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT Computation: Functional Entities

B9
71

MARGIN_PRIORITY_CS

AV_USED_CS_TS AV_UNUSED_TS

Computation of MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS MAX_SPDCH MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS Computation of MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT

Computation of AV_USED_PS_TS MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS

MIN_SPDCH MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The basic idea for the evaluation of MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT is to start from the number of unused time slots and to share them between CS and PS traffic, taking into account 2 margins (one for CS, one for PS traffic) defined to guarantee a certain number of time slots available to serve incoming calls/transfers.

Page 71

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT Computation: Formulas (1/2)


MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT is equal to:
OR MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS under normal load MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS under high CS load

B9
72

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS
Represents the maximum number of SPDCHs that can be allocated to the MFS ensuring the CS allocation is not degraded = RoundDown[NB_TS AV_USED_CS_TS MARGIN_CS]

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS
Represents the minimum number of SPDCHs that can be allocated to the MFS ensuring the PS allocation is not degraded = RoundUp[AV_USED_PS_TS + MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS]

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 72

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT Computation: Formulas (2/2)


Choice between MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS and MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS
If MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS >= MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD then
MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT = Min[MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS ; MAX_SPDCH] If MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS > MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS then
MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT = Min[MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS ; MAX_SPDCH]

B9
73

Else

Else
MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT = Min[MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS ; MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD]

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT is always between MIN_SPDCH and MAX_SPDCH

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 73

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT Computation: Example


NB_TS=14 MAX_SPDCH=14 MIN_SPDCH=1 MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD=2 HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD_GPRS=80%
14

B9
74

12 10

CS Traffic

CS Traffic CS Traffic PS Traffic Normal load PS Traffic

6 4

PS Traffic High CS load with PS traffic

High CS load Without PS traffic

High PS load Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Case Normal Load: The capacity is shared between CS and PS taking into account the associated margins. Case High CS load: When the CS traffic increases, MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT is reduced down to MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD to ensure a minimum capacity for the PS traffic. Case Very high CS load: When the CS traffic increases and in the same time there is no PS traffic, MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT is decreased down to MIN_SPDCH to ensure the maximum capacity for the CS. Case High PS load: MAX_SPDCH is not the only criterion taken into account to limit the PS capacity, the CS_MARGIN is applied too.

Page 74

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

PS Zones: Definition
MAX_SPDCH = 12, MIN_SPDCH = 1, MAX_SPDCH_LOAD = 8 MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT = 7

B9
75

PS

PS

PS

PS

CS

CS

BCCH SDCCH

CS

TRX3
Non pre-emptable zone MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD zone MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT zone PS traffic zone

TRX1

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD zone: this zone corresponds to the MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD consecutive PS capable time slots that are preferred for PS allocation. In this zone, allocated TBFs cannot be preempted. If the value of MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD is not modified, this zone remains unchanged. Non pre-emptable PS zone: this zone is always inside the MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD zone. In this latter zone, we search for the rightest time slot allocated to the MFS and used. Then, all time slots situated at its left define this non pre-emptable PS zone. MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT zone: this zone corresponds to the MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT consecutive PS capable time slots that are preferred for PS allocation. PS traffic zone: this zone corresponds to the larger zone between the non pre-emptable PS zone and the MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT zone.

Page 75

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

PS Zones: Impact on CS Call

B9
76

PS

PS

PS

PS

CS

PS

PS

CS

BCCH SDCCH

CS

TRX3
Non pre-emptable zone MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD zone MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT zone PS traffic zone

TRX1
HO cause 30

If EN_RETURN_CS_ZONE_HO = enabled AND a CS call is inside both


The Non pre-emptable zone and The MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_ZONE then

An intra cell HO cause 30 is triggered

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Caution: animated slide.

Page 76

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

SPDCH Allocation: Conclusion


Example of an SPDCHs_Allocation bitmap
MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT = 7

B9
77

PS

PS

PS

PS

CS

CS

BCCH SDCCH

CS

TRX3
Non pre-emptable zone MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT zone

TRX1

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Caution: animated slide. The algorithm of selection of MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT TCH/SPDCH time slots to allocate to the MFS and of building of the SPDCHs_Allocation bitmap is performed as follows: Initialization: Definition of the non pre-emptable PS zone and of the MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT zone, nb_selected = 0, Begin with the time slot having the lowest index and situated on the TRX having the lowest rank in the TRX Ranking Table. Process on each TCH/SPDCH time slots available in the cell: First, begins with the non pre-emptable PS zone: analysis of all time slots within this zone. At the end of this zone: - If nb_selected >= MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT: stop the process and the remaining time slots are allocated to the BSC, - Otherwise: continue the process in the MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT zone. At the end of this zone: If nb_selected = MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT: stop the process and the remaining time slots are allocated to the BSC, Otherwise: continue the process outside the MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT zone. When nb_selected = MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT: stop the process and the remaining time slots are allocated to the BSC.

Page 77

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

SPDCH De-allocation: Principle


A preemption is triggered in the MFS
At the reception of an RR Allocation Indication message from the BSC In case there is one or several PDCH to give back to the BSC It concerns only used PDCHs where:
OR Its mapped basic Abis nibble is used in an M-EGCH link At least 1 TBF is allocated on it

B9
78

CS preemption takes place in two main steps:


Soft preemption Fast preemption

No more SPDCH de-allocation based on low load situation


T_PDCH_INACTIVITY and T_PDCH_INACTIVITY_LAST removed in B9 Replaced by T_GCH_INACTIVITY and T_GCH_INACTIVITY_LAST to deallocate the unused GCHs

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The SPDCH de-allocation based on low load situation is not used anymore in B9, since the allocated SPDCHs are fully managed by the MFS. This is applicable only for G3 BTS. For the G2 BTS, the SPDCH de-allocation process remains the same as in B8.

Page 78

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

SPDCH De-allocation: Preemption Mechanism

B9
79

Arrival of RR Allocation indication message Lock PDCHs


On TRXs with all its basic Abis nibbles impacted by CS preemption

T1 re-allocation

Soft preemption
No TBF candidate for T1 or T_PDCH_Preemption expiry

All T1 requests played successfully

Fast preemption

Unlock PDCHs

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Step 1: lock the PDCHs of the TRXs which are highly impacted by the CS preemption This step is only applicable to Evolium BTSs The basic Abis nibbles of the time slots preempted by the BSC may be currently used by some GCHs in the cell. Thus, the TRXs (or MEGCHs) using these GCHs will be impacted by the preemption, even if the preempted TSs are not on these TRXs. Thats why the TRXs of the cell for which the 2 following conditions are fulfilled have all their PDCHs locked by the preemption process, it means that they cannot accept anymore traffic: Nb_GCH_Impacted_By_CS_Preemption > 0 Established_Nb_GCH Nb_GCH_Impacted_By_CS_Preemption <= Min_Nb_GCH_GBR Where: - Nb_GCH_Impacted_By_CS_Preemption is the number of established GCHs in the M-EGCH link using a basic Abis nibble mapped onto a radio time slot that is being deallocated by the BSC. - Established_Nb_GCH is is the number of GCHs that are activated in the M-EGCH link and that will be kept activated during a certain time. - Min_Nb_GCH_GBR is an estimation of the minimum number of GCHs necessary in a given M-EGCH link for the GBR (Guaranteed Bit Rate) traffic supported by the TRX in both directions (UL and DL). Step 2: soft preemption process 2 kinds of TBF are candidate for the T1 re-allocation process: The TBFs whose PACCH is supported by a preempted time slot. The TBFs for which it will no longer be possible to serve their on-going max allowed (M)CS because of the subsequent reduction of the M-EGCH link size of their TRX. In addition, in the case where the number of TBFs established on a TRX will become too high according to the remaining number of GCHs in the M-EGCH link of the TRX, then some TBFs will be released. Step 3: fast preemption process At T_PDCH_Preemption timer expiry: The TBFs which could not be T1 reallocated are released. The locked PDCHs which do not carry PACCH are released (TBF throughput reduction). The GCHs using the basic Abis nibbles of the preempted radio TSs are released. Step 4: unlock the PDCHs: If some PDCHs were locked in step 1, they are unlocked. Indeed, the CS preemption process is over, so the existing M-EGCH links will no longer be disturbed by the release of some of their GCHs due to the fast preemption. Page 79

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

SPDCH De-allocation: Soft Preemption (1/2)


The MFS locks all the PDCHs impacted by the CS preemption:
i.e. The de-allocated PDCH indicated in the RR Allocation Indication message sent by the BSC (the PDCHs to be preempted)

B9
80

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The MFS locks also all the PDCHs of the TRX which have a GCH mapped on a RTS impacted by preemption and only in case of all the GCHs of the TRX are impacted by the preemption (rare case).

Page 80

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

SPDCH De-allocation: Soft Preemption (2/2)


2 kinds of TBF are candidate for the T1 re-allocation process:
The TBFs whose PACCH is supported by a preempted time slot. The TBFs for which it will no longer be possible to serve their on-going max allowed (M)CS because of the subsequent reduction of the M-EGCH link size of their TRX.
31

B9
81

TBF2 is candidate for T1 re-allocation


TRX3 TBF2 MCS7 PDCHs to be preempted
Bonus Bonus

. . .
TRX4 TRX3 TRX2 TRX1 Abis

TRX1

BCCH SD

TBF1 CS2 RSL OML

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 81

2.2 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

SPDCH De-allocation: Fast Preemption


Fast preemption:
At expiry of T_PDCH_PREEMPTION, the MFS de-allocates the TS before TBF ending, having the following impacts:
The TBFs whose PACCH is impacted (the corresponding PDCH is marked) are released.
- The MFS sends a Packet TBF release message with polling (i.e acknowledgement is requested)

B9
82

The TBFs whose PACCH is not impacted are not released but have a throughput reduction.
- The MFS sends a Packet PDCH release message indicating the preempted PDCHs

T_PDCH_PREEMPTION = TCH_INFO_PERIOD 1 = 4s
T_PDCH_PREEMPTION cannot be set at the OMC-R anymore
Modified B9

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The PACCH blocks are the most important blocks to monitor. Many GPRS features ensure that PACCH blocks are always monitored by the MS: The PTCCH is carried by the same PDCH as the PACCH. The RXLEV measurements for the power control and CS adaptation are made on the PDCH that carries the PACCH blocks. Some RLS mechanisms are based on whether or not the MS is able to send or listen to PACCH blocks.

Page 82

B9
83

2 RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 83

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Definition of the 2 TBF Allocation Policies

B9
84

ASAP: used for BE TBF establishment, T1, T2 and T4 reallocation


Its goal is to serve the request as soon as possible.

OPTIMAL: used for T3 reallocation


Its goal is to ensure that a significant bandwidth will be offered to the MS upon T3 reallocation, even if it takes some time to establish all the necessary GCHs

Nb_GCH_For_TBF_Estab:
Minimum number of GCHs, which are required on the TRX to serve the request.
Type of request
TBF establishment (without concurrent) TBF establishment (with concurrent) T1 TBF reallocation T4 TBF reallocation T3 TBF reallocation

Policy
ASAP ASAP ASAP ASAP Optimal

Nb_GCH_For_Estab
1 1 to 5 (Max_Allowed_(M)CS of concurrent TBF) 1 1 to 2 (Max_Allowed_CS of concurrent TBF) 1 to 5 (Max_Allowed_(M)CS of concurrent TBF)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 84

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Determination of the Max_Allowed_(M)CS of a TBF

B9
85

Depends on the type of TBF (GPRS / EGPRS) and of the direction of the TBF (UL / DL) Is based on the number of established GCHs:
Established_Nb_GCH Nb_GCH_Impacted_CS_Preemption

Is limited by:
GPRS / EGPRS TRX capability, MAX_GPRS_CS and MAX_EGPRS_MCS

Nb_GCH 1 2

Max_Allowed_CS CS-2 (UL) / CS-1 (DL) CS-4

Nb_GCH 1 2 3 4 5

Max_Allowed_MCS MCS-2 (UL) / MCS-1 (DL) MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-9

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Established_Nb_GCH is is the number of GCHs that are activated in the M-EGCH link and that will be kept activated during a certain time.

Page 85

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Functional Entities
RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION/REALLOCATION ALGORITHM
Best-effort TBF allocation/reallocation request (received from RRM-PCC or dequeued from an Li list) Multislot class, Bias, Traffic type

B9
86

Transmission Resource Availability


Available_Nb_GCH

TRX list sorted by the BSC

DSP congestion state

TRX list computing Cf. session 2.2


TRX list

Number of radio TSs determination


n_MS_requested, n_MS_requested_concurrent Type of the TBF request

Best candidate allocation computation


Candidate TS allocation No candidate TS allocation

Cell Transmission Equity


Available_Nb_GCH_With_Equity

Test if enough GCHs


Enough GCHs Not enough GCHs

PDCH capacity/TFI/TAI/USF allocation


A LLOC OK case ALLOC FAILED case

Transmission resource reservation

rejected request or L4 queuing or L5/L6 queuing or L7 queuing) or try to change TBF mode (EGPRS case)

TBF ESTABLISHMENT PROCESS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

L4 The list of DL TBFs which are still not served (due to a lack of resources). This list is sorted according to the PDU lifetime of the first DL LLC PDU of each queued request. On PDU lifetime expiry, the request is removed from the queue. L5 The list of MSs with UL bias which are candidate for resource re-allocation due to trigger T3. This list is sorted according to the following criteria: The candidate MSs are processed according to a FIFO order: the first request posted in the list is the first processed by RRM PRH. In case it is not possible to reallocate resources to a candidate MS, the MS is put back at the end of the list. L6 The list of MSs with DL bias which are candidate for resource re-allocation due to trigger T3. This list is sorted in the same way as L5. L7 The list of MSs which are candidate for resource re-allocation due to trigger T4. The candidate MSs are processed according to a FIFO order: the first request posted in the list is the first processed by RRM PRH. In case it is not possible to reallocate resources to a candidate MS, the MS is put back at the end of the list.

Page 86

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Transmission Resource Availability


RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION/REALLOCATION ALGORITHM
Best-effort TBF allocation/reallocation request (received from RRM-PCC or dequeued from an Li list) Multislot class, Bias, Traffic type

B9
87

Transmission Resource Availability


Available_Nb_GCH

TRX list sorted by the BSC

DSP congestion state

TRX list computing Cf. session 2.2


TRX list

Number of radio TSs determination


n_MS_requested, n_MS_requested_concurrent Type of the TBF request

Best candidate allocation computation


Candidate TS allocation No candidate TS allocation

Cell Transmission Equity


Available_Nb_GCH_With_Equity

Test if enough GCHs


Enough GCHs Not enough GCHs

PDCH capacity/TFI/TAI/USF allocation


A LLOC OK case ALLOC FAILED case

Transmission resource reservation

rejected request or L4 queuing or L5/L6 queuing or L7 queuing) or try to change TBF mode (EGPRS case)

TBF ESTABLISHMENT PROCESS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 87

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Transmission Resource Availability: Example (1/4)


3 cells with 2 TRXs:
Max_PDCH_High_Load = 4 => a maximum of 4 non CS preemptable basic Abis nibbles can be established in the cell MAX_PDCH = 8, MAX_EGPRS_MCS = MCS-9, MAX_GPRS_CS = CS-4 Max_SPDCH_Limit = 6 =>a maximum of 6 basic Abis nibbles can be established in the cell
radio Abis

B9
88

Cell A

Cell B Basic nibbles Cell C

6x4 extra nibbles

CS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 88

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Transmission Resource Availability: Example (2/4)


First EDGE MS1, class 8 in cell A -> Target_Nb_GCH = 18
GCH Allocation for MS1
4 basic Abis nibbles in the Max_PDCH_High_Load zone 14 extra Abis nibbles Total = 18 GCHs
basic Cell A extra Cell B

B9
89

Cell C

CS MS1

CS Cell A

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 89

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Transmission Resource Availability: Example (3/4)


Second EDGE MS2, class 8 in cell B -> Target_Nb_GCH = 18
GCH Allocation for MS2
4 basic Abis nibbles in the Max_PDCH_High_Load zone 10 free extra Abis nibbles 2 basic Abis nibbles outside the Max_PDCH_High_Load zone Inter GCH preemption between Cell A and Cell B:
14 extra Abis in cell A, 10 extra Abis in cell B 2 extra Abis nibbles are preempted from Cell A to Cell B

B9
90

Cell A

Total = 18 GCHs

basic extra

Cell B

Cell C CS Cell A Cell B

CS MS1 MS2
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 90

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Transmission Resource Availability: Example (4/4)


After GCH allocation of MS2 in cell B
In Cell A: Established_Nb_GCH = 16

B9
91

Next Periodical GCH process in Cell A: Equity process


2 basic Abis nibbles outside the Max_PDCH_High_Load zone Total = 16 + 2 = 18 GCHs
basic Cell A extra Cell B

Cell C CS Cell A Cell B

CS MS1 MS2
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 91

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Transmission Resource Availability: High Ater usage

B9
92

Each time some radio resources are allocated on a new PDCH of a TRX
No radio resources were formerly allocated on this PDCH for some TBFs

If the Ater is in high usage


Percentage of used Ater nibbles, in a GPU > Ater_Usage_Threshold

Then, the number of GCHs targeted per PDCH is reduced


Target_Nb_GCH_per_PDCH x GCH_RED_FACTOR_High_Ater_Usage

Example:
Considering an MEGCH link of a TRX supporting one 4-TS best-effort EGPRS TBF MAX_EGPRS_MCS = MCS-9 GCH_RED_FACTOR_High_Ater_Usage = 0.75 Target_Nb_GCH = 1*4.49+1*4.49+1*4.49+1*4.49 = 18 GCHs if Ater usage of the GPU is normal Target_Nb_GCH = 0.75*4.49+0.75*4.49+0.75*4.49+0.75*4.49 = 14 GCHs if Ater usage of the GPU is high
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Each time some radio resources (for a TBF or for an RT PFC) are allocated on a new PDCH of a TRX (new PDCH means that no radio resources were formerly allocated on this PDCH for some TBFs or for some RT PFCs), then a value called alpha_HiAter shall be associated to this PDCH. The value of alpha_HiAter to be associated to a newly-used PDCH is computed as follows: If the Ater usage of the GPU is normal (nominal case): alpha_HiAter = 1, If the Ater usage of the GPU is high (high Ater usage situation): alpha_HiAter = GCH_RED_FACTOR_High_Ater_Usage, with GCH_RED_FACTOR_High_Ater_Usage the O&M parameter value. The value of alpha_HiAter is used in the Target_Nb_GCH computing. If the Ater usage of the GPU is high, this will have the effect of applying a GCH reduction factor (GCH_RED_FACTOR_High_Ater_Usage) to the number of GCHs targeted per PDCH, when opening new PDCHs. Some consequences of this mechanism are: If the Ater usage of the GPU becomes high, then the Ater consumption will increase more slowly from this moment, If the Ater usage of the GPU stays high for a long time, and if the PDCH closure and (re)opening rate is sufficient in the GPU, then the GCH reduction factor (GCH_RED_FACTOR_High_Ater_Usage) will tend to be applied on many of the TRXs managed by the GPU, which will lead to a pseudo-equity in the usage of the Ater resources of the GPU.

Page 92

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Number of Radio TS Determination (1/2)


93
RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION/REALLOCATION ALGORITHM
Best-effort TBF allocation/reallocation request (received from RRM-PCC or dequeued from an Li list) Multislot class, Bias, Traffic type

Transmission Resource Availability


Available_Nb_GCH

TRX list sorted by the BSC

DSP congestion state

TRX list computing Cf. session 2.2


TRX list

Number of radio TSs determination


n_MS_requested, n_MS_requested_concurrent Type of the TBF request

Best candidate allocation computation


Candidate TS allocation No candidate TS allocation

Cell Transmission Equity


Available_Nb_GCH_With_Equity

Test if enough GCHs


Enough GCHs Not enough GCHs

PDCH capacity/TFI/TAI/USF allocation


A LLOC OK case ALLOC FAILED case

Transmission resource reservation

rejected request or L4 queuing or L5/L6 queuing or L7 queuing) or try to change TBF mode (EGPRS case)

TBF ESTABLISHMENT PROCESS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 93

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Number of Radio TS Determination (2/2)


94

The number of radio TSs is determined for:


The direction of the request (n_MS_requested) The concurrent direction (n_MS_requested_concurrent)

Taken into account


The MS multislot class Maximum number of PDCH allocated to a single (E)GPRS connection:
MAX_PDCH_PER_TBF

The direction mainly used (in terms of throughput) by the on-going application: the bias
The MFS counts and averages the number of bytes transferred in both directions By default bias = DL
Except when the first TBF establishment is a UL 2 phase access

The traffic type


Only 1 TS is allocated in case of GMM/SM signaling traffic

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

When allocating resources to an MS, both n_MS_requested and n_MS_requested_concurrent are considered, even when only one TBF is established or being established, to take into account a potential future concurrent TBF, except in case of UL TBF establishment without concurrent DL TBF (Immediate UL TBF establishment), where only n_MS_requested is taken into account to allocate resources for the UL TBF. General purpose of the bias determination: GPRS MSs are often involved in consecutive UL/DL transfers for a unique service. The Bias determination shall identify the direction of the main flow of data (based on the quantity of data exchanged at a specific moment) in order to prioritize: The initial allocation on the biased direction. The re-allocation process on the main direction (likely to carry the useful data). Each time n_received_octets_UL = N_BIAS_DETERMINATION or n_sent_octets_DL = N_BIAS_DETERMINATION (whichever is reached first), RRM determines the bias as follows: if Av_n_received_octets_UL > Av_n_sent_octets_DL, the transfer is deemed uplink biased, else the transfer is deemed downlink biased. RRM then resets to 0 the counters n_received_octets_UL and n_sent_octets_DL. Where: n_received_octets_UL represents the number of octets received in the UL. n_sent_octets_DL represents the number of octets sent in the DL. Av_n_received_octets_UL represents an average number of octets received in the UL. Av_n_sent_octets_DL represents an average number of octets sent in the DL. Av_n_received_octets_UL (new) = WEIGHT_BIAS_DETERMINATION * Av_n_received_octets_UL (old) + (1 WEIGHT_BIAS_DETERMINATION) * n_received_octets_UL. Av_n_sent_octets_DL (new) = WEIGHT_BIAS_DETERMINATION * Av_n_sent_octets_DL (old) + (1 - WEIGHT_BIAS_DETERMINATION) * n_sent_octets_DL. N_BIAS_DETERMINATION and WEIGHT_BIAS_DETERMINATION are MFS (DLS) parameters used to tune the bias determination. The weighting factor is used in particular to avoid changing too quickly the bias of a transfer so that this determination takes into account the number of octets exchanged in the past. Default values: N_BIAS_DETERMINATION = 3 KB WEIGHT_BIAS_DETERMINATION = 0,7 Page 94

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Best Candidate Allocation Computation


RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION/REALLOCATION ALGORITHM
Best-effort TBF allocation/reallocation request (received from RRM-PCC or dequeued from an Li list) Multislot class, Bias, Traffic type

B9
95

Transmission Resource Availability


Available_Nb_GCH

TRX list sorted by the BSC

DSP congestion state

TRX list computing Cf. session 2.2


TRX list

Number of radio TSs determination


n_MS_requested, n_MS_requested_concurrent Type of the TBF request

Best candidate allocation computation


Candidate TS allocation No candidate TS allocation

Cell Transmission Equity


Available_Nb_GCH_With_Equity

Test if enough GCHs


Enough GCHs Not enough GCHs

PDCH capacity/TFI/TAI/USF allocation


A LLOC OK case ALLOC FAILED case

Transmission resource reservation

rejected request or L4 queuing or L5/L6 queuing or L7 queuing) or try to change TBF mode (EGPRS case)

TBF ESTABLISHMENT PROCESS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 95

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

SPDCH States
GPRS

B9
96

MAX_XX_TBF_SPDCH

PDCH

PDCH

EGPRS

ALLOCATED ACTIVE

The same states and parameters are used But, only EGPRS TBFs are taken into account

PDCH FULL No additional TBF can be established on the PDCH

specific state for GPRS UL TBF allocation: EGPRS PDCH


PDCH used in the DL by an 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF

The parameter N_TBF_PER_SPDCH has been removed


The BUSY state is not considered anymore

Modified B9

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Following states are defined for a PDCH: Allocated: New definition in B9: the PDCH is an SPDCH which has been indicated as usable for PS traffic by the BSC. B8 definition: radio resource allocated to the MFS, but associated transmission resources are not allocated. Active: New definition in B9: an allocated PDCH is active if it supports at least one radio resource allocated for a TBF or for an RT PFC. the B8 definition was considering the parameter N_TBF_PER_SPDCH which is removed in B9 release. Full: New definition in B9: an allocated PDCH is full in a given XL (XL = UL or DL) direction if and only if: - for GPRS Best Effort TBF: Nb_RT_PFC_XL + Nb_BE_TBF_XL MAX_XL_TBF_SPDCH - for EGPRS Best Effort TBF: Nb_RT_PFC_XL + Nb_BE_EGPRS_TBF_XL MAX_XL_TBF_SPDCH - for RT resource allocation: Nb_RT_PFC_XL + Nb_BE_TBF_XL MAX_XL_TBF_SPDCH - This is the same definition as in B8 release except that the concepts of RT PFC and best effort TBF are introduced. EGPRS: An allocated PDCH is in the EGPRS state if some radio resources are allocated in the DL direction, for an EGPRS TBF or an EGPRS RT PFC. This state is only used when running the radio resource allocation/reallocation algorithm in GPRS mode and when considering the UL direction of the candidate TBF allocations. This is nearly the same definition as in B8 release except that the concept of RT PFC is introduced.

Page 96

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Available Throughput Computation


For a GPRS TBF, in case of only BE TBFs with the same priority (MR0)
available_throughput_candidate_XL = R_AVERAGE_GPRS *

B9
97

NB_TBF
i =1

PDCHi

+1

NB_TBFPDCHi represents the number of already allocated GPRS and EGPRS TBFs on the PDCH i

For an EGPRS TBF, in case of only BE TBFs with the same priority (MR0)
available_ throughput _candidate_XL = R_AVERAGE_EGPRS *

NB_TBF
i =1

PDCHi

+1

NB_TBFPDCHi represents the number of already allocated EGPRS TBFs on the PDCH i

Appendix

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 97

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Candidate TS Allocation Sorting


The criteria of the TBF radio resource allocation/reallocation algorithm are throughput-based:

B9
98

ALPHA/ For ASAP policy only: the candidate time slot allocations, which are on some TRXs for which (Established_Nb_GCH - Nb_MPDCH) is greater than Nb_GCH_For_TBF_Estab are preferred A/ For UL GPRS TBF establishment / reallocation only: the candidate time slot allocations, which have the lowest number of PDCHs in the EGPRS state are preferred B/ the candidate time slot allocations, which have the highest available throughput in the direction of the bias are preferred C/ the candidate time slot allocations, which have the highest available throughput in the direction opposite to the bias are preferred D/ the candidate time slot allocations, which are on the TRX with the highest priority, are preferred E/ for EGPRS TBFs establishments only: the candidate time slot allocations, which have the lowest number of GPRS TBFs in the direction of the bias, are preferred F/ combinations with the PDCHs that have the lowest index are preferred

Exercise1

Exercise2

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

When evaluating criterion [F], the concurrence constraints imposed by the MS multislot class (if it is known) or by the default multislot class (if the MS multislot class is not known) shall be taken into account. This will indeed avoid unnecessary subsequent T2 TBF reallocations (after having established an incoming TBF without concurrent TBF).

Page 98

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Re-allocation (1/2)
4 different TBF reallocations are permanently activated:
T1: reallocation to maintain a TBF alive despite the CS preemption of some RTSs or of some GCHs in the cell T2: reallocation of an on-going TBF when establishing a concurrent TBF T3: reallocation useful to
Establish a new M-EGCH link for one of the TRXs of the cell Perform a radio de-fragmentation process Provide a higher throughput, if it is possible, to a TBF

B9
99

T4: reallocation to move a UL GPRS TBF sharing one PDCH with a DL EGPRS TBF onto PDCHs which do not support a DL EGPRS TBF. It concerns only GPRS TBFs

The parameter EN_RES_REALLOCATION has been removed

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

To be candidate to subsequent resource re-allocation (T3 and T4), the following conditions have to be met: the TBF established in the biased direction is marked with subsequent allocation. more than N_CANDIDATE_FOR_REALLOC bytes have been transferred for the TBF in the biased direction. T3192 is not running (specific to UL TBF re-allocation when T3192 is running for the DL TBF). The subsequent re-allocation is done whether or not the TBF corresponds to the bias transfer direction of the MS. N_CANDIDATE_FOR_REALLOC default value = 200 Bytes, it cannot be set at OMC-R level.

Page 99

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Re-allocation (2/2)
T3 TBF reallocation:
A T3 TBF reallocation is based on the following principles:
Computing of a THROUGHPUT_RATIO (= Allocated_Throughput / Optimal_Throughput) to know how sub-optimal a TBF allocation is A T3 TBF reallocation will only be allowed if a significant THROUGHPUT_RATIO gain is reached. The minimal gain is set by the system parameter: MIN_THROUGHPUT_GAIN (= 40%)

B9
100

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

THROUGHPUT_RATIO: for each MS which is candidate for a T3 TBF reallocation, a throughput ratio is calculated. this throughput ratio is useful to: validate the candidate TBF allocations when playing the radio resource reallocation algorithm. sort the T3 TBF reallocation requests within the L5 and L6 lists: low value of the throughput ratio means high priority of the request. THROUGHPUT_RATIO = ALLOCATED_THROUGHPUT / OPTIMAL_THROUGHPUT ALLOCATED_THROUGHPUT is the throughput currently allocated to the TBF in the direction of the bias and is equal to potential_throughput_PDCH * available_capacity_candidate_XL. OPTIMAL_THROUGHPUT is the optimal throughput that could be potentially allocated to the TBF in the direction of the bias by considering its multislot class and is equal to potential_throughput_PDCH * n_MS_requested. best candidate allocation computation: a candidate TBF allocation shall fulfill the following conditions: NEW_THROUGHPUT_RATIO min(1, (1+MIN_THROUGHPUT_GAIN ) * CURRENT_THROUGHPUT_RATIO). NEW_THROUGHPUT_RATIO is the throughput ratio of the candidate TBF allocation. CURRENT_THROUGHPUT_RATIO is the throughput ratio of the current TBF allocation. MIN_THROUGHPUT_GAIN is an O&M parameter.

Page 100

2.3 TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation

Re-allocation: example
Initial situation:
3 MSs (MSa, MSb, and MSc), all GPRS and (4+1)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 MSb 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

B9
101

UL DL

MSa MSc

UL DL

MSc MSc MSc MSc MSa MSa MSa MSa MSb MSb MSb MSb

MSc is the most impacted by the multiplexing in terms of throughput

In B8: MSc is not candidate for T3 reallocation because its allocation is optimal (4 TS in DL) In B9:
MSc is candidate for T3 reallocation A new TRX will be established (cf. Optimal policy) and MSc will then be reallocated on this new TRX 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

UL

MSa

MSb

UL

MSc

DL MSa MSa MSa MSa MSb MSb MSb MSb

DL MSc MSc MSc MSc

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 101

B9
102

2 RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

2.4 TBF Release Routine

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 102

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Justification
Wap access to home page without any feature
UL DL

B9
103

With Delayed DL TBF Release (B7)

With Delayed DL TBF TBF Release & Extended UL TBF Mode (B9)

Typical gain on Wap access to home page :


~8 seconds with Delayed DL TBF Release + ~2 seconds with Extended UL TBF Mode

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 103

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed DL TBF Release (1/4)


104

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

(1): There is no more DL LLC PDU stored for the MS. The BSS sends the last segment of the last useful RLC block. This block contains the last segment of the last useful DL LLC PDU, completed by a dummy LLC PDU in order to maintain the DL TBF alive. The Final Block Indicator is not set (FBI=0) and a polling is requested to the MS. T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Pol_Initial is activated (default value = 100 ms). (2): When the MS has acknowledged the last useful DL RLC block, T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel is activated (duration of the delayed DL TBF release phase). (3): At T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Pol_Initial expiry, a new RLC block containing one or more dummy LLC PDUs is sent to the MS. This RLC block contains a polling indication so that the MS can request a UL TBF establishment, if required. T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Pol (default value = 200 ms) is activated. (4): At T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel expiry, a last DL RLC block is sent with the Final Block Indicator set (FBI = 1), indicating the end of the DL TBF. The normal release procedure then applies.

Page 104

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed DL TBF Release (2/4)


105

Artificial extended DL TBF duration aiming at coping with jerky DL traffic from the CN Procedure:
the last DL RLC blocks are marked with FBI=0 the TBF state goes from Active to Delayed periodical Dummy DL RLC blocks in polling (S/P=1) sent by the MFS to trigger acknowledgement from the MS (FAI=0) when a new DL LLC PDU arrives at the MFS, the useful RLC Block transfer is resumed the TBF state goes from Delayed to Active

The MS does not take into account Dummy LLC PDU during the delayed release phase

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Jerky LLC PDU delivery at MFS due to buffer capacities of servers, SGSN and MFS. A TCP segment can generate up to 3 LLC PDUs. Also called Bursty traffic. HTTP and WAP services are likely to benefit from this feature. FBI: Final Block Indicator (RLC header) FAI: Final Acknowledgement Indicator S/P: triggers polling (packet Ack/Nack message) when set to 1 Periodical sending of DL RLC Blocks = polling period calculation: the MFS takes into consideration T3190 (guarding timer between 2 valid data received from the Network) in addition to the requirement of receiving at least one block every 360 ms (78 TDMA frames). (T3190n = 5 s (Alcatel recommended value), it cannot be set at OMC-R level). T3190n = Timer used in the procedure DL TBF abnormal release: when the DL TBF is cut due to the radio link quality or loss of the MS, the TFI and TAI cannot be reallocated during T3190n. The default value is 5s and it cannot be set at the OMC-R level. The UL Delayed TBF release (scheduling of additional USF) is only possible for Rel-4 MS.

Page 105

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed DL TBF Release (3/4)


106

End of delayed released period when T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel expires


T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel = T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME The MFS sends a Dummy UI command marked with FBI=1, S/P=1 Acknowledged mode:
The MS sends the last Packet DL Ack/Nack message (FAI=1)

Non-Acknowledged mode:
The MS sends the last Packet Control Ack message

T3192n and T3192 are triggered (Fast DL re-establishment)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME corresponds to the time difference between a command sent to the SGSN and the response received at the MFS. The default value is 700ms but it can be set at OMC-R level and can be tuned according to Gb traces.

Page 106

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed DL TBF Release (4/4)


RRM periods on MFS side:

B9
107

T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL (=60ms): the time that the MFS shall wait before sending the first RLC data block containing only LLC Dummy UI 2 timers are used to define the period between 2 DL Dummy UIs sent to the MS:
T_MIN_POLL (=60ms), in case of the MS is alone on the PDCH which carries the PACCH T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL (=200ms) in case of the MS is multiplexed on the PDCH which carries the PACCH

T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_UL (=2s): the period between 2 DL Dummy UIs sent to the MS, when there is an on-going UL TBF

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Upon each expiry of T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL (the timer reaches T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL or T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL), a new Dummy UI command is inserted and T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL is restarted. T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL = 60 ms T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL = 200 ms T_MIN_POLL = 60 ms T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_UL = 2000 ms All these timer values are default ones and they cannot be set at OMC-R level. T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL is used to: give the opportunity to the MS to request a UL TBF through the Packet DL Ack/Nack acknowledging the polling, without too much disturbing the other TBFs (data transfer for the DL and USF scheduling for the UL) multiplexed on the same PDCH (--> not too short period for Dummy UI commands). maintain the DL TBF at MS level (re-activation of T3190 timer (5s) in the MS) (--> period for Dummy UI commands < 5s). T_MIN_POLL is applied when the PDCH corresponding to the PACCH of the considered DL TBF is not shared with another enabled DL TBF and when there is no activated UL TBF on this PDCH (ie, no UL TBF in enabled or extended mode, for which USF may be scheduled).

Page 107

2.4 TBF Release Routine

DL TBF Extension (1/2)


108

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

(1): The DL TBF is in delayed DL TBF release phase. Periodically Dummy UI Command messages are sent to the MS with polling indication to give to the MS the opportunity to send a UL TBF request. (2): The MS uses a Packet DL Ack/Nack to request a UL TBF. The UL TBF is established and T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel is stopped (the DL TBF remains in delayed DL TBF release state, during the UL TBF). (3): At UL TBF release, the timer T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel is re-activated. (4): When a DL LLC PDU is received, the first DL RLC data block can be immediately sent and T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel is stopped. (5): T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel is stopped, when the first UL RLC data block is received.

Page 108

2.4 TBF Release Routine

DL TBF Extension (2/2)


109

When a UL TBF is established during a delayed DL TBF release:


T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel is stopped and reset The delayed DL TBF release state is maintained during the UL TBF DL Dummy UIs are sent every T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_UL
The aim of this timer is just to maintain the DL TBF at MS level (must be lower than T3190) Therefore T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_UL > T_DELAYED_DL_POL

At the end of the UL TBF, T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel is restarted

Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The aim of this function is to avoid the case where a UL TBF is established on the PACCH of a DL TBF which is at the end of its delayed DL TBF release phase. Indeed in this case, the subsequent DL LLC PDU (i.e., corresponding to a server response) may be received after the release of the DL TBF.

Page 109

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Fast DL TBF Re-establishment (1/2)


110

After DL TBF release, the following timers are considered MS side


T3192 started after sending of final Packet DL Ack/Nack message (FAI=1) during T3192 the MS listens to the PDCH carrying the PACCH blocks of its last DL TBF

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

T3192 = 500 ms (default value which can be set at OMC-R level).

Page 110

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Fast DL TBF Re-establishment (2/2)


111

MFS side
T3192n started after reception of final Packet DL Ack/Nack message Wait for reuse of MS radio resources (PDCHs, TAI, TFI) If a DL LLC PDU is received by the MFS, a fast DL TBF re-establishment is triggered on the PACCH T3192n = T3192 (T_Round_Trip_Delay + T_Fast_DL_Margin)

During T3192n, a UL TBF establishment is not possible

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

During the on-going of T3192n, no UL TBF establishment procedure can be proceeded. This is a limitation to fast switching from DL TBF to UL TBF during the MS-GSS signaling procedure (location update for example). In order to avoid a too long duration of these procedures, the MFS anticipates the UL TBF establishment by starting the procedure before the end of the DL TBF release. T3192n takes into account the trip time needed for Packet DL Ack/Nack message from the MS to the MFS (T_Round_Trip_Delay + T_Fast_DL_Margin) AND trip time needed for Packet DL Immediate Assignment message from the MFS to the MS (T_Round_Trip_Delay + T_Fast_DL_Margin). Round_Trip_Delay (MFS-MS) = 160 ms (default value which can be set at OMC-R level). T_Fast_DL_Margin = 50 ms (default value which cannot be set at OMC-R level). Note: during T3192n seconds, the Timing Advance is monitored. Even so, if TAI occurs, the MS must send its Access Burst for the Timing Advance calculation by the BTS. The MS shall listen to the TA Messages in the DL.

Page 111

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Non-DRX Mode after Packet Data Transfer (1/2)


112

Discontinuous Reception (DRX mode):


Used in GSM to increase the battery autonomy on an MS as in GSM CS: the MS listens only to its Paging Group Downlink TBF establishment through PCH long as compared with the TBF duration The MFS establishes a DL TBF on the first available PCH message of an MS Paging group

Non-DRX:
Continuous monitoring of AGCH messages by the MS The MFS establishes a DL TBF on the first available AGCH block (without MPDCH) or the first PPCH occurrence (with MPDCH)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

This feature outlines one of the major differences between the GPRS service (non connected mode) and the GSM service (connected mode). The DRX mode is highly recommended in GSM to save the cell battery when it may be a handicap in GPRS (where the paging is likely to occur more frequently).

Page 112

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Non-DRX Mode after Packet Data Transfer (2/2)


113

Non-DRX mode:
Non-DRX period
Min (NON_DRX_Timer; DRX_TIMER_MAX) Non-DRX period computed by the MFS and sent in Packet DL Immediate Assignment message

The DRX mode of an MS is evaluated each time the MFS receives DL LLC PDU from the SGSN The MFS keeps the MS context until expiry of:
DRX_TIMER_MAX if NON_DRX_Timer unknown for the MS Non-DRX period otherwise (provided within the DL LLC PDU)

DRX_TIMER_MAX limited to 4 seconds, broadcast on SI13

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

NON_DRX_Timer is unknown for the MFS when after the release of an uplink TBF, no DL concurrent TBF was Established, or after the release of a downlink TBF when the DL LLC PDUs do not convey the DRX parameters. When the MFS assesses that the MS returns to the DRX mode during the transmission of the assignment message, the message is sent to the PCH or PPCH channel. The MFS shall then take into account the 95% AGCH or PPCH queuing time (about 400 ms) in addition to the round trip time delay measured at RRM level (about 160 ms). Assuming a Non-DRX period of 2 seconds, this means that the downlink LLC PDU shall be received within 1.4 second to speed up the establishment of the DL TBF. DRX_TIMER_MAX = 2 s (Alcatel recommended value) and it can be set at OMC-R level.

Page 113

2.4 TBF Release Routine

DL TBF Release: Summary


114

T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME

DL TBF
TBF active TBF delayed T3192 Fast DL TBF establishment via PACCH

DL TBF
release T3192 DRX_TIMER_MAX Fast DL TBF establishment via AGCH or any PPCH

DL TBF
T3192

Non-DRX mode

DRX_TIMER_MAX

DL TBF
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

Non-DRX mode

DL TBF establishment via PCH or PPCH of MS paging group

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The tables below indicate examples of the expected DL TBF establishment duration with or without the feature.

Page 114

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed UL TBF Release: Without Extended Mode (1/3)


115

The UL TBF release is delayed when:


T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN <> 0 No concurrent DL TBF:
Is established Is being established Is being Released

During the delayed UL TBF release:


The MFS can establish a DL TBF on the PACCH/DL of the UL TBF The DL TBF establishment is speeded up

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The UL Delayed TBF release (scheduling of additional USF) is only possible for a Rel-4 MS.

Page 115

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed UL TBF Release: Without Extended Mode (2/3)


116

No DL LLC PDU is received during the delayed final PUAN phase


MS MFS SGSN

RLC/MAC block (BSN=n, CV=0) (1) LLC PDU (last LLC) (2) P. UL Ack/Nack (FAI=0, SSN = n) (3) (4) T3180 T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN

final P. UL ACK/NACK + polling (5) T3180n Packet Control Ack (6)

(7)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

(1): The last UL LLC PDU is received by the RLC. The RLC maintains the UL TBF alive since a normal end is not allowed. (2): The UL LLC PDU is sent to the RRM. A flag is set by the RLC, in order to notify the RRM that it is the last UL LLC PDU of the TBF. (3): A Packet UL Ack/Nack is sent to the MS, without polling, with FAI=0. This message does not acknowledge the last block (n). (4): Upon receipt of the last UL LLC PDU, the RRM starts an instance of the timer T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN. The UL LLC PDU is forwarded to the SGSN. (5): At T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN expiry, the RRM requests the RLC to release the UL TBF, by sending a PCC_RLC_Activate-req allowing the RLC to perform a normal TBF end. The RLC sends the final packet UL Ack/Nack to the MS and waits for Packet Control Acknowledgement. T3180n is activated (T3180n = T3180 - Round Trip Delay - T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN). (6): The MS acknowledges the receipt of the final PACKET UL Ack/Nack message. (7): The RLC notifies the RRM about the release of the UL TBF. The resources of the UL TBF are released. The RRM informs the BSSGP layer about the release of the UL TBF, and the BSSGP de-allocates the corresponding throughput. T3180n is stopped.

Page 116

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed UL TBF Release: Without Extended Mode (3/3)


117

Delayed final PUAN, with DL TBF establishment


MS MFS SGSN

RLC/MAC block (BSN=n, CV=0) (1) LLC PDU (lastLLC) (2) P. UL Ack/Nack (FAI=0, SSN = n) (3) (4) T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT (6) DL LLC PDU (5)

T3180 Packet Control Ack (7) (8) final P. UL ACK/NACK + polling Packet Control Ack (9) (10)

T3180n

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

(1): The last UL LLC PDU is received by the RLC. The RLC maintains the UL TBF alive since normal end is not allowed. (2): The UL LLC PDU is sent to the RRM. A flag is set by the RLC, in order to notify the RRM that it is the last UL LLC PDU of the TBF. (3): A Packet UL Ack/Nack is sent to the MS, without polling, with FAI=0. This message does not acknowledge the last block (n). (4): Upon receipt of the last UL LLC PDU, the RRM starts an instance of the timer T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN. The UL LLC PDU is forwarded to the SGSN. (5): A DL LLC PDU is received by the MFS while the timer T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN is running. (6): Radio resources are requested to RRM-PRH. Upon RRM-PRH response, the RRM-PCC stops the timer T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN, delays the release of the UL TBF until the completion of the DL TBF establishment procedure, establishes the DL TBF on the PACCH/DL of the UL TBF. If T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN expires before the response of the RRM-PRH, then the RRM-PCC requests the RLC to release the UL TBF, by sending a PCC_RLC_Activate-req allowing the RLC to perform a normal TBF end. In this case, at RRM-PCC response, the DL TBF will be established on CCCH, at the end of the UL TBF release. (7): The MS acknowledges the receipt of the assignment message and listens to the DL resources. The BSS sends a Packet Power Control and Timing Advance and then begins the DL data transfer. (8): Upon receipt of the PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT, the RRM immediately requests the RLC to release the UL TBF, by sending a pcc-rlc-activate-req primitive allowing the RLC to perform a normal TBF end. The RLC sends the final PACKET UL Ack/Nack to the mobile station and waits for a PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. (9): The MS acknowledges the receipt of the final PACKET UL Ack/Nack message. (10): The RLC notifies the RRM about the release of the UL TBF. The RRM stops T3180n. The resources of the UL TBF are released. The RRM informs the BSSGP layer about the release of the UL TBF, and the BSSGP de-allocates the corresponding throughput.

Page 117

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed UL TBF Release: with Extended Mode (1/4)

B9
118

Principle
At the end of the active phase (CV=0) The MFS continues to schedule some USFs To allow the MS to send some dummy RLC blocks
MS RLC/MAC block (BSN=n, CV=0) P. UL Ack/Nack (FAI=0, SSN = n+1) USF Dummy RLC data block T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL MFS start LLC PDU (last LLC) SGSN

. . .

USF Dummy RLC data block final P. UL ACK/NACK + polling Packet Control Ack

expiry

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The aim of this feature is to extend the duration of the UL TBF in order: To quickly restart data transmission in UL if higher layers in the MS deliver new data, without having to reestablish a new UL TBF, after the countdown procedure has started. To maintain the UL TBF established, some time after the last block (CV=0) has been acknowledged by the network. This feature allows to improve the access time to the GPRS network. It also improves the throughput in some cases. The feature is described in 3GPP TS 44.060 - V4.18.0. It applies for R4 MS.

Page 118

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed UL TBF Release: with Extended Mode (2/4)

B9
119

The UL transfer can resume at any time during the extended phase
MS
Active UL data transfer

MFS RLC/MAC block (BSN=n, CV=0) P. UL Ack/Nack (FAI=0, SSN = n+1) USF start

SGSN

LLC PDU (last LLC)

Extended UL data transfer

Dummy RLC data block USF Dummy RLC data block USF RLC/MAC block (BSN=n+1) stop T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL

Active UL data transfer

USF RLC/MAC block (BSN=n+2)

. . .
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

LLC PDU

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 119

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed UL TBF Release: with Extended Mode (3/4)

B9
120

Conditions to operate
EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF = enabled Rel-4 MS The MS has to know if the BSS supports the feature
The BSS capability (NW_EXT_UTBF) is broadcast on BCCH (SI13)

The BSS has to know if the MS supports the feature


The MS radio access capability is
- received at downlink TBF establishment in the first downlink PDU, or - retrieved through the Radio Access Capability Update which involves the SGSN If EN_RA_CAP _UPDATE = enabled

If one of these 4 conditions is not fulfilled, the normal UL TBF release is performed, as in B8 (T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN is applied)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

TLLI context retrieval procedure This procedure has been developed in B8 for the feature full intra PDU re-routing. The TLLI is known in the SGSN and by one GPU in the MFS. The TLLI retrieval procedure allows to retrieve information linked to the TLLI, among which the Radio Access Capability from another GPU. This procedure can be triggered at uplink TBF establishment, as soon as the contention resolution is completed. Radio Access Capability Update Enabled or disabled the Radio Access Capability update on Gb by flag, EN_RA_CAP _UPDATE. It is recommended to enabled this flag if EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF is enabled and Radio Access Capability update is supported by the SGSN. At UL TBF establishment, immediately after the contention resolution procedure, the radio access capability update procedure is triggered in the BSS. The BSS requests an MSs current Radio Access capability and/or its IMSI by sending to an SGSN an RA_CAPABILITY_UPDATE, which includes the TLLI of the MS and a Tag. Then it starts timer T5_RA_CAP_UPDATE (value = 5s). In case of timer expiry, the BSS shall repeat the request up to RA_CAPABILITY_UPDATE_RETRIES times (value = 3). The SGSN shall respond by sending an RA_CAPABILITY_UPDATE_ACK, which includes the TLLI of the MS, the Tag received in the corresponding RA_CAPABILITY_UPDATE. When the SGSN answers, the MS Radio Access capability is updated and the Extended UL feature can be used if the GERAN Feature Package 1 bit is set. Otherwise, the MS does not support the extended uplink feature.

Page 120

2.4 TBF Release Routine

Delayed UL TBF Release: with Extended Mode (4/4)


The way to schedule the USFs in extended UL TBF mode:
Scheduled only on the PDCH which carries the PACCH IF the PDCH supports uplink TBFs which are all in extended mode AND EN_FAST_USF_UL_EXTENDED = enabled THEN
the throughput in radio blocks is equally shared between MSs So USFs are scheduled as follows:
- One MS in extended mode on PACCH: USF scheduled every 20ms - Two MSs in extended mode on PACCH: USF scheduled every 40ms - n MSs in extended mode on PACCH: USF scheduled every n x 20ms

B9
121

ELSE (if EN_FAST_USF_UL_EXTENDED = disabled OR if the PDCH supports at least one MS which is in UL transfer)
A period T_EXTENDED_UL_TBF_POL (200 ms) is used to schedule the USFs for all the MSs in extended mode The remaining bandwidth is used for MSs in transfer

RRBP mechanism has priority over USF scheduling


This means the USF scheduling may be shifted if RRBP request from the RLC

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 121

2.4 TBF Release Routine

UL TBF Release: Summary

B9
122

Delayed final PUAN (without extended mode)


T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN

UL TBF
TBF active release

Extended UL TBF mode

NewB9

T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL

UL TBF
TBF active TBF extended release

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The UL TBF can be released before the expiry of the timer T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL: in case of a concurrent DL TBF is present and after the completion of DL delayed phase, the expiry of T3192 triggers the release of the UL TBF. Consequently, the uplink TBF in extended mode is released when either T3192 expires or T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL expires.

Page 122

B9
123

2 RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

2.5 Exercises

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 123

2.5 Exercises

(E)GPRS Channels (1/3)


124

Block number

UL PDTCH and PACCH multiplexing on SPDCH: UL transfer? DL transfer? Downlink


RLC header TFI MAC header USF USF j USF k USF j USF k ??? USF j USF k RRBP false false +3 false false false false

Back

Uplink Block Content?

Block n Block n+1 Block n+2 Block n+3 Block n+4 Block n+5 Block n+6

PDTCH / PACCH a PDTCH / PACCH b PDTCH / PACCH a PDTCH / PACCH b PDTCH / PACCH b PDTCH / PACCH b PDTCH / PACCH a

TFI a TFI b TFI a TFI b TFI b TFI b TFI a

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 124

2.5 Exercises

(E)GPRS Channels (2/3)


125

Fill in the blocks of a DL secondary MPDCH multiframe having the following criteria:
BS_PBCCH_BLKS=2 BS_PAG_BLKS_RES=6

Fill in the blocks of a UL PDCH multi-frame having the following criterion:


BS_PRACH_BLKS=4

Time allowed: 10 minutes

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 125

2.5 Exercises

(E)GPRS Channels (3/3)


126

DL multiframe: secondary MPDCH


BS_PBCCH_BLKS=2 BS_PAG_BLKS_RES=6

B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11
PAGCH ????? PAGCH ????? PPCH, PAGCH ?????

UL multiframe:
BS_PRACH_BLKS=4

B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11
????? PRACH ?????
Back

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

CAUTION: animated slide

Page 126

2.5 Exercises

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation (1/3)


Considering one cell with the following configuration:
4 TRXs in the DCS1800 band PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX = 0 NB_TS_MPDCH = 0

B9
127

In the next slide, find the rank of each TRX

Time allowed: 10 minutes

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 127

2.5 Exercises

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation (2/3)

B9
128

TRX_PREF_MARK

0
TRX1

3
RANK= ?

BCCH SDCCH TRE G4 MP FR

TRX2 SDCCH TRE G3

DR

RANK= ?

TRX3 TRE G4 MP FR RANK= ?


Back

TRX4 TRE G3 DR RANK= ?

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 128

2.5 Exercises

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation (3/3)


Inputs:
NB_TS = 14, AV_USED_CS=0, AV_USED_PS=11 MIN_SPDCH=0 MAX_SPDCH=14 MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD=2 HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD_GPRS=80% THR_MARGIN_PRIO_PS=10%

B9
129

Find the value of


MARGIN_CS, MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS, MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT

Time allowed: 30 minutes

Any Remark? Define a rule (relationship between some parameters) to fix this non-optimal setting

Back

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

MARGIN_CS = Max[MARGIN_PRIORITY_CS ; AV_UNUSED_TS/2] Where AV_UNUSED_TS = NB_TS AV_USED_CS_TS Max[AV_USED_PS_TS ; MIN_SPDCH] MARGIN_PRIORITY_CS = THR_MARGIN_PRIO_CS*(NB_TS MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD)/100 Where THR_ MARGIN_PRIO_CS = 100 HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD_GPRS MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS = THR_ MARGIN_PRIO_PS * MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS = RoundDown[NB_TS - AV_USED_CS_TS - MARGIN_CS] MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS = RoundUp[AV_USED_PS_TS + MARGIN_PRIORITY_PS]

If MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS >= MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD then MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT = Min[MAX_SPDCH ; MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS] Else if MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS > MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS then MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT = Min[MAX_SPDCH ; MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_CS] Else MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT = Min[MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD ; MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT_PS]

Page 129

2.5 Exercises

TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation (1/5)

B9
130

GPRS allocation on BCCH TRX (7 PDCHs are allocated)


UL TBFs 1 to 11 are established one after the other It is assumed that a concurrent DL TBF is established after the UL, and before the next UL All transfers are deemed DL biased Inputs:
BCCH TRX, 1 unique SPDCH group NB_TS_MPDCH = 0 MAX_XX_TBF_PER_SPDCH = 5 En_Fast_Initial_GPRS_Access = disabled The MS GPRS multislot class is given below:

Time allowed: 20 minutes

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GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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Page 130

2.5 Exercises

TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation (2/5)

B9
131

Fill in the initial TBF allocation TS mapping UL/DL

DL

UL

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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Page 131

2.5 Exercises

TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation (3/5)

B9
132

GPRS/EGPRS allocation case:


Cell with 2 PS capable TRXs:
TRXa: EGPRS capable, SPDCH group = TS0 to TS7 TRXb: non-EGPRS capable, SPDCH group = TS0 to TS7 Ordered TRX list: TRXa > TRXb

Time allowed: 20 minutes

En_Fast_Initial_GPRS_Access = enabled MIN_PDCH = 1 NB_TS_MPDCH = 0 MAX_GPRS_CS = CS-3; MAX_EGPRS_MCS = MCS-6 Default MS multislot class = 4 + 1 All the MSs are 4 + 1 MSs
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GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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Page 132

2.5 Exercises

TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation (4/5)

B9
133

MS constraints:
0 Rx 1 Rx 2 Rx 3 Rx 4 5 6 Mx 7

DL

Ttb UL 0 1 Tx 2 3

Tra

Consecutive establishments:
MSa: GPRS UL TBF followed by DL TBF MSb: EGPRS UL TBF followed by DL TBF MSc: GPRS UL TBF followed by DL TBF MSd: EGPRS UL TBF followed by DL TBF

Time allowed: 20 minutes

Bias = DL

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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Page 133

2.5 Exercises

TBF Radio Resources Allocation and Re-allocation (5/5)

B9
134

Fill in the initial TBF allocation TS mapping UL/DL


PDCH

Rank

TRXa UL EGPRS DL

TRXb UL GPRS DL
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 134

2.5 Exercises

DL TBF Release Routine (1/2)


135

DL TBF routine in acknowledged mode


Fill in the blanks in the diagram of a DL TBF displayed on the next slide:
name of the timers T_????? states of the DL TBF? ACTIVE, DELAYED, RELEASED

Time allowed: 10 minutes

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 135

2.5 Exercises

DL TBF Release Routine (2/2)


136

Back

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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Page 136

B9
137

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 137

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

Session Presentation

B9
138

Objective: to be able to describe the algorithms Radio Link Control and the related parameters Program:
3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation 3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation Modified B9 3.3 RLC Blocks Retransmission Modified B9 3.4 UL Power Control 3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection 3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection Modified B9 3.7 Flow Control at the Gb Interface 3.8 Radio Link Supervision 3.9 Exercises

of

Modified B9

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 138

139

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 139

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

Introduction GPRS and EGPRS


140

The MFS decides the UL and DL changes of coding scheme CS adaptation is enabled by means of 2 parameters:
EN_CS_ADAPTATION_ACK EN_CS_ADAPTATION_NACK

These parameters apply to both GPRS and EGPRS TBFs GPRS


4 coding schemes: CS-1 to CS-4 Only changes between consecutive CSs can occur Based on RXQUAL and I_LEVEL_TNi (interference level)

EGPRS
9 modulation and coding schemes: MCS-1 to MCS-9 Changes between any MCS can occur Based on MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

CS-1: 20 useful bytes per RLC block. CS-2: 30 useful bytes per RLC block. CS-3: 36 useful bytes per RLC block. CS-4: 50 useful bytes per RLC block. MCS-1: 22 useful bytes per RLC block. MCS-2: 28 useful bytes per RLC block. MCS-3: 37 useful bytes per RLC block. MCS-4: 44 useful bytes per RLC block. MCS-5: 56 useful bytes per RLC block. MCS-6: 74 useful bytes per RLC block. MCS-7: 2x56 useful bytes per RLC block. MCS-8: 2x68 useful bytes per RLC block. MCS-9: 2x74 useful bytes per RLC block. Only changes between consecutive CSs can occur, except in case of defense mechanism, see Defense procedure slide.

Page 140

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

Principle
141

The CS is adapted according to


QUALITY reporting I_LEVEL_TNi, only for DL TBF
based on a comparison between the received level and the interference level

BLER, only for DL TBF


when I_LEVEL_TNi is not available

for DL TBF:
The MS makes measurements on all the received blocks on all the PDCHs The MS reports measurements in the Packet DL Ack/Nack messages Then, the MFS computes long term and short term averages

for UL TBF:
The BTS makes quality measurements on all TSs for each block sent by the MS Then the MFS computes long term and short term averages on all TSs

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 141

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

QUALITY Averaging in the MFS


142

DL / UL TBF = 2 averages are computed:


Short term average AV_RXQUAL_ST AV_RXQUAL_STn+1 = (1 - 1 / zn+1) * AV_RXQUAL_STn + (1 / zn+1) * RXQUALn, with zn+1 = STtn * zn + 1, and ST = (1 - )(1 / CS_AVG_PERIOD_ST) Long term average AV_RXQUAL_LT AV_RXQUAL_LTn+1 = (1 - 1 / yn+1) * AV_RXQUAL_LTn + (1 / yn+1) * RXQUALn, with yn+1 = LTtn * yn + 1, and LT = (1 - )(1 / CS_AVG_PERIOD_LT)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In the formula above: RXQUALn is the RXQUAL value reported by the MS in the nth PACKET DL ACK/NACK message. tn is the time difference in seconds between the (n-1)th and the nth PACKET DL ACK/NACK messages, therefore depending on DL_ACK_PERIOD parameter value, on the nb of PDCHs used by the MS and on the traffic of the other MSs multiplexed on these PDCHs. AV_RXQUAL_STn (respectively AV_RXQUAL_LTn) is the value of AV_RXQUAL_ST (respectively AV_RXQUAL_LT) after the nth PACKET DL ACK/NACK message. is a hard coded end equal to 0.9. Remark: the initial value of yn and zn is 0. 1/CS_AVG_PERIOD_LT and 1/CS_AVG_PERIOD_ST correspond to forgetting factors: number of seconds in the past above which Quality measurements are considered as too old to be taken into account in the average. Default values are: CS_AVG_PERIOD_ST = 0.32 s CS_AVG_PERIOD_LT = 2 s both of them cannot be set at OMC-R level.

Page 142

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

AV_SIR Computation in the MFS


143

Interference level averaged by the MS


CH,n = (1-d) * CH,n-1 + d * SSCH,n d is the forgetting factor = d = 1/ MIN(n, N_AVG_I) SSCH,n is the interference measurement at iteration n

I_LEVEL_TNi computed by the MS and sent to the MFS


I_LEVEL_TNi = I_LEVEL_TNi = I_LEVEL_TNi = Etc. I_LEVEL_TNi = I_LEVEL_TNi = 0 when CH > C 1 when C-2dB < CH <= C 2 when C-4dB < CH <= C-2dB 14 when C-28dB < CH <= C-26dB 15 when CH <= C-28dB

AV_SIR = average value of I_LEVEL_TNi of all assigned DL TS i

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

C_VALUE and I_LEVEL_TNi measurements are already averaged with an exponential filter in the MS. Therefore, additional averaging is not needed, which reduces the complexity, i.e., AV_SIRn = I_LEVEL_TNin where n is the number of the packet downlink Ack/Nack message. For more details about measurements and averages performed by the MS, see 3GPP 05.08.

Page 143

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

DL CS Adaptation (1/4)
144

Functional process
MS
Packet DL Ack/Nack (RXQUAL, I_Level_TNi)

MFS

Packet DL Ack/Nack (RXQUAL, I_Level_TNi) Averaging - AV_RXQUAL_ST - AV_RXQUAL_LT - AV_SIR Link adaptation new CS current CS

O&M threshold and hysteresis

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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Page 144

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

DL CS Adaptation (2/4)
145

Threshold comparison when I_LEVEL_TNi are reported


Current coding scheme CS-1 Increasing the coding scheme number (CSi CSi+1) Decreasing the coding scheme number (CSi CSi-1)

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y

Not possible AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y + CS_HST_DL_LT OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y + CS_HST_DL_ST AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3_X_Y + CS_HST_DL_LT OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3_X_Y + CS_HST_DL_ST AV_SIR < CS_SIR_DL_3_4_X_Y + CS_SIR_HST_DL

CS-2

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_2_3_X_Y AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_3_4_X_Y AND AV_SIR > CS_SIR_DL_3_4_X_Y Not possible

CS-3

CS-4

X = FH or NFH Y = ACK or NACK


GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

AV_RXQUAL_ST is a short term average whereas AV_RXQUAL_LT is a long term average. The short term average is used to react quickly in case of fast degradation of the radio conditions. X = FH or NFH: two thresholds are available for hopping and non-hopping TRXs. Y = ACK or NACK: two thresholds are available for RLC acknowledged and unacknowledged modes. The thresholds should be chosen so that: CS_HST_DL_ST > CS_HST_DL_LT > 0

Page 145

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

DL CS Adaptation (3/4)
146

Threshold comparison when I_LEVEL_TNi are NOT reported


Current coding scheme CS-1 Increasing the coding scheme number (CSi CSi+1) Decreasing the coding scheme number (CSi CSi-1)

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y

Not possible AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y + CS_HST_DL_LT OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y + CS_HST_DL_ST AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3_X_Y + CS_HST_DL_LT OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3_X_Y + CS_HST_DL_ST CS4_BLER > CS_BLER_DL_4_3

CS-2

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_2_3_X_Y AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_3_4_X_Y AND CS3_BLER < CS_BLER_DL_3_4 Not possible

CS-3

CS-4

X = FH or NFH Y = ACK or NACK


GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

As it has been observed (in the Alcatel labs during the B8 release validation) that some MSs do not report any interference measurements when the BCCH carrier is included in the frequency hopping sequence of the allocated PDCH, the algorithm described above is slightly modified in the MR2 version of the B8 release. A new triggering condition is used for the CS change between CS3 and CS4. This new triggering condition shall be applied only to the TBF that do not report any interference level measurements. Each time a Packet DL Ack/Nack message is received: either it contains no interference measurement and the new algorithm is applied, or it contains interference measurements and the standard algorithm is applied. With the new algorithm, the interference level is replaced by the BLER (RLC BLock Error Rate): the CS3 BLER is used for a CS change from CS3 to CS4, the CS4 BLER is used for a CS change from CS4 to CS3. Remarks: Case of a DL TBF with PDCH allocated on the BCCH TRX and no frequency hopping on the BCCH TRX: the MS does not report any interference level measurement in the Packet DL Ack/Nack message (no interference measurement on the BCCH carrier). Case of a DL TBF with PDCH having the BCCH carrier belonging to the frequency hopping sequence: depending on MS implementation, some MSs may not report any interference measurement (behavior observed in the Alcatel labs during the B8 release validation).

Page 146

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

DL CS Adaptation (4/4)
147

Summary

AV_RXQUAL_LT 7

CS-1
CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y+ CS_HST_DL_LT CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y CS-1 or CS-2 (hysteresis)

CS-2
CS_QUAL_DL_2_3_X_Y + CS_HST_DL_LT CS_QUAL_DL_2_3_X_Y CS-2 or CS-3 (hysteresis) C S_QUAL_DL_3_4_X_Y

CS-3
0 0 100% CS-3 or CS-4 (hysteresis) CS_SIR_DL_3_4_X_Y

CS-4
AV_SIR 15 BLER 0%

CS_SIR_DL_3_4_X_Y + CS_SIR_HST_DL CS_BLER_DL_4_3

CS_BLER_DL_3_4

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The change from CS-3 to CS-4 is not only based on AV_RXQUAL_LT for the two following reasons: RXQUAL range only goes down to 0.2%. However, the change of the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4 will probably have to be done for even lower values. Indeed, when the coding scheme is CS-4, in static (AWGN), a BLER of 0.1 (typical value of the BLER threshold to change from CS-3 to CS-4) is obtained for a raw BER of 1(1-0.1)1/456 = 2.10-4. This raw BER would be larger in multipath channels but is likely to remain below 0.2%. This means that CS_QUAL_DL_3_4 should be close to 0 and that a condition based on RXQUAL is not sufficient to change the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4. If the changes from CS-3 to CS-4 and from CS-4 to CS-3 are based on different metrics, a Ping-Pong effect may occur. Indeed, it may happen that the conditions to change from CS-3 to CS-4 and CS-4 to CS-3 are simultaneously true in some situations.

Page 147

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

UL CS Adaptation (1/3)
148

Functional process
MS BTS MFS

UL RLC block (RXQUAL)

UL RLC block RXQUAL measurement UL RLC block (RXQUAL)

Averaging - AV_RXQUAL_ST - AV_RXQUAL_LT O&M threshold and hysteresis Link adaptation new CS current CS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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Page 148

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

UL CS Adaptation (2/3)
149

Threshold comparison
Current coding scheme CS-1 Increasing the coding scheme number (CSi CSi+1) Decreasing the coding scheme number (CSi CSi-1)

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_1_2_X_Y

Not possible AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_1_2_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_LT OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_1_2_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_ST AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_2_3_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_LT OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_2_3_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_ST AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_3_4_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_LT OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_3_4_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_ST

CS-2

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_2_3_X_Y

CS-3

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_3_4_X_Y

CS-4

Not possible

X = FH or NFH Y = ACK or NACK


GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

AV_RXQUAL_ST is a short term average whereas AV_RXQUAL_LT is a long term average. The short term average is used to react quickly in case of fast degradation of the radio conditions. X = FH or NFH: two thresholds are available for hopping and non-hopping TRXs. Y = ACK or NACK: two thresholds are available for RLC acknowledged and unacknowledged modes. The thresholds should be chosen so that: CS_HST_UL_ST > CS_HST_UL_LT > 0

Page 149

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

UL CS Adaptation (3/3)
150

Summary
AV_RXQUAL_LT 7

CS1
CS_QUAL_UL_1_2_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_LT CS1 or CS2 (hysteresis) CS_QUAL_UL_1_2_X_Y

CS2
CS_QUAL_UL_2_3_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_LT CS_QUAL_UL_2_3_X_Y CS2 or CS3 (hysteresis)

CS3
CS_QUAL_UL_3_4_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_LT CS3 or CS4 (hysteresis) CS_QUAL_UL_3_4_X_Y

CS4
0 0
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

AV_SIR 15

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In the uplink, the RXQUAL is available in CS-4 and the SIR measurements are not reported by the BTS to the MFS so far. Therefore, it is also possible to use RXQUAL measurements to change the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4 or from CS-4 to CS-3, contrary to the downlink algorithm, where the SIR was used.

Page 150

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

Execution
151

UL TBF:
the CS to be used is indicated to the MS during the establishment phase if a CS adaptation is decided by the MFS during the transfer phase, a PACKET UL ACK/NACK message is sent immediately to the MS

DL TBF:
if a CS adaptation is decided by the MFS during the transfer phase, the MFS modifies the CS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 151

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

Defense Procedure
152

In a DL TBF:
If the number of PACKET DL ACK/NACK messages consecutively lost from the MS on the radio interface goes over TBF_CS_DL, the coding scheme is changed to CS-1

In a UL TBF:
If the number of radio blocks consecutively not decoded goes over the threshold Nb_allocated_TS x TBF_CS_UL, the coding scheme is changed to CS-1

In both cases, the CS must not be changed again before TBF_CS_PERIOD RLC blocks are transmitted

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

TBF_CS_DL = 6 (Alcatel recommended value) and it can be set at OMC-R level. TBF_CS_UL = 32 (Alcatel recommended value) and it can be set at OMC-R level. TBF_CS_PERIOD = 20 (Alcatel recommended value) and it cannot be set at OMC-R level.

Page 152

3.1 GPRS CS Adaptation

Initial Coding Scheme


153

The initial CS at TBF establishment is given by the cell parameters:


TBF_DL_INIT_CS for a DL TBF & TBF_UL_INIT_CS for a UL TBF
Range = CS-1, CS-2, CS-3, CS-4 Default value = CS-2

T_DL_GPRS_MeasReport: the time period to request for a Packet Downlink Ack/Nack with measurements
Range: from 60 to 3000 ms Default value = 400 ms

The initial CS and CS changes are limited by the cell parameter MAX_GPRS_CS
Range = CS-2, CS-3, CS-4 Default value = CS-2

Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Rules: TBF_DL_INIT_CS < MAX_GPRS_CS TBF_UL_INIT_CS < MAX_GPRS_CS When a new LLC PDU is received and the downlink transfer is resumed, the timer defined by CS_MAX_IDLE_PERIOD shall be checked. If it has not expired, then the coding scheme or modulation and coding scheme of the previous DL TBF shall be re-used.

Page 153

B9
154

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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Page 154

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

Impact of the Output Power DL case


155

The Average Power Decrease (APD)


= max(0, modulation_delta_power - |BS_TXPWR_MAX|) Used in the MCS adaptation
49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35
TRE 1

TRE output power (dBm)

APD (dB) 8-PSK attenuation (dB) 8-PSK TRE power (dBm) GMSK TRE power (dBm) GMSK power in the cell (dBm) Max GMSK power in the cell (dBm) Max Power in the cell (dBm)

TRE 1

TRE 2

TRE 2

TRE 3

TRE 3

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

CAUTION: animated slide. APD: Average Power Decrease The back-off between average GMSK and 8-PSK output power comes from physics since 8-PSK is a nonconstant envelope modulation unlike GMSK. As a consequence, power amplifiers can not be used at their maximum power. This results in a difference between mean output powers for GMSK and 8-PSK modulations. Output power handling The BTS sets all the TREs which transmit GMSK output powers at the same level which is the minimum value among the maximum TRE output power in a sector and in a given band. On a TRE, the maximum GMSK output power is higher than the maximum 8-PSK output power. An O&M parameter (BS_TXPWR_MAX) allows a static power reduction of the maximum GMSK output power of the sector. The TRE transmit power in 8-PSK shall not exceed the GMSK transmit power in the sector. The BTS determines for each TRE, the difference between the 8-PSK output power of the TRE and the GMSK output power of the sector (8-PSK delta power). According to the 8-PSK delta power value, a TRE is called High Power or Medium Power. When a GCH channel is activated, the BTS sends the 8-PSK delta power to the MFS. Together with BS_TXPWR_MAX (static power reduction), the 8-PSK delta power allows the MFS to determine: a possible attenuation (BS_TX_PWR) for the 8-PSK DL RLC block emission, in order not to exceed the GMSK power of the sector (for GMSK DL RLC block, the attenuation is BS_TXPWR_MAX). an Average Power Decrease which is the difference between the 8-PSK output power and the GMSK output power after having taken into account BS_TXPWR_MAX. The Average Power Decrease is taken into account in the link adaptation tables.
Page 155

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

Impact of the Output Power UL case


156

The APD of a mobile station is the difference between the maximum output power in GMSK and the maximum output power in 8-PSK The maximum output powers are known by "GMSK Power Class" and "8PSK Power Class" fields of the MS Radio Access capability Examples of APD in case of GSM 900 and GSM 850:
8-PSK: Power Class E1 Max. output power=33 dBm GMSK: Power Class 2 Max. output power = 39 dBm GMSK: Power Class 3 Max. output power = 37 dBm GMSK: Power Class 4 Max. output power=33 dBm GMSK: Power Class 5 Max. output power = 29 dBm APD = 6 8-PSK: Power Class E2 Max. output power = 27 dBm APD = 10 8-PSK: Power Class E3 Max. output power = 23 dBm APD = 10

APD = 4

APD = 10

APD = 10

APD = 0

APD = 6

APD = 10

APD = 0

APD = 2

APD = 6

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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Page 156

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

Measurement Reporting (1/2)


157

MEAN_BEP
Average Bit Error Probability Range
From 0 to 31 MEAN_BEP = 0 means actual BEP > 25% MEAN_BEP = 31 means actual BEP < 0.025%

CV_BEP
Average coefficient of variation of the Bit Error Probability Range
From 0 to 7 CV_BEP = 0 means [1.75 < actual CV_BEP < 2.00] CV_BEP = 7 means [0.00 < actual CV_BEP < 0.25]

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 157

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

Measurement Reporting (2/2)


158

The MCS is adapted according to MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP reporting (based on the Bit Error Probability)
For a DL TBF:
The MS makes MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP measurements on all the received blocks the header of which has been well decoded The MS computes MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP averages
- Based on the forgetting factor principle
The BEP_PERIOD cell parameter is used to compute the forgetting factor

The MS reports MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP averages in the EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack messages

For a UL TBF:
The BTS makes MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP measurements on all the received blocks the header of which has been well decoded

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

For more details about MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP averages performed by the MS, refer to 3GPP 05.08. Raw measurements on a radio block basis For EGPRS (that is during an EGPRS DL TBF), the MS shall calculate the following values, for each radio block (1 radio block = 4 bursts) addressed to it (the DL TBF TFI contained in the radio block must be decoded): Mean Bit Error Probability (BEP) of a radio block:

MEAN _ BEP block =

1 4 BEPburst 4 i =1

Coefficient of variation of the Bit Error Probability of a radio block:

CV _ BEPblock =

1 4 1 4 BEP BEPburst i burst k 3 k =1 4 i =1 4 1 BEPburst i 4 i =1

In the above equations, the BEP is measured on a burst basis by the MS before channel decoding. Averaging of the raw measurements on a TS basis The raw measurements made by the MS on a radio block basis are averaged by the MS per TS (TN in the below equations) and per modulation type (GMSK (MCS1 to MCS4), 8-PSK (MCS5 to MCS9)) as follows: x x MEAN_BEP_TN n = (1 e n ) MEAN_BEP_TN n 1 + e n MEAN_BEPblock,n R R n n

CV_BEP_TN

= (1 e

xn ) CV_BEP_TN Rn

n 1

+ e

xn CV_BEP Rn

block, n

with

R n = (1 e) R n 1 + e x n , R 1 = 0

(Rn gives the reliability of the averaged quality parameters)

In the above equations: n is the iteration index, incremented for each DL radio block, e is a forgetting factor and is calculated according to the BEP_PERIOD cell parameter,

SEE NEXT SLIDE

Page 158

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

DL MCS Adaptation (1/2)


159

Functional process

MS

MFS

EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (Mean_BEP, CV_BEP) IR APD Modulation type

current MCS

Link adaptation

link adapatation tables

new MCS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

xn denotes the existence of quality parameters for the nth block, i.e. if the radio block is intended for this MS. xn values 1 and 0 denote the existence and absence of quality parameters, respectively. Measurements reporting An MS shall report the overall MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP (instead of reporting the RXQUAL and SIGN_VAR values) per modulation type (that is GMSK_MEAN_BEP, GMSK_CV_BEP and/or 8-PSK_MEAN_BEP, 8-PSK_CV_BEP depending on the received blocks since the last channel quality report sent to the network) averaged over all allocated channels (time slots) as follows:

(j) n

MEAN_BEP_T N (j) n

R
CV_BEPn

(j) n

CV_BEP_TN (j) n

MEAN_BEP

Rn

(j)

R
j

(j) n

where n is the iteration index at reporting time and j the TS number.

The MS reports the Mean_BEP and CV_BEP values to the MFS in the Channel Quality Report included in the EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack and Packet Resource Request messages. The MS can report 32 different Mean_BEP values (MEAN_BEP_0 to MEAN_BEP_31). The mapping between the calculated Mean_BEP value (linear scale) and the reported Mean_BEP value (logarithmic scale) depends on the used modulation (two mapping tables are given in the 05.08 GSM recommendation: one for GMSK and one for 8-PSK). The MS can report 8 different CV_BEP values (CV_BEP_0 to CV_BEP_7). The mapping between the calculated and the reported values is identical for the GMSK and 8-PSK modulations. Measurements and reporting at BTS side The BTS measures for each UL burst the BEP and calculates for each UL radio block (4 bursts) the Mean_BEP and the CV_BEP = Std_BEP / Mean_BEP. The Mean_BEP and the CV_BEP are reported on a radio block basis by the BTS to the MFS.

Page 159

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

DL MCS Adaptation (2/2)


160

In RLC acknowledged mode, the MFS applies a given MCS taking into account:
Current MCS:
MCS-1 to MCS-4 in GMSK MCS-5 to MCS-9 in 8-PSK

Average Power Decrease: APD set = [0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10] MS OUT OF MEMORY state
= Off then LA tables with IR are used = On then LA tables without IR (Type I ARQ) are used

In RLC unacknowledged mode, the MFS applies a given MCS taking into account:
Current MCS:
MCS-1 to MCS-4 in GMSK MCS-5 to MCS-9 In 8-PSK

Average Power Decrease: APD set = [0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10]

Each combination of these criteria corresponds to a specific LA table

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

LA = Link Adaptation. IR = Incremental Redundancy, also called Type II ARQ (Automatic ReQuest for repetition). Extract of an LA table when APD=0dB, Type 1 ARQ, 8-PSK table: if the current MCS belongs to {5,6,7,8,9}
CV_BEP 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 MEAN_BEP 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8

4 1 1 1 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8

5 1 1 2 2 2 3 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8

6 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8

7 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8

If the effective APD (=max(0, modulation_delta_power |BS_TX_PWR_Max|) does not belong to the APD set which is described above, then the APD value in the set which is immediately higher than the received APD. e.g., if effective APD = 0.7 dB then APD = 1 dB

Page 160

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

RLC ACK Mode: New DL MCS Value Determination


161

Evaluated every EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack message If MCS indicated by LA tables <= current MCS
Then New MCS = MCS indicated by LA tables

Else New MCS = MCS indicated by LA tables with the modified criteria
MEAN_BEP = max[(current MEAN_BEP)-2, 0] CV_BEP = current CV_BEP

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Example: The TBF mode is acknowledged: use of the RLC acknowledged mode algorithm and tables, MS OUT OF MEMORY = On: use of the group of tables for Type I ARQ (without IR), APD = 0 dB: use of the group of tables for APD = 0 dB (for each APD value, there is a GMSK table (for MCS = MCS1, , MCS4) and a 8_PSK table (for MCS = MCS5, , MCS9)), current MCS = MCS6: use of the 8_PSK table for APD = 0 dB. If the MS reports the (MEAN_BEP = 3, CV_BEP = 2) values in the last Packet DL Ack/Nack message, the link adaptation table indicates MCS5. As MCS5 < MCS6, the commanded MCS is MCS5. If the MS reports the (MEAN_BEP = 23, CV_BEP = 3) values in the last Packet DL Ack/Nack message, the link adaptation table indicates MCS8. As MCS8 > MCS6, the commanded MCS is the MCS corresponding to the (MEAN_BEP = 23 2 = 21, CV_BEP = 3) couple in the link adaptation table, that is MCS7.

Page 161

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

RLC NACK Mode: New DL MCS Value Determination


162

Evaluated every EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack message If MCS indicated by LA tables <= current MCS
Then New MCS = MCS indicated by LA tables

Else New MCS = MCS indicated by LA tables with the following criteria
MEAN_BEP = max[(current MEAN_BEP)-8, 0] CV_BEP = current CV_BEP

Exception: if
Current MEAN_BEP = 31 AND Current CV_BEP = 7 AND Current MCS belongs to {MCS-1, MCS-2, MCS-3, MCS-4)

Then New MCS = MCS5

Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The margin of 8 for the hysteresis has been chosen to have a long term average weighted BER close to 0.001. With this value, the MCS selected can never be higher than 7 in good radio conditions.

Page 162

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

UL MCS Adaptation (1/2)


163

Functional process
MS BTS MFS

UL RLC b lock (CV_ BEP, Mean_BEP)

UL RLC b lock
CV_BEP, M ean_BEP

computation UL RLC b lock (CV_ BEP, Mean_BEP)

Averaging APD

current MCS

Link adaptation

lin k adapatation tables

new MCS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The MFS calculates average values (Mean_BEP and CV_BEP) each time a radio block is received from the BTS. Then the MFS checks if an MCS change is needed using internal tables. However, the first decision shall only be taken when TBF_MCS_Period radio blocks have been received. The measurements performed by the BTS are averaged by the MFS as follows: yn+1 = etn * yn +1 where e (forgetting factor) is equal to (1 - 0.9)(1 / MCS_AVG_PERIOD), Mean_BEPn+1 = (1 - 1 / yn+1) * Mean_BEPn + (1 / yn+1) * Mean_BEPblock n, CV_BEPn+1 = (1 - 1 / yn+1) * CV_BEPn + (1 / yn+1) * CV_BEPblock n MCS_AVG_PERIOD = 0,1s (Alcatel recommended value) and it cannot be set at OMC-R level.

Page 163

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

UL MCS Adaptation (2/2)

B9
164

In RLC acknowledged mode, the MFS applies a given MCS taking into account:
Current MCS:
MCS-1 to MCS-4 in GMSK MCS-5 to MCS-9 in 8-PSK

APD of the MS: APD set = [0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10] EN_IR_UL state


= enabled then LA tables with IR are used = disabled then LA tables without IR (Type I ARQ) are used

In RLC unacknowledged mode, the MFS applies a given MCS taking into account:
Current MCS:
MCS-1 to MCS-4 in GMSK MCS-5 to MCS-9 In 8-PSK

Average Power Decrease: APD set = [0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10]

Each combination of those criteria corresponds to a specific LA table

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The same tables apply in the uplink as in the downlink.

Page 164

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

RLC ACK Mode: New UL MCS Value Determination


Evaluated every 12 radio blocks (decision window) For each radio block, the MFS computes an indicated MCS (MCSind) according to MEAN_BEP, CV_BEP and the appropriate LA table During the decision window:
If MCSind > current MCS then N_sup = N_sup + 1 If MCSind <= current MCS then N_inf = N_inf + 1

B9
165

At the end of the decision window:


If N_inf > 6 and MCSindlast_block < current MCS
Then New MCS = MCSindlast_block Then New MCS = Max[current MCS, MCSindlast_block modified]
Where MCSindlast_block modified is computed with the following criteria MEAN_BEP = Max[MEAN_BEPlast_block-2, 0] CV_BEP = CV_BEPlast_block

Else if N_sup > 6 and MCSindlast_block > current MCS

Else, New MCS = current MCS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The following complex algorithm is used by the MFS to determine the MCS to be used in RLC acknowledged mode: the MFS determines the MCS to be used every 12 radio blocks (decision window), during the decision window, for each received measurement (that is for each received radio block), the averaged (Mean_BEP, CV_BEP) couple indicates a best MCS (called MCSind) according to the appropriate link adaptation table. This best MCS is compared to the current MCS, and 2 counters (N_sup, N_inf) are maintained (N_sup (respectively N_inf), is incremented by one when MCSind is higher (respectively lower) than the current MCS) that gives, for the current decision window, the number of MCSind that are higher or equal to the current MCS, at the end of the decision window, the decision process is as follows: the new MCS is determined according to the trend observed during the decision window (that is trend towards upper MCS or trend towards lower MCS). It is considered that a trend towards upper (respectively lower) MCS is observed if strictly more than half (that is 6) of the MCSind are higher (respectively lower) than the current MCS, moreover, the new MCS is applied only if the last MCSind of the decision window corresponds to the trend observed during the decision window (that is MCSindlast block > current MCS for a trend towards upper MCS or MCSindlast block < current MCS for a trend towards lower MCS), finally, the new MCS is the MCSind of the last block (MCSindlast block) in case of trend towards a lower MCS. In case of trend towards upper MCS, an hysteresis is applied on the measurements as the new MCS in that case is equal to max(current MCS, MCSindlast block (max(Mean_BEP - 2, 0), CV_BEP)).

Page 165

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

RLC NACK Mode: New UL MCS Value Determination


Evaluated every 12 radio blocks (decision window)
If MCSindlast_block <= current MCS
Then New MCS = MCSindlast_block Then New MCS = Max[current MCS, MCSindlast_block modified]
Where MCSindlast_block modified is computed with the following criteria MEAN_BEP = Max[MEAN_BEPlast_block-8, 0] CV_BEP = CV_BEPlast_block

B9
166

Else

Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 166

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

Defense Procedure
167

In a DL TBF:
If the number of EGPRS PACKET DL ACK/NACK messages consecutively lost from the MS on the radio interface goes over TBF_MCS_DL, the modulation and coding scheme are changed to MCS-1

In a UL TBF:
If the number of radio blocks consecutively not decoded goes over the threshold Nb_allocated_TS x TBF_MCS_UL, the modulation and coding scheme are changed to MCS-1

In both cases, the MCS must not be changed again before TBF_MCS_PERIOD RLC blocks are transmitted

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

TBF_MCS_DL = 4 (Alcatel recommended value) and it can be set at OMC-R level. TBF_MCS_UL = 32 (Alcatel recommended value) and it can be set at OMC-R level. TBF_MCS_PERIOD = 20 (Alcatel recommended value) and it cannot be set at OMC-R level.

Page 167

3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation

Initial MCS
The initial MCS at TBF establishment is given by the cell parameters:
TBF_DL_INIT_MCS for a DL TBF & TBF_UL_INIT_MCS for a UL TBF
Range for a DL TBF = from MCS-1 to MCS-9 Range for a UL TBF = from MCS-1 to MCS-9 Default value = MCS-3
Modified B9

B9
168

T_DL_EGPRS_MeasReport: the time period to request for a EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack/Nack with measurements
Values: from 60 to 3000 ms Default value = 200 ms

The initial MCS and MCS changes are limited by the cell parameter MAX_EGPRS_MCS
Range = from MCS-2 to MCS-9 Default value = MCS-9

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Rules: TBF_DL_INIT_MCS < MAX_EGPRS_MCS TBF_UL_INIT_MCS < MAX_EGPRS_MCS When a new LLC PDU is received and the downlink transfer is resumed, the timer defined by CS_MAX_IDLE_PERIOD shall be checked. If it has not expired, then the coding scheme or modulation and coding scheme of the previous DL TBF shall be re-used.

Page 168

B9
169

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

3.3 RLC Blocks Retransmission

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 169

3.3 RLC Blocks Retransmission

New Modulation and Coding Schemes (1/2)


170

Data rate per radio TS (RLC payload)


Scheme Modulation GPRS GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK EGPRS 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK Maximum rate (kbps) 20 14.4 12 8 59.2 54.4 44.8 29.6 / 27.2 * 22.4 17.6 14.8 / 13.6 * 11.2 8.8

CS-4 CS-3 CS-2 CS-1 MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 * case of padding

8-PSK modulation to provide higher data rates GMSK modulation to ensure a certain level of performance in case of poor radio conditions

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

MCSs are defined only for the EGPRS packet data traffic channels (PDTCH). For all the EGPRS packet control channels, the corresponding GPRS control channel coding is used (that is CS1 for the PACCH, PBCCH, PAGCH, PPCH and downlink PTCCH).

Page 170

3.3 RLC Blocks Retransmission

New Modulation and Coding Schemes (2/2)


171

MCSs are divided into 4 families: A, A padding, B and C


GMSK MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 8-PSK MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9

Family C

22

22

22 28 28 28 28 28 28 34 34 34 34 37 37 37 37

Famil y B Family A padding

28

34+3

34+3 34+3

Family A

37

37

37

Radio data block

RLC data block

28

unit of payload (in bytes)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The main GPRS imperfections are linked to: the design of the GPRS coding schemes which were designed independently from the others with their own data unit. the fact that once the information contained in a radio block has been transmitted with a certain CS, it is not possible via the Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ) mechanism to retransmit with another CS. This could lead to the release of the TBF and to the establishment of a new one in order to transmit the LLC frame. EGPRS coding schemes have been designed to offset this problem. Four MCS families have been created with for each of them a basic unit of payload. This allows the re-segmentation of the RLC data blocks when changing of modulation and coding schemes (within the same family). Example: if one MCS-6 radio block has not been received correctly by the receiver and if radio conditions have degraded in the meantime, it is possible to re-send the same information in two radio blocks with MCS-3 (more protection). The level of protection applied (MCS usage) in case of retransmissions is in line with the radio conditions. The different code rates within a family are achieved by transmitting a different number of payload units within one radio block. When 4 payload units are transmitted, these are split into 2 separate RLC blocks (i.e., with separate sequence numbers).

Page 171

3.3 RLC Blocks Retransmission

Automatic ReQuest for Repetition (ARQ)


In RLC ACK mode, the retransmission can be performed using:
Selective type I ARQ mechanism
The blocks which are not decoded are simply retransmitted Available since B6 release Another MCS from the same family can be used

B9
172

Type II hybrid ARQ mechanism (also called Incremental Redundancy (IR))


The blocks which are not decoded are retransmitted
Appendix - Using or not another MCS of the same family - Using a different Puncturing Scheme (PS) - The non decoded block and the retransmitted one(s) are soft combined to retrieve the right information

This applies only when the MS memory for IR is not full This can apply for both UL and DL EGPRS TBF Modified B9

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The type 2 ARQ mechanism or incremental redundancy (IR) is an ETSI function, mandatory for the EGPRS MS receiver (downlink path) and optional for the BTS receiver (uplink path). The incremental redundancy is not used for the signaling blocks, the GPRS data blocks and the data blocks in RLC unacknowledged mode. It is only used for the EGPRS data blocks in RLC acknowledged mode. In the type II ARQ mechanism (IR): the first emission of an RLC data block is done using a first puncturing scheme (PS1), in case of re-transmission of this RLC block, the transmitter uses the same MCS or an MCS of the same family as the one used for the initial block. The re-segmentation of the RLC block may be performed or not, at the output of the demodulator, the receiver combines the information of soft bits corresponding to the first transmission of the block and its different re-transmissions, thus increasing the decoding probability of the RLC block. Remark: according to the 04.60 (RLC/MAC layers) GSM recommendation, the soft combining inside the MS receiver is only performed between: an MCSx block and an MCSx block (that is the same MCS is used for the re-transmission), an MCS9 block and an MCS6 block (in that case the RLC data blocks carry the same number of payload units), an MCS7 block and an MCS5 block (in that case the RLC data blocks carry the same number of payload units).

Page 172

3.3 RLC Blocks Retransmission

Type I ARQ Mechanism (1/2)


MCS selection for retransmission of a DL or UL RLC data block
Commanded MCS (given by the link adaptation algorithm) MCS9 MCS8 MCS9 MCS8 MCS7 Initial MCS MCS6 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS9 MCS8 MCS7 MCS9 MCS7 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS6 MCS8 MCS7 MCS6 MCS7 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS7 MCS6 MCS6 (pad.) MCS7 MCS6 MCS7 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS6 MCS6 MCS6 (pad.) MCS5 MCS6 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS5 MCS3 MCS3 (pad.) MCS5 MCS3 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS4 MCS3 MCS3 (pad.) MCS2 MCS3 MCS2 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS3 MCS3 MCS3 (pad.) MCS2 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS3 (pad.) MCS2 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS1 MCS3 MCS3 (pad.) MCS2 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1

B9
173

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

With the type 1 ARQ mechanism, the decoding of a re-transmitted RLC block does not use the previously transmitted versions (not correctly received) of this RLC block. The decoding of an RLC data block is only based on the current transmission. The type 1 ARQ mechanism is always used for the GPRS.

Page 173

3.3 RLC Blocks Retransmission

Type I ARQ Mechanism (2/2)


174

Example of a UL EGPRS TBF


MS BSS

UL RLC data block B1, MCS4, PS1 B1 block not decoded by the BTS Packet UL Ack/Nack (B1 not decoded) Resegment bit set UL RLC data block first part B1, MCS1, PS1 UL RLC data block second part B1, MCS1, PS1 Second part of B1 block not decoded by the BTS Packet UL Ack/Nack (B1 not decoded) UL RLC data block first part B1, MCS1 , PS1 UL RLC data block second part B1, MCS1 , PS1 Resegment bit set

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The picture above shows the case of a UL EGPRS TBF where one block is not decoded by the BTS and is then retransmitted by the MS with a lower MCS in the same MCS family. In this example, the second part of the retransmitted block is not correctly decoded by the BTS. As it is not possible to indicate separately in the Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message whether the first part of the block or the second part has been decoded, if one part is not received the MS will retransmit again the two parts of the block.

Page 174

3.3 RLC Blocks Retransmission

Type II ARQ Mechanism (1/3)


The MCS used to re-transmit a DL RLC data block depends on:
The initial MCS used to send this RLC data block The resegmentation allowed or not
The DL resegmentation is allowed If EN_FULL_IR_DL = disabled The UL resegmentation is allowed If EN_RESEGMENTATION_UL= enabled

B9
175

Modified B9

The possible memory shortage in the MS (case of a DL EGPRS TBF)


MS OUT OF MEMORY = On, in the EGPRS packet DL Ack/Nack message

The MCS commanded by the link adaptation algorithm (refer to session 3.2 EGPRS MCS Adaptation)

As IR is optional in UL, the feature can be enabled/disabled using the BSS parameter EN_IR_UL NewB9

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The TRX manages the IR UL. Indeed, the TRX decodes the RLC/MAC header of all the UL RLC/MAC data blocks received on each PDCH to know which TBF the RLC data block(s) pertain. For each TBF, the maximum number of different RLC data blocks stored is equal to the window size which depends on the maximum number of RTSs used in uplink (512 for 4 TS). The TRX is able to store 4,000 RLC data blocks which have not been correctly decoded. If an RLC data block is received with the same PS as an already received RLC data block belonging to the same TBF, only the last instance is taken into account.

Page 175

3.3 RLC Blocks Retransmission

Type II ARQ Mechanism (2/3)


The following table is used to select the MCS if
In DL, EN_FULL_IR DL = enabled and MS OUT OF MEMORY = off In UL, EN_RESEGMENTATION_UL = disabled
Commanded MCS (given by the link adaptation algorithm) MCS9 MCS8 MCS9 MCS8 MCS7 Initial MCS MCS6 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS9 MCS8 MCS7 MCS9 MCS7 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS6 MCS8 MCS7 MCS6 MCS7 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS7 MCS6 MCS6 (pad.) MCS7 MCS6 MCS7 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS6 MCS6 MCS6 (pad.) MCS5 MCS6 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS5 MCS6 MCS6 (pad.) MCS5 MCS6 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS4 MCS6 MCS6 (pad.) MCS5 MCS6 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS3 MCS6 MCS6 (pad.) MCS5 MCS6 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS2 MCS6 MCS6 (pad.) MCS5 MCS6 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1 MCS1 MCS6

B9
176

MCS5 MCS6 MCS5 MCS4 MCS3 MCS2 MCS1

In all the other cases, the table used for Type I ARQ is applied
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In all the other cases means: In DL, EN_FULL_IR_DL=disabled or MS OUT OF MEMORY=on. In UL, EN_RESEGMENTATION_UL=disabled.

Page 176

RE SE WIT GM HO EN U T TA TI ON

MCS6 (pad.)

3.3 RLC Blocks Retransmission

Type II ARQ Mechanism (3/3)


177

The PS used to re-transmit an RLC data block depends on:


If the selected MCS has not changed then
The PS is changed in a cyclic way: PS1, PS2, PS3, PS1, etc.

Else, the PS to be used is indicated in the table below:


Previous MCS MCS9 New MCS MCS6 Previous PS PS1 or PS3 PS2 MCS6 MCS9 PS1 PS2 MCS7 MCS5 MCS5 MCS7 Any Any Any New PS PS1 PS2 PS3 PS2 PS1 PS2 PS1

All other combinations

PS1 is used in case of the first transmission of an RLC data block


Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

If the selected MCS has not changed: if all the different punctured versions of the data block have been sent, the procedure shall start over and PS1 shall be used, followed by PS2, then by PS3 (if available for the considered MCS), so that the PS selection is cyclic.

Page 177

178

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

3.4 UL Power Control

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 178

3.4 UL Power Control

Measurements
179

The MS makes level measurements defined by the 05.08 GSM recommendation:


in Packet Idle Mode:
BCCH of the serving cell (paging blocks monitored by the MS); if MPDCH established, measurement on PCCCH = received signal on each paging block monitored, according to its DRX mode and paging group

in Packet Transfer Mode:


behavior defined by the parameter PC_MEAS_CHAN broadcast on the PBCCH (PSI1)
- PBCCH of the serving cell (or BCCH if no MPDCH) - on all the blocks of the PDCH carrying the PACCH

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The MS uses DL level measurements to determine the power: open loop PC.

Page 179

3.4 UL Power Control

Averaging
180

Cn = a * (SSn + Pb) + (1-a) * Cn-1


a is the forgetting factor:
Packet Idle Mode: 1 / min(n, max(5, T_AVG_W / TDRX))
- TDRX = BS_PA_MFRMS (number of 51 multi-frame between 2 paging)

Packet Transfer Mode: 1/ (6 * T_AVG_T) or 1/ (12 * T_AVG_T)

(BCCH) (PDCH)

SSn is the measurement at iteration n:


average level of block n in Packet Idle Mode and Packet Transfer Mode (PDCH) level of the sample in Packet Transfer Mode (BCCH)

Pb is a correcting factor relating to the power reduction value applied by the BTS on a PCCCH and/or PDCH, to be compared with the output power used on the BCCH

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Use of a recursive filtering to obtain an average level. Average levels calculated in Packet Idle Mode used in Packet Transfer Mode and vice versa: a proper average level is available at the beginning of the transfer The respective values of the T_AVG_T and T_AVG_W averaging windows are broadcast on PSI1.

Page 180

3.4 UL Power Control

MS Power
181

The MS uses the same power during a radio block (4 bursts) MS power = min(0 - ch - * (C + 48), Pmax)
0 = 39 dBm in GSM 900, 36 dBm in GSM 1800 and ch are sent to the MS (: SI 13, and ch: Packet UL and DL assignment) and are tuned in order to obtain a given behavior Pmax is the maximum transmitted power, and is equal to:
GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH if there is a PBCCH MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH otherwise

C is the average DL level calculated by the MS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The MS power access on an RACH can be MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH. In fact, the MS will use the first of the 2 values listened on the cell broadcast information. The 05.08 GSM recommendation suggests to: use = 1 tune ch in order to reach a given UL level (LEVUL) at the BTS side: ch = 0 - 48 - LEVUL - PBTS (PBTS: BTS power) explanation: Pm = 0 - ch - * (C + 48) Pm = LEVUL - LEVDL + PBTS When you fix =1, you get a specific value for ch, which is not usable for any value of . Proceed by dichotomy to find the proper value of ch Another possibility: if path balance: PBTS - Pm = Sm - SBTS (S: sensitivity) therefore: LEVDL - LEVUL = Sm - SBTS and Pm = 0 - ch - * (LEVUL + Sm - SBTS + 48) example with G3 BTS: Pm = 0 - ch - * (LEVUL + 57) possibility of tuning: power reduction when the UL level is higher than U_RXLEV_UL_P MS power not lower than 13/4 dBm in GSM 900/1800

Page 181

B9
182

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 182

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Introduction
183

2 kinds of selection reselection are implemented in the Alcatel BSS:


NC0
The MS performs autonomous cell reselection All the algorithms (criteria computation, triggering, target cell choice) are implemented in the MS No measurement reporting The network (MFS) controls the cell reselection All the algorithms (criteria computation, triggering, target cell choice) are implemented in the MFS The MS sends periodically measurement reports

NC2

The main important parameters involved in the cell selection and reselection are broadcast in PSI3 & PSI3bis (if PBCCH) or in SI3 (if BCCH) The GPRS neighboring cells list is identical to the GSM one

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 183

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Principles
184

Procedures defined in the 05.08 GSM recommendation Cell selection:


made using the C1 criterion as for GSM

Cell reselection:
made using the C1 and C2 criteria as for GSM if MPDCH not available in the serving cell otherwise a specific C1 criterion as well as C31 & C32 criteria are computed during the reselection procedure
C31: signal level threshold criterion for Hierarchical Cell Structures (HCSs) C32: cell-ranking criterion

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In GSM C1 = A - Max (0,B) with: A = RLA_C - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH - MS_TXPWR_MAX + POWER_OFFSET(1800) C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY_OFFSET(T) when Penalty_time<31 C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET when Penalty_Time=31 In GPRS ready and standby states, cell reselection is performed by the MS except for a class A MS while in dedicated mode of a circuit-switched connection, in which case the cell is determined by the network according to the handover procedures. For a class B MS which can combine GSM and GPRS states, C1 criterion is used when the MS simultaneously attached to both the network and the MS is in Packet Idle Mode (refer to GSM 05.08).

Page 184

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Selection
185

Criteria computation:
Without PBCCH
C1 = (RLA_C RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN) max (0, MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCCH P) RLA_C: average DL level received

With PBCCH
C1 = (RLA_P GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN) max (0, GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCCH P) RLA_P: average DL level received P: power class of the MS

Cell choice: the best cell is the cell with the highest C1

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

C1 is the same as in GSM except that: A = RLA_P GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: listening capacity of MS in the cell B = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P: talking capacity of MS in the cell C1 shall be positive and as high as possible In Packet Idle Mode, the MS shall make one measurement for each BCCH carrier monitored every 4 seconds, as well as more than one sample per second for each BCCH carrier. A list of 6 strongest cells shall be kept updated at a rate of at least one update per running average period. In Packet Transfer Mode, the MS shall monitor a list of 6 strongest non-serving cell BCCH carriers. It shall attempt to check the BSIC for each of these 6 strongest cells at least once every 10 seconds.

Page 185

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Reselection Criteria Computation Without PBCCH


186

If CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND=not present then C2=C1 else:


C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY_OFFSET(T) (if PENALTY_TIME <> 31)
if T > PENALTY_TIME, TEMPORARY_OFFSET(T)=0 used to avoid locating on transient cell CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET used to favor a cell among others (e.g., micro-cell vs. umbrella, once T > PENALTY_TIME)

C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET (if PENALTY_TIME = 31)


CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET used to handicap some cells among others

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The same algorithm is used in case the MS is in GSM Idle Mode.

Page 186

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Target Cell Choice Without PBCCH


187

The MS triggers a cell reselection if:


C1(serving) <0 and/or In Standby Mode
C2(neighbor) > C2(serving) if cells belong to a same RA C2(neighbor) > C2(serving)+CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS if cells from different RAs

In Ready Mode
C2(neighbor) > C2(serving)+CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS even if cells belong to a same RA

Cell choice: the best cell is the cell with the highest C2

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 187

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Reselection Criteria Computation with PBCCH (1/2)


188

Serving cell:
C31(serving) = RLA_P(serving) HCS_THR(serving) C32(serving) = C1(serving)

Neighboring cell:
If C31_HYST=Yes,
C31(neighbor)=RLA_P(neighbor) HCS_THR(neighbor) TO(neighbor)x L(neighbor) - GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS

else
C31(neighbor) =RLA_P(neighbor) HCS_THR(neighbor) TO(neighbor)x L(neighbor)

C32 (neighbor) = C1 (neighbor) + GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(neighbor) TO(neighbor)x (1-L(neighbor))

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

C1 is the same as in GSM except that A = RLA_P GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: listening capacity of MS in the cell B = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P: talking capacity of MS in the cell C1 shall be positive and as high as possible C32: if C32_QUAL=1, positive GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET value shall only be applied to the neighboring cell with the highest RLA_P value of those cells for which C32 is compared above. If GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (neighbor) >0, the cell has a bonus to reselection. If GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (neighbor) <0, the cell has a handicap for reselection. In Packet Idle Mode, the MS shall make one measurement for each BCCH carrier monitored every 4 seconds, as well as more than one sample per second for each BCCH carrier. A list of 6 strongest cells shall be kept updated at a rate of at least one update per running average period. In Packet Transfer Mode, the MS shall monitor a list of 6 strongest non-serving cell BCCH carriers. It shall attempt to check the BSIC for each of these 6 strongest cells at least once every 10 seconds.

Page 188

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Reselection Criteria Computation with PBCCH (2/2)


189

TO(neighbor) = GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(neighbor) x H(GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(neighbor) T(neighbor) )


dB
GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET

GPRS_PENALTY_TIME

Time

L(neighbor):
Its value belongs to the relative PRIORITY_CLASS of the GPRS cell L=0 if PRIORITY_CLASS(neighbor) = PRIORITY_CLASS(serving) L=1 if PRIORITY_CLASS(neighbor) <> PRIORITY_CLASS(serving)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Note: do not confuse the TO (T) Temporary Offset function and the GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET parameter. The L factor is used to cancel the Temporary handicap given to the cell the MS is coming from when the cell has a different priority class. PRIORITY_CLASS (HMI name) = GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS (parameter name). PRIORITY_CLASS: Higher the parameter value, higher the priority.

Page 189

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Target Cell Choice with PBCCH (1/2)


190

The MS triggers a cell reselection if:


C1(serving) <0 and/or the neighboring cell has better radio conditions (see next slide)

Cell choice: the best cell is the cell with the highest C32
among those cells that have the highest PRIORITY_CLASS among those cells that fulfill the criterion C31>=0 OR all the neighboring cells (if C31<0 for all cells)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

C1<0: both the talking and the speaking capacities of MS are not sufficient. PRIORITY_CLASS: As far as the reselection procedure is made in NC0 (the MS reselects itself in a new best cell without reporting it to the BSS), it is intended to control the reselection process through the set of GPRS cells available by 2 means: The list of GPRS neighboring cells that the MS shall monitor to select a set of 6 best cells. The tuning of PRIORITY_CLASS for multi-layered networks where Macro cells shall be treated in a distinct way from the micro cells. The GPRS priority shall be high in cells where GPRS traffic is expected to be supported (i.e., according to operator configuration and radio resource planning).

Page 190

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Target Cell Choice with PBCCH (2/2)


191

A neighboring cell has better radio conditions if:


the neighboring cell belongs to the same RA
In Standby State
- C32(neighbor)>C32(serving)

In Ready State
- C32(neighbor)>C32(serving)+ GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS

the neighboring cell belongs to a new RA


In Standby State or Ready state
- C32(neighbor)>C32(serving)+ RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

When evaluating the best cell, the following hysteresis values shall be subtracted from the C32 value for the neighboring cells: in standby state, if the new cell belongs to the same RA: 0. in ready state, if the new cell belongs to the same RA: GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYST. in standby or ready state, if the new cell belongs to a different RA: RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS. in case of a reselection occurred within the past 15 seconds: 5 dB.

Page 191

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Reselection During a UL TBF (1/2)


192

UL TBF:
MFS: after a cell reselection, the MFS receives no more data in the UL blocks allocated to the MS => TBF release MS: in the new cell, after the SI messages acquisition, a new UL TBF is established SGSN: the SGSN is informed of the cell change when receiving an LLC unit from the MS in the new cell. Then the SGSN notifies the BSS about the cell change (FLUSH PDU)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

After a TBF release, it is up to the originator to reinitiate the transfer: the MS in the UL, the SGSN in the DL.

Page 192

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Reselection During a UL TBF (2/2)


193

?
SGSN

Cell Reselection

MFS

FLUSH LL

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

CAUTION: animated slide.

Page 193

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Reselection During a DL TBF


194

DL TBF:
MFS: after a cell reselection, the MFS receives no more acknowledgements from the MS => abnormal TBF release MS: in the new cell, after the SI messages acquisition, a UL TBF is established to send a cell update to the SGSN (MS in Ready state) SGSN: when the SGSN is informed of a cell change it sends a message to the MFS to discard LLC units stored for the MS in the old cell (FLUSH PDU) The SGSN resumes the DL transfer by sending a DL LLC unit => DL TBF establishment in the new cell

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

After a TBF release, it is up to the originator to reinitiate the transfer: the MS in the UL, the SGSN in the DL.

Page 194

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

Reselection During a DL Transfer: Example


195

MFS aware of a radio problem

Cell update (new BVCI) SGSN aware of the cell reselection MFS aware of the cell reselection

Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

MFS: after a cell reselection, the MFS receives no more acknowledgement from the MS TBF release. MS: in the new cell, after the SI messages acquisition, a UL TBF is established to send a cell update to the SGSN (MS in Ready state). SGSN: when the SGSN is informed of a cell change, it sends a message to the MFS to discard LLC units stored for the MS in the old cell. The SGSN resumes the DL transfer by sending a DL LLC unit DL TBF estab in the new cell. The MFS is always aware of a successful cell change afterwards, upon reception of the flush LL message from the SGSN. If the cell change is unsuccessful, the TBF release is counted as abnormal. DL_UDT = DL user data RAD_STATUS = radio status message sent by the MFS to the SGSN (BSSGP signaling). FLUSH_LL = BSSGP message sent by the SGSN to the MFS to notify a successful change of cell by the MS.

Page 195

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

NACC and (P)SI Status


2 features are available to reduce the duration of the reselection
NACC: Network Assisted Cell Change
If EN_NACC = enabled then
- before the cell reselection, - in the serving cell, - the network sends to the MS a part of the SI messages of the new cell

B9
196

(P)SI Status: (Packet) System Info Status


If EN_PSI_STATUS = enabled then
- after the transfer resumption, - in the target cell, - the MS can ask the network to send it: the remaining PSI messages if PBCCH is present the remaining SI messages otherwise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The NACC procedure is a new feature standardized in Release 4, mandatory for Release 4 onwards mobile stations supporting GERAN Feature Package 1. The Packet PSI Status procedure is a feature standardized from Release 97 onwards, optional for Release 97, Release 98 and Release 99 MS, and mandatory for Release 4 onwards MS supporting GERAN Feature Package 1. The Packet SI Status procedure is a new feature standardized in Release 4, mandatory for Release 4 onwards mobile stations supporting GERAN Feature Package 1.

Page 196

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

NACC and (P)SI Status


NACC
The MS informs the system that it wants to select a neighboring cell The BSS transmits the partial SI of the neighboring cell
MS UL or DL TBF MFS Cell A MFS Cell B

B9
197

Packet Cell Change Notification Retrieval of SI instances Packet Neighbor Cell Data (SI1) Packet Neighbor Cell Data (SI3) Packet Neighbor Cell Data (SI13) Packet Cell Change Continue

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

When the MS detects a need of cell reselection in transfer mode, it sends a "Packet Cell Change Notification" message to the MFS (on PACCH): If the MFS knows the (P)SI of the target cell: If there is no PBCCH in the target cell, it sends SI1, SI3, SI13 in (several) "Packet Neighbor Cell Data" messages, followed by a "Packet Cell Change Continue" message. If there is a PBCCH in the target cell, it sends PSI1, PSI2, PSI14 in (several) "Packet Neighbor Cell Data" messages, followed by a "Packet Cell Change Continue" message. If the MFS does not know the (P)SI of the target cell, it sends only a "Packet Cell Change Continue" message. If no PBCCH is present, the BSC sends SI1, SI3, SI13 messages to the MFS in a "System Information Update" message.

Page 197

3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection

NACC and (P)SI Status


SI Status
The MS has resumed the data transfer in the neighboring cell Then, it asks the system to retrieve the missing Sys-info
MS MFS Cell A UL or DL TBF MFS Cell B

B9
198

Packet SI Status (SI2, SI2bis, SI2ter msg type missing)

Packet Serving Cell Data (SI2) Packet Serving Cell Data (SI2bis) Packet Serving Cell Data (SI2ter)

UL or DL TBF

This mechanism is applied in both NC0 and NC2


GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

When accessing a new cell, the MS must get SI13, SI3, SI1, or PSI1 and PSI2 (if not already known through NACC). If the Packet (P)SI Status is offered in the cell, it can start PTM and send: a "Packet SI Status" message (when there is no PBCCH), with the list of missing SI messages. a "Packet PSI Status" message (when there is a PBCCH), with the list of missing PSI messages. The MFS shall then send: the SI instances required by the MS (the MS is the only addressee) in one or several "Packet Serving Cell Data" messages in case there is no PBCCH in the target cell. the PSI instances required by the MS (all MSs listening to this PDCH will get the information) directly on a PACCH in case a PBCCH is present in the target cell. The MS can request updated (P)SI instances whenever it wants, provided it is in PTM.

Page 198

B9
199

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 199

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

Aim
200

Impact of reselection on data transfer


4 1

3 Data Transfer

: TBF establishment : Reselection : TBF release due to cell reselection

NC2 aims at reducing the number of cell reselections triggered when the MS is in Packet Transfer Mode The lower the number of cell reselections, the better the end-user QoS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Each time the MS performs a cell reselection, the data transfer is interrupted and a retransmission of some LLC PDUs may be required: The on-going TBF is released in the old cell. The MS performs the PSI or SI acquisition in the new cell. Then, the MS establishes a new UL TBF in this cell to send a Cell Update message to the SGSN. The MFS deletes or reroutes towards the new cell the LLC PDUs stored in the old cell. if they are deleted, a retransmission is needed. Finally, the data transfer is re-started (after a DL TBF establishment, in case of DL transfer). All these steps degrade the data throughput or the page access time perceived by the end user.

Page 200

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

Functional Entities
The NC2 process for PS is similar to the HO process for CS
HO MS - BTS
BSC
HO Preparation Radio Link Measurements Active Channel Pre-processing HO Candidate Cell Evaluation HO management

B9
201

HO Detection

NC2
MS - BTS MFS
NC cell reselection Preparation NC cell Reselection activation NC measurement Reporting and processing NC cell Reselection Detection NC cell Reselection Evaluation NC cell Reselection management

Modified B9

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The RRM layer is in charge of the measurement processing. It is also in charge of the selection of the target cell, as it is the layer having the knowledge of the network topology and parameters. The RRM layer is actually in charge of managing the overall NC cell reselection procedure. The RLC layer is in charge of forwarding the packet measurements to the RRM layer. Finally, the RLC layer is in charge of the RXLEV and RXQUAL measurements processing (per TBF) and of the corresponding NC cell reselection detection.

Page 201

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Activation / De-activation (1/3)


202

Activation
NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER has 3 possible values:
NC0 mode of operation for all MSs NC2 mode of operation for R99 onwards MSs NC2 mode of operation for all MSs

NC2 cell reselection can be used only when the MS is in READY state, otherwise NC0 is used De-activation
NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE has 2 possible values:
NC2 deactivation at the end of the packet transfer NC2 deactivation at T_READY (GMM Ready timer) expiry

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER is a cell parameter tunable at OMC-R level. The R97 and R98 MSs are differentiated from the other MSs. Indeed, all the MSs shall support the NC2 mode, however since no network manufacturer has implemented the NC2 mode, the R97 and R98 MSs may not have been sufficiently tested and therefore there is a risk of interoperability with these MSs. The Packet Measurement Order message is used to activate and de-activate the NC2 mode of operation for a given MS. Activation The Packet Measurement Order (NC2) message is sent when: - establishing the first Downlink TBF of the Packet Transfer Mode or when re-establishing the DL TBF while T3192 is running and there is not any on-going UL TBF. - no measurement report has already been received for that MS during its on-going packet transfer(s) (UL and/or DL). - the MS has not been forced to operate in NC2 mode by a Packet Cell Change Order message (during an intra-RA cell reselection). De-activation The Packet Measurement Order (RESET) message is sent at the end of the data transfer, in case of NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE = NC2 deactivation at the end of the packet transfer. When the MS goes back to the STANDBY state, in case of NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE = NC2 deactivation at GMM Ready timer expiry.

Page 202

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Activation / De-activation (2/3)


203

Activation
MS BSS

On-going UL TBF (1) DL LLC PDU Packet Downlink Assignment / PACCH (2) READY MS in NC0 Packet Control Acknowledgement (3) Packet Measurement Order [NC2] / PACCH (4) Packet Measurement Report / PACCH (5) READY MS in NC2 NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T Packet Measurement Report / PACCH (6)

T_WAIT_PMR

There is NC2 activation only at the beginning of a DL packet transfer

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

(1) It is assumed the MS has just initiated the establishment of a UL TBF, but no DL TBF is on-going. If there is no UL TBF on-going, the NC2 activation is also done on receipt of the acknowledgement of the DL TBF establishment performed on the (P)CCCH. (2) The receipt of a DL LLC PDU triggers the establishment of the DL TBF on the PACCH of the UL TBF. (3) The MS acknowledges the Packet Downlink Assignment message by a Packet Control Acknowledgement message. (4) Upon receipt of the Packet Control Acknowledgement message, the BSS sends to the MS on the PACCH of the ongoing DL TBF a Packet Measurement Order message forcing the MS to operate in NC2 mode and starts the timer T_WAIT_PMR. The Packet Measurement Order message is sent without a polling indication. The Packet Measurement Order message provides the MS with the following NC measurement parameters NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER, NC_NON_DRX_PERIOD, NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_I, NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T. The timer T_WAIT_PMR monitors the reception of the Packet Measurement Report messages. (5)-(6) On the allocated UL RLC blocks, the MS sends a Packet Measurement Report message every NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T seconds. The timer T_WAIT_PMR is stopped at the receipt of the first Packet Measurement Report message. At T_WAIT_PMR expiry, if MAX_RETRANS_SIG 0 a new Packet Measurement Order is sent to the MS and the timer T_WAIT_PMR is started. Such mechanism is applied MAX_RETRANS_SIG attempts.

Page 203

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Activation / De-activation (3/3)


204

De-activation at the end of the packet transfer


MS BSS

On-going DL TBF READY MS in NC2 Last DL RLC data block with a polling indication (1) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack / PACCH (2) Packet Measurement Order [Reset] / PACCH (3)

STANDBY MS in NC0

There is NC2 de-activation at the normal end of a DL Packet Transfer Mode

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

(1) It is assumed that a DL TBF is on-going. The BSS sends to the MS the last useful data block (case of normal TBF release) or the RLC block containing the last dummy UI command (case of a delayed TBF release). (2)The MS acknowledges the received block by sending the final Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message to the BSS. Note: When an RLC mode change is detected, the BSS waits for the final Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message before re-establishing the DL TBF with the new RLC mode. As the fast DL TBF establishment occurs on receipt of the final Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message, a Packet Measurement Order [Reset] message would be immediately followed by a Packet Measurement Order [NC2] message. In order to avoid that useless message exchange, the NC2 mode is not deactivated in this case. (3) If there is no on-going UL TBF, upon receipt of the final Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message, the BSS sends to the MS on the PACCH of the DL TBF a Packet Measurement Order message with a Reset command. The Reset command forces the MS to realign its behavior on the parameters broadcast in the (packet) system information messages on (P)BCCH (i.e., return to NC0). To ensure a high probability of correct reception by the MS, the RRM orders MAC to repeat the Packet Measurement Order (Reset) message several times. The number of repetitions is defined by the O&M parameter N_SIG_REPEAT. In case the Packet Measurement Order (Reset) message is not received by the MS although repeated, the MS will remain in NC2 mode for the whole duration of the Ready timer, while the operator requested the network to deactivate NC2 at the end of the Packet Transfer Mode. Because repetitions should ensure that this happens very scarcely, the Alcatel BSS will not handle those rare events. Then, if a Packet Measurement Report is received in Packet Idle Mode, it will be discarded. There is no NC2 deactivation at the end (normal or abnormal) of the UL Packet Transfer Mode, and at the abnormal end of the DL Packet Transfer Mode.

Page 204

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Measurement Reporting and Processing (1/4)


205

DL RXLEV
The MS sends a Packet Measurement Report message containing the RXLEV measured on the serving cell and the 6 best neighbor cells The Packet Measurement Report message is sent every:
NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T ms, in case of Packet Transfer Mode NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_I ms, in case of Packet Idle Mode

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

On the one hand the NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T parameter is defined by O&M on a per cell basis. On the other hand, the NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_I is set on a BSS cell basis without OMC-R access (default value = max value = 61.44 s i.e., 256 52-multiframes). These parameters are provided to the MS either in a Packet Measurement Order message or in a Packet Cell Change Order message. They are never broadcast on (packet) system information messages. Packet Measurement Report message contents TLLI of the MS NC_MODE (Set to NC2) RXLEV_SERVING_CELL (RXLEV measured on the serving cell) NUMBER_OF_NC_MEASUREMENTS (Number of measurements reported for the neighboring cells) FREQUENCY_N (Refer to the ARFCN or ARFCN and BSIC of a neighboring cell) BSIC (BSIC of the indexed neighboring cells) RXLEV_N (RXLEV of the indexed neighboring cells)

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3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Measurement Reporting and Processing (2/4)


206

DL RXLEV averaging for serving cell and neighbor cell


AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2p = (1-f)* AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2p-1 + f*RXLEV_Np
RXLEV_Np is the RXLEV sample reported by the MS in the incoming Packet Measurement Report message f is the averaging forgetting factor and is derived from the parameter NC_RXLEV_FORGETTING_FACTOR p is the iteration index

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

NC_RXLEV_FORGETTING_FACTOR = 0.13 ((Alcatel recommended value) and it can be set at OMC-R level). If the neighboring cell n was not reported in the precedent Packet Measurement Report but just in the last one: AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2p(n) = (1-f) *AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2p-1(n) + (1-(1-f) ) *RXLEV_Np(n) = (p 1) i The index i represents the last time an NC measurement for that neighboring cell has been reported in a Packet Measurement Report message.

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NC Measurement Reporting and Processing (3/4)


207

RXQUAL for a GPRS TBF


In the DL, the MS sends a Packet DL Ack/Nack message containing the RXQUAL measured on the serving cell every T_DL_GPRS_MeasReport ms In the UL, the MFS assesses the RXQUAL for each RLC block received

MeanBEP for an EGPRS TBF


In the DL, the MS sends an EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack message containing the MeanBEP measured on the serving cell every T_DL_EGPRS_MeasReport ms In the UL, the MFS assesses the MeanBEP for each RLC block received

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

T_DL_GPRS_MeasReport and T_DL_EGPRS_MeasReport are defined by O&M on a per cell basis.

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3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Measurement Reporting and Processing (4/4)


208

DL RXQUAL averaging

1 AV_DL_RXQUAL_NC 2p = 1 U p
tp

* AV_DL_RXQUAL_NC 2p 1 + 1 DL_RXQUAL Up

Up = NC2

Up-1 +1
1/TNC2

forgetting factor: NC2 = (1-)

= 0.9 is the time between 2 DL RXQUAL samples p TNC2 set to the parameter NC_RXQUAL_AVG_PERIOD

UL RXQUAL and MeanBEP (UL & DL) are averaged using the same formula and the same parameter

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

U0 = 0, consequently U1 = 1. In CS4, if RxQual = 7 is reported by the MS, then this measurement is tagged as invalid and so, not taken into account in the averaging.

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3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Detection (1/5)


209

Trigger conditions

Priority Highest Lowest

Cause reference PT4 PT3 PT1 PT2

Name of the cause Too bad uplink radio quality Too bad downlink radio quality Too low downlink received signal level Detection of a better neighboring cell

Similar HO cause Cause 2 Cause 4 Cause 5 Cause 12

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 209

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Detection (2/5)


210

Cause PT3 for a GPRS TBF


AV_DL_RXQUAL_NC2 > NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR If NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 (Never), the cause PT3 is disabled

Cause PT3 for an EGPRS TBF


AV_DL_MeanBEP_NC2 < NC_DL_MeanBEP_THR_xxSK_yyyyyy
xxSK: GMSK or 8-PSK yyyyy:
type1: type 1 ARQ (no Incremental Redundancy) type2: type 2 ARQ (with Incremental Redundancy)

If NC_DL_MeanBEP_THR_xxSK_yyyyyy = 0, the cause PT3 is disabled

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Cause PT3 is checked only for the serving cell each time an (EGPRS) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message is received provided that the DL TBF is not in delayed release state and provided that the T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID seconds have elapsed since the receipt of the first Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message of the DL TBF. T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID aims at not triggering false alarms at the beginning of the TBF and not triggering an NC cell reselection for a very short TBF. In CS4, if RxQual = 7 is reported by the MS, then this measurement is tagged as invalid and so, it will be not taken into account in the averaging and will not disturb the PT3 triggering.

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3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Detection (3/5)


211

Only one NC_DL_MeanBEP threshold is applied for cause PT3 during an EGPRS TBF, and derived from NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR
NC_DL_MeanBEP_THR_xxSK_yyyyyy = NC_DL_MeanBEP NC_DL_MeanBEP = (23-3* NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR) If NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 then NC_DL_MeanBEP = 0
i.e., the cause PT3 is disabled

Same behavior for cause PT4 in the UL


NC_UL_MeanBEP = (23-3* NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 211

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Detection (4/5)


212

Cause PT4 for a GPRS TBF


AV_UL_RXQUAL_NC2 > NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR If NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 (Never), the cause PT4 is disabled

Cause PT4 for an EGPRS TBF


AV_UL_MeanBEP_NC2 < NC_UL_MeanBEP_THR_xxSK_yyyyyy
xxSK: GMSK or 8-PSK yyyyy:
type1: type 1 ARQ (no Incremental Redundancy) type2: type 2 ARQ (with Incremental Redundancy)

NC_UL_MeanBEP_THR_xxSK_yyyyyy = NC_UL_MeanBEP NC_UL_MeanBEP = (23-3* NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR) If NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 then NC_UL_MeanBEP = 0


i.e., the cause PT4 is disabled

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Cause PT4 is checked only for the serving cell whenever one UL RLC data block is correctly received for the on-going UL TBF provided that T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID seconds have elapsed since the computation of the first UL samples of the UL TBF. T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID aims at not triggering false alarms at the beginning of the TBF and not triggering an NC cell reselection for a very short TBF.

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3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Detection (5/5)


213

Cause PT1
AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 < NC_DL_RXLEV_THR + Max(BNC2,0)
without PBCCH, BNC2 = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P with PBCCH BNC2 = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P

If NC_DL_RXLEV_THR = -110dBm (Never), the cause PT1 is disabled

Cause PT2
C2NC2(n) - C2NC2(s) > NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS(s,n) If PBCCH is present in the serving cell, C2NC2 is replaced with C32NC2

AND
AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 <= NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR If NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS(s,n) = 128dB (Never), the cause PT2 from s to n is disabled

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The cause PT1 is equivalent to check the condition C1NC2 < 0 assuming that the (GPRS_)RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN threshold is replaced with NC_DL_RXLEV_THR threshold. Cause PT2 is checked among the neighboring cells n upon receipt of a Packet Measurement Report message. It is triggered if the value C2NC2 or C32NC2 of one neighboring cell n exceeds the value C2NC2 or C32NC2 of the serving cell s by at least the O&M hysteresis NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS(s,n) defined per cell adjacency link (respectively whether or not there is a PBCCH in the serving cell).

Page 213

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Evaluation: Functional Entities


- cause reference - neighboring cell that checked the cause

B9
214

Cell filtering process

Filtering cell list

Cell ranking process


Modified B9

Reference of the target cell

Cell filtering process


This process builds a Filtering Cell List depending on:
The content of the Rejected Cell list EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR C1NC2(n) GPRS operational state of the neighbor cells

Cell ranking process


This process builds a Filtering Cell List depending on:
C31NC2 Load situation NewB9 C1NC2 & C2NC2 if no PBCCH or C1NC2 & C32NC2 with PBCCH

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The Cell Filtering process is computed on receipt of an NC Cell Reselection Evaluation Request message. Before processing the cell ranking, all the candidate neighboring cells are gathered in the Raw Cell List. The serving cell is always included in this latter list. The contents of the Raw Cell List depend on the cause reference that triggered the NC cell reselection evaluation: If Cause PT1, or PT3, or PT4 is checked, then the Raw Cell List regroups the cells reported in the Packet Measurement Report message provided that the cells are configured by O&M. The serving cell is always included in the list. If only Cause PT2 is checked, then the Raw Cell List regroups all the neighboring cells that verify Cause PT2 and that are reported in the Packet Measurement Report message. The serving cell is always included in the list. The Raw Cell List is then filtered according to the contents of a Rejected Cell List, according to the flag EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR of the serving cell and of the neighboring cells, and according to the C1NC2 parameter of the neighboring cells. The output cell list is here called the Filtering Cell List.

Page 214

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Evaluation: Criteria Computation (1/2)


215

Path loss criterion parameter C1NC2


If PBCCH is present:
C1NC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) max(GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) P(n), 0) C1NC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) - max(MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) P(n), 0)

Else

Cell ranking criterion parameter C2NC2 (used when the PBCCH is not present)
If PENALTY_TIME <> 31:
C2NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) C2NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n)

Else

If the T_NC_PING_PONG timer is running, the anti-ping-pong offset NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET is subtracted from the C2NC2 of the neighboring cells

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. In the above equations, the following notations mean: AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) is the average received signal level measured by the MS on the BCCH of the cell n. RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) or GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) is the minimum received signal level required to perform an access to the cell n. MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) or GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) is the maximum transmit power of the MS when accessing the cell n. P(n) is the maximum output RF power of the MS in the BCCH frequency band of the cell n. P(n) gives the MS Radio Access Capability Information Element provided in the Packet Resource Request message or in the DL LLC PDU. In the NC cell reselection procedure, the parameter P(n) shall always refer to the RF power capability of the GMSK modulation. Note that all values are expressed in dBm. The cell ranking criterion parameter C2NC2 is used to order the candidate cells on a radio criterion. This criterion applies only in serving cells where there is no PBCCH established. CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset which favors or disfavors the cell n. PENALTY_TIME(n) indicates whether the cell reselection offset shall be positive or negative.

Page 215

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Evaluation: Criteria Computation (2/2)


216

Signal level threshold criterion parameter C31NC2


C31NC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) HCS_THR(n)

Cell ranking criterion parameter C32NC2


serving cell
C32NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) C32NC2(n)=C1NC2(n)+GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) If T_NC_PING_PONG(s) is running
C32NC2(n)=C1NC2(n)+GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) - NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET(s)

neighboring cell

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The signal level threshold criterion parameter C31NC2 is used in hierarchical cellular networks to determine whether the signal level received from a neighboring cell n is sufficient to redirect the MS towards cell n based on a non-radio priority criterion. This criterion parameter is used only if there is a PBCCH established in the serving cell. HCS_THR(n) defines a signal threshold for applying the prioritized hierarchical GPRS cell reselection criterion. The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. Contrary to the C31 criterion implemented in the MS, the Alcatel BSS does not manage the timer T implemented for each cell to monitor the time a neighboring cell is present in the list of the strongest carriers. Therefore, the Alcatel BSS always assumes that GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) = 0. As the GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS, RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS and C31_HYST are used to control the triggering conditions of a cell reselection. They are not taken into account in the criterion C31NC2 and C32NC2 parameters. The cell ranking criterion parameter C32NC2 is used to order the candidate cells on a radio criterion. This criterion applies only in serving cells where there is a PBCCH established. GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) applies a positive or negative offset which favors or disfavors the neighboring cell n. The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. If the parameter C32_QUAL is set, the determination of C32NC2 is modified so that the neighboring cell n having the highest AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 among all the neighboring cells is applied a GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (only if the offset is positive) and no GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET is applied to the other neighboring cells. The MFS shall take care of avoiding ping-pong effects between the old cell and the new cell (i.e., circular NC cell reselections). For that purpose, the MFS handles an anti ping-pong timer and an anti ping-pong offset, respectively called T_NC_PING_PONG and NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET. While the timer T_NC_PING_PONG is running, the neighboring cells are disfavored by the offset NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET (expressed in dB) in the cell ranking process. The MFS starts the anti ping-pong timer at the creation of the NC2 context for the MS. The MFS stops the anti ping-pong timer at the deletion of the NC2 context.

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3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Evaluation: Cell Filtering Process


217

A candidate neighboring cell n is filtered out when:


A previous NC cell reselection failed toward this cell and T_NC_REJ_CELL[n] is running
The timer T_NC_REJ_CELL[n] is started or restarted each time the new cell n is inserted in the Rejected Cell List At expiry of T_NC_REJ_CELL[n], the rejected cell is removed from the Rejected Cell List One T_NC_REJ_CELL by cell (and not by MS)

EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR(n) = enabled C1NC2(n) < 0 GPRS not activated


RA_COLOUR = -1

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The notation T_NC_REJ_CELL[n] refers to the timer associated to the cell n. For the purpose of filtering cells towards which a previous NC cell reselection failed, the RRM manages a Rejected Cell List. Each neighboring cell n of the list is guarded by the timer T_NC_REJ_CELL[n]. While T_NC_REJ_CELL[n] is running, the neighboring cell n shall not be selected for any NC cell reselection. The Rejected Cell List shall be able to contain up to 32 neighboring cells. If the Rejected cell List is full, the oldest cell is discarded and the new one is stored. In addition, if the flag EN_OUT_GOING_GPRS_REDIR(s) of the serving cell is set to Enabled, the serving cell is removed from the Raw Cell List. Indeed, in such cells, the neighboring cells do not need to be better than the serving cell as a GPRS redirection is not triggered due to a bad radio link, but is triggered in order to redirect the MS towards a more appropriate neighboring cell to carry PS traffic.

Page 217

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Evaluation: Cell Ranking Process (1/2)

B9
218

Without PBCCH
The best candidate cell is the cell for which the following ordered criteria are fulfilled: 1. C31NC2 >= 0 2. Load situation = low 3. Best C2NC2 If all the candidate cells have their criterion C31NC2 < 0, then
The best candidate cell is the cell which has the best C2NC2

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Once the best candidate cell has been found, the MFS checks whether or not the best cell is the serving cell: If the best cell is not the serving one, the NC cell reselection evaluation function sends an NC Cell Reselection Alarm Indication message to the NC cell reselection execution function in order to trigger the execution of the NC cell reselection. If the best cell is the serving cell, the NC cell reselection procedure is stopped.

Page 218

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Evaluation: Cell Ranking Process (2/2)

B9
219

With PBCCH
The best candidate cell is the cell for which the following ordered criteria are fulfilled: 1. C31NC2 >= 0 2. Load situation = low 3. Highest PRIORITY_CLASS 4. Best C32NC2 If all the candidate cells have their criterion C31NC2 < 0, then
The best candidate cell is the cell which has the best C32NC2

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 219

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Evaluation: Load Evaluation (1/2)


Every 5 seconds, the MFS computes for each cell
NC2_Load (in %) =

B9
220

MAX[UL_PS_Used_Bandwidth; DL_PS_Used_Bandwidth ] + CS_Used_Bandwidth 100 Total_PS_Bandwidth


N _ PDCH _ ALLOCATED i =1 N _ PDCH _ ALLOCATED

Where:

UL_PS_used_Bandwidth =

i =1

Nb of UL TBFs / MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH Nb of DL TBFs / MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH

DL_PS_used_Bandwidth =

Total_PS_Bandwidth = MAX_PDCH NB_TS_MPDCH CS_Used_Bandwidth = Total_PS_Bandwidth N_PDCH_ALLOCATED


N_PDCH_ALLOCATED = Number of SPDCHs currently allocated to the MFS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 220

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Evaluation: Load Evaluation (2/2)


NC2_Load is averaged using the sliding window NC2_LOAD_EV_PERIOD (=3) This load average is then compared to the threshold THR_NC2_LOAD_RANKING as followed:
If Load average <= THR_NC2_LOAD_RANKING then
Load situation = low Load situation = high

B9
221

Else (Load average > THR_NC2_LOAD_RANKING)

Case of the external cells (inter BSC)


If THR_NC2_LOAD_RANKING < 100% then Load situation = low Else (THR_NC2_LOAD_RANKING = 100%) then Load situation = high

Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The MFS shares the NC2 load situation information among the different cells of the BSS (or at least between the cells having a cell reselection link with the serving cell). In case of an external cell, the load evaluation is different since the load situation of such cells is unknown in the serving cell.

Page 221

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Execution with NACC


MS On going UL or DL TBF (1) Packet Measurement Report / PACCH (2) Packet Neighbour Cell Data (S1) / PDCH Packet Neighbour Cell Data (SI3) / PDCH Packet Neighbour Cell Data (SI13) / PDCH Packet Cell Change Order / PACCH (3) (4) T_Ack_Wait BSS Serving cell BSS Target cell SGSN

B9
222

Packet Control Acknowledgement / PACCH (5) T_Wait_Flush Packet Channel Request / PRACH (6) Packet Uplink Assignment / PCCCH (7) On going UL TBF (8) UL LLC PDU [TLLI] (9) FLUSH-LL PDU [TLLI, old BVCI] (10) FLUSH-LL-ACK PDU [TLLI, deleted] (11)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

(1) A UL or DL TBF is assumed to be on-going. (2) The MS sends a Packet Measurement Report message on one of the allocated UL blocks on the PACCH. (3) Upon receipt of the Packet Measurement Report message, the BSS detects that an NC cell reselection must be triggered and therefore orders the MS to reselect a new cell by sending a Packet Cell Change Order message on the PACCH of the DL or UL TBF. If both a UL and a DL TBF are on-going, the message is preferentially addressed by a DL TFI. The Packet Cell Change Order message is sent in acknowledged mode and contains the ARFCN and the BSIC of the target cell plus the NC parameters of the target cell (if the MS can operate in NC2 mode in the target cell). When sending the Packet Cell Change Order message, the BSS starts the timer T_ACK_WAIT to monitor the receipt of the Packet Control Acknowledgement message. (4)-(5) Upon receipt of the Packet Cell Change Order message, the MS aborts its on-going TBF in the serving cell and sends the Packet Control Acknowledgement message. Once the MS has sent the Packet Control Acknowledgement message, the MS switches to the new cell. Upon receipt of the Packet Control Acknowledgement message, the BSS starts the timer T_WAIT_FLUSH (which monitors the reception of the FLUSH-LL PDU) and requests the release of the on-going TBF(s) (if any). The radio resources are immediately released, i.e., without freezing them. In case the radio resources are already frozen, the freezing timer is stopped and the radio resources are immediately released. (6)-(8) After acquiring the full PSI cycle and successfully decoding the PSI1 and PSI2 messages of the target cell, the MS initiates a UL TBF establishment in the new cell. (9) The target BSS sends to the SGSN the first UL LLC PDU containing the TLLI of the MS. (10) By comparing the previous couple and the new one (BVCI; NSEI), the SGSN detects that the MS has changed of cell and sends a FLUSH-LL PDU to the old cell. (11) Upon receipt of the FLUSH-LL PDU, the BSS stops the timer T_WAIT_FLUSH, and either transfers the pending DL LLC PDUs to the new cell (if the old and new cells belong to the same routing area and the same NE) or deletes them. The BSS acknowledges the FLUSH-LL PDU by sending a FLUSH-LL-ACK PDU to the SGSN. When the feature full intra-RA LLC PDU rerouting is implemented, a rerouting will be possible between 2 different NSEs.

Page 222

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

NC Cell Reselection Execution with LLC PDU Rerouting


223

MS On going DL TBF

BSS Serving cell

BSS Target cell

SGSN

Packet Measurement Report / PACCH Packet Cell Change Order / PACCH Packet Control Acknowledgement / PACCH Packet Channel Request / PRACH Packet Uplink Assignment / PCCCH On going UL TBF UL LLC PDU [TLLI] FLUSH-LL [TLLI, old BVCI, new BVCI, (new NSEI)] LLC PDU(s) rerouting FLUSH-LL-ACK [TLLI, transferred] T_Ack_Wait T_Wait_Flush

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In Packet Transfer Mode, it happens that Downlink LLC PDU frames, which have been transmitted by the SGSN to the BSS, are not received by the MS because the MS performs a cell reselection. Indeed, these PDUs are discarded by the BSS. The BSS informs the SGSN that it has discarded these PDUs, and the SGSN has to send them again. With the feature Downlink LLC PDU rerouting, the BSS keeps in memory these PDUs, and transmits them to the MS in the target cell, after the cell reselection. EN_DL_LLC_PDU_REROUTING is the OMC-R parameter that activates the DL rerouting on a per BSS basis. If the SGSN supports the INR option (Inter-NSE Rerouting), a rerouting is requested by providing the BVCI and the NSEI of the new cell in the FLUSH-LL message in case of a cell change between two different NSEs. Otherwise (same NSE) only the BVCI of the new cell is provided.

Page 223

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

Full Intra-RA LLC PDU Rerouting


224

Available whatever the NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER: NC0 or NC2 If EN_DL_LLC_PDU_REROUTING = enabled


If the SGSN requests a rerouting (new BVCI included in Flush LL)
The MFS can perform an intra-RA intra-NSE rerouting The MFS performs an autonomous intra-RA inter-NSE rerouting

If the SGSN does not support Inter-NSE rerouting

Summary
Old and new ell Flush LL information old BVCI + new BVCI only old BVCI old BVCI + new BVCI same RA different NSEs Yes only old BVCI only old BVCI No DL LLC PDU deletion DL LLC PDU rerouting SGSN Inter-NSE capability MFS behavior

same RA same NSE

DL LLC PDU rerouting DL LLC PDU deletion DL LLC PDU rerouting

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In case of MS cell change, the control of the rerouting of DL LLC PDUs from one cell to another is left to the SGSN In case of MS cell change, the SGSN sends a Flush-LL PDU to the BSS, in order: either to delete the outstanding PDUs in the old cell buffer, or to reroute them to the new cell. When the MS operates in NC2 mode, the old and the new cells are known by the BSS. Consequently an autonomous rerouting can be performed at Flush-LL receipt. When the MS operates in NC0 mode, the BSS does not know the link between the old and the new cells. To find this link, the BSS uses the TLLI of the cell Update. As this message cannot be identified as such, it is checked that the TLLI of a UL TBF: does not exist in any of the MS contexts stored in the cell. is not a foreign or a random TLLI. A TLLI retrieval process is started to try to find a cell of the same RA, on any GPU, in which this TLLI exists. When the search is successful, the rerouting can be performed at Flush-LL receipt.

Page 224

3.6 NC2 Cell Reselection

Outgoing GPRS Redirection


225

Useful in multilayer and multiband networks, in order to reduce the number of reselections If EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR(s) = enabled
As soon as the MS is in Packet Transfer Mode, it is redirected from the cell Then, the cell ranking process is started to find the best candidate cell
According to the operator strategy See session 4 for a strategy example

Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

An outgoing GPRS redirection is an NC cell reselection which is triggered when the MS enters the packet transfer mode in the serving cell even if the radio link is good. The intention of GPRS redirections is to redirect the MS towards a target cell more appropriate to carry PS traffic (for instance a macro cell).

Page 225

226

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

3.7 Flow Control at the Gb Interface

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 226

3.7 Flow Control at the Gb Interface

BSSGP
227

Only DL flow control is performed between the BSS and the SGSN Principle of the DL flow control mechanism:
the BSS sends to the SGSN the flow control parameters in the FLOWCONTROL-MS/BVC messages the flow control parameters allow the SGSN to locally control its transmission towards the BSS
BSSGP frame LLC frame

BVCI

TLLI

Payload
Used to perform MS flow control

Used to perform BVC flow control

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Caution: LLC frames are encapsulated 1:1 into BSSGP frames. This is the reason why we can say that there is an LLC frame flow control mechanism at BSSGP level.

Page 227

3.7 Flow Control at the Gb Interface

Flow Control Performed at SGSN Side (1/2)


228

The SGSN shall perform flow control on each BVC and on each MS The flow control is performed on each LLC PDU first by the MS flow control mechanism and then by the BVC flow control mechanism:
if an LLC PDU is passed by the MS flow control then the SGSN applies the BVC flow control to the LLC PDU if an LLC PDU is passed by both flow control mechanisms, the entire LLC PDU is delivered to the BSS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

MS flow control

MS flow control

MS flow control

BVC flow control BSS

Page 228

3.7 Flow Control at the Gb Interface

Flow Control Performed at SGSN Side (2/2)


229

Leaky bucket algorithm:


An LLC PDU is passed as long as the bucket counter (B) plus the length of the LLC PDU does not exceed the bucket size (Bmax) When the LLC PDU is passed, its length is added to B Any LLC PDU not passed is delayed until B plus the LLC PDU length is less than Bmax The algorithm takes into account the leak rate of the bucket (R)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Leaky bucket principle

?
Max bucket size (Bmax)

new LLC PDU

bucket size (B)

leaking rate (R)

Page 229

3.7 Flow Control at the Gb Interface

Flow Control Performed at BSS Side (1/3)


230

The BSS controls the DL transmission of the SGSN by sending the parameters Bmax and R in the flow control PDU:
after the sending of a FLOW_CONTROL_BVC PDU, the BSS cannot send a new FLOW_CONTROL_BVC PDU before T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell seconds
T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell is a BSS parameter Default value = 0 By default, the BVC flow control is disabled

after the sending of a FLOW_CONTROL_MS PDU, the BSS cannot send a new FLOW_CONTROL_MS PDU before T_Flow_Ctrl_MS seconds
T_Flow_Ctrl_MS is a BSS parameter Default value = 10 s

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

NB: the cell flow control is performed more frequently than the MS flow control because: The radio resource availability for a TBF is always shorter than the guarding time of a PDCH, therefore the MS individual traffic is less of an influence on the leaking rate. The radio resource available for one MS may change from one TBF to another. The combined traffic of all the GPRS MSs in the cell exchanging data with the SGSN has to be mapped onto a BVC, which may become the blocking factor as the BVC is mapped on an NSVC, which is mapped on a PVC, carried by a BC which has a fixed maximum capacity.

Page 230

3.7 Flow Control at the Gb Interface

Flow Control Performed at BSS Side (2/3)


231

FLOW_CONTROL_BVC PDU:
BVC_Bucket_Size: the maximum size of the cell buffer in the MFS BVC_Bucket_Leak_Rate: the measured throughput in the cell from the RRM to the RLC Bmax_default_MS: the default value of the maximum size of the MS buffer in the MFS R_default_MS: the default value of the measured throughput for the MS from the RRM to the RLC

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Formulas: The BVC_Bucket_Size (value expressed in octet) is calculated as follows: Case T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell 0: BVC_Bucket_Size = Flow_Dim_safety_MS * Max_PDCH * Max_Rate_PDCH * (1/8) * Max_Rate_Safety * T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell BVC_Bucket_Size = Flow_Dim_safety_MS * Max_PDCH * Max_Rate_PDCH * (1/8) * Max_Rate_Safety * Def_value_T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell Case T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell = 0:

The BVC_Bucket_Leak_Rate (value expressed in 100 bits/sec) is calculated as follows: Case T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell 0: - IF B_BVC < BVC_Bucket_Size ELSE BVC_Bucket_Leak_Rate = 0 BVC_Bucket_Leak_Rate = [(BVC_Bucket_Size - B_BVC )*8] / [T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell * Flow_Dim_safety_BVC * 100]

Case T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell = 0 BVC_Bucket_Leak_Rate = (Max_PDCH * Max_Rate_PDCH * Max_Rate_Safety)/100

The Bmax_default_MS (value expressed in octet) is calculated as follows: Case T_Flow_Ctrl_MS 0: Bmax_default_MS = Flow_Dim_safety_MS * Max_Rate_PDCH * (1/8) * Max_Rate_Safety * T_Flow_Ctrl_MS Bmax_default_MS = Flow_Dim_safety_MS * Max_Rate_PDCH * (1/8) * Max_Rate_Safety * Def_value_T_Flow_Ctrl_MS Case T_Flow_Ctrl_MS = 0:

The R_default_MS (value expressed in 100 bits/sec) is calculated as follows: R_default_MS = (Flow_Dim_safety_MS * Max_Rate_PDCH * Max_Rate_Safety)/100

Page 231

3.7 Flow Control at the Gb Interface

Flow Control Performed at BSS Side (3/3)


232

FLOW_CONTROL_MS PDU:
MS_Bucket_Size: the maximum size of the MS buffer in the MFS MS_Bucket_Leak_Rate: the measured throughput for the MS from the RRM to the RLC

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Formula: The MS_Bucket_Size (value expressed in octet) is calculated as follows: Explanation: Max_PDCH n Maximum number of PDCHs that can be allocated to the MS according to its multislot class. O&M parameter indicating the maximum number of PDCHs that can be established in the cell. maximum rate of one PDCH in the considered cell (value in bits/s) Safety factor to compensate the Max_Rate_PDCH in the calculation of BVC_Bucket_Size and MS_Bucket_Size O&M safety factor, used to tune the BVC bucket value O&M safety factor, used to tune the MS bucket value maximum length of a DL LLC PDU (the SGSN has to be able to send at least one DL LLC PDU) value in octet of the current bucket size at MFS side for the cell. It corresponds to the amount of LLC waiting frames for this BVC (cell) sending period of NM-FLOW-CONTROL-CELL-req sending period of NM-FLOW-CONTROL-MS-req default value forT_Flow_Ctrl_Cell (set to 5 sec) default value for T_Flow_Ctrl_MS (set to 10 sec) Value in octets of the current bucket size at MFS side for the MS. It corresponds to the amount of LLC PDUs waiting to be transmitted for this MS. Max_Rate_PDCH Max_Rate_Safety Flow_Dim_safety_BVC Flow_Dim_safety_MS MAX_LLC_PDU B_BVC T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell T_Flow_Ctrl_MS Def_value_T_Flow_Ctrl_Cell Def_value_T_Flow_Ctrl_MS B_MS MS_Bucket_Size = n * Max_Rate_PDCH * (1/8) * Max_Rate_Safety * T_Flow_Ctrl_MS MS_Bucket_Leak_Rate = B_MS * 100 / MS_Bucket_Size The MS_Bucket_Leak_Rate (value expressed in 100 bit/sec) is calculated as follows:

Page 232

233

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

3.8 Radio Link Supervision

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 233

3.8 Radio Link Supervision

Principles
234

During a UL or DL packet transmission, the corresponding TBF can be released due to an abnormal situation:
no acknowledgement or data received the transmission is stalled too low transmission efficiency

The abnormal release is always followed by the re-establishment of the TBF in case of an uplink transfer (initiative of the MS) In case of a downlink transfer, most of the SGSNs do not take the initiative to re-establish the TBF

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The RLS mechanisms processes in the MFS are based on the following assumption: in a specific transfer situation, the MFS is expecting the MS to behave in a specific way : In a UL TBF, the MFS schedules a USF for UL blocks and expects the MS to understand the MFSs acknowledgements. In a DL TBF, the MFS sends blocks to the MS and expects them to be acknowledged when scheduled by the MFS (use of RRBP).

Page 234

3.8 Radio Link Supervision

DL TBF (1/2)
235

DL ACK/NACK PERIOD blocks

Scheduling of Packet DL Ack/Nack PACCH block Stop sending DL PDTCH blocks

PDTCH

PDTCH RRBP false

PDTCH

N3105>N3105_LIMIT
PACCH

N3105 = N3105+1

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The MFS counts the number of consecutive PACKET DL ACK/NACK not received due to loss on the radio interface: For a GPRS TBF, if the counter is above the threshold TBF_CS_DL and CS-4, CS-3 or CS-2 is used, the MFS switches to CS-1. For an EGPRS TBF, if the counter is above the threshold TBF_MCS_DL and MCS-9, MCS-8, MCS-3 or MCS-2 is used, the MFS switches to MCS-1. If the counter is above the threshold N3105_LIMIT, the DL TBF is abnormally released: the MFS stops sending packets to the MS and sends a message to the SGSN (Radio Status). it is up to the SGSN to re-establish the DL TBF. the MS releases the TBF on its side. If N3105_LIMIT < TBF_CS_DL then the loss of consecutive packet DL ACK/NACK will not trigger a link adaptation but a TBF release. For an EGPRS TBF, the MFS considers EGPRS_N3105_LIMIT. N3105_LIMIT = 4 (Alcatel recommended value) and it cannot be set at OMC-R level. EGPRS_N3105_LIMIT = 6 (Alcatel recommended value) and it cannot be set at OMC-R level.

Page 235

3.8 Radio Link Supervision

DL TBF (2/2)
236

DL ACK/NACK PERIOD blocks

Scheduling of Packet DL Ack/Nack PACCH block Stop sending DL PDTCH blocks

PDTCH

PDTCH RRBP false

PDTCH

N_StagnatingWindowDL > NstagnatingWindowDL_LIMIT

PACCH
Packet DL Ack/Nack

N_StagnatingWindowDL = N_StagnatingWindowDL

+1

Same oldest RLC block Nack in the RBB

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Other Abnormal DL TBF release: DL window stalled In GPRS acknowledged mode, NstagnatingWindowDL counter shall be incremented when the same oldest RLC data block in the transmit window is not acknowledged by the last received bitmap. If N_StagnatingWindowDL exceeds its limit, then the network shall terminate the TBF. NstagnatingWindowDL_LIMIT = 6 (Alcatel recommended value) and it cannot be set at OMC-R level.

Page 236

3.8 Radio Link Supervision

UL TBF - Abnormal Release with Random Access (1/2)


237

Stop sending Packet UL ACK/NACK PACCH blocks

U S F

U S F

PACCH

N3101>N3101_LIMIT
PDTCH PDTCH

N consecutive

N3101 = N3101+N

Packet Random Access

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

N3101_LIMIT = 48 (Alcatel recommended value) and it cannot be set at OMC-R level. The MFS manages several counters: N3101: number of RLC PDUs consecutively lost since the last reception of a UL RLC PDU: N3101 is incremented each time a UL radio block is allocated to the MS and no data is received. if N3101 is above N3101_LIMIT, the UL TBF is abnormally released: the MFS stops sending PACKET UL ACK/NACK to the MS. The MS waits for PACKET UL ACK/NACK and then releases the TBF on its side. Then the MS sends a random access to re-establish the UL TBF.

Page 237

3.8 Radio Link Supervision

UL TBF - Abnormal Release with Random Access (2/2)


238

U S F

Stop sending Packet UL ACK/NACK PACCH blocks

PACCH

U S F

PACCH

N_StagnatingWindowUL > NstagnatingWindowUL_LIMIT

PDTCH SI=1

PDTCH SI=1 N_StagnatingWindowUL = N_StagnatingWindowUL +1

Packet Random Access

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Other Abnormal UL TBF release: UL window stalled SI=1 in a UL RLC DATA BLOCK indicates that the MS transmit window is stalled. Upon detection of a stall condition, the network sends a Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message and after a round trip delay has elapsed, it increments N_ULStagnatingWindow. If N_StagnatingWindowUL exceeds its limit, then the network shall terminate the TBF. NstagnatingWindowUL_LIMIT = 6 (Alcatel recommended value) and it cannot be set at OMC-R level.

Page 238

3.8 Radio Link Supervision

UL TBF - Abnormal Release with Cell Reselection (1/2)


239

N3102
PAN_MAX

Packet UL Ack/Nack received OK

RESELECTION

0
PAN_DEC UL TBF Abnormal release Random Access

PAN_INC

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Abnormal release with cell reselection: procedure linked to the counter N3102 internal to the MS and initialized to PAN_MAX after each reselection: each time the MS performs an abnormal release with random access, it decreases N3102 by PAN_DEC. each time the MS receives a PACKET UL ACK/NACK, it increases N3102 by PAN_INC. if N3102 reaches 0, the MS performs an abnormal release with cell reselection. the MS triggers a cell reselection procedure but nothing allows it to change its serving cell (need of a Master PDCH to be able to re-select a new cell). after the cell reselection, the MS sends a random access to re-establish the UL TBF.

Page 239

3.8 Radio Link Supervision

UL TBF - Abnormal Release with Cell Reselection (2/2)


240

If a Master PDCH is available in the serving cell AND If RANDOM_ACC_RETRY = Allowed


Then the following reselection algorithm is applied:
The MS re-selects the cell with the highest RLA among the 6 best levels In this cell, if the MS cannot decode the PBCCH data block, it reselects the next highest Received Level Average If the cells with the 6 strongest RLAs have been tried but cannot be used, the MS performs a normal reselection (see 3.5 NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection)

Else the normal reselection algorithm is applied (see 3.4)

After T_RESEL, the MS is allowed to reselect the serving cell

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

RLA = Received Level Average. T_RESEL = 5s (default value). Extract of the 05.08 GSM standard: In the event of an abnormal release with cell reselection (see 3GPP TS 04.60) when PBCCH exists, an abnormal cell reselection based on BA(GPRS) shall be attempted. The MS shall perform the following algorithm to determine which cell to be used for this cell reselection attempt. If access to another cell is not allowed, i.e., RANDOM_ACCESS_RETRY bit is not set on the serving cell: i) The abnormal cell reselection attempt shall be abandoned. If access to another cell is allowed, i.e., RANDOM_ACCESS_RETRY bit is set on the serving cell: i) The received level measurement samples taken on the carriers indicated in the BA (GPRS) received on the serving cell in the last 5 seconds shall be averaged, and the carrier with the highest Received Level Average (RLA) with permitted BSIC, i.e., the same as broadcast together with BA (GPRS), shall be taken. ii) On this carrier, the MS shall attempt to decode the PBCCH data block containing the parameters affecting cell selection. iii) If the cell is suitable (see 3GPP TS 03.22), abnormal cell reselection shall be attempted on this cell. iv) If the MS is unable to decode the PBCCH data block or if the conditions in iii) are not met, the carrier with the next highest Received Level Average (RLA) with permitted BSIC shall be taken, and the MS shall repeat steps ii) and iii) above. v) If the cells with the 6 strongest Received Level Average (RLA) values with permitted BSICs have been tried but cannot be used, the abnormal cell reselection attempt shall be abandoned. The MS is under no circumstances allowed to access a cell to attempt abnormal cell reselection later than 20 seconds after the detection within the MS of the abnormal release causing the abnormal cell reselection attempt. In the case where the 20 seconds elapse without a successful abnormal cell reselection, the attempt shall be abandoned.
Page 240

3.8 Radio Link Supervision

UL TBF in Ending Phase


241

U S F

PACCH U Final S F Ack Scheduling of Packet Control Ack PDTCH PACCH

Stop sending Packet UL ACK/NACK PACCH blocks

PACCH

N3103>N3103_LIMIT

Final Block

N3103 = N3103+1

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The MFS can also trigger an abnormal release at the end of a UL TBF: the MFS counts the number of PACKET CONTROL ACK not received in response to the PACKET UL ACK/NACK which indicates the end of the TBF. if the counter is above N3103_LIMIT, the UL TBF is abnormally released: the MFS stops sending PACKET UL ACK/NACK to the MS. N3103_LIMIT = 1 (Alcatel recommended value) and it cannot be set at OMC-R level.

Page 241

3.8 Radio Link Supervision

UL and DL TBF
242

A (E)TX_Efficiency is computed every


TX_EFFICIENCY_PERIOD transmitted RLC data blocks for a GPRS TBF E_TX_EFFICIENCY_PERIOD transmitted RLC data blocks for an EGPRS TBF

and compared to the following thresholds:


TX_EFFICIENCY_ACK_THR in Acknowledged mode TX_EFFICIENCY_NACK_THR in Non-Acknowledged mode

If the TX_Efficiency is below these thresholds, the TBF must be released It is done as an abnormal release by the MFS:
the MFS stops sending DL RLC PDUs in case of a DL TBF the MFS stops sending PACKET UL ACK/NACK in case of a UL TBF

Exercise

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Radio Link Supervision based on TX_Efficiency monitoring It was proposed since B7 to use the transmission efficiency, i.e., the ratio of the average net bit rate over the gross bit rate. This transmission efficiency can be computed approximately as:
NB _ RECEIVED

TX _ EFFICIENCY = 100
Where:

i =1 NB _ SENT

i =1

i
ni

1 ni

NB_SENT is the number of transmitted RLC data blocks, NB_RECEIVED is the number of correctly received RLC data blocks (i.e., blocks such that a positive acknowledgment is reported), i is equal to the number of information bits in the i-th correctly received RLC data block divided by the number of bits per RLC data block with GMSK modulation (456 in GPRS). This ratio only depends on the coding scheme used for the ith correctly received RLC data block and is between 0 and 1 in GPRS and between 0 and 3 in EGPRS (3 because there are 3 information bits per 8-PSK symbol). ni is the number of RLC data blocks in the i-th radio block. Therefore, this number is always equal to 1 for GPRS and EGPRS for MCS-1 to MCS-6, and is equal to 2 in EGPRS for MCS 7 to MCS 9. i = 0,40 for CS-1, 0,59 for CS-2, 0.68 for CS-3 and 0.94 for CS-4.
MCS-1 i 0.39 MCS-2 0.49 MCS-3 0.65 MCS-4 0.77 MCS-5 0.98 MCS-6 1.30 MCS-7 2.02 MCS-8 2.45 MCS-9 2.60

TX_EFFICIENCY is computed during a fixed window of TX_EFFICIENCY_PERIOD data blocks and then compared to threshold (TX_EFFICIENCY_ACK_THR if Ack mode and TX_EFFICIENCY_NACK_THR if Nack). Then if TX_EFFICIENCY < Tx_efficiency_threshold then the TBF is release (abnormally). TX_EFFICIENCY_ACK_THR = 10%, TX_EFFICIENCY_NACK_THR = 15%, TX_EFFICIENCY_PERIOD = 50 all can be set at OMC-R level.
Page 242

B9
243

3 RADIO LINK CONTROL

3.9 Exercises

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 243

3.9 Exercises

GPRS CS Adaptation (1/2)


244

CS adaptation / DL measurements
Network parameters:
MAX_GPRS_CS = CS-2 TBF_DL_INIT_CS = CS-1 CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y = 2 CS_HST_DL_LT = 2 CS_HST_DL_ST = 4

Objective: Find CS used in the DL

Time allowed: 10 minutes

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 244

3.9 Exercises

GPRS CS Adaptation (2/2)


245

Find which CS is used at each measurement


Measurement RXQUAL_DL AV_RXQUAL_DL_LT AV_RXQUAL_DL_ST CS ?
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 AV_RXQUAL_DL_ST

1 0 0,0 0,0

2 0 0,0 0,0

3 2 1,1 1,7

4 3 1,9 2,7

5 4 2,6 3,8

6 5 3,3 4,8

7 5 3,8 5,0

8 5 4,1 5,0

9 6 4,5 5,8

10 0 3,5 1,2

11 0 2,7 0,2

12 0 2,1 0,0

13 0 1,7 0,0

14 6 2,6 4,8

15 7 3,5 6,6

16 7 4,2 6,9

Back

RXQUAL_DL

AV_RXQUAL_DL_LT

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Short term average is calculated with AlphaST = 0.2 Short term average is calculated with AlphaLT = 0.8

Page 245

3.9 Exercises Mode: New DL MCS Value Determination (1/3)

RLC ACK

APD=0dB, Type 2 ARQ, GMSK table: MCScurrent belongs to {1,2,3,4}


CV_BEP 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 5 3 5 5 6 5 6 5 6 6 6 6 7 6 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7

APD=0dB, Type 2 ARQ, 8PSK table: if MCScurrent belongs to {5,6,7,8,9}


CV_BEP 3 4 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 2 5 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

if

0 4 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7

6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7

7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

0 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9

1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9

2 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9

5 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 5 3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9

6 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9

7 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9

MEAN_BEP

Page 246

MEAN_BEP

3.9 Exercises

RLC ACK Mode: New DL MCS Value Determination (2/3)


247

Using the previous LA tables and the following information, fill in the next table:
APD = 0 dB DL RLC mode = ACK MS OUT OF MEMORY = Off

Time allowed: 10 minutes

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 247

3.9 Exercises

RLC ACK Mode: New DL MCS Value Determination (3/3)


248

Find which DL MCS is used at each measurement


CV_BEP MEAN_BEP MCSind New MCS 1 2 20 4 2 2 24 3 2 24 4 3 18 5 7 9 6 5 8 7 3 5 8 0 8

Back

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 248

3.9 Exercises Mode: New UL MCS Value Determination (1/3) APD=0dB, Type 1 ARQ, GMSK table: MCScurrent belongs to {1,2,3,4}
CV_BEP 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7

RLC ACK

if

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7

6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7

7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 9

MEAN_BEP

Page 249

3.9 Exercises

RLC ACK Mode: New UL MCS Value Determination (2/3)

B9
250

Using the previous LA table and the following information, fill in the next table:
APD = 0 dB UL RLC mode = ACK EN_RESEGMENTATION_UL = enabled

Time allowed: 20 minutes

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 250

3.9 Exercises

RLC ACK Mode: New UL MCS Value Determination (3/3)

B9
251

Find which UL MCS is used every 12 radio blocks


CV_BEP MEAN_BEP MCSind N_inf N_sup New MCS 1 2 3 4 5 2 1 2 1 3 20 20 24 24 18 0 0 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 5 2 1 3 2 1 2 5 2 3 7 3 8 7 8 12 16 20 24 10 12 7 20 27 0 0
Back

6 7 9

7 5 8

8 3 5

9 0 8

10 11 12 2 5 7 10 18 8

CV_BEP MEAN_BEP MCSind N_inf N_sup New MCS

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 251

3.9 Exercises

Type II ARQ Mechanism (1/7)


252

Replace the ? by the right values in the 6 next cases Cases 1a, 1b and 1c:
MS OUT OF MEMORY = Off EN_FULL_IR_DL = disabled

Case 2:
MS OUT OF MEMORY = Off EN_FULL_IR_DL = enabled

Cases 3a and 3b:


Time allowed: 20 minutes
Back

MS OUT OF MEMORY = On EN_FULL_IR_DL = disabled

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 252

3.9 Exercises

Type II ARQ Mechanism (2/7)


253

Case 1a: MS OUT OF MEMORY = Off, EN_FULL_IR_DL = disabled


MS BSS

DL RLC data blocks B1+B2, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B3+B4, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B5+B6, MCS7, PS1, + polling request EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (B2 not received) DL RLC data block first part B2, MCS?, PS? DL RLC data block second part B2, MCS?, PS? DL RLC data block B7, MCS?, PS? MCS4 commanded by the Link Adaptation algorithm

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 253

3.9 Exercises

Type II ARQ Mechanism (3/7)


254

Case 1b: MS OUT OF MEMORY = Off, EN_FULL_IR_DL = disabled


MS BSS

DL RLC data blocks B1+B2, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B3+B4, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B5+B6, MCS7, PS1, + polling request EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (B2 not received) DL RLC data block B2, MCS?, PS? DL RLC data block B7, MCS?, PS? MCS5 commanded by the Link Adaptation algorithm

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Type II ARQ Mechanism (4/7)


255

Case 1c: MS OUT OF MEMORY = Off, EN_FULL_IR_DL = disabled


MS BSS

DL RLC data blocks B1+B2, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B3+B4, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B5+B6, MCS7, PS1, + polling request EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (B2 and B4 not received) DL RLC data blocks B2+B4, MCS?, PS? DL RLC data blocks B7+B8, MCS?, PS?

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3.9 Exercises

Type II ARQ Mechanism (5/7)


256

Case 2: MS OUT OF MEMORY = Off, EN_FULL_IR_DL = enabled


MS BSS

DL RLC data blocks B1+B2, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B3+B4, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B5+B6, MCS7, PS1, + polling request EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (B2 not received) DL RLC data block B2, MCS?, PS? DL RLC data block B7, MCS?, PS? MCS4 commanded by the Link Adaptation algorithm

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Type II ARQ Mechanism (6/7)


257

Case 3a: MS OUT OF MEMORY = On, EN_FULL_IR_DL = disabled


MS BSS

DL RLC data blocks B1+B2, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B3+B4, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B5+B6, MCS7, PS1, + polling request EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (B2 and B4 not received, MS OUT OF MEMORY = On) DL RLC data blocks B2+B4, MCS?, PS? DL RLC data blocks B7+B8, MCS?, PS?

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3.9 Exercises

Type II ARQ Mechanism (7/7)


258

Case 3b: MS OUT OF MEMORY = On, EN_FULL_IR_DL = disabled


MS BSS

DL RLC data blocks B1+B2, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B3+B4, MCS7, PS1 DL RLC data blocks B5+B6, MCS7, PS1, + polling request

EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (B2 not received, MS OUT OF MEMORY = On) DL RLC data block first part B2, MCS?, PS? DL RLC data block second part B2, MCS?, PS? DL RLC data block B7, MCS?, PS?
Back

MCS4 commanded by the Link Adaptation algorithm

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3.9 Exercises

NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection (1/3)


259

Master Channel is NOT used Network configuration is explained hereafter The MS (2W, class B) is selecting a first cell and immediately starts a transfer
Objective: Find cells selected by the MS
CI=1823 GSM900 CI=6271 GSM900

Cell 3 (8557, 1823)


CI=6270 GSM900

Cell 2 (8564,6169)

Time allowed: 10 minutes


CI=1964

CI=6169 GSM900

GSM900

Cell 1 (8564, 1964)


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3.9 Exercises

NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection (2/3)


260

Parameters settings
For all cells:
RX_LEV_ACCESS_MIN = -103 dBm MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH_= 33 dBm PENALTY_TIME = 0 (20s) TEMPORARY_OFFSET = 0 dB CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET = 0 dB

CI=1823 GSM900

CI=6271 GSM900

Cell 3 (8557, 1823)


CI=6270 GSM900

CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS
Cell 1: 4 dB Cell 2: 6 dB Cell 3: 6 dB

Cell 2 (8564,6169)
CI=6169 GSM900

CI=1964

GSM900

Cell 1 (8564, 1964)


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NC0 Cell Selection and Reselection (3/3)


261

Find the cell selected by the MS


Measurement s 1 2 3 4 5
RxLev (1) RxLev (2) RxLev (3)

-80 -84 -88 -88 -89

-96 -90 -90 -87 -85

-104 -100 -87 -82 -77


CI=6270 GSM900 CI=1823 GSM900 CI=6271 GSM900

Cell 3 (8557, 1823)

Cell 2 (8564,6169)
CI=6169 GSM900

Back

CI=1964

GSM900

Cell 1 (8564, 1964)


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3.9 Exercises

NC2 Cell Reselection (1/3)


Parameters settings
For all cells:
RX_LEV_ACCESS_MIN = -103 dBm MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH_= P = 33 dBm PENALTY_TIME = 0 (20s) T_NC_PING_PONG = 0s NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET = 0 dB THR_NC2_LOAD_RANKING = 70 %

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Objectives:
Fill in the following table Find the best candidate cell

Time allowed: 20 minutes


Back

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3.9 Exercises

NC2 Cell Reselection (2/3)


All the cells belong to the same BSS
Cell Type Load Average AV_Rxlev_NC2 HCS_THR CRO EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR C1NC2 C31NC2 Load situation C2NC2 Cell1 Micro 10% -78 dBm -75 dBm +20 dB disabled Cell2 micro 0% -70 dBm -75 dBm +20 dB enabled Cell3 umbrella 80% -82 dBm -90 dBm 0 dB disabled Cell4 umbrella 20% -85 dBm -90 dBm 0 dB disabled

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Cell5 umbrella 30% -88 dBm -90 dBm 0 dB disabled

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3.9 Exercises

NC2 Cell Reselection (3/3)


264

GPRS redirection Find a parameter setting ensuring that when the MS enters the Packet Transfer Mode, it is redirected towards a macro cell

Macro cell

GPRS Redirection
Micro cell Micro cell

Time allowed: 10 minutes


Back

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3.9 Exercises

Radio Link Supervision


265

List in the DL and UL the different cases of abnormal release

Time allowed: 10 minutes


Back

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4 ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR

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4 ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR

Session Presentation
267

Objective: to be able to estimate qualitatively the impact of a parameter change in order to solve the typical problems or enhance the GPRS performance Program:
4.1 Optimization of CS Adaptation 4.2 Optimization of Cell Reselection 4.3 Enhance the (E)GPRS Performance

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4 ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR

4.1 Optimization of CS Adaptation

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4.1 Optimization of CS Adaptation

Quiz
269

Why CS_QUAL_XX_I_J_X_NACK < CS_QUAL_XX_I_J_X_ACK, by default? What is the meaning of CS_SIR_DL_3_4_FH_NACK = 15? What is the meaning of CS_QUAL_UL_3_4_FH_NACK = 0?

Time allowed: 15 minutes

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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4.1 Optimization of CS Adaptation

Qualitative Impact
270

Fill in the table


Change
N_AVG_I

Qualitative Impact

CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y

CS_SIR_DL_3_4_X_Y

CS_HST_UL_LT

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4 ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR

4.2 Optimization of Cell Reselection

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4.2 Optimization of Cell Reselection


272

Case 1: Multilayer network with PBCCH


Use NC0 with C31 and C32

Case 2: Multilayer network without PBCCH


Use Outgoing GPRS redirection
Tuning of NC2 parameters

Case 3: NC2 parameters versus HO parameters

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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4.2 Optimization of Cell Reselection

Case 1: Multilayer Network with PBCCH (1/2)


273

Cell reselection for CS traffic


Aim: favor cell reselection on micro cells for slow mobiles
CRO=0dB PENALTY_TIME=20s TEMPORARY_OFFSET=0dB Macro cell

Slow mobiles
Micro cell CRO=10dB PENALTY_TIME=60s TEMPORARY_OFFSET=40dB Micro cell

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4.2 Optimization of Cell Reselection

Case 1: Multilayer Network with PBCCH (2/2)


274

Cell reselection for PS traffic


Aim: favor cell reselection on macro cells for all mobiles Use C31 and C32
PRIORITY_CLASS=? HCS_THR=? Macro cell

PS traffic
Micro cell PRIORITY_CLASS=? HCS_THR=? Micro cell

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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4.2 Optimization of Cell Reselection

Case 2: Multilayer Network Without PBCCH


275

Cell reselection for PS traffic


Aim: favor cell reselection on macro cells for all mobiles Use Outgoing GPRS redirection
NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR =? Macro cell Macro cell LOADED

GPRS redirection

?
Micro cell

?
Micro cell

Micro cell

?
: NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS(micro, Macro) : NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS(Macro, micro)

NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR=?

: NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS(micro, micro)

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4.2 Optimization of Cell Reselection

Case 3: NC2 Parameters Versus HO Parameters (1/2)


276

Link the NC2 parameters to their equivalent HO parameters

NC2
NC_RXQUAL_AVG_PERIOD

HO
L_RXLEV_DL_H

NC_RXLEV_FORGETTING_FACTOR

A_QUAL_HO

NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR

L_RXQUAL_DL_H

NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR

HO_MARGIN

NC_DL_RXLEV_THR

A_LEV_HO

NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS

L_RXQUAL_UL_H

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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L_RXLEV_DL_H Downlink level threshold for handover. A_QUAL_HO Window size for quality averages for handover. L_RXQUAL_DL_H Downlink quality threshold for handover for non AMR calls. HO_MARGIN Difference in power budget (PBGT) between cell(0) and cell(n) which is required for a power budget HO. A_LEV_HO Window size for level averages for handover. L_RXQUAL_UL_H Uplink quality threshold for handover for non-AMR calls.

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4.2 Optimization of Cell Reselection

Case 3: NC2 Parameters Versus HO Parameters (2/2)


277

Fill in the table


Change Qualitative Impact

NC_RXQUAL_AVG_PERIOD

NC_RXLEV_FORGETTING_FACTOR

NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR

NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR

NC_DL_RXLEV_THR

NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS

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4 ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR

4.3 Enhance the (E)GPRS Performance

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4.3 Enhance the (E)GPRS Performance

GPRS Services
279

Always-on
Directories Mobile Office
Voice (!) E-mail Agenda IntraNet/InterNet Corporate Applications Database Access Yellow/White Pages International Directories Operator Services

Media

Fun
Games (Hangman, Poker, etc.) Screen Saver Ring Tone Horoscope Biorhythm

Music Transportation
Flight/train Schedule reservation Downloading of music files or video clips

News (general/specific)

Vertical application
Traffic Management Automation Mobile branches Health

International/National News Local News Sport News Weather Lottery Results Finance News, etc.

Location services
Traffic Conditions Itineraries Nearest Restaurant, Cinema, Chemist, Parking, ATM, etc.

M-commerce
Non physical
on-line Banking Ticketing Auction Gambling, etc.

Physical
On-line shopping On-line food

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4.3 Enhance the (E)GPRS Performance

GPRS Services vs QoS Criteria


280

According to the service type, the QoS criteria to take into account are different
GPRS and EGPRS Services WAP WEB Browsing (http) Video streaming File transfer (ftp) E-mail (smtp) Key QoS criteria Access delay - Access delay - Throughput Throughput BER BER

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4.3 Enhance the (E)GPRS Performance

Examples
281

Data applications use TCP/IP protocol layers which have a great impact on the end user QoS
FTP above TCP/IP layers
FTP TCP IP PPP PPP relay SNDCP P LLC RLC MAC RF RLC MAC RF SNDCP P LLC BSSGP NS L1 BSSGP NS L1 relay GTP UDP IP-Gn L2 L1 IP GTP UDP First IP router IP-Gn L2 L1 Last IP router relay IP IP relay IP IP relay

relay

(*)

BSS TE (PC ,PDA ) MS R Um Gb SGSN Gn

GGSN Gi

TCP data segment Possible repartition on the end to end path of the TCP flight size TCP acknowledgement

(*) this graphical representation is used to express the fact that many data segments are currently waiting to be transmitted on the represented link and are stored in buffers of the device handling the link . It doesnt mean that simultaneous segments are being transmitted.

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4.3 Enhance the (E)GPRS Performance

PDU Lifetime and TCP Performance (1/3)


282

Impact on TCP performance


Throughput

Congestion Window increase

CW decrease

CW increase

CW decrease

Time

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4.3 Enhance the (E)GPRS Performance

PDU Lifetime and TCP Performance (2/3)


283

LLC frames

TCP/IP frames

SGSN
PDU Life Time

GGSN
TCP server TCP Window = 16 KB

MFS
LLC frames TCP/IP frames

SGSN

GGSN
TCP server TCP Window = 64 KB

MFS
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

We observe a break within each FTP transfer. We observe within the Gb traces several "LLC Discarded" messages, just before the TCP starts retransmissions. Those "LLC discarded" messages show that several kilobytes of data are discarded by the BSS. This LLC frame discarding is caused by a "PDU lifetime" timer expiry: indeed this parameter is set by the SGSN to ** 8 seconds **. Clearly this value is not enough as the RTT (TCP Round Trip Time) with a TCP window of 64 KB is roughly 12.3 seconds. As most of the RTTs are composed of queuing in the BSS buffers, this inevitably causes PDU lifetime expiry. This is a normal behavior as at the beginning of a transfer, the FTP server increases continuously its congestion window. The BSS has to send more and more data with the same radio bandwidth.

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4.3 Enhance the (E)GPRS Performance

PDU Lifetime and TCP Performance (3/3)


284

Solution:
Increase the PDU Life Time (SGSN parameter) PDU Life Time = 63s

LLC frames

TCP/IP frames

SGSN
PDU Life Time

GGSN
FTP server TCP Window = 64 KB

MFS

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4.3 Enhance the (E)GPRS Performance

TCP Window Size and FTP Performance (1/2)


285

TCP/IP packet:
40 bytes

TCP/IP Header

MSS MTU

MSS: The maximum number of user data bytes that can be included in the packet without fragmentation. MTU: The maximum number of bytes that can be sent in a single packet. TCP window size: the period used for acknowledgment. Its value is a multiple of the MSS (x4, 8, 16, 32). The maximum value is 65.535 (64 KB).

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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MSS: Maximum Segment Size. MTU: Maximum Transfer Unit. A too large MTU size may mean retransmissions if the packet encounters a router that cannot handle that size of packet. A too small MTU size means relatively more header overhead and more acknowledgements that have to be sent and handled.

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TCP Window Size and FTP Performance(2/2)


286

Maximum throughput obtained with MTU = 1500 bytes and TCP window size = 8 (x1460 bytes).
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The throughput has been calculated at the application layer. N* is the number which permits to reach, by multiplying the MSS, a Window Size close to the maximal allowable value of 65.535 Bytes. The downloaded file has a size of 1 MB. The table below illustrates the results:
M SS M ultiplying Inte ge r 4 8 16 32 N* 1.391 2.681 3.812 3.813 3.808 1.628 2.952 3.877 3.878 3.88 2.95 4.016 4.045 4.043 4.051 2.91 4.111 4.113 4.125 4.092 M TU o f 500 Bytes M TU of 576 Byte s M TU o f1000 B yte s M TU o f 1500 Byte s

1500 Bytes is the best MTU size because it permits to reach the maximum throughput value. But it is important to note that even if the MTU size is set to 500 Bytes, the throughput can reach a high value close to the maximum. The asymptote characterizing the graph can be explained by the fact that the GPRS network limits the throughput. Even if the client can receive many TCP packets without acknowledging them, the file downloading can not be faster. The recommended value of MTU size should be 1500 Bytes. This value is the best because the TCP window size, which permits to reach the maximum throughput, is the smallest. In fact, with a small TCP window size, retransmission can be avoided.
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B9
288

5 APPENDIX

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Appendix
Content:
5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display 5.2 System Information Broadcasting 5.3 Detailed Available Throughput Computation 5.4 Examples of Puncturing Schemes 5.5 Extended cell overview 5.6 B9 Features Summary 5.7 Training Exercises Solutions

B9
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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (BSS)

B9
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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (BSS)

B9
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5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (BSS)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (BSS)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (BSS)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (BSS)

B9
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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (BSS)

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5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (BSS)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (BSS)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (BSS)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Cell)

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Appendix

5.1 OMC-R B9 Screens Display (Adjacency)

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Appendix

5.2 System Information Broadcasting on BCCH (1/2)


312

The BCCH indicates if GPRS is supported in the cell:


SI 3: RA_COLOUR field present if GPRS supported

If GPRS is supported:
SI13 is broadcast on the BCCH SI13 broadcast instead of retransmission of SI 1

SI 4 content:
SI13_PBCCH_LOCATION: gives SI 13 schedule or PBCCH location

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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Note: do not confuse RA_COLOUR and RA Code. The former is used as a flag which has two uses for the MS entering a new cell: To know if the GPRS service is supported in the cell (RA_COLOUR has a value different from -1). To trigger an RA update when the value of the RA_COLOUR changes. It is easy to monitor because it is broadcast often. The Routing Area Code is necessary for the RA update procedure (message content). The SI13 takes the place of a few SI1 occurrences.

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Appendix

5.2 System Information Broadcasting on BCCH (2/2)


313

SI 13 content (non-exhaustive list):


RA_CODE: routing area code NMO: Network Mode of Operation PAN_DEC, PAN_INC, PAN_MAX: radio link supervision ALPHA: uplink power control T_AVG_T, T_AVG_W: MS calculation of average levels PC_MEAS_CHAN: level measurements on BCCH / PDCH NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER:
if set to NC0 = MS controlled cell reselection, no measurement reporting If set to NC2 = Network controlled cell reselection, thanks to measurement reporting from the MS

GPRS MA: for hopping SPDCH group ACCESS_BURST_TYPE

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

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The MS has to get SI13 information on a regular basis: each time the SI13 content is updated (PSI field = SI13_CHANGE_MARK set to 1). every 30 seconds max (even if the TBF has to be interrupted). Through 2 different ways: SI13 on the BCCH or PSI13 in a PACCH block. The MS has always the time to switch on PSI13 in NMOIII and/or NMOI with a Master PDCH because PBCCH blocks are always after an I or X TS within the 52 multiframe. Access Burst Type: it defines the access burst (8 bits or 11 bits) to be used on the PRACH, PTCCH and the Packet Control Ack on a PACCH. When the Master Channel is present in the cell, the System Information Type 13 message has different contents from those described above. It mainly consists of: The radio description of the Primary Master Channel (in terms of time slot number, training sequence code and frequency parameters). One GPRS Mobile Allocation (MA), if frequency hopping is used for GPRS. This is the GPRS MA of the Primary Master Channel, if hopping. If the Primary Master Channel is not hopping, the MA corresponds to the hopping TRX(s) used for GPRS, if any. Three modes of cell reselection have been defined by the 3GPP Standard for GPRS MSs. These Network Control (NC) modes, known as the NC0, NC1 and NC2, are shortly described below: NC0: the GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection without sending measurement reports to the network. NC1: the GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection. Additionally it sends measurement reports to the network. NC2: the GPRS MS shall not perform autonomous cell reselection. It sends measurement reports to the network. The network controls the cell reselection.
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5.2 System Information Broadcasting on PBCCH (1/3)


314

If a primary MPDCH is available, a GPRS MS monitors the PBCCH PSI blocks available: PSI1, PSI2, PSI3, PSI3bis, PSI8, PSI13 PSI1, PSI2 and PSI13 (=SI13 on BCCH) can be sent in a PACCH block for an MS in Packet Transfer Mode PSI1 content:
Cell and BSS parameters PRACH access control parameters PCCCH organization parameters Power Control parameters CN features (MSC Release, SGSN Release)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Cell Parameters = NMO, MS Timers, DRX info, RLS parameters, etc. PRACH access control parameters = access burst type, access control class, etc. PCCCH organization parameters = BS_PBCCH_BKLS, BS_PAGCH_BLKS_RES, BS_PRACH_BLKS The GPRS cell adjacencies are the same for an MS in Packet Idle Mode as for an MS in Packet Transfer Mode. The GPRS cell adjacencies are equal to CS cell adjacencies.

Page 314

Appendix

5.2 System Information Broadcasting on PBCCH (2/3)


315

PSI2 content:
Cell identification (PLMN Id, LAC, RAC, Cell Id) Non-GPRS O&M parameters (BS_PA_MFRMS, BS_AG_BLKS_RES) PCCCH information (TS and frequencies) Cell allocation information (HSN, BCCH band, frequency channels)

PSI3 /PSI3bis content:


BCCH allocation in neighboring cells Serving cell parameters (GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN, GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH) General reselection parameters of serving and neighboring cell Neighbor cell parameters

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

PSI3, PSI3bis: One PSI3 instance shall be sent and, as a minimum, one PSI3bis instance shall be sent as well There may be up to 16 PSI3bis instances. Reselection parameters: C31_HYST, C32_HYST, GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYST, PRIORITY_CLASS, HCS_THR, RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS Neighboring cell parameters: BSIC, BCCH frequency, SI13 PBCCH location, GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN, GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH, GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET, GPRS_PENALTY_TIME, GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET. Up to 32 neighboring cells may be defined. The field Same_RA_As_Serving_Cell provides complementary information for the reselection process.

Page 315

Appendix

5.2 System Information Broadcasting on PBCCH (3/3)


316

PSI8 content:
Optionally sent on the PBCCH Cell broadcast information
CBCH channel description (TS number) Frequency parameters for hopping CBCH Frequency parameters for non-hopping CBCH (TSC, ARFCN)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

TSC: the Training Sequence Code used for CBCH is the BCC value. MAIO: Mobile Allocation Index Offset. HSN: Hopping Sequence Number (law for frequency hopping). MA_bitmap: MA_Bitmap is related to the BCCH band location. MA_length: the length of the MA_bitmap, giving the number of frequency to hop on.

Page 316

Appendix

5.2 System Information Broadcasting on PACCH


317

PSI broadcast on PACCHs is controlled at MAC layer by the O&M parameters T_PSI_PACCH PSI13 content:
GPRS cell access information (RA_CODE, NCO, ACCESS_BURST_TYPE, etc.) Radio Link Supervision parameters, Power control information MS timers for TBF establishment (T3168, T3182, etc.)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

When there is no Master Channel, the GPRS mobiles have to read the System Information Type 13 message at least once every 30 seconds. Because of this, GPRS mobiles in data transfer may lose data. In order to avoid this, the Packet System Information Type 13 message is sent to each MS doing data transfer, via its assigned downlink Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH). This message provides the same information as the System Information Type 13 message on BCCH. The PSI Type 13 message is not used when there is a Master Channel. The GPRS cell information as well as the Radio Link Supervision and the Power Control information are similar to the one included in the SI13 on the BCCH. T3168, T3164, T3182, T3190, T3180: refer to their use for TBF establishment and Radio Link Control (causes of TBF releases at the MS side). We can note that the MS timer names use even numbers when the BSS one uses odd numbers. T_PSI_PACCH = 14s (Alcatel recommended value) but it can be set at OMC-R level.

Page 317

Appendix

5.3 Detailed Available Throughput Computation


available_throughput_candidate_XL is
the overall throughput provided by its PDCHs It depends on:
the potential throughput of its PDCHs
potential_throughput_PDCH available_capacity_PDCH_XL

B9
318

the available capacity on each of its PDCHs

For a GPRS TBF


Potential_throughput_PDCH = R_AVERAGE_GPRS Available_capacity_PDCH_XL = (1 USED_CAPACITY_GBR_XL * (1 + QOS_SAFETY_MARGIN/100)) / (Nb_BE_TBF_HIGHER_PRIOR_XL*SCHEDULING_PRIORITY_FACTOR + Nb_BE_TBF_SAME_PRIOR_XL + 1)

Same formulas are used for an EGPRS TBF with R_AVERAGE_EGPRS and only the EGPRS TBFs are considered

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 318

Appendix

5.3 Detailed Available Throughput Computation


USED_CAPACITY_GBR_XL

B9
319

total PDCH capacity that has already been allocated to RT PFCs (both GPRS and EGPRS) on the PDCH in the XL direction RT PFCs: Real Time Packet Flow Context

Nb_BE_TBF_HIGHER_PRIOR_XL (respectively Nb_BE_TBF_SAME_PRIOR_XL)


total number of Best Effort TBFs (GPRS or EGPRS)
which have some radio resources allocated on the considered PDCH in the XL direction and whose priority (combination of THP and Precedence) is strictly higher than (respectively equal to) the priority of the TBF to establish / reallocate
THP: Traffic Handling Priority
QoS parameter used for the interactive traffic class

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 319

Appendix

5.3 Detailed Available Throughput Computation


For a given candidate time slot allocation with n PDCHs

B9
320

available_capacity_candidate_XL = i=1 to n available_capacity_PDCHi_XL

available_throughput_candidate_XL = potential_throughput_PDCH * available_capacity_candidate_XL For a GPRS TBF, in case of only BE TBFs with the same priority
available_throughput_candidate_XL = R_AVERAGE_GPRS *

NB_TBF
i =1 n

PDCHi

+1

For a GPRS TBF, in case of only BE TBFs with the same priority
available_ throughput _candidate_XL = R_AVERAGE_EGPRS *

NB_TBF
i =1

PDCHi

+1

Back

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

NB_TBFPDCHi represents the number of already allocated GPRS and EGPRS TBFs on the PDCH i, in case of GPRS allocation. NB_TBFPDCHi represents the number of already allocated EGPRS TBFs on the PDCH i, in case of EGPRS allocation.

Page 320

Appendix

5.4 Examples of Puncturing Schemes


321

The 05.03 GSM recommendation (Channel coding) indicates for each MCS the available puncturing schemes
MCS switched from MCS switched to MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

PS of last transmission before MCS switch PS of first transmission after MCS switch PS1, PS2 PS1, PS2 PS1, PS2, PS3 PS1, PS2, PS3 PS1, PS2 PS1, PS2 PS1, PS2, PS3 PS1, PS2, PS3 PS1, PS2, PS3
All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The puncturing process consists of transmitting only some of the coded bits obtained after the rate 1/3 convolutional coding. Depending on the considered puncturing scheme, different coded bits are transmitted. Therefore, when the receiver receives two versions of the same RLC block sent with two different puncturing schemes, it obtains additional information leading to an increased decoding probability.

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Appendix

5.4 Examples of Puncturing Schemes


322

Coding and puncturing for MCS-7; rate 0.76 8PSK, two RLC blocks per 20ms 3 bits 45 bits 468 bits 468 bits
USF
RLC/MAC HCS E FBI Data = 448 bits BCS Hdr.

TB

E FBI Data = 448 bits BCS

TB

Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 36 bits 135 bits puncturing SB = 8 36 bits 124 bits 612 bits P1 1404 bits puncturing

Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 1404 bits puncturing

612 bits P2

612 bits P3

612 bits P1

612 bits P2

612 bits P3

1392 bits

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

For MCS-7, the data part of the RLC block contains 468 bits. The rate 1/3 convolutional coding gives 1404 bits: C(0), C(1), ..., C(1403). The code is then punctured depending on the value of the CPS field as defined in the 04.60 GSM recommendation. Three puncturing schemes named P1, P2 and P3 are applied in such a way that the following coded bits are transmitted:
P1 {C(18j), C(1+18j), C(4+18j), C(8+18j), C(11+18j), C(12+18j), C(13+18j), C(15+18j) for j = 0,1,...,77} are transmitted except {C(k) for k = 1,19,37,235,415,595,775,955,1135,1351,1369,1387} which are not transmitted {C(2+18j), C(3+18j), C(5+18j), C(6+18j), C(10+18j), C(14+18j), C(16+18j), C(17+18j) for j = 0,1,...,77} are transmitted except {C(k) for k = 16,34,52,196,376,556,736,916,1096,1366,1384,1402} which are not transmitted {C(2+18j), C(5+18j), C(6+18j), C(7+18j), C(9+18j), C(12+18j), C(13+18j), C(16+18j) for j = 0,1,...,77} are transmitted except {C(k) for k = 13,31,49,301,481,661,841,1021,1201,1363,1381,1399} which are not transmitted

P2

P3

The result is a block of 612 (8*78 - 12) coded bits.

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Appendix

5.4 Examples of Puncturing Schemes


323

Coding and puncturing for MCS-5; rate 0.37 8PSK, one RLC block per 3 bits 33 bits 468 bits 20 ms
USF
RLC/MAC HCS E Hdr.

FBI

Data = 56 octets = 448 bits

BCS

TB

Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 36 bits 99 bits +1 bit SB = 8 36 bits 100 bits 1404 bits puncturing P1 1248 bits P2 1248 bits

1392 bits

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 323

Appendix

5.4 Examples of Puncturing Schemes


324

Coding and puncturing for MCS-4; uncoded GMSK, one RLC block per 20 ms 3 bits 36 bits 372 bits
USF
RLC/MAC HCS E Hdr.

FBI

Data = 44 octets = 352 bits

BCS

TB

Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 12 bits 108 bits puncturing SB = 12 12 bits 68 bits 372 bits P1 1116 bits puncturing

372 bits P2

372 bits P3

464 bits

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 324

Appendix

5.4 Examples of Puncturing Schemes


325

Coding and puncturing for MCS-1; rate 0.53 GMSK, one RLC block per 20 ms 3 bits 36 bits 196 bits
USF
RLC/MAC HCS Hdr.

FBI

Data = 22 octets = 176 bits

BCS

TB

Back

Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 12 bits 108 bits puncturing SB = 12 12 bits 68 bits 372 bits P1 588 bits puncturing

372 bits P2

464 bits

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

For MCS-1, the data part of the RLC block contains 196 bits. The rate 1/3 convolutional coding gives 588 bits: C(0), C(1), ..., C(587). The code is then punctured depending on the value of the CPS (Coding and Puncturing Scheme indicator) field (EGPRS RLC/MAC header) as defined in the 04.60 GSM recommendation (RLC/MAC). Two puncturing schemes named P1 and P2 are applied in such a way that the following coded bits are not transmitted:
{C(2+21j), C(5+21j), C(8+21j), C(10+21j), C(11+21j), C(14+21j), C(17+21j), C(20+21j) for j = 0,1,...,27} are not transmitted except {C(k) for k = 73,136,199,262,325,388,451,514} which are transmitted P2 {C(1+21j), C(4+21j), C(7+21j), C(9+21j), C(13+21j), C(15+21j), C(16+21j), C(19+21j) for j = 0,1,...,27} are not transmitted except {C(k) for k = 78,141,204,267,330,393,456,519} which are transmitted The result is a block of 372 (588 - 8*28 + 8) coded bits. P1

Page 325

5.5 Extended cell overview

Session presentation
326

Program:
5.5.1 Presentation 5.5.2 Radio Link Establishment 5.5.3 Handover 5.5.4 CS Parameters setting 5.5.5 Packet service (B9 MR4) 5.5.6 PS Parameters setting

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 326

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.1 Presentation - General


327

One BTS (G3 or G4): 2 cells


INNER cell: range from 0 to 35 km OUTER cell: range from 33 to 70 km

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The extended cell has up to 4 TRX in the inner cell and up to 4 TRX in the outer cell.

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5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.1 Presentation - Synchronisation


328

Freq BCCH OUTER <> Freq BCCH INNER


MS reports measurements on both cells for the handover algorithms

BSICINNER = BSICOUTER
INNER cell can decode the RACH received on OUTER BCCH frequency

INNER cell always BARRED


MS always camps on OUTER cell
INNER cell OUTER cell

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

At the border of the two cells, an overlapping area allows to provide a continuous coverage. When the MS moves from one cell to the other, a handover is triggered in the overlap zone. Two BCCH channels are needed (one for the inner cell, one for the outer cell), so that the MS reports measurements on both cells for the handover algorithms. The TRXs of the inner cell and of the outer cell are synchronised, but the reception of the outer cell is delayed by 60bits period to account for the propagation delay. In the inner cell, the MS can receive the BCCH inner frequency as wells as the outer BCCH frequency. To avoid to manage RACH reception on two different frequencies in the inner cell, the MS is forced to access the inner cell on the outer BCCH frequency. For this purpose, the RACH reception (BCCH TRX) of the inner cell is tuned to the outer BCCH frequency, and the inner cell is barred1. So on time slot 0 of the inner cell, transmission is done on the inner cell BCCH frequency, and reception is done on outer BCCH frequency. The chosen implementation allows to make use of all timeslots2 of the TDMA frame and to use the combined configuration for the CCCH channel.

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5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.1 Presentation - RF Interference


329

UL interference on TS0 of the INNER cell if


Access burst received in the INNER cell (on frequency BCCH OUTER) AND Call on TS7 of the OUTER cell

Then, TS7 of the OUTER cell is always set to IDLE (never used)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 329

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.2 Radio Link Establishment - MS located in the outer cell area


330

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The inner cell is always barred, so the MS cannot camp on the inner cell, even if located in the inner cell range. In the whole extended cell coverage, the MS has a good reception of the outer cell BCCH, so the MS will always be camping in the outer cell, whether in the inner cell or outer cell range. For this reason, a special radio and link establishment procedure is used to cope with this behaviour . It consists of receiving the CHANNEL REQUEST messages on outer BCCH frequency, and allocating the SDCCH channel according to the MS estimated position. The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND for an SDCCH is sent on the outer cell BCCH frequencies, but the SDCCH may be allocated in either inner or outer cell, depending on the MS position. (1) The MS camping on the outer cell sends an access burst on the RACH on outer cell BCCH frequency. These bursts will be received successfully in the inner cell by the BCCH TRE. In the outer cell, the access burst arrives too early and cannot be decoded. (2) The inner cell BCCH TRE sends a CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the BSC containing the random reference sent by the mobile, the TDMA frame number when the message was sent over the air and the measured TOA. (3) The TCU controlling this TRE allocates an SDCCH subchannel to the transaction in the inner cell and asks the BTS to activate this subchannel. (4) The BTS activates the requested channel and sends back and acknowledgement, once this is done. (5) The TCU sends the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (which provides the description of the allocated SDCCH) to the BCCH TRE of the inner cell. The TCU controlling the inner cell BCCH sends a copy of the message to the TCU handling the BCCH of the outer cell. This is done if and only if the timing advance IE included in the CHANNEL REQUIRED is smaller than 60, thus indicating that the MS is strictly in the inner cell (in order to avoid that the MS receives two Immediate Assignment messages when located in the overlap zone). The TCU controlling the outer cell BCCH forwards the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND to the outer cell BCCH TRE. (6) The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message is sent over the air to the MS on the AGCH of the outer cell. (6') The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message sent by the inner cell is lost, because the MS listens to the outer cell frequency. (7) The mobile switches its transceiver to the SDCCH allocated in the inner cell and sends repeatedly an SABM frame to establish the layer 2 connection with the BTS. (8) The BTS acknowledges the establishment of the LapDm link to the MS with a UA frame sent on the SDCCH allocated to the MS.

Page 330

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.2 Radio Link Establishment - MS located in the inner cell area


331

If TA < 60

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The TCU sends the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (which provides the description of the allocated SDCCH ) to the BCCH TRE of the inner cell. The TCU controlling the inner cell BCCH sends a copy of the message to the TCU handling the BCCH of the outer cell. This is done if and only if the timing advance IE included in the CHANNEL REQUIRED is smaller than 60, thus indicating that the MS is strictly in the inner cell (in order to avoid that the MS receives two Immediate Assignment messages when located in the overlap zone). The TCU controlling the outer cell BCCH forwards the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND to the outer cell BCCH TRE. (1) The MS in the outer cell sends an access burst on the RACH of the outer cell. This burst is successfully received by the outer cell BCCH TRE. In the inner cell, the access burst arrives too late to be successfully decoded. (2) The outer cell BCCH TRE sends a CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the BSC containing the random reference sent by the mobile, the TDMA frame number when the message was sent over the air and the measured TOA. (3) The TCU controlling this TRE allocates an SDCCH subchannel in the outer cell to the transaction and asks the BTS to activate this subchannel. (4) The BTS activates the requested channel and sends back an acknowledgement, once this is done. (5) The TCU then sends the description of the channel in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND to the outer cell BCCH TRE. (6) The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message is sent over the air to the MS on the AGCH of the outer cell. (7) The mobile switches its transceiver to the required channel and sends repeatedly an SABM frame to establish the layer 2 connection with the BTS. (8) The BTS acknowledges the establishment of the LAPDm link to the MS with a UA frame sent on the SDCCH allocated to the MS.

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5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.2 Radio Link Establishment - MS located in the overlap zone (1/2)


332

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 332

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.2 Radio Link Establishment - MS located in the overlap zone (2/2)


333

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

(1a&b) The MS camping on the outer cell sends an access burst on the RACH. This burst is correctly received by the inner cell BCCH TRE and outer cell BCCH TRE. (2a&b) The inner cell and outer cell BCCH TRE send a CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the BSC containing the random reference sent by the mobile, the TDMA frame number when the message was sent over the air and the measured TOA. (3a&b) Both TCUs controlling the TREs having BCCH allocate an SDCCH subchannel to the transaction and ask the BTS to activate this subchannel. (4a&b) The BTS activates the requested channels and sends back an acknowledgement for each, once this is done. (5b) The TCU controlling the outer cell, sends the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND with SDCCH description in the outer cell to the outer cell BCCH TRE. (5a&c)The TCU controlling the inner cell sends in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND with SDCCH description in the inner cell. Two cases are possible: Access Delay IE > 59 the inner cell TCU will not send a copy of the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT command to the outer cell TCU. This is the desired behaviour. Access Delay in [58,59] range, the inner cell TCU sends a copy of the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT command to the outer cell TCU. This is not the desired behaviour (corresponds to inner cell scenario). This is due to the fact that the BSC definition of the overlap zone does not match the exact BTS overlap area (negative values of TOA in the outer cell up to 2, are clipped to 0). (6b) The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message describing the SDCCH allocation in outer cell, is sent to the MS on the outer cell BCCH frequency. In most cases this message should be received by the MS (except if 6c is received first) (6a) The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message describing the SDCCH allocation in inner cell is lost on the inner cell air interface, because the MS does not listen to that frequency. The unused SDCCH will be released by the BSC when the supervising timer expires6. (6c) Access Delay in [58,59] range: The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message describing the SDCCH allocation in inner cell is sent on the BCCH frequency of the outer cell. In most cases, the MS should have received message (6b) before and has already switched to the SDCCH in the outer cell, and so this message is lost. It is however possible, in case the message (6b) is delayed in the inner cell, that the message (6c) is received earlier by the MS. In this case establishment will occur on the SDCCH allocated in the inner cell (not drawn). (7b) The mobile receives the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNEMENT describing the SDCCH allocation in outer cell on the BCCH outer cell frequency. It then switches to the designated channel and sends repeatedly an SABM frame to establish the layer 2 connection with the BTS in the outer cell. If the message (6c) is received before (6b), then the establishment will occur in the inner cell. (8b) The BTS acknowledges the establishment of the LapDm link to the MS with a UA frame sent on the SDCCH allocated to the MS. (9) The unused SDCCH is released in the inner cell (double SDCCH allocation). If message 6c arrives first, then the unused SDCCH release will occur in the outer cell.

Page 333

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.3 Handover - from the INNER cell to the OUTER cell


334

CAUSE 6 : Too long distance


AV_RANGE_HO > U_TIME_ADVANCE and EN_DIST_HO = ENABLE

U_TIME_ADVANCE = 62 EN_PBGT_FILTERING = Disable

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In the extended cell , the handover procedure is purely controlled by settings of the handover detection parameters. Two special causes allow handover from the inner cell to the outer cell and handover from the outer cell to the inner cell. There is no change in the BSC handover algorithm either for handover preparation or execution. From the inner cell to the outer cell , the handover alarm is only triggered by the handover cause too long MS-BS distance. When this cause is triggered the extended outer cell is always a candidate cell. However the operator setting of the handover parameters must insure that this cause is only triggered when the distance from the serving inner cell BTS is greater than the limit of the overlap zone (TA > 62) by setting U_TIME_ADVANCE to 62. In order to avoid the extended outer cell to be filtered by the filtering process the flag EN_PBGT_FILTERING must be set to DISABLE. The candidate cell evaluation process is recommended to be the GRADE mode.

Page 334

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.3 Handover - from the OUTER cell to the INNER cell


335

CAUSE 22 : Too short distance


AV_RANGE_HO < L_TIME_ADVANCE

L_TIME_ADVANCE = 0 EN_PBGT_FILTERING = Disable Cause 22 is only checked if


Cell_range(serving) = extended_outer

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In the same way, from the outer cell to the inner cell , the handover alarm is only triggered by the handover cause too short MS-BS distance. When this cause is triggered the extended inner cell is always a candidate cell. However the operator setting of the handover parameters must insure that this cause is only triggered when the timing advance applied by the mobile reaches 0, this is achieved by setting L_TIME_ADVANCE to 0. In order to avoid the extended inner cell to be filtered by the filtering process the flag EN_PBGT_FILTERING must be set to DISABLE. The candidate cell evaluation process is recommended to be the GRADE mode.

Page 335

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.3 Handover - from the OUTER or INNER cell towards an other cell
336

All the standard HO causes can be used


Emergency HO causes 2, 3, 4, 5 Better condition HO causes 12, 23, 24

The OUTER or INNER cell is always present in the Candidate Cell Evaluation

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The setting of the handover parameter does not prevent any handover cause to trigger an alarm for a handover towards a third cell. It is possible to use exactly the same rules and parameters for handover towards a third cell as in the macro cellular normal cases. The synchronous handover does not work between the inner and the outer cell. In order to avoid call terminations due to directed retry into the inner or outer cell with an incorrect distance range it is recommended to disable the forced directed retry towards the inner and the outer cell. For this purpose, the parameter FREELEVEL_DR(n) is set to the maximum value (255) for the inner and the outer cell. But the Normal DR can be activated.

Page 336

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.4 CS Parameters Setting


337

The Inner Cell shall always be BARRED If combined CCCH/SDCCH is used in the inner extended cell, then the same configuration is required in outer extended cell, and vice-versa (ie same in both cells) BSICINNER = BSICOUTER The TS 7 of BCCH TRX of outer cell must be set to IDLE The INNER cell and OUTER cell must belong to the same location area Synchronous handover must be disabled. U_TIME_ADVANCE = 62 L_TIME_ADVANCE = 0 EN_PBGT_FILTERING = DISABLE. CELL_EV = Grade FREELEVEL_DR(n) = 255 (this is done automatically, at configuration time) INNER cell and OUTER cell must be neighbour, handover relationship must exist in both directions
GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 337

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.5 Packet service (B9 MR4)


338

Activation of the PS service in an Extended cell


No specific parameter is foreseen
Same procedure as the one used for standard cell is applied
- TRX_PREF_MARK = 0

If used, PS must be activated in both INNER and OUTER cell

Reselection
Because the INNER cell is barred
this cell should must not be declared in the neighbor cells reselection adjacencies NC2 is not allowed NACC and (P)SI STATUS are not allowed

The Master channel is not allowed in both INNER and OUTER cell

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 338

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.5 Packet service (B9 MR4)


339

Packet access procedure (1/2)


Same principle as in CS, since its performed on CCCH only
The MS always performs its access on the RACH of the outer BCCH frequency The BTS provides the BSC with the initial TA Depending on the TA value, the BSC chooses the suitable cell (INNER or OUTER)

In UL, whatever the multislot class of the MS, only one PDCH is allocated
Its right or left TS can not be allocated neither for PS nor for CS (see comment) This TS is considered as a restricted TS by the MSF The same constraint is applied in DL for the TS carrying the PACCH
OUTER INNER Allocated UL Restricted Restricted Allocated

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

When a MS passes from inner/outer cell to outer/inner cell, the TA estimated by the BTS stalls progressively. So the MS is not able to apply the suitable correction of its TA for its uplink transfer (data and/or signaling). This leads progressively to the impossibility for the BTS to decode the uplink radio blocks because they shift out of their allocated RTS. For a given MS, its uplink radio blocks progressively come out of its allocated RTS and jams the neighbor RTS. It jams the right RTS when the MS moves from inner to outer cell. This right RTS can also be the RTS0 of the next TDMA frame if the RTS7 is allocated to a TBF. It jams the left RTS when the MS moves from outer to inner cell. This left RTS can also be the TS7 of the previous TDMA frame if the RTS0 is allocated to a TBF. If the neighboring RTS is dedicated to other MS for PS or CS call, this jam causes interferences on these RTS and the BTS can not decode the radio blocks of those MS leading to the drop of these calls. This drawback only occurs for the uplink direction. The downlink direction does not raise any problem. To overcome this drawback, some radio resource allocation constraints are to be applied: An UL TBF is only allocated on one RTS. On BCCH or non BCCH inner TRX, A RTS is allocable to a UL TBF if its right RTS is allocated for PS traffic to the MFS, and is not used by a UL TBF. When a RTS is allocated, its right RTS cannot be allocated to PS call. On BCCH or non BCCH outer TRX, A RTS is allocable to a UL TBF if its left RTS is allocated for PS traffic to the MFS, and is not used by a UL TBF. When a RTS is allocated, its left RTS cannot be allocated to PS call.

Page 339

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.5 Packet service (B9 MR4)


340

Miscellaneous
In the OUTER cell, the maximum MCS is limited to MCS-4 The Streaming TBFs (i.e. RT PFC) are not supported The INNER and OUTER cells must be mapped on the same GPU The INNER and OUTER cell must belong to the same routing area

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 340

5.5 Extended cell overview

5.5.6 PS Parameters setting


341

NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER = NC0 EN_NACC = Disable EN_PSI_STATUS = Disable NB_TS_MPDCH= Disable MAX_PDCH, MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD and MIN_PDCH must be set to even values (see comments) EN_STREAMING = Disable

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

As in UL TBF allocation, the MFS uses at least 2 TS (a restricted one and the one allocated in UL) the number of PDCH allocable in the extended cells (MAX_PDCH, MIN_PDCH, MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD ) must be even.

Page 341

Appendix

5.6 B9 Features Summary


B9 MR1
A-bis dynamic allocation Statistical GCH multiplexing: M-EGCH Autonomous packet resource allocation
The MFS fully manages the SPDCH use The TBF allocation is directly based on the throughput

B9
342

Extended UL TBF mode 8-PSK in UL IR in UL NACC and PSI status


NC0 NC2

Enhanced packet cell reselection


Load criterion (without QoS)

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 342

Appendix

5.6 B9 Features Summary


B9 MR4
All B9 MR1 features Support of the Interactive and Background QoS Traffic Classes Support of the Streaming QoS Traffic Class NC2 improvement: Cell ranking with load criteria (for QoS) Packet service in extended cell New value for PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX

B9
343

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 343

344

End of Module

GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 344

PROGRAM
1

1 Role of the BSS in GPRS QoS Monitoring 2 Recalls on the Main BSS GPRS Telecom Procedures 3 Description of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Counters and Indicators 4 Detection of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems 5 Analysis of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 1

1 Role of the BSS in GPRS QoS monitoring

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 2

1 Role of the BSS in GPRS QoS Monitoring

Session Presentation
3

Objective: to be able to describe the role of the BSS in the End-user GPRS QoS and the dependencies between Global (BSS+GSS) and BSS GPRS QoS on one hand and between BSS GSM and GPRS QoS on the other hand Program:
1.1 Distinction between BSS/BSS+GSS/End-user GPRS QoS 1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS profiles at BSS level 1.3 Source of information for GPRS QoS monitoring 1.4 Dependencies between BSS GSM and GPRS QoS 1.5 Impact of GMM/SM signaling on BSS QoS interpretation 1.6 Indicators Classification

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 3

1 Role of the BSS in GPRS QoS monitoring

1.1 Distinction between BSS/BSS+GSS/End-user GPRS QoS

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 4

1.1 Distinction between BSS/BSS+GSS/End-user GPRS QoS

Different Levels of QoS


5

BSS
A935 MFS

SGSN

GGSN

B T S

BSC

GPRS Backbone

Packet Data TE Network

Um

Abis

Ater

Gb

Gn

Gi

BSS QoS BSS+GSS QoS End-user QoS


Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

3 types of QoS are involved in the overall analysis of the GPRS QoS : Radio QoS It must be considered from the R interface to the Gb interface. It belongs mainly to the radio environment as well as the proper functioning of the PCU implemented inside the BSS. It is defined in terms of throughput, service precedence, RLC reliability mode, transfer delay.

GPRS QoS It must be considered from the R interface (MS access to the GPRS) to the Gi interface (exit from the GPRS Network). It includes the Radio QoS and the GSS QoS. It is defined in terms of service precedence, transfer delay, mean and peak throughputs and reliability.

End-User QoS This is the QoS as the user feels it. It includes the GPRS QoS as well as the QoS of the external networks and their connection to the GPRS GSS. Even if it does not belong to the operator, it should still be monitored as it can generate customer complaints.

Page 5

1.1 Distinction between BSS/BSS+GSS/End-user GPRS QoS

Dependencies between QoS levels


6

End-user QoS BSS+GSS QoS BSS QoS

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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A bad BSS GPRS QoS (Radio QoS) will lead to a bad GPRS QoS and a bad End-user QoS. A bad End-user performance can be due to a bad GSS behaviour without any BSS GPRS QoS degradation. A bad End-user QoS can also be due to a bad PDN performance.

Page 6

1.1 Distinction between BSS/BSS+GSS/End-user GPRS QoS

Impact of UE
7

Different data applications are multiplexed over the GPRS radio layers: FTP, WEB/HTTP, WAP, MMS, etc Data applications have very different traffic characteristics (amount of data, duration between LLC PDUs) leading to different ways of triggering radio layers algorithms Therefore Parameters setting in the GPRS network will lead to different performance according to the service

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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A bad end-user QoS can also be due to the setting of TE protocol layers parameters which can not have optimal values to get the best GPRS performance.

Page 7

1.1 Distinction between BSS/BSS+GSS/End-user GPRS QoS

Impact of UE : example
8

Data applications use TCP/IP protocol layers which have a great impact on the end-user QoS
FTP above TCP/IP layers
FTP TCP IP PPP PPP relay SNDCP P LLC RLC MAC RF RLC MAC RF SNDCP P LLC BSSGP NS L1 BSSGP NS L1 relay GTP UDP IP-Gn L2 L1 IP GTP UDP First IP router IP-Gn L2 L1 Last IP router relay IP IP relay IP IP relay

relay

(*)

BSS TE (PC ,PDA ) MS R Um Gb SGSN Gn

GGSN Gi

TCP data segment Possible repartition on the end to end path of the TCP flight size TCP acknowledgement

(*) this graphical representation is used to express the fact that many data segments are currently waiting to be transmitted on the represented link and are stored in buffers of the device handling the link . It doesnt mean that simultaneous segments are being transmitted.

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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A bad end-user QoS can also be due to the setting of TE protocol layers parameters which can not have optimal values to get the best GPRS performance.

Page 8

1.1 Distinction between BSS/BSS+GSS/End-user GPRS QoS

Understand BSS GPRS QoS


9

GPRS QoS is not an isolated topic:


It is necessary to use GSM indicators in order to complete the analysis of GPRS QoS It is necessary to use GSM counters in order to complete the analysis of the impact of GPRS traffic on GSM QoS

The BSS QoS does not allow to have a complete understanding of the end to end QoS seen by the user
Indeed, upper protocol layers (TCP for example) have a great impact on the global QoS The GSS also has a great impact on the global QoS

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 9

10

1 Role of the BSS in GPRS QoS monitoring

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS profiles at BSS level

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 10

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

Data Services
11

Always-on
Directories Mobile Office
Voice (!) E-mail Agenda IntraNet/InterNet Corporate Applications Database Access Yellow/White Pages International

Media

Fun
Games (Hangman, Poker, Quiz, ) Screen Saver Ring Tone Horoscope Biorhythm

Directories
Operator Services

Music Transportation
Flight/train Schedule reservation Downloading of music files or video clips

News (general/specific)

Vertical application
Traffic Management Automation Mobile branches Health

International/National News Local News Sport News Weather Lottery Results Finance News Stock Quotes Exchange Rates

Location services
Traffic Conditions Itineraries Nearest Restaurant, Cinema, Chemist, Parking;, ATM ...

M-commerce
Physical
on-line shopping on-line food

Non physical
on-line Banking Ticketing Auction Gambling Best Price e-Book

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Different services can be found in the 3 categories: Teleservices provide the full capabilities for communications by means of a terminal equipment, network functions and possibly functions provided by dedicated centers. Multimedia teleservices support the transfer of several types of information. M-commerce: Non-physical = electronic goods (e-banking, e-flight ticketing, etc). Physical = electronic payment of physical goods (food, supplies, hardware, etc). Retrieval services Provide the capability of accessing information stored in data base centers. The information is sent to the user on demand only. An example of one such service in the Internet's World Wide Web (WWW). Messaging services Offer user-to-user communication between individual users via storage units with store-and-forward mailbox, and/or message handling (e.g., information editing, processing and conversion) functions; Conversational services Provide bi-directional communication by means of real-time (no store-and-forward) end-to-end information transfer from user to user. An example of such a service is the Internet's Telnet application; Tele-action services Characterized by low data-volume (short) transactions, for example credit card validations, lottery transactions, utility meter readings and electronic monitoring and surveillance systems. Distribution services Characterized by the unidirectional flow of information from a given point in the network to other (multiple) locations. Examples may include news, weather and traffic reports, as well as product or service advertisements; Dispatching services Characterized by the bi-directional flow of information from a given point in the network (dispatcher) and other (multiple) users. Examples include taxi and public utility fleet services; Conferencing services Provide multi-directional communication by means of real-time (no store-and-forward) information transfer between multiple users.

Page 11

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

QoS Requirements - Exercise


12

Different applications require different QoS


Exercise: find qualitatively the QoS requirements of the following data services
Service web video streaming ftp location based advertising audio streaming email wap fax e-commerce interactive games SMS Transfer Delay Throughput Reliability

+: low sensitivity, ++: medium, +++: high

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Data applications have very different traffic characteristics (amount of data, duration between LLC PDUs) leading to different ways of triggering radio layers algorithms. This has a direct impact on the follow-up of some QoS indicators at OMC-R level: number of DL/UL TBF establishment requests, DL/UL TBF duration, coding scheme distribution.

Page 12

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

R97/98 GPRS QoS Profile


13

5 GPRS QoS attributes in the R97/98 standard:


Precedence Class: relative importance of service under congestion; 3 values are defined Delay Class: total delay measured between the R or S point and the Gi interface; 4 values are defined Reliability Class: mainly linked to Ack / Not Ack modes at RLC and LLC levels and within the backbone network; 5 values are defined Peak Throughput Class: measured at the Gi and R reference points; 9 values, ranging from 8 Kbit/s up to 2048 Kbit/s Mean Throughput Class: measured at the Gi and R reference points; 19 values, ranging from Best Effort up to 111 Kbit/s

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Precedence classes: high, normal, low Delay classes: class 1 (average delay<0.5 s, 95% delay<1.5 s) class 2 (average delay<5 s, 95% delay<25 s) class 3 (average delay<50 s, 95% delay<250 s) class 4: not specified = best effort The Mean Throughput class range is smaller than the Peak Throughput class one because: The later is considered per interface (the purpose being to maximize the use of the transmission capacity over each interface according to its physical characteristics). The former is considered end to end and must take into account the weaker interface characteristics, the air interface one. Reliability: Five classes are defined according to the tolerable BER (from 1 = lowest BER required to 5 = highest tolerated BER and no acknowledgement or error checking).

Page 13

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

ETSI Principles
14

ETSI R97 principles:


GPRS QoS is negotiated between the MS and the SGSN, at PDP context activation The BSS is not involved in QoS negotiation No absolute QoS can be guaranteed by the BSS The SGSN and the GGSN play the main role in QoS management

But the BSS should be able to do its best...

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 14

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

QoS Profile at BSS Level


15

BSS
A935 MFS

SGSN

GGSN

B T S

GPRS Backbone BSC

Packet Data TE Network

Um

Abis

Ater

Gb

Gn

Gi

Radio QoS GPRS QoS User QoS


Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Throughput: not managed by Alcatel BSS. Best effort is supported. Service precedence: partly managed by Alcatel BSS. RLC reliability mode: managed by the BSS. Transfer delay: not managed by Alcatel BSS. Best effort is supported. See next pages for details.

Page 15

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

Precedence
16

Precedence:
Defines the priority for maintaining service in a congestion situation Specified on:
The DL path: in the DL BSSGP PDU header The UL path: radio priority in Packet resource request (2-phase access)

Not managed in the Alcatel BSS, but the operator can configure, in case of GPRS cell configured with a Master PDCH the persistence level of each radio priority and therefore control the uplink TBF establishment delay

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Service precedence: The management of the persistence levels in the Alcatel BSS is the following. When there is a PBCCH allocated in the cell, the MFS broadcasts on the PBCCH four persistence levels P(i), defined by O&M, each of them corresponding to a given radio priority i (i = 1, 2, 3, 4), where P(i) {0, 1, 14, 16}. For each access attempt, the MS draws a random value R in the set {0, 1, 14, 15}. The MS is allowed to send a Packet Channel Request message only if the P(i), where i is the radio priority of the TBF being established, is lower or equal to R. This method allows the operator to differentiate the access probability of the MSs as a function of their radio priority. There is no preemption of an on-going TBF to establish a new one with a higher service precedence level.

Page 16

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

Throughput
17

Throughput:
Defines the data throughput requested by the user Specified on:
The DL path: in the DL BSSGP PDU header The UL path: peak throughput class in Packet resource request (2-phase access)

Not taken into account by the BSS The allocation strategy consists in trying to allocate to the MS as many PDCHs as supported by its multislot class if known

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Throughput: The PDCH available throughput (in terms of RLC/MAC blocks) is shared equally between all MSs allocated on it. The BSS tries periodically to offer the best throughput to a TBF in case it has a sub-optimal allocation. It corresponds to the direction of the bias and a better allocation is available. The operator can limit the maximum number of PDCHs allocated to a TBF through the O&M configuration. The maximum throughput that can be served to an MS is limited to n x 20 Kbit/s for a GPRS MS or n x 59.2 Kbit/s for an EGPRS MS, in case of good radio conditions (no retransmission), n being limited by the upper multislot class supported by the network (n=5).

Page 17

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

Delay
18

Delay:
Defines the end-to-end transfer delay incurred in the transmission of SDUs through the GPRS network Specified on:
The DL path: through the PDU lifetime which indicates the latest time at when the PDU must be completely transmitted The UL path: peak throughput class in Packet resource request (2-phase access)

Best effort is supported by the BSS:


The PDU lifetime is taken into account for a DL LLC PDU As many TSs as requested according to the MS Multislot Class are allocated if possible

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Transfer delay: This includes the radio channel access delay (on the uplink) or radio channel scheduling delay (on the downlink), the radio channel transit delay (uplink and/or downlink paths) and the GPRS-network transit delay (multiple hops). It does not include transfer delays in external networks. Delay is measured between the R or S (for MS) and Gi (for FS) reference points when applied to "MS to Fixed Station (FS)" or "FS to MS" transmissions. The PDU lifetime is expected to be configured by the SGSN according to the GPRS transfer delay class of the associated PDP context In DL: case of unavailability of either traffic resources (TFI, TAI, throughput) or PDCH resources, DL TBF establishments requests are queued and served according to the PDU lifetime.

Page 18

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

Reliability
19

Reliability:
Defines the transmission characteristics that are required by an application in terms of SDU loss probability, duplication of SDU, mis-sequencing of SDU or corruption of SDU Implemented at BSS level as RLC Acknowledged (Ack) mode or RLC Not acknowledged (Nack) mode Specified on
The DL path: in the DL BSSGP PDU header The UL path: in Packet resource request (2-phase access)

Default mode: Ack

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 19

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

Alcatel QoS Offer - R97/98 QoS Compliance


20

ETSI R97/98 QoS attributes


Delay class
(4) Best Effort 1, 2 or 3 1,. 2 or 3 1,. 2 or 3 1,. 2 or 3

Alcatel Offer
Resulting QoS class Best-Effort Best-Effort Best-Effort Normal Premium

Precedence class
any (3) Low priority Normal, High priority (2) Normal priority (1) High priority

Mean throughput class


any any Best Effort specified, except BE specified, except BE

Reliability class:

as required by the MS

BE = Best-Effort

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The QoS attributes are associated with a PDP context performed by an R97/98 MS. The five QoS parameters of the standard define more than 60 combinations! This is too much and must be simplified: Too complex to implement, Many of the combinations have no meaning! The standard "allows" simpler QoS implementations. - = any value. In green, the main criterion for the definition of the resulting QoS. Alcatel implementation: 3 QoS classes are defined: Best effort: Inexpensive, comparable to the Internet (no commitment). Ideal for foraging on the internet. Normal: Comparable to an intranet. Premium: Expensive, high performance.

Page 20

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

R'99 UMTS QoS Classes


21

4 UMTS QoS classes in the R99 standard (traffic classes): Conversational class
video conference

+
Streaming class live video retransmission

Data Integrity sensitive

Delay sensitive

Interactive class
web browsing

Background class email, SMS

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Conversational class: The most well known use of this scheme is telephony speech (e.g., GSM). But with the Internet and multimedia, a number of new applications will require this scheme, for example voice over IP and video conferencing tools. Real time conversation is always performed between peers (or groups) of live (human) end users. This is the only scheme where the required characteristics are strictly given by human perception. Streaming class: When the user is looking at (listening to) real time video (audio) the scheme of real time streams applies. The real time data flow is always aiming at a live (human) destination. It is a one way transport. Interactive class: When the end user, that is either a machine or a human, is on line requesting data from a remote equipment (e.g., a server), this scheme applies. Examples of human interaction with the remote equipment are: web browsing, data base retrieval, server access. Examples of machines interaction with the remote equipment are: polling for measurement records and automatic data base enquiries (tele-machines). Background class: When the end user, that typically is a computer, sends and receives data files in the background, this scheme applies. Examples are background delivery of E-mails, SMS, download of databases and reception of measurement records.

Page 21

1.2 Implementation of GPRS QoS Profiles at BSS Level

Alcatel QoS Offer - R97/98 QoS Mapping into R'99 QoS


22

There is a mapping between R'99 Traffic class and Alcatel QoS class

R'99 Traffic class conversational streaming interactive interactive interactive background

Traffic handling priority 1 2 3 -

R97/98 Bearer QoS class Premium Premium Premium Normal Normal Best Effort

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The mapping of R97/98 QoS attributes to R'99 QoS is applicable in the following cases: hand-over of PDP context from GPRS R97/R'98 SGSN to GPRS R'99 or UMTS SGSN. when an R'99 MS performs a PDP context activation in an R'99 SGSN with an R'97/98 GGSN. When GGSN respond to the PDP Context Activation, mapping of the changed R97/98 QoS attributes received from the GGSN to R99 QoS attributes is performed in the serving SGSN. when the SGSN has received an R97/98 QoS subscribed profile, but the MS is R'99. The mapping of R'99 QoS attributes to R'97/98 QoS is applicable in the following cases: the PDP context is handed over from GPRS R'99 to R'97/R'98. when an R'99 MS performs a PDP context activation in an R'99 SGSN while the GGSN is R'97/98. In this case the SGSN shall perform mapping of the R99 QoS attributes to the R97/98 QoS attributes; when the SGSN sends user data to the BSS for an R'99 MS. when the SGSN has received R'99 QoS subscribed profile but the MS is R'97/98. in the new SGSN, during an inter-SGSN RA_update procedure, or an inter-system change, on receipt of the R'99 QoS attributes from the old SGSN.

Page 22

23

1 Role of the BSS in GPRS QoS monitoring

1.3 Source of information for GPRS QoS monitoring

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 23

1.3 Source of Information for GPRS QoS Monitoring

PM Counters
24

COUNTERS
B T S

MFS
BSC
HLR

B T S

Gb

SGSN

GPRS Backbone

Packet Data Network GGSN

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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PM counters retrieval and post-processing is the cheapest solution.

Page 24

1.3 Source of Information for GPRS QoS Monitoring

Trace User Data Transfer


25

Transmission plane
application IP/X25 SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM-RF MS Um relay L2-GCH GSM-RF L1-GCH BTS Abis/Ater relay SNDCP GTP LLC BSSGP NS L1bis SGSN Gb UDP/TCP IP L2 L1 Air Interface traces Gb traces

GCH traces

relay RLC MAC L2-GCH L1-GCH MFS NS L1bis BSSGP

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Interfaces traces are of good complementary information but expensive: used for problem investigation used when lack of PM counters

Page 25

1.3 Source of Information for GPRS QoS Monitoring

Trace Signaling
26

Signaling plane with CCCH use

GMM/SM LLC

Air Interface traces relay L2-RSL GSM-RF L1-RSL BTS Um

Gb traces

GCH traces

relay RRM BSCGP L2-GSL L1-GSL NS L1bis MFS BSSGP

GSL traces

RR/RRM

GSM-RF MS

relay RR BSCGP L2-RSL L2-GSL L1-RSL L1-GSL BSC

Abis

Ater

Gb

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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2 GSL at 64Kbit/s per GPU RSL: refer to the Dimensioning rules for GSM

Page 26

1.3 Source of Information for GPRS QoS Monitoring

End-User QoS
27

End-user performances are obtained through measurements carried out for different end-user services:
Ping FTP WAP WEB (HTTP)
Traces must be performed at both Air interface and Application levels

These performances must be interpreted with a maximum of information concerning the context of the measurements
Use of a database to register performance results

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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FTP tests: Static cell measurements: DL transfer of an uncompressible file of 500 KB size UL transfer of an uncompressible file of 200 KB size Drive measurements: DL transfer of an uncompressible file of 1MB minimum size UL transfer of an uncompressible file of 200 KB minimum size

PING Tests: Series of 100 pings HTTP tests: Static cell and drive measurements: HTTP browsing of an html page of 400 KB minimum size

Page 27

1.3 Source of Information for GPRS QoS Monitoring

End-User QoS Measurements Principles


GPRS performance tests performed
with PDN (real end-user QoS) without PDN (BSS+GSS QoS: use of a local server on the Gi interface just after the GGSN)

B9
28

Use of a too old or too new mobile can be risky


Reference mobiles are Sagem (OT290), Motorola (T280), NOKIA ( 6230)
Modified B9

Use of PCs : for Air measurements, as applications server Use of the Agilent software E6474A Nitro (EDGE from 8.0)
to pick up the transferred frames to calculate the throughput at RLC layer

Use of database to register performance results

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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NOKIA 6220 and 6230 are EDGE mobiles. Tests configuration set-up needs some specific data for like: APN of the operator to be declare in the Properties of the Modem connection on client PC (the one with Agilent NITRO installed) IP address of the Internet/WAP gateway or of the Application server connected to GGSN DNS server address if necessary user name and password for GPRS connection Name or the URL of the WEB page to be downloaded for HTTP tests

Page 28

1.3 Source of Information for GPRS QoS Monitoring

End-User QoS Measurements Results


29

Applications server accessibility (PING)


Server accessibility success rate Round Trip Time (RTT) in seconds per ping command

FTP
FTP session success rate Application layer throughput in kbit/s per file

WAP
WAP gateway access time WAP page download success rate Application throughput

HTTP (WEB)
WEB page download success rate Application throughput

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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MMS tests: MMS emission success rate MMS notification success rate MMS reception success rate MMS time to send Time to receive the MMS notification Time to retrieve the MMS Optional RLC/MAC statistics during end-user QoS tests: CS distribution : % of CSx RLC blocks and total time of CSx usage CS changes: number of CS changes per minute Retransmissions: % of RLC blocks retransmitted BLER: % of RLC blocks in error Usually QoS indicators giving throughput or time values are provided with 4 detailed indicators: minimum maximum average standard deviation

Page 29

1.3 Source of Information for GPRS QoS Monitoring

GSS QoS
30

Counters:
in the SGSN in the GGSN in the HLR

Traces:
BSS-SGSN interface (Gb) GGSN-PDN interface (Gi) intra-GSS interface (Gn)

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 30

1.3 Source of Information for GPRS QoS Monitoring

BSS QoS
31

Counters:
in the MFS (specific to GPRS) in the BSC (in relation to GSM)
Tool chain = OMC-R+NPA+RNO

Traces:
Air interface (Um) Ater interface (GCH) MFS-BSC interface (GSL) BSS-SGSN interface (Gb)
Trace MS + Agilent NITRO Protocol analyzer + COMPASS

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 31

1.3 Source of Information for GPRS QoS Monitoring

BSS QoS Measurements Principles


32

OMC-R network statistics with OMC-R network counters

Packet domain BTS


Abis

Other PLMN Firewall Core network Internet / Intranet


OSI Layer

BSC
Ater

MFS
Gb

SGSN
Gn

GGSN

Application layer
GPRS MS Sagem OT190

SERVER e.g. FTP, HTTP

Application Presentation Session Transport Network

GPRS Air Interface Statistics

IP layer LLC layer

Measurement Trace SW RLC/MAC layer Agilent Physical layer E6474A

Data Link Physical


AMI Compass GNNettest Protocol Analyzer K1205

Gb Statistics

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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For the Air interface trace: Use of a too old or too new mobile can be risky Reference mobiles are Sagem (OT290), Motorola (T280), NOKIA ( 6230) Use of a PC preferably with Windows 2000 Use of the Agilent software E6474A Nitro Use of end-user QoS monitoring tool (DEUTRIP, DMS) For the GCH, GSL, Gb interface trace: Use of a protocol analyzer with the Alcatel BSCGP stack The reference analyzer is Tektronix K1205 v2.40 Use of a post-processing tool The reference tool is COMPASS GPRS

Page 32

33

1 Role of the BSS in GPRS QoS monitoring

1.4 Dependencies between BSS GSM and GPRS QoS

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Page 33

1.4 Dependencies between BSS GSM and GPRS QoS

Impacts
34

GSM QoS

GPRS QoS

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Bad radio conditions like coverage or interference problems degrading GSM QoS also provoke BSS GPRS QoS problems. Bad BSS GPRS performance is not always correlated to GSM QoS problems: Congestion can be due to a lack of resource specific to GPRS. A low throughput can be due to a bad setting of radio algorithms specific to GPRS . On the other hand GPRS traffic can induce or worsen GSM QoS performance: PS traffic can increase CS congestion. PS signaling using CCCH channels can induce a PS AGCH and/or PCH overload and eventually an SDCCH congestion.

Page 34

1.4 Dependencies between BSS GSM and GPRS QoS

Exercise
35

Among the following list of typical problems in a GSM network:


Typical BSS GSM problem Coverage Interference path unbalanced at cell fringe TRX HW degradation Abis MW problem A interface congestion SDCCH congestion TCH congestion Rate of LU/call too high Handover failure too high Impact on BSS GPRS QoS

Time allowed: 10 minutes

Find the ones having an impact on BSS GPRS QoS

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 35

36

1 Role of the BSS in GPRS QoS monitoring

1.5 Impact of GMM/SM signaling on BSS QoS interpretation

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 36

1.5 Impact of GMM/SM Signaling on BSS QoS Interpretation

GPRS Protocol Layers


37

IP

User data in IP packets

GMM signaling messages

SNDCP

SM GMM

SM signaling messages LLC frames

GMM SM

SNDCP

LLC RLC

PCU

LLC
BSS GP

relay
RLC

BSSGP
Frame relay Physical layer SGSN

MAC Physical layer


MS

relay
Physical layer L2-GCH L1-GCH

MAC
L2-GCH L1-GCH

Frame relay Physical layer

BTS

Um

Abis/Ater

MFS

Gb

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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For a PS service the BSS simply relays the LLC frames between the MS and the SGSN. GPRS GMM/SM signaling messages are transferred through the BSS as User data. Therefore a BSS Data transfer procedure (called TBF) is carried out either to transfer user data or to transmit MSSGSN signaling message. BSS GPRS QoS indicators have to be carefully interpreted especially in the case of a high load of GPRS signaling. BSSGP = BSS GPRS Protocol. Its function is: to relay LLC frames over the Gb interface, with no guarantee of integrity (relaying user data and GMM / SM messages: session, RA_update and paging procedures). There is 1 BSSGP frame for 1 LLC frame.

Page 37

1.5 Impact of GMM/SM Signaling on BSS QoS Interpretation

GMM/SM Signaling Load


38

There are a lot of GPRS signaling message in case of:


cell update RA update (Normal, Periodic)

There are less GPRS signaling message in case of :


GPRS attach GPRS detach PDP context activation PDP context de-activation

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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BSS GPRS QoS indicators must be carefully interpreted knowing that TBFs are used for both data and signaling transfer. Gb traces might be needed for a better understanding of QoS problems.

Page 38

1 Role of BSS in GPRS QoS Monitoring

Exercise
39

A customer complains about the fact that transferring a file from his laptop to his home computer using GPRS connected to internet takes too much time. What will you do if you have to investigate this customer complaint?

Time allowed: 10 minutes

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 39

40

1 Role of the BSS in GPRS QoS monitoring

1.6 Indicators Classification

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Page 40

1.6 Indicators Classification

B9
41

Traffic Load Quality Of Service Evaluation of the rate of success or failure per interface :
(Radio, AterMux, Gb)

or per telecom procedure:


TBF UL/DL establishment, UL/DL Data transfer, radio resource allocation or re-allocation

Resource Availability and Usage


Abis interface (abis nibbles) AterMux interface (GCH, LapD) Gb interface (PVC, Bearer Channel) GPU object (CPU and DSP usage)

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Page 41

1.6 Indicators Classification


GPRS Indicators Traffic Load Global QoS Resource Availability
Abis Interface
NewB9

B9
42

TBF Establishment

TBF Establishment

Data Transfer

Data Transfer

Ater Interface

Ressource Allocation

Ressource Allocation

Gb Interface

Control and Traffic Channels

CPU

GB Interface

DSP

BSCGP Interface

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 42

B9
43

2 Recalls on the Main BSS GPRS Telecom Procedures

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 43

2 Recalls on the Main BSS GPRS Telecom Procedures

Session Presentation
44

Objective: to be able to describe the main BSS GPRS procedures and algorithms having an impact on QoS Program:
2.1 GPRS Logical Channel 2.2 TBF: Data Transfer Procedure between the MS and the BSS 2.3 Gb: BSSGP Protocol and Frame

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 44

45

2 Recalls on the Main BSS GPRS Telecom Procedures

2.1 GPRS Logical Channels

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 45

2.1 GPRS Logical Channels


46
physical channel control channel logical channel traffic channel signaling associated control channel logical channel category

PDCH

Master PDCH

Slave PDCH

Primary MPDCH

Secondary MPDCH

PBCCH

PCCCH

PTCH

PTCCH

PPCH
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

PAGCH

PDTCH

PACCH

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Page 46

B9
47

2 Recalls on the Main BSS GPRS Telecom Procedures

2.2 TBF: Data Transfer Procedure between the MS and the BSS

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Page 47

2.2 TBF Data Transfer Procedure between the MS and the BSS

Radio Resources
48

PDCH 1
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11

PDCH 2
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11

PDCH 3
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11

TBF with TFI = 5

TBF with TFI = 17

TBF with TFI = 24

Temporary Block Flow (TBF): unidirectional flow of data between the MS and the MFS for the transfer of one or more LLC PDUs Radio resources allocated to a TBF are:
DL TBF: UL TBF:

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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A Temporary Block Flow is a temporary, unidirectional physical connection across the Um interface, between one mobile and the BSS. The TBF is established when data units are to be transmitted across the Um interface. It is released as soon as the transmission is completed.

Page 48

2.2TBF Data Transfer Procedure between the MS and the BSS

TBF Phases
49

The TBF procedure can be split as represented below

establishment

progress

release

Radio resources to be used during the data transfer are reserved by the BSS and are assigned to the MS

Data transfer through RLC blocks transmission

Radio resources are freed

During an on-going TBF (progress) in one direction, a TBF in the other direction can be established quicker than usually

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 49

2.2 TBF Data Transfer Procedure between the MS and the BSS

UL TBF, Delayed Final PUAN without extended UL TBF


50

In order to establish a DL TBF faster the release of a UL TBF can be delayed


T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN is the time during which a DL TBF can be established using the UL TBF radio resources before they are freed

T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN

UL TBF

establishment

progress

release

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Page 50

2.2 TBF Data Transfer Procedure between the MS and the BSS

UL TBF, Delayed Final PUAN with extended UL TBF

B9
51

Extended UL TBF mode


T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL

NewB9

UL TBF

TBF establishment

TBF active

TBF extended

release

UL TBF is maintained during T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL after the last block ( CV=0) has been acknowledged

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 51

2.2 TBF Data Transfer Procedure between the MS and the BSS

DL TBF, Delayed DL TBF Release


52

The release of a DL TBF is delayed after all the DL RLC blocks have been transferred in order to be able to:
establish a UL TBF faster resume the DL data transfer (new LLC PDU coming from the SGSN) without having to establish a new DL TBF
T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME

DL TBF

TBF active

TBF delayed

progress

release

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 52

2.2 TBF Data Transfer Procedure between the MS and the BSS

DL TBF, Fast Establishment


53

A DL TBF can be re-established faster during a short time after a DL TBF release using the radio resources of the previous TBF
It is possible because the MS still monitors the radio resources during timer T3192 after the DL TBF has been released
T3192 Fast DL TBF establishment on PACCH possible

DL TBF

TBF active

TBF delayed

release

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 53

2.2 TBF Data Transfer Procedure between the MS and the BSS

DL TBF, Establishment in DRX Mode


54

After T3192, a DL TBF has to be established on Control Channels:


faster during DRX_TIMER_MAX when the MS is in Non-DRX mode slower afterwards when the MS is in DRX mode

T3192

DRX_TIMER_MAX

DL TBF

TBF active

DL TBF establishment possible TBF delayed TBF release

on AGCH or any PPCH

on PCH or PPCH of MS paging group


All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

Page 54

55

2 Recalls on the Main BSS GPRS Telecom Procedures

2.3 Gb: BSSGP Protocol and Frame

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 55

2.3 Gb: BSSGP Protocol and Frame

L1bis
56

Bearer Channels

Gb interface MFS BSSGP NS (NSC) NS (SNS)


PCM BC i BC x PCM

SGSN BSSGP NS (NSC) NS (SNS) L1


BC j BC y

L1

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The Gb physical interface is made up of one or more 64-Kbit/s channels on one or more physical lines at 2048 Kbit/s. Both individual 64-Kbit/s and n*64-Kbit/s channels are supported by the MFS. A Bearer Channel (BC) is an n*64-Kbit/s channel (1 n 31). NB: among the 16 PCM links offered per PCU, only 8 are dedicated to the Gb interface, 4 for the upload and 4 for the download. The maximum point-to-point transfer capacity over the Gb interface in one direction is then 31*64 Kbit/s*4 = 8192 Kbit/s.

Page 56

2.3 Gb: BSSGP Protocol and Frame

Network Service 1/3


57

The Sub-Network Service (SNS) sub-layer is dependent on the transmission network and manages Permanent Virtual Channels (PVCs) MFS BSSGP
Frame Relay Network

Gb interface

SGSN BSSGP

NS (NSC) NS (SNS)
L1

PVCa DLCIx

PVCm DLCI

NS (NSC) NS (SNS)

PVC b DLCI y

PVC n DLCI

L1

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Concept of PVC: A PVC is a synchronous access line, semi-permanent connection. The PVC allows the multiplexing on a BC. It is not an end to end link between the MFS and the SGSN. At MFS side a PVC is identified by its Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) which is independent from the one defined at SGSN side. DLCI 0 is used for signaling. There is one PVC per BC. The SNS layer, layer 2.1 in the OSI model, offers the Frame Relay technology. The NSC layer, layer 2.2 in the OSI model, offers the point to point data transfer in both directions. The PVC standards are not specific to GPRS. Please refer to the Frame Relay Forum organization, the ITU-T and ANSI (T1S1.1 workshop) specifications.

Page 57

2.3 Gb: BSSGP Protocol and Frame

Network Service 2/3


58

The Network Service Control (NSC) sub-layer is independent from the transmission network and manages NS Virtual Connections (NS-VCs)

Gb interface
MFS BSSGP
NSVC NSVCi=1 1

SGSN BSSGP

NS (NSC) NS (SNS)
L1
NSVC NSVCi=12

NS (NSC) NS (SNS)
L1

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Concept of NS-VC: A NS-VC is an end to end logical link between the MFS and the SGSN. Each NS-VC is identified by its NSVCI which has an end to end significance on the Gb interface. There is a one to one relation between one NS-VC and one PVC. Sub-network service function: ordered data transfer. The main functions of the NSC layer (2.2 layer) are: sequencing of the data transmission, flow control, lost frame management.

Page 58

2.3 Gb: BSSGP Protocol and Frame

Network Service 3/3


59

Concept of NSE:
A Network Service Entity (NSE) groups several NS-VCs (at least 2 NS-VCs per NSE) = the NSE corresponds to the resources of one GPU The concept of NSE is useful for the load sharing between the different NSVCs: the NS-VCs of the NSE are shared by the BVC associated to the NSE The NSE is identified by an NSEI which has an end-to-end significance over the Gb interface
NSE NSEi = 1

BSSGP NS (NSC)
PCU

NSVC NSVCi=11

NS (SNS) L1
NSVC NSVCi=12

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Note: for MM purposes, the SGSN needs a 1:1 correspondence between the NSEI and the RAI.

BSS Cell Cell Cell Cell

BSSGP layer

BVC

BVC

BVC

BVC

NSC sub-layer NS-VC

NSE NS-VC NS-VC

NSE NS-VC

SNS sub-layer

PVC

PVC

PVC

PVC

Physical layer

BC 2 Mbit/s

BC

BC 2 Mbit/s

BC

Page 59

2.3 Gb: BSSGP Protocol and Frame

BSSGP
60

BSSGP Virtual Connection (BVC): end to end link between the MFS and the SGSN
BVCi=2 BVCi=2 BVCi=1 BVCi=n

Gb interface

BVCi=1

BVCi=n

BSSGP NSC SNS


NSVC

BSSGP NSC SNS L1

L1 MFS
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

SGSN
All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Two types of BVC: point-to-point BVC dedicated to the PS traffic of one cell (BVCi 0). signaling BVC (BVCi=0) which is the signaling circuit of all the point to point BVCs of one NSE (GPU). For NM reason, the duplet BVCi/NSEi must be unique within an SGSN.

To activate a new cell in an SGSN, it is only needed to add a new BVCi in an NSEi. No update of the NSEi information is necessary.

Page 60

2.3 Gb: BSSGP Protocol and Frame

Gb Interface - Manageable Entities


61

BSS side

GPRS Core Network side


BVCI=2

BVCI= 2 BVCI=3

PCM BC
BVCI= 1

NSVC1

PCM PVC BC NSE1

BVCI=1

BSC1

NSE1 PCM BC NSVC2 PCM PVC BC

BVCI=3

F.R Network
PCM BC NSVC3 PCM PVC BC

BVCI=5 BVCI=4 NSE2

BVCI=5 BVCI= BVCI= 4 6

BSC2

NSE2 PCM BC NSVC4 PCM PVC BC

BVCI=6

SGSN
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Dimensioning rules: G b interface M ax. num ber of G b interface physical links per G PU M ax. num ber of Frame Relay bearer channels per physical link M ax. num ber of Frame Relay bearer channels per G PU board M ax. num ber of BVCs per G PU board
Number of signalling BVCs per G PU Ater interface M axim um number of 64 kbit/s signalling channels (G SL) per G PU Number of Ater(mux) PCM links between one GPU and one BSC Aterm ux sharing granularity for PS traffic

nGb 31 124 265 1 4


n Ater(m u
x)

n Gb + n Ater(mux) 16 where n Ater(mux)

Lim it due to the num ber of cells per BSS (264) + one signalling BVC (1)
1 NSE is defined per GPU

n Gb + n Atermux 16 g can be set to: 100 % AterM ux, or 75 % AterMux, or 25 % AterMux, or 12.5 % Aterm ux for GPRS traffic

M ax. M ax. M ax. M ax.

num ber num ber num ber num ber

of of of of

BSSs per M FS G PUs per M FS BSS per GPU board cells per M FS

22 30 1
200 0 960

M ax. num ber of TBFs per G PU M axim um number of GPU boards per BSS

6
Page 61

2.3 Gb: BSSGP Protocol and Frame

Gb Interface - Protocol Model and Entities


62

BSS side

GPRS Core Network side

BVCI= 2 BVCI=3

BVCI= 1

BSC1
BSS GPRS Protocol BVC BSS GPRS Protocol

(BSSGP)
BVCI=5 BVCI= BVCI= 4 6

(BSSGP)

BSC2

Network Service Control

(NSC)
Sub-Network Service

NSE

Network Service Control NS-VC

(NSC)
Sub-Network Service

(SNS) Physical layer


Packet Control Unit function (PCU)

BC

PVC

(SNS) Physical layer

Frame Relay

SGSN

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Page 62

2.3 Gb: BSSGP Protocol and Frame

BSSGP Frame
63

One BSSGP PDU includes one and only one LLC PDU
BSSGP frame LLC frame

BVCI
BSSGP header

TLLI

GPRS Traffic or signaling

LLC header

LLC payload

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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In case of data traffic the LLC PDU contains an SNDCP PDU. In case of signaling, the LLC PDU contains a GMM or an SM message.

Page 63

B9
64

3 Description of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Counters and Indicators

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Page 64

3 Detection of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Counters/Indicators

Session Presentation
Objective: to be able to interpret the BSS GPRS QoS indicators attached to each BSS GPRS procedure or algorithm having an impact on QoS and to interpret the BSS GPRS PM counters used in the computation formulae of QoS indicators Program:
3.1 Data Transfer Establishment 3.2 Data Transfer Progress 3.3 Data Transfer Release 3.4 MS Sessions / Transfers 3.5 Resource Usage 3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation 3.7 Cell Reselection

B9
65

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Page 65

B9
66

3 Description of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Counters and Indicators

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

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Page 66

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

TBF Establishments
67

Data Transfer establishment UL TBF establishment DL TBF establishment

MS in MM Ready state

MS in MM Ready state

MS in MM Standby state PS Paging

MS in PIM

MS in PTM

MS in PIM MS in PTM

on CCCH 1-Phase 2-Phase

on PCCCH 1-Phase 2-Phase

DL TBF running

on CCCH DRX Non-DRX

on PCCCH DRX Non-DRX

UL TBF running

T3192 running

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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There are 5 types of UL TBF establishment:


1. 1-phase access on CCCH : when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and no PCCCH is available in the cell and

the MS does not need more than 1 PDCH and wants to transfer blocks in RLC acknowledge mode. and the MS needs more than 1 PDCH or wants to transfer blocks in RLC unacknowledge mode.

2. 2. 2-phase access on CCCH : when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and no PCCCH is available in the cell

3. 1-phase access on PCCCH : when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and a PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS does not need more than 1 PDCH and wants to transfer blocks in RLC acknowledge mode. 4. 2-phase access on PCCCH : when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and a PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS needs more than 1 PDCH or wants to transfer blocks in RLC unacknowledge mode. 5. During a DL TBF: when the MS is in Packet Transfer Mode in DL. There are 6 types of DL TBF establishment: 1. On CCCH DRX mode: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and no PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS is listening to all PCH channels of its CS paging group. 2. On CCCH Non-DRX mode: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and no PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS is listening to all AGCH channels. 3. On PCCCH DRX mode: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and a PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS is listening to all PPCH channels of its PS paging group. 4. On PCCCH Non-DRX mode: when the MS is in Packet Idle Mode and a PCCCH is available in the cell and the MS is listening to all PPCH channels of its PCCCH channel. 5. During a UL TBF: when the MS is in Packet Transfer Mode in UL. 6. When T3192 is running: when a DL TBF has been released at the MS side and before the previously used radio resources are released (at T3192 expiry).

Page 67

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment 1-Phase Access on CCCH, Success


68

MS (EGPRS Packet) Channel request RACH

BTS Channel required (TA) TA calculation

BSC

MFS
GPRS EGPRS

Channel request (TA)


GCH allocation

P62c

P62d

MS switches on assigned PDCH

Immediate assignment AGCH USF Scheduling PDTCH RLC data block PDTCH Packet UL Ack/Nack PACCH

Imm. assign. command Channel assignment UL (IA)


PDCH, TFI, USF, TAI, TA, CS (MCS, EGPRS window size)

P49

USF Scheduling

T_USF_Scheduling_AGCH expiry T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH

Contention resolution

RLC data block TLLI, TFI Packet UL Ack/Nack TLLI, TFI

P30c
GPRS

P30d
EGPRS

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

In case a Channel Request or an EGPRS Packet Channel Request is received from the mobile station, an Immediate Assignment message is sent to the MS assigning the radio resources. In case a Channel Request is received on a RACH, the BSS does not know the multislot class of the MS. Consequently, the Alcatel BSS assigns only one PDCH to the MS. In case an EGPRS Packet Channel Request message is received from the mobile station, the EGPRS multislot class of the MS is known by the BSS. However only one PDCH is allocated due to the limitation of the Immediate Assignment message. if the PDCH is allocated on a non-EGPRS capable TRX an Immediate Assignment message in GPRS mode is sent to the MS including the PDCH id, the USF value, the TFI value, the TAI value, the TA value, and the GPRS coding scheme to be used. If the PDCH is allocated on an EGPRS capable TRX, an Immediate Assignment message in EGPRS mode is sent to the MS including the PDCH id, the USF value, the TFI value, the TAI value, the TA value and the EGPRS modulation and coding scheme to be used. Timers T_USF_scheduling_AGCH: Time between the sending of the Assignment Command message to the BTS and the scheduling of the first UL block on the PDCH. This internal MFS timer is always expiring in order to leave time to the MS to switch from a CCCH to a PDCH time slot. T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH T_USF_scheduling_AGCH: Started at T_USF_scheduling_AGCH expiry, stopped when receiving the first UL block from the MS. T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH = 0.8 s (default value) but computed as a function of the CCCH configuration in the cell. It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. T_USF_scheduling_AGCH = 0 ms (default value). It cannot be set at OMC-R level. T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH" is the HMI name of "T_ul_assign_ccch" present in BSS telecom parameters catalogue A contention resolution procedure is used in order to avoid that two MS sending a Channel Request at the same time use the same allocated radio resource to send data. Each MS sends its TLLI in the first RLC Data Block. The TLLI of the MS chosen by the BSS is present in the Packet UL Ack/Nack from the MFS. The other MS will stop using the radio resource when receiving the Packet UL Ack/Nack with another TLLI .

Page 68

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment 2-Phase Access on CCCH, Success


69

MS (EGPRS Packet) Channel request RACH

BTS Channel required (TA) TA calculation

BSC Channel request (TA)


GCH allocation

MFSGPRS EGPRS
P62c P62d

MS switches on allocated RLC block(s) Packet resource request PACCH Contention


resolution T3168

Immediate assignment AGCH

Channel assignment UL (IA) P49 Imm. assign. command PDCH id, TBF starting time, TA, 1 (multiple) block(s)
T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH Packet resource request TLLI, MS Radio Access Capability, QoS (Additional Radio Access Capability)
GCH allocation

MS switches on assigned PDCHs

Packet UL assignment PACCH USF Scheduling PDTCH RLC data block PDTCH

Packet UL assignment TLLI, PDCHs, USFs, TFI, TAI, TA, CS (MCS, EGPRS window size) USF Scheduling RLC data block

T_ACK_WAIT

P30c

P30d

GPRS EGPRS
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

A 2-phase access is initiated in one of the following cases:


When a GPRS MS wants to use the TBF to send user data in RLC unacknowledged mode. When a GPRS or EGPRS MS wants to precise QoS parameters (e.g., Peak_Throughput_Class, Radio_Priority). When a GPRS MS wants to provide the BSS with its multislot class in case of an uplink access done on CCCH. When an GPRS MS wants to establish the TBF to send user data in RLC acknowledged mode and the amount of data to send takes more than 8 RLC/MAC blocks (Note 1 and Note 2). If the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST is not supported in the cell (Note: the Alcatel BSS always supports the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST), when an EGPRS MS wishes to send user data or signaling data. If the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST is supported in the cell, when an EGPRS MS wants to use the TBF to send user data in RLC unacknowledged mode. If the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST is supported in the cell, when an EGPRS MS wants to establish the TBF to send user data in RLC acknowledged mode and the amount of data to send takes more than 8 RLC/MAC blocks (Note 3 and Note 4). Note 1: The number of blocks must be calculated assuming channel coding scheme CS-1. Note 2: The mobile station can also request a 1-phase access. Note 3: The number of blocks must be calculated assuming modulation and channel coding scheme MCS-1. Note 4: If the cell is EGPRS capable, the mobile station can also request 1-phase access.

The MS Radio Access Capability IE includes the Multislot class of the MS as well as the QoS required for the transfer Timers T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH, controls the duration between (EGPRS Packet) Channel Request message and the UL radio block allocated to the MS. T_ACK_WAIT: Started when the first UL block is scheduled to the MS, stopped when receiving the first UL block. T_ACK_WAIT = 1.2 s (default value). It cannot be set at OMC-R level. T3168: MS timer started when sending the Packet Resource Request message and stopped when receiving the Packet UL Assignment. It is broadcast in the SI13 message. T3168 = 1 s (default value). It can be set at the OMC-R level but 1 s is the minimum value.
Page 69

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment 1-Phase Access on PCCCH, Success


70

MS
(EGPRS) Packet Channel request

BTS

BSC

MFS

(EGPRS) (EGPRS) GPRS EGPRS Packet Channel request Packet Channel request (TA) (TA)

PRACH (4 A.B.)

TA calculation

(EGPRS) Multislot class


GCH allocation

P62a

P62d

MS switches on assigned PDCHs

Packet UL assignment Packet UL assignment PDCHs, USFs, TFI, TAI, TA, CS (MCS, EGPRS window PAGCH size) USF Scheduling PDTCH RLC data block PDTCH Packet UL Ack/Nack PACCH USF Scheduling RLC data block TLLI, TFI Packet UL Ack/Nack TLLI, TFI

T_ACK_WAIT

P30a
GPRS

P30d
EGPRS

Contention resolution

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Possible causes for the one phase access for GPRS: - 1-phase access (MS multislot class provided) - Short access (less than 8 RLC blocks) - Paging response - Cell update - MM procedures (GPRS Attach, GPRS Detach, RA update) - Single block without TBF establishment
-

Note: The access indicating Single Block Without TBF Establishment is supported by the Alcatel BSS: such an access is used by the MS to report a Packet Measurement Report message or a Packet Cell Change Failure message in Packet Idle Mode

Possible causes for the one phase access for EGPRS: - 1-phase access - Short access - signaling

A EGPRS mobile provides both its GPRS multislot class and its EGPRS multislotclass. If the TBF can not be established in EGPRS mode it will then be established in GPRS mode if possible. In this case the EGPRS multislot class is used by the BSS to allocate the corresponding number of PDCHs. If the GPRS multislot class is higher than the EGPRS one then the TBF is a candidate for a subsequent radio resource re-allocation to extend the number of PDCHs.

Page 70

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment 2-Phases Access on PCCCH, Success


71

MS

(EGPRS) (EGPRS) (EGPRS) BTS BSC MFS GPRS EGPRS Packet Channel request Packet Channel request Packet Channel request (TA) (TA)

PRACH (4 A.B.)

TA calculation

(EGPRS) Multislot class

P62a

P62d

Packet UL assignment PAGCH MS switches on allocated RLC block(s) Packet resource request PACCH

Packet UL assignment PDCH id, TBF starting time, TA, 1 (multiple) block(s)

T_UL_Assign_PCCCH

Contention resolution T3168

Packet resource request TLLI, MS Radio Access Capability, QoS (Additional Radio Access Capability)
PDCH & GCH allocation

MS switches on assigned PDCHs

Packet UL assignment PACCH USF Scheduling PDTCH RLC data block PDTCH

Packet UL assignment TLLI, PDCHs, USFs, TFI, TAI, TA, CS (MCS, EGPRS window size) USF Scheduling RLC data block

T_ACK_WAIT

P30a

P30d

GPRS EGPRS
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Timer: T_UL_ASSIGN_PCCCH controls the duration between (EGPRS) Packet Request message and the UL radio block allocated to the MS. T_UL_ASSIGN_PCCCH = 0.4 s (default value). It can be set at the OMC-R level. 2-phase access is used when the MS wants specific QoS attribute values to be taken into account (e.g., RLC Nack mode).

Page 71

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment during a DL TBF, Success


72

MS

BTS DL transfer RLC data block PDTCH Packet DL Ack/Nack PACCH

BSC

MFS

RLC data block, polling


GPRS EGPRS

(EGPRS) Packet DL Ack/Nack with Channel request P62b


GCH allocation

T3168

Packet UL assignment Packet UL assignment PDCHs, USFs, TFIUL,TAI, CS (MCS, EGPRS window size) PACCH USF Scheduling PDTCH RLC data block PDTCH USF Scheduling RLC data block

T_ACK_WAIT

P30b

GPRS EGPRS

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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This scenario corresponds to a UL TBF establishment in PTM without re-allocation of the on-going DL TBF. The Packet UL Assignment message is repeated N_SIG_REPEAT times because if the MS has not decoded the Packet UL Assignment then the MS tries again to establish the UL TBF only after T3168 expiry. N_SIG_REPEAT = 1 (default value). It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. Therefore the Packet UL Assignment is sent 2 times in a row.

Page 72

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment, Exercise

B9
73

Exercise 1: Identify the type of UL TBF establishment procedure among the provided traces 1, 2, 3, 4, 9 Exercise 2: Using the trace 2 , find how many TBFs are established and when? Exercise 3: Using the trace 2, identify the values of:
TFIUL TFIDL PDCHs allocated for the UL TBF

Time allowed: 30 minutes

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 73

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment, Failures

B9
74

UL TBF establishment FAILURE

BSS Resource Congestion

Radio pb Radio congestion Abis congestion Ater congestion Too many TBF DSP with CPU in load state GPU DSP congestion GPU with CPU overload
NewB9 NewB9 NewB9

BSS pb

Gb pb

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Note: GPU congestion means that the maximum capacity of at least one DSP on the GPU is reached in terms of resources GCH and/or PDCH A lack of Ater resources occurs when there is not enough Ater nibbles to serve the UL TBF request. A lack of Abis transmission resources occurs when there is not enough Abis nibbles to serve the UL TBF request.

Page 74

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment, Failures, BSS Resource Congestion


MS (EGPRS Packet) Channel request RACH BTS BSC MFS

B9
75

Channel required (TA)

Modified B9

Channel request (TA) Channel assignment UL (Imm. assign. Reject)


Wait indication

Imm. assign. command Immediate assignment reject (Imm. assign. Reject) AGCH (EGPRS) Packet Channel request (EGPRS) Packet Channel request (TA)

No resource available (radio+Abis+Ater+Too many TBF+DSP+ GPU+GPU-CPU)

(EGPRS) 5l+P204+P105d+P105f Packet Channel request Modified (TA) B9 or Packet resource request or Packet resource request or Packet resource request or Packet DL Ack/Nack with or Packet DL Ack/Nack with No resource available or Packet DL Ack/Nack with Channel request Channel request Channel request (radio+Abis+Ater+Too Packet access reject PAGCH or PACCH Packet access reject Packet access reject
Wait indication

P27+P105j+P105h+P10

many TBF+DSP+ GPU+GPU-CPU)

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The first scenario corresponds to: the impossibility to allocate the resources for a UL TBF establishment 1-phase access on CCCH. the impossibility to allocate the UL block(s) for a UL TBF establishment 2-phase access on CCCH. The second scenario corresponds to: the impossibility to allocate the resources for a UL TBF establishment 2-phase access on CCCH. the impossibility to allocate the resources for a UL TBF establishment 1-phase access on PCCCH. the impossibility to allocate the UL block(s) or the resources for a UL TBF establishment 2-phase access on PCCCH. the impossibility to allocate the resources for a UL TBF establishment during a DL TBF.

Page 75

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment on CCCH, Failures, Radio


76

MS

(EGPRS Packet) Channel request RACH

BTS

BSC

MFS

Immediate assignment AGCH USF Scheduling PDTCH RLC data block PDTCH

Channel request + TA Channel required (TA) Channel assignment UL (IA) Imm. assign. command PDCH, TFI, USF, TAI, TA, CS
(MCS, EGPRS window size)

USF Scheduling

T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH expiry P28

Packet UL assignment PACCH USF Scheduling PDTCH

Packet UL assignment TLLI, PDCHs, USFs, TFI, TAI, TA, CS (MCS, EGPRS window size) USF Scheduling
T_ACK_WAIT expiry P28

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The first scenario corresponds to: a radio failure occurring during a UL TBF establishment 1-phase access on CCCH. The second scenario corresponds to: a radio failure occurring during a UL TBF establishment 2-phase access on CCCH. If the contention resolution fails, the MS will try to establish the UL TBF up to 4 times. The radio problems counted are usually due to interference or bad coverage but Abis microwave transmission problems or some BSS problems (RSL overload) can be counted as radio problems.

Page 76

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment on PCCCH, Failures, Radio


77

MS

(EGPRS) Packet Channel request PRACH (4 A.B.)

BSC MFS (EGPRS) (EGPRS) Packet Channel request Packet Channel request (TA) (EGPRS) Multislot class Packet UL assignment Packet UL assignment PDCHs, USFs, TFI, TAI, TA, CS (MCS, EGPRS window PAGCH size) USF Scheduling USF Scheduling PDTCH RLC data block PDTCH
T_ACK_WAI T expiry P28

BTS

Packet UL assignment PACCH USF Scheduling PDTCH

Packet UL assignment TLLI, PDCHs, USFs, TFI, TAI, TA, CS (MCS, EGPRS window size) USF Scheduling

T_ACK_WAI T expiry

P28

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

The first scenario corresponds to: a radio failure occurring during a UL TBF establishment 1-phase access on PCCCH. The second scenario corresponds to: a radio failure occurring during a UL TBF establishment 2-phase access on PCCCH. The radio problems counted are usually due to interference or bad coverage but Abis microwave transmission problems or some BSS problems (RSL overload) can be counted as radio problems.

Page 77

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment during a DL TBF, Failures, Radio


78

MS

BTS

BSC

MFS

DL transfer / Active or Delayed phase

RLC data block PDTCH Packet DL Ack/Nack PACCH


T3168

RLC data block, polling

(EGPRS) Packet DL Ack/Nack with Channel request

Packet UL Assignment Packet UL assignment PDCHs, USFs, TFIUL,TAI, CS (MCS, EGPRS window size) PACCH USF Scheduling PDTCH USF Scheduling

T_ACK_WAI T expiry

P28

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

If a DL TBF re-allocation is triggered upon a UL TBF establishment and if the DL TBF re-allocation fails due to a radio problem then counter P28 is also incremented. The radio problems counted are usually due to interference or bad coverage but Abis microwave transmission problems or some BSS problems (RSL overload) can be counted as radio problems.

Page 78

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

UL TBF Establishment, Failures, Gb, BSS


79

Problem at Gb interface level


When the CELL is in the operational state disabled in the BSS

MS
<< UL

O&M problem
MFS
establishment request >>
Cell identity

SGSN

Cell BVC unavailable


P66

Problem at BSS level


which is not linked to Congestion, Radio, Gb
no specific counter

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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A problem at BSS level can be linked to a Hardware or a Software failure .

Page 79

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

DL TBF Establishment on CCCH, MS in Ready State


80

MS

BTS

BSC

GCH allocation

MFS

LLC PDU
P91f, P91c P91g P53c, P49

GPRS EGPRS

Immediate assignment

Imm. assign. command

Channel assignment DL (IA) PDCH, TFI, TAI, (EGPRS)

PCH/AGCH (DRX/Non-DRX) MS switches on assigned PDCH Packet DL assignment PACCH Packet control Ack PACCH (4 A.B.)
T3190

t_assign_agch_pacc h t_assign_pch_pacch

Packet DL assignment, polling PDCHs, TFI, TAI, (EGPRS window size) TA calculation
expiry & restart

Packet control Ack


P90f, P90c
GPRS EGPRS

TA / PC PACCH RLC data block PDTCH

Timing Advance / Power control

P90g
All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

If the MFS does not receive the Packet Control Ack message from the MS: it sends again the Packet Downlink Assignment message up to MAX_GPRS_ASSIGN_PCH_RETRANS if the MS is in DRX mode or up to MAX_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH_RETRANS if the MS is in Non-DRX mode. if the Maximum number of retransmission of Packet Downlink Assignment message is reached then the MFS restarts the whole DL TBF establishment procedure up to MAX_DL_RETRANS times. MAX_GPRS_ASSIGN_PCH_RETRANS = 3 (default value) MAX_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH_RETRANS = 3 (default value) MAX_DL_RETRANS = 3 (default value) The other establishment attempts of the same TBF are not counted, only the first attempt is counted. Timers T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH: controls the reception of the Packet Control Ack message from the MS in Non-DRX mode. T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH = 0.8 s (default value) but computed as a function of the CCCH configuration in the cell. It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH" is the HMI name of "T_ul_assign_ccch" described in the BSS telecom parameters catalogue. T_GPRS_ASSIGN_PCH: controls the reception of the Packet Control Ack message from MS in DRX mode. T_GPRS_ASSIGN_PCH = 1.4 s (default value) but computed as a function of the BS_PA_MFRMS CCCH parameter in the cell. It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. T_GPRS_ASSIGN_PCH" is the HMI name of "T_dl_assign_ccch" described in the BSS telecom parameters catalogue. t_assign_agch_pacch: is the time the MFS waits for the Packet Control Ack message after having sent the Packet Downlink Assignment message to the MS in Non-DRX mode before repeating the Packet Downlink Assignment message. Its value is computed as T_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH / (MAX_GPRS_ASSIGN_AGCH_RETRANS + 1). t_assign_pch_pacch: is the time the MFS waits for the Packet Control Ack message after having sent the Packet Downlink Assignment message to the MS in DRX mode before repeating the Packet Downlink Assignment message. Its value is computed as T_GPRS_ASSIGN_PCH / (MAX_GPRS_ASSIGN_PCH_RETRANS + 1). T3190: if this timer expires, the MS returns into Packet Idle Mode. T3190 = 5s (default value).

Page 80

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

DL TBF Establishment on PCCCH , MS in Ready State


81

MS

BTS

BSC

GCH allocation

MFS

LLC PDU
P91d, P91a P91g

GPRS EGPRS

Packet DL assignment PPCH (first/paging group) MS switches on assigned PDCH

Packet DL assignment, polling PDCHs, TFI, TAI, (EGPRS window size)


T_ACK_WAIT
T_ACK_WAIT_DRX_PCCCH

Packet control Ack PACCH (4 A.B.) TA / PC PACCH RLC data block PDTCH

TA calculation

Packet control Ack


P90d, P90a
GPRS EGPRS

Timing Advance / Power control

T3190

P90g

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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If the MFS does not receive the Packet Control Ack message from the MS: the MFS restarts the whole DL TBF establishment procedure up to MAX_DL_RETRANS times. MAX_DL_RETRANS = 3 (default value) The other establishment attempts of the same TBF are not counted, only the first attempt is counted. Timers T_ACK_WAIT: controls the reception of the Packet Control Ack message from the MS in Non-DRX mode. T_ACK_WAIT = 1.2 s (default value). It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. T_ACK_WAIT_DRX_PCCCH: controls the reception of the Packet Control Ack message from the MS in DRX mode. T_ACK_WAIT_DRX_PCCCH = 2.5 s (default value). It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. T3190: if this timer expires, the MS returns into Packet Idle Mode. T3190 = 5 s (default value)

Page 81

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

DL TBF Establishment during a UL TBF


82

MS

BTS

BSC

MFS

UL transfer
GCH allocation

LLC PDU
P91b
RRBP + 40 ms

ignment Packet DL ass PACCH


RRBP

ng ignment, polli Packet DL ass do win w , TAI, (EGPRS PDCH(s), TFIDL size) RLC data block PDTCH Packet contro l Ack

T3190

Packet contro

l Ack

T_ACK_WAIT

P90b

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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This scenario corresponds to a DL TBF establishment in PTM without re-allocation of the on-going UL TBF.

Page 82

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

DL TBF Establishment, Radio Resource Optimization


83

MFS n PDCHs allocated according to MS multislot class


8 7 6

SGSN BSSGP PDU (QoS profile, LLC PDU)

QoS Profile IE from BSSGP message


4 3 2 1 IEI Length Indicator Peak bit rate provided by the network, coded as the value part in Bucket Leak Rate/R IE/ GSM 08.18 a) SPARE C/R T A Precedence 5

GSM 08.18

octet 1 octet 2.2a octet 3-4 octet 5

T bit coding Only 1 PDCH allocated n PDCHs allocated according to MS multislot class
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

coding 0 1

semantic The SDU contains signaling (e.g., related to GMM) The SDU contains data

Page 83

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

DL TBF Establishment, Exercise

B9
84

Exercise 1: Identify the type of DL TBF establishment procedure among the provided traces 6, 6bis, 8 and 9 Exercise 2: identify trace 6bis if the DL TBF is established for data or signaling transfer

Time allowed: 30 minutes

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Page 84

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

DL TBF establishment, failures

B9
85

DL TBF establishment FAILURE BSS Resource Congestion

Radio pb

BSS pb

Gb pb

Radio congestion Abis congestion Ater congestion GPU DSP congestion GPU CPU congestion Too many TBF CPU_LOAD
NewB9 NewB9 NewB9

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 85

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

DL TBF Establishment, Failures, BSS Resource Cong, Gb


BSS resource congestion: radio (PDCH, TAI, TFI), Ater, GPU
MFS
No resource available: (radio+Abis+Ater+DSP+CPU)+ CPU_LOAD +too many TBFs
Modified B9

B9
86

SGSN LLC PDUs LLC Discarded

P14+ P105i+ P105g+P105c+P105e+P203+ P105k

Problem at Gb interface level


When the CELL is in the operational state disabled in the BSS
O&M problem
MFS LLC PDUs
Cell BVC unavailable
P65

SGSN

LLC Discarded

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 86

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

DL TBF Establishment, Failures, Radio


87

Radio problem
MS

BTS

BSC Packet DL assignment, polling PDCHs, TFI, TAI, (EGPRS window size)

MFS

Packet DL assignment PACCH or PPCH

Packet control Ack PACCH


t_assign_agch_pacch expiry or t_assign_pch_pacch expiry or T_ACK_WAIT expiry or T_ACK_WAIT_DRX_PCCCH expiry
P15

Problem at BSS level


no specific counter

what is not Congestion, Radio, Gb

for the last attempt of the same DL TBF establishment

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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If a UL TBF re-allocation is triggered upon a DL TBF establishment and if the UL TBF re-allocation fails due to a radio problem then counter P15 is also incremented. The radio problems counted are usually due to interference or bad coverage but Abis microwave transmission problems or some BSS problems (RSL overload) can be counted as radio problems.

Page 87

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

Fast DL TBF Re-establishment, Success


88

MS

BTS
begin

BSC
DL transfer
end

MFS
T3192 & T3192n

T3192

ignment Packet DL ass PACCH


RRBP

T3190

Packet contro

l Ack

Same resources LLC PDU allocation P91e ng lli po t, ignmen Packet DL ass w RRBP (EGPRS windo I, TA , I TF ), (s DL H + C PD 40 ms ) ze si RLC data block PDTCH T_ACK_WAIT
Packet contro l Ack
P90e

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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If the MFS does not receive the Packet Control Ack message from the MS: the MFS restarts the whole DL TBF establishment procedure up to MAX_DL_RETRANS times. MAX_DL_RETRANS = 3 (default value) The other establishment attempts of the same TBF are not counted, only the first attempt is counted. Timers T_ACK_WAIT: controls the reception of the Packet Control Ack message from the MS in Non-DRX mode. T_ACK_WAIT = 1.2 s (default value). It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. T3190: if this timer expires, the MS returns into Packet Idle Mode. T3190 = 5 s (default value)

Page 88

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

Fast DL TBF Re-establishment, Failures

B9
89

All types of failures are counted in the same counters as for other kinds of DL TBF establishment
BSS resource congestion
radio (PDCH, TAI, TFI): P105i Abis NewB9 Ater: P105g GPU
DSP: CPU:
P105c P105e P203
NewB9 NewB9

P14

CPU LOAD: Too many TBFs


P15

P105k

radio: Gb: P65 BSS: no specific counter

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 89

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

PS Paging
90

MS

Identify the procedures 1 and 2 on the following diagram


BTS Paging Request/Packet Paging Request PCH/PPCH BSC
PS
P53a/P61a P391b P53b/P61b

MFS

PS
P391a

SGSN LLC PDU PS Paging MS in Standby

CS

Channel Request/Packet Channel Request cause =?/cause =? RACH/PRACH Immediate Assignment/Packet Uplink Assignment AGCH/PAGCH USF Scheduling PDTCH Sending of an LLC PDU (RLC blocks) containing GMM Paging response message PDTCH

CS

Procedure 1 ?

MS Ready

Procedure 2 ?
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

DL UNITDATA PDU

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A CS Paging Request can be sent by the SGSN to the MS through the GMM PS Paging message if the GS interface exists (GPRS network configured in NMO I). In the case a CS Paging Request sent on PCH or PPCH the MS performs a CS Radio Link Establishment procedure.

Page 90

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

PS Paging, Exercise

B9
91

Exercise: Using the trace 7, find the cell in which the MS is located

Time allowed: 30 minutes

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 91

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

QoS Indicators

B9
92

DL and UL TBF establishment:


Different cases: DL/UL: idle & transfer mode DL/UL: MPDCH or not DL: DRX & non-DRX DL: T3192 running DL/UL: MS EGPRS capable Congestion Radio TBF establishment end BSS Gb time
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

TBF establishment start

Number of requests Number of successes Success rate Allocation rate Failure causes

Radio Abis Ater DSP CPU

Distribution of number of TSs requested / obtained

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The number of TBF establishment requests gives an idea of the GPRS traffic. It is therefore a KPI. Nb of Allocation successes = Nb of Requests - Nb of Congestions A radio pb can be specific to GPRS (no radio pb for GSM): it can be due to the MS behavior (bad handling of Polling from the BSS). Some tests on Ping have shown that RTT (Round Trip Time) is varying from one MS to another. Some MSs are considered to be slow, others to be fast. Round Trip Time is the time duration of data transmission from mobile to data server then back from server to mobile. Usually RTT is assessed using a PING command of 32 bytes data transmission. If the data server is connected to the Gi interface RTT will be a measurement of twice the time duration needed to send data across the GPRS network.

Page 92

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

QoS Indicators, Request/Success


93

DL and UL TBF establishment: requests/successes


Transfer phase Fast DL TBF re-establishment T3192 Non-DRX mode DRX mode time
DL TBF establishment requests Transfer mode While T3192 running Idle mode + non-DRX mode + MPDCH Idle mode + non-DRX mode + no MPDCH Idle mode + DRX mode + MPDCH Idle mode + DRX mode + no MPDCH Idle mode + with / without MPDCH P91b P91e P91d P91f P91a P91c P91g DL TBF establishment successes Transfer mode While T3192 running Idle mode + non-DRX mode + MPDCH Idle mode + non-DRX mode + no MPDCH Idle mode + DRX mode + MPDCH Idle mode + DRX mode + no MPDCH Idle mode + with / without MPDCH P90b P90e P90d P90f P90a P90c P90g

GPRS/EGPRS request/success

Only EGPRS GPRS/EGPRS request/success Only EGPRS

UL TBF establishment requests Idle mode + MPDCH P62a Idle mode + no MPDCH P62c Transfer mode P62b P438c Idle mode + with / without MPDCH P62d

UL TBF establishment successes Idle mode + MPDCH P30a Idle mode + no MPDCH P30c Transfer mode P30b Idle mode + with / without MPDCH P30d

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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All other counters have been modified in order to take into account the TBFs established in EGPRS mode.

Page 93

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

QoS Indicators, Failure

B9
94

DL and UL TBF establishment: failures


Congestion rate (radio-AbisAter-GPU) Radio congestion rate % of time during which PDCH allocation for DL TBF is not possible due to congestion Abis congestion rate ATer congestion rate DSP congestion rate CPU congestion rate Radio problem rate Gb problem rate BSS problem rate % TBF establishment failures Downlink (P14 + P105g + P105c + P105e+P105i) / (P91a +P91b+ Congestion (radio-Abis-AterP91c + P91d + P91e + P91f) GPU) rate P14 / (P91a + P91b + P91c + P91d + P91e + P91f) Radio congestion rate (P13 / 10) / GP % of time during which PDCH allocation for UL TBF is not possible due to congestion (P105i) / (P91a + P91b + P91c + P91d + P91e + P91f) Abis congestion rate P105g / (P91a + P91b + P91c + P91d + P91e + P91f) ATer congestion rate P105c / (P91a + P91b + P91c + P91d + P91e + P91f) DSP congestion rate P105e / (P91a + P91b + P91c + P91d + P91e + P91f) CPU congestion rate P15 / (P91a + P91b + P91c + P91d + P91e + P91f) Radio problem rate P65 / (P91a + P91b + P91c + P91d + P91e + P91f) Gb problem rate (P91a + P91b + P91c + P91d + P91e + P91f - P14 BSS problem rate P15 - P90a - P90b - P90c- P90d - P90e - P90f - P105e P105c - P105g - P105i - P203) / (P91a + P91b + P91c + Modified P91d + P91e + P91f) Uplink (P27 + P105h + P105d + P105f+P105j) / (P62a + P62b + P62c) P27 / (P62a + P62b + P62c) (P26 / 10) / GP

(P105j) / (P62a + P62b + P62c - P438c)

NewB9

P105h / (P62a + P62b + P62c) P105d / (P62a + P62b + P62c) P105f / (P62a + P62b + P62c) P28 / (P62a + P62b + P62c) P66 / (P62a + P62b + P62c) ((P62a + P62b + P62c - P438c - P27 - P28 - P30a P30b - P30c - P66 - P105h - P105f - P105d - P105j P204) / (P62a + P62b + P62c - P438c))

B9

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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A CPU load state is managed per GPU. When the CPU load state reaches the maximum (crosses a high threshold) then no new TBF can be established on this GPU. Radio congestion is often low. When high, it is often linked to a GPU reset or to a problem at BSS level. Therefore Indicators based on distribution of nb of TSs allocated/requested give a better idea of the congestion situation. On DL TBF establishment failure: a RADIO STATUS message is sent to the SGSN.

Page 94

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

QoS Indicators, KPI

B9
95

DL and UL TBF establishment: success rate


TBF establishment requests and successes Downlink Uplink Total number of TBF P91a+P91b+P91c+P91d+P91e Total number of P62a+P62b+P62c establishment +P91f TBF requests establishment KPI requests Total number of TBF P90a+P90b+P90c+P90d+P90e Total number of P30a+P30b+P30c establishment +P90f TBF establishment successes successes TBF establishment (P90a+P90b+P90c+P90d+P90TBF (P30a+P30b+P30c) / success rate e+P90f) / establishment (P62a+P62b+P62c) (P91a+P91b+P91c+P91d+P91 success rate KPI e+P91f) TBF establishment ( (P91a + P91b + P91c + P91d TBF establishment ((P62a + P62b + P62c) allocation rate + P91e + P91f) - (P105c + allocation rate (P105f + P27 +P105h + P105e + P14 + P105g)) / P105d)) / (P62a + P62b (P91a + P91b + P91c + P91d + P62c) + P91e + P91f)

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 95

3.1 Data Transfer Establishment

QoS Indicators, DL TBF Establishment, Graph


96

Downlink TBF Establishment


16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0
14 /0 8/ 20 03 16 /0 8/ 20 03 18 /0 8/ 20 03 20 /0 8/ 20 03 22 /0 8/ 20 03 24 /0 8/ 20 03 26 /0 8/ 20 03 28 /0 8/ 20 03 30 /0 8/ 20 03 01 /0 9/ 20 03 03 /0 9/ 20 03 05 /0 9/ 20 03 07 /0 9/ 20 03 09 /0 9/ 20 03 11 /0 9/ 20 03 13 /0 9/ 20 03

102 100 98 96 94 92 90

BSS fail Gb fail Radio fail Congestion Request % Allocated % Success

Thresholds:
Significant traffic is reached for 2000 DL TBF requests/cell/day (less when a Delayed downlink TBF release is activated) A UL/DL TBF establishment success rate is seen as good above 95% (except if CS2 is used at the beginning of a DL TBF)

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Typical values of DL establishment success rate when CS2 is used at the beginning of DL TBF: 94%, 96%. TBF establishment indicators should be provided on a per DL and UL basis because the procedures are very different and QoS has to be assessed and interpreted differently. The UL TBF establishment can be degraded because of ghost Random Access messages. The amount of bytes transferred at RLC or LLC level should be considered as a significant traffic indicator (more Web browsing usage than WAP). The nb of DL TBF establishment requests can should be considered as a GPRS activity indicator.

Page 96

B9
97

3 Description of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Counters and Indicators

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 97

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

TBF Progress
Data Transfer established

B9
98

RLCs blocks transfer

Data transfer resumption (DL TBF and UL) NewB9

TBF resource re-allocation

Modified B9

Data Transfer released

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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A TBF is considered in progress after it has been allocated successfully and before a release of this TBF is triggered. When a TBF is in progress, the following processes are or can be performed: The transfer of data is on-going: useful RLC blocks. LLC dummy commands The TBF resources are re-allocated. The transfer of data is resumed

Page 98

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

Data Transfer Resumption during a DL TBF in Delayed Phase


99

MS
DL transfer / Active phase

MFS one but last useful RLC data block last useful RLC data block, polling (EGPRS) Packet DL Ack/Nack
T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL

SGSN

DL transfer / Delayed phase

Dummy block, polling Packet DL Ack/Nack

P421
T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL

T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL = T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME

Dummy block, polling Packet DL Ack/Nack new useful last RLC data block useful last RLC data block
DL transfer / Active phase

P421
T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL

P422

stop

LLC PDU

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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A data transfer resumption is not a real TBF establishment since the TBF established previously with the MS being in Delayed phase is re-activated. During the Delayed DL TBF phase, the BSS sends Dummy LLC UI commands to the MS leading to periodic sending of RLC blocks containing these dummy LLC data. As the application data transfer is burstly in a GPRS network (download of a web page made of a lot of components (text, pictures)), it is very important to provide the way to resume a DL transfer of LLC PDUs using the same radio resources already established rather than to re-establish again the DL TBF with the MS. Timers T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL is the duration between the last useful RLC block sent to the MS (eventually completed with a Dummy UI command) and the first Dummy UI command block sent during the DL TBF delayed phase. T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL = 60 ms (default value). It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. The Min value of 60 ms is needed to ensure that T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL >= T_MIN_POLL T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL is the duration between the 2 consecutive Dummy UI command blocks sent during the DL TBF delayed phase. T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_ POL = 200 ms (default value). It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. t_delayed_dl_tbf_rel is the maximum time during which the DL TBF stays in Delayed phase before being actually released. It corresponds to the typical response time of a network server as seen from this MFS. t_delayed_dl_tbf_rel = T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME = 1600 ms (default value). It can be set at the OMC-R level. T_MIN_POLL: Minimum time between two consecutive polling requests .

Page 99

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

Data Transfer Resumption during a UL TBF in Extended Phase

B9
100

The UL transfer can resume at any time during the extended phase
MS
Active UL data transfer

MFS RLC/MAC block (BSN=n, CV=0) LLC PDU (last LLC) P. UL Ack/Nack (FAI=0, SSN = n+1) start USF

SGSN

Extended UL data transfer

Dummy RLC data block USF Dummy RLC data block USF RLC/MAC block (BSN=n+1)

P462
T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL

P462
stop

Active UL data transfer

USF RLC/MAC block (BSN=n+2)

. . .
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

LLC PDU

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Page 100

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

TBF Resources Re-allocation


4 different TBF reallocations are permanently activated:
T1: reallocation to maintain a TBF alive despite the CS preemption of some RTSs or of some GCHs in the cell Modified B9 T2: reallocation of an on-going TBF when establishing a concurrent TBF T3: reallocation useful to Modified B9
Establish a new M-EGCH link for one of the TRXs of the cell Perform a radio de-fragmentation process Provide a higher throughput, if it is possible, to a TBF

B9
101

T4: reallocation to move a UL GPRS TBF sharing one PDCH with a DL EGPRS TBF onto PDCHs which do not support a DL EGPRS TBF. It concerns only GPRS TBFs

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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In B8, the T3 reallocation aimed at increasing the number of RTSs of any TBF with a sub-optimal allocation in the direction of the bias. In addition, the T3 reallocation was also used in order to reallocate an EGPRS TBF onto a TRX having a higher EGPRS capability. In B9, the scope of the T3 reallocation has been extended : To establish a new M-EGCH link for one of the TRXs of the cell To perform a radio defragmentation process i.e. to improve the TBFs radio resource usage in the cell. The goal is that the PDCHs supporting the TBFs in the cell are always the first (or left-most) allocated PDCHs of the cell In particular, this will limit the risks that the TBFs are impacted by a CS preemption. To provide a higher throughput, if it is possible, to any TBF in the cell. A higher throughput can be provided to a TBF by just changing its PDCH allocation (even if its number of RTSs keeps the same). Typically, the throughput will be higher if the TBF is less multiplexed (with other TBFs) on the new PDCHs. But the T3 reallocation will also enable to increase the number of RTSs of a TBF in the following cases: for the MSs whose traffic type was signalling and has passed to data in RRM-PCC, or following the reception of an RR Allocation Indication message from the BSC allocating some new RTSs in the cell

Page 101

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

TBF Re-allocation of the 2 UL and DL TBFs on-going


102

MS
UL and DL Data transfer (old resources)

MFS

RLC data block


PDTCHUL

T1

T3
DL:P403c UL:P404c DL:P405c UL:P406c

T4
DL:P403d UL:P404d DL:P405d UL:P406d

RLC data block


PDTCHDL

Packet timeslot reconfigure, polling


PACCHDL of DL TBF

DL:P403a UL:P404a DL:P405a UL:P406a

Packet control ack


PACCHUL of DL TBF

the MS switches to the new resources (max. 40 ms)MS_TIME_TO_SWITCH_TO_NEW_PDCH


+ RRBP delay
UL and DL Data transfer (new resources)

RLC data block RLC data block

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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During the re-allocation procedure, the set of PDCHs allocated to the UL or/and DL TBF are modified. The following resources can be modified as well: the timing advance slot and index of the UL or/and DL TBFs, the PACCH slot of the UL or/and DL TBFs, the USFs allocated to the UL TBF, the UL or/and DL TFI. During the radio resource re-allocation procedure: the TBF mode can not be modified. the EGPRS window size cannot be decreased. However the EGPRS window size in the DL (resp. UL) must be increased in case the number of time slots allocated to the MS in the DL (resp. UL) increases. Timers MS_TIME_TO_SWITCH_TO_NEW_PDCH: the time a Mobile Station needs to switch to the assigned PDCHs after acknowledging a (re)assignment message (PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT, PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT or PACKET TIMESLOT RECONFIGURE). MS_TIME_TO_SWITCH_TO_NEW_PDCH = 40 ms (default value). It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. The 3GPP standard mandates the MS to switch to the new resources in 40 ms but some MSs can take more time. Let us consider that an MS has 2 TBFs on-going in both UL and DL directions but is candidate for re-allocation in the UL direction only (T1 or T3 or T4): then the counter of re-allocation request in the DL direction is also incremented . At the end of the UL re-allocation procedure, the counter of DL re-allocation success is incremented whether the UL reallocation has been successful or not because the counter of re-allocation request in the DL direction has been previously incremented. Same consideration can be done when an MS has 2 TBFs on-going in both UL and DL directions but is candidate for re-allocation in the DL direction only (T1 or T3 or T4). The MFS starts timer T_ACK_WAIT after sending a Packet Timeslot Reconfigure message to wait for MS acknowledgement (Packet Control Ack message). If Packet Control Ack is not received, the MS resends the Packet Timeslot Reconfigure message. If after the MAX_RETRANS_DL+1 attempts the MS has not acknowledged the resource re-allocation then both DL and UL are released. New counters in B8: P403d, P404d, P405d, P406d. Modified in B8: P403a, P404a, P405a, P406a, P403c, P404c, P405c, P406c take into account TBF established in EGPRS mode.
Page 102

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

TBF Re-allocation of the only TBF on-going (DL or UL)


103

MS
DL/UL Data transfer (old resources)

MFS

RLC data block


PDTCHUL

T1

T3
DL:P403c UL:P404c DL:P405c UL:P406c

T4
DL:P403d UL:P404d DL:P405d UL:P406d

RLC data block


DL Packet downlink/uplink Assignment, polling DL:P403a

PDTCH

PACCHDL of DL TBF / PACCHDL of UL TBF

UL:P404a DL:P405a UL:P406a

Packet control ack


PACCHUL of DL TBF / PACCHUL of UL TBF

the MS switches to the new resources (max. 40 ms)MS_TIME_TO_SWITCH_TO_NEW_PDCH


+ RRBP delay
DL/UL Data transfer (new resources)

RLC data block RLC data block

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The MFS starts timer T_ACK_WAIT after sending a Packet Downlink/Uplink Assignment message to wait for MS acknowledgement (Packet Control Ack message). If Packet Control Ack is not received the MS resends the Packet Downlink/Uplink Assignment message. If after the MAX_RETRANS_DL+1 attempts the MS has not acknowledged the resource re-allocation then the on-going DL/UL is released. New counters in B8: P403d, P404d, P405d, P406d. Modified in B8: P403a, P404a, P405a, P406a, P403c, P404c, P405c, P406c take into account the TBFs established in EGPRS mode.

Page 103

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

TBF Re-alloc of on-going UL TBF on DL TBF Establishment


104

MS
UL Data transfer (old resources)

MFS

RLC data block


PDTCHUL

LLC PDU Packet timeslot reconfigure, polling


PACCHDL of UL TBF

P404b

T2
P406b

Packet control ack


PACCHUL of UL TBF

the MS switches to the new resources (max. 40 ms)


MS_TIME_TO_SWITCH_TO_NEW_PDCH + RRBP delay

UL and DL Data transfer (new resources)

RLC data block


PDTCHUL

RLC data block


PDTCHDL

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The MFS starts timer T_ACK_WAIT after sending a Packet Timeslot Reconfigure message to wait for MS acknowledgement (Packet Control Ack message). If Packet Control Ack is not received the MS resends the Packet Timeslot Reconfigure message. If after the MAX_RETRANS_DL+1 attempts the MS has not acknowledged the resource re-allocation then both DL and UL are released.

Page 104

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

TBF Re-alloc of on-going DL TBF on UL TBF Establishment


105

MS
DL Data transfer (old resources)

MFS

RLC data block


PDTCHDL

Packet DL Ack/Nack with Channel request


PACCHUL of DL TBF

Packet timeslot reconfigure, polling


PACCHDL of DL TBF

P403b

Packet control ack


PACCHUL of DL TBF

T2
P405b

the MS switches to the new resources (max. 40 ms)


MS_TIME_TO_SWITCH_TO_NEW_PDCH + RRBP delay

UL and DL Data transfer (new resources)

RLC data block


PDTCHUL

RLC data block


PDTCHDL

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The MFS starts timer T_ACK_WAIT after sending a Packet Timeslot Reconfigure message to wait for MS acknowledgement (Packet Control Ack message). If Packet Control Ack is not received the MS resends the Packet Timeslot Reconfigure message. If after the MAX_RETRANS_DL+1 attempts the MS has not acknowledged the resource re-allocation then both DL and UL are released.

Page 105

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

Exercise
106

Exercise: Using the trace 3, find the time when the DL transfer is resumed

Time allowed: 30 minutes

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 106

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

TBF Resource Re-allocation, Failures


107

TBF resource re-allocation FAILURE

no new PDCH allocation can be found

Radio pb

BSS pb

External TBF release request

Suspend

Cell reselection

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 107

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

TBF Resources Re-allocation, Failures, no new PDCH


108

T1 case
counter =
DL:P423a UL:P424a

if no new PDCH allocation can be found then the TBF marked for soft preemption will be released at T_PDCH_PREEMPTION expiry

T2/T3/T4 cases
counter =
DL:P423b/P423c/P423d UL:P424b/P424c/P424d

if no new PDCH allocation can be found then the on-going TBF continue with its current PDCH allocation

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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T3 re-allocation conditions

Page 108

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

TBF Resources Re-allocation, Failures, Radio


109

MS
UL and/or DL Data transfer (old resources)

MFS

RLC data block


PDTCCHUL

RLC data block


PDTCHDL

Packet timeslot reconfigure, polling or, Packet downlink assignment or, Packet uplink assignment Packet control ack
PACCHUL of DL TBF

T1
DL:P407a UL:P408a T_ACK_WAIT expiry

T2
DL:P407b UL:P408a

T3
DL:P407c UL:P408c

T4
DL:P407d UL:P408d

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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All these counters are incremented when the last MAX_DL_RETRANS+1 re-allocation attempt has failed (Packet Control Ack message not received from the MS). Re-allocation failures due to radio can be due to a problem on the DL path. In case of trigger T2, the re-allocation failure of the TBF also leads to an establishment failure due to radio of the TBF to be established in the opposite direction.

Page 109

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

TBF Resources Re-alloc, Failures, External Request, BSS


110

External request
MS BSC MFS
T1

SGSN
T2
DL:P425b UL:P426b

UL and/or DL Data transfer (old resources)

RLC data block


PDTCCHUL

T3
DL:P425c UL:P426c

T4
DL:P425d UL:P426d

RLC data block


PDTCHDL

DL:P425a UL:P426a

Packet timeslot reconfigure, polling or, Packet downlink assignment or, T_ACK_WAIT Packet uplink assignment MS suspend
GSL

OR

Flush-LL

Problem at BSS level


no specific counter

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Re-allocation failures due to radio can be due to a problem on the DL path. In case of trigger T2, the re-allocation failure of the TBF also leads to an establishment failure due to radio of the TBF to be established in the opposite direction.

Page 110

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

QoS Indicators

B9
111

DL and UL TBF progress


TBF establishment TBF statistics: -duration, number, throughput, - distribution on volume NewB9 Delayed DL TBF: active/delayed phase, transfer resumption TBF resources re-allocation Triggers T1. T2. T3.T4 Number of candidate TBFs Number of successes and success rate TBF release time
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Failures: congestion, radio, BSS, external request

Page 111

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

QoS Indicators, TBF Statistics 1/5


DL and UL TBF progress: TBF statistics
Modified B9 TBF statistics Downlink Uplink Average GPRS TBF duration (P52a / 10) / (P90a + P90b + Average GPRS TBF duration (P129a / 10) / (P30a + P30b + in ack mode P90c + P90d + P90e + P90f) in ack mode P30c) Average GPRS TBF duration (P52b / 10) / (P90a + P90b + Average GPRS TBF duration (P129b / 10) / (P30a + P30b + in nack mode P90c + P90d + P90e + P90f) in nack mode P30c) Average EGPRS TBF (P52c / 10) / (P90a + P90b + Average EGPRS TBF (P129c / 10) / (P30a + P30b + duration in ack mode P90c + P90d + P90e + P90f) duration in ack mode P30c) Average EGPRS TBF (P52d / 10) / (P90a + P90b + Average EGPRS TBF (P129d / 10) / (P30a + P30b + duration in nack mode P90c + P90d + P90e + P90f) duration in nack mode P30c) Maximum number of TBF p35 Maximum number of TBF p39 simultaneously established simultaneously established Average number of TBF p36 / 10 Average number of TBF p40 / 10 simultaneously established simultaneously established Average useful throughput CELL (P55a*160 + P55b*240 Average useful throughput in CELL (P57a*160 + P57b*240 + in kbit/s at RLC level per + P55c*288 + P55d*400 + kbit/s at RLC level per TBF P57c*288 + P57d*400 + TBF Modified B9
P55e*176 + P55g*296 + P55i*448 + (P55k*896 + P55m*1184)/2) p52c)*1000) P55f*224 P55h*352 P55j*592 P55l*1088 / ((P52a + + + + + P57e*176 + P57f*224 P57g*296 + P57h*352 + P57i*448 + P57j*592 (P57k*896 + P57l*1088 P57m*1184)/2)) / ((P129a P129c)*1000)

B9
112

+ ( + + +

Note : New formulas in B9 to take into account the new coding schemes in UL. The RLC blocks retransmissions are not counted in both directions

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The max nb of TBFs simultaneously established is meaningful per hour or per day. The average nb of TBFs simultaneously established is less reliable due to the difference between the gauge polling period and the average TBF duration.

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DL and UL TBF progress: TBF statistics
NewB9

B9
113

P451a

CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_UL_TBF_CELL

Cumulated time during which an UL TBF uses one PDCH, for all PDCHs of the TBF, and for all TBFs of the cell (in GPRS or EGPRS mode).

P451b

CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL_TBF_CELL

Cumulated time during which an DL TBF uses one PDCH, for all PDCHs of the TBF, and for all TBFs of the cell (in GPRS or EGPRS mode).

P461

CUMULATED_ACT_EXT_UL_CONNECTION_TIME

Cumulated overall time of UL TBF connections (in active state or extended phase). Cumulated time during which a DL TBF established for GMM signalling purposes uses a PDCH (in GPRS or EGPRS mode), for all TBFs of the cell.

P452

CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL_TBF_GMM_SIG_CEL L

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P452: For a given DL TBF, this counter is started at the establishment of the DL TBFs established to carry GMM signalling traffic to the MS. It is stopped at the end of the active phase of the DL TBF or on receipt of a DL LLC PDU without the T-bit set. P451: Note: Active , delayed, extended phases of the TBF are taken into account (only).

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DL and UL TBF progress: TBF statistics distribution on duration (B9 MR4)
NewB9
DL UL Definition Tenth interval of the distribution on duration of DL/UL TBFs. For DL It contains : number of DL TBFs whose duration is in duration band 10 Duration band 10 is defined by : PD_DL_TBF_DURATION_THR_9<= duration < PD_DL_TBF_DURATION_THR_10 Ninth cell of the duration on DL/UL TBF duration. Eighth cell of the duration on DL/UL TBF duration. Seventh cell of the duration on DL/UL TBF duration. Sixth cell of the duration on DL/UL TBF duration. Fifth cell of the duration on DL/UL TBF duration. Fourth cell of the duration on DL/UL TBF duration. Third cell of the duration on DL/UL TBF duration. Second cell of the duration on DL/UL TBF duration. First cell of the duration on DL/UL TBF duration.

B9
114

P453b_10

P453a_10

P453b_9 P453b_8 P453b_7 P453b_6 P453b_5 P453b_4 P453b_3 P453b_2 P453b_1

P453a_9 P453a_8 P453a_7 P453a_6 P453a_5 P453a_4 P453a_3 P453a_2 P453a_1

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Note: DL TBF in GPRS and EGPRS mode, in RLC acknowledged and in RLC unacknowledged mode are taken into account. Only the active phase of the TBF is taken into account.

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DL and UL TBF progress: TBF statistics distribution on volume (B9 MR4)
NewB9
DL UL Definition Tenth interval of the distribution on volume of DL/UL TBFs. For DL It contains : number of DL TBFs whose LLC volume (in RLC ack mode only) is in LLC volume band 10. LLC volume band 10 is defined by : PD_DL_TBF_VOLUME_THR_8<= LLC volume < PD_DL_TBF_VOLUME_THR_9 Ninth cell of the distribution on volume of DL/UL TBF. Eighth cell of the distribution on volume of DL/UL TBF. Seventh cell of the distribution on volume of DL/UL TBF. Sixth cell of the distribution on volume of DL/UL TBF. Fifth cell of the distribution on volume of DL/UL TBF. Fourth cell of the distribution on volume of DL/UL TBF. Third cell of the distribution on volume of DL/UL TBF. Second cell of the distribution on volume of DL/UL TBF. First cell of the distribution on volume of DL/ULTBF.

B9
115

P454b_10

P454a_10

P454b_9 P454b_8 P454b_7 P454b_6 P454b_5 P454b_4 P454b_3 P454b_2 P454b_1

P454a_9 P454a_8 P454a_7 P454a_6 P454a_5 P454a_4 P454a_3 P454a_2 P454a_1

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Only the active phase of the TBF is taken into account

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B9
116

DL and UL TBF progress: TBF statistics distribution on units of PDCH allocated (B9 NewB9 MR4)
DL UL Definition Tenth interval of the distribution on units of PDCH allocated to DL/UL TBFs. For DL It contains : number of DL TBFs whose number of PDCH allocated units is in PDCH units band 10. PDCH units band 10 is defined by : PD_DL_PDCH_UNIT_ALLOC_THR_9<= allocated PDCH units < PD_DL_PDCH_UNIT_ALLOC_THR_10 Ninth cell of the distribution on units of PDCH allocated to DL/UL TBFs. Eighth cell of the distribution on units of PDCH allocated to DL/UL TBFs. Seventh cell of the distribution on units of PDCH allocated to DL/UL TBFs. Sixth cell of the distribution on units of PDCH allocated to DL/UL TBFs. Fifth cell of the distribution on units of PDCH allocated to DL/UL TBFs. Fourth cell of the distribution on units of PDCH allocated to DL/UL TBFs. Third cell of the distribution on units of PDCH allocated to DL/UL TBFs. Second cell of the distribution on units of PDCH allocated to DL/UL TBFs. First cell of the distribution on units of PDCH allocated to DL/UL TBFs.

P455b_10

P455a_10

P455b_9 P455b_8 P455b_7 P455b_6 P454b_5 P455b_4 P455b_3 P455b_2 P455b_1

P455a_9 P455a_8 P455a_7 P455a_6 P455a_5 P455a_4 P455a_3 P455a_2 P455a_1

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UL : This distribution measures the number of PDCH units assigned to the MS in UL at the release of the UL TBF. An UL PDCH unit represents the percentage of the PDCHs that is used by the assigned UL TBF. This distribution is computed at the release of each UL TBF (i.e. indication of reception of acknowledgement of final PUAN). DL: This distribution measures the number of PDCH units assigned to the MS in DL at the release of the DL TBF. A DL PDCH unit represents the percentage of the PDCHs that is used by the assigned DL TBF. This distribution is computed at the release of each DL TBF (i.e. at the expiry of timer T3192).

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QoS Indicators, Delayed DL TBF


117

DL and UL TBF progress: Delayed DL TBF


Delayed DL TBF Cumulated time of active DL GPRS TBF P52a + P52b connections Cumulated time of active DL EGPRS TBF P52c + P52d connections Percentage of time during which the DL TBF (P52a+P52b+P52c+P52d) / P16 * 100 connections are in the active state Percentage of time during which the DL GPRS (P52a + P52b) / P16 *100 TBF connections are in the active state Percentage of time during which the DL EGPRS TBF connections are in the active state Number of DL TBF transfer resumptions in delayed release state Rate of DL TBF transfer resumptions per established DL TBF Number of DL RLC blocks containing only dummy LLC UI Command PDU on PDTCH Number of DL RLC blocks sent on PDTCH Rate of RLC blocks containing only dummy LLC UI commands on DL PDTCH (P52c + P52d) / P16 * 100

P422 P422 / (P90a + P90b + P90c + P90d + P90e + P90f) P421 P350a P421 / P350a

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Page 117

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

QoS Indicators, Other Throughput Statistics

B9
118

INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA DOWNLINK FORMULA UPLINK THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME

AVERAGE USEFUL THROUGHPUT PER PDCH Average of useful throughput on DL or UL PDTCH at RLC level per PDCH in RLC acknowledged mode. CELL (P55a*160 + P55b*240 + P55c*288 + P55d*400 + P55e*176 + P55f*224 + P55g*296 + P55h*352 + P55i*448 + P55j*592 + (P55k*896 + P55l*1088 + P55m*1184)/2) / (P38e*1000) CELL (P57a*160 + P57b*240 + P57c*288 + P57d*400 + P57e*176 + P57f*224 + P57g*296 + P57h*352 + P57i*448 + P57j*592 + (P57k*896 + P57l*1088 + P57m*1184)/2) / (P38f*1000)

New formula in B9 to take into account the new coding schemes in UL.The RLC blocks retransmissions are not counted in both directions. Reference Time: Cumulated time during which the PDCHs are established. TRPDDPDA, TRPDUPDA UNIT Kbits/second

INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA DOWNLINK FORMULA UPLINK THRESHOLD COMMENT

AVERAGE USEFUL THROUGHPUT PER CELL Average of useful throughput on DL or UL PDTCH at RLC layer CELL (P55a*160 + P55b*240 + P55c*288 + P55d*400 + P55e*176 + P55f*224 + P55g*296 + P55h*352 + P55i*448 + P55j*592 + (P55k*896 + P55l*1088 + P55m*1184)/2) / (PERIOD*1000) CELL (P57a*160 + P57b*240 + P57c*288 + P57d*400 + P57e*176 + P57f*224 + P57g*296 + P57h*352 + P57i*448 + P57j*592 + (P57k*896 + P57l*1088 + P57m*1184)/2)) / (PERIOD*1000)

New formulas in B9 to take into account the new coding schemes in UL. DL: The DL retransmitted blocks and blocks containing LLC dummy UI commands are not counted. UL: The UL retransmissions are not counted. RLC ack mode only is considered. TRPDDA, TRPDUA UNIT Kbits/second

REF NAME

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Page 118

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

QoS Indicators, DL TBF states, Graph


119

DL TBF state
50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0
14 /0 8/ 20 03 16 /0 8/ 20 03 18 /0 8/ 20 03 20 /0 8/ 20 03 22 /0 8/ 20 03 24 /0 8/ 20 03 26 /0 8/ 20 03 28 /0 8/ 20 03 30 /0 8/ 20 03 01 /0 9/ 20 03 03 /0 9/ 20 03 05 /0 9/ 20 03 07 /0 9/ 20 03 09 /0 9/ 20 03 11 /0 9/ 20 03 13 /0 9/ 20 03

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Delay>Active Success % Efficiency % Active

On RNO graphs:
% Efficiency = Rate of DL TBF resumptions per DL TBF establishment % Active = Percentage of time during which the DL TBF connections are in the active state

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The typical values of the Efficiency rate and Active rate: Efficiency rate = 40%, 60% Active rate = 15%, 20%

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3.2 Data Transfer Progress

QoS Indicators, TBF Resources Re-allocation


120

TBF resource re-allocation for each trigger


Nb of TBF candidate resource re-allocations Preparation of the resource re-allocation Ratio of triggers

Failures cause: no PDCH can be found Preparation efficiency rate Failures causes Radio problems Drop cause External requests

Execution of the resource re-allocation

BSS problems Drop cause Execution efficiency rate Nb of TBF resource re-allocation successes time
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Success rate

External requests: FLUSH_LL received from the SGSN, Suspended from the MS. Split between Preparation and Execution phases is driven by the fact that the problems to be interpreted during reallocation are relating to the Trigger type. A TBF Re-allocation is analogue to an Intra cell HO in GPRS.

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QoS Indicators, TBF Resources Re-allocation, Trigger T1


121

DL and UL TBF progress: Resources re-allocation T1


TBF resources re-allocation : trigger T1 Downlink Uplink Nb of TBF candidate for resource realloc P403a Nb of TBF candidate for resource realloc Resource realloc ratio due to trigger T1 P403a / (P403a + P403b + Resource realloc ratio due to trigger T1 P403c + P403d) Nb of resource realloc successes P405a Nb of resource realloc successes Resource realloc success rate P405a / P403a Resource realloc success rate Nb of resource realloc exec fail due to P407a Nb of resource realloc exec fail due to radio problems radio problems Resource realloc exec fail rate due to radio P407a / P403a Resource realloc exec fail rate due to radio problems problems Nb of resource realloc preparation failures P423a Nb of resource realloc preparation failures because no PDCH could be found because no PDCH could be found Resource realloc preparation fail rate due P423a / P403a Resource realloc preparation fail rate due to lack of radio resources to lack of radio resources Resource realloc prep efficiency rate (P403a - P423a) / P403a Resource realloc prep efficiency rate Nb of resource realloc failures due external P425a Nb of resource realloc failures due external request (suspension request or Flush request (suspension request or Flush message) during exec of the realloc message) during exec of the realloc procedure procedure Nb of resource realloc failures due to BSS P403a - P423a - P425a Nb of resource realloc failures due to BSS pb during exec of the realloc procedure P407a - P405a pb during exec of the realloc procedure Exec fail rate due to BSS pb (P403a - P423a - P425a Exec fail rate due to BSS pb P407a - P405a) / P403a Resource realloc exec efficiency rate P405a / (P403a - P423a) Resource realloc exec efficiency rate P404a P404a / (P404a + P404b + P404c + P404d) P406a P406a / P404a P408a P408a / P404a P424a P424a / P404a (P404a - P424a) / P404a P426a

P404a - P424a - P426a P408a - P406a (P404a - P424a - P426a P408a - P406a) / P404a P406a / (P404a - P424a)

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Page 121

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

QoS Indicators, TBF Resources Re-allocation, Trigger T2


122

DL and UL TBF progress: Resources re-allocation T2


TBF resources re-allocation : trigger T2 Downlink Uplink Nb of TBF candidate for resource realloc P403b Nb of TBF candidate for resource realloc Resource realloc ratio due to trigger T1 P403b/ (P403a + P403b + Resource realloc ratio due to trigger T1 P403c + P403d) Nb of resource realloc successes P405b Nb of resource realloc successes Resource realloc success rate P405b / P403b Resource realloc success rate Nb of resource realloc exec fail due to P407b Nb of resource realloc exec fail due to radio problems radio problems Resource realloc exec fail rate due to radio P407b / P403b Resource realloc exec fail rate due to radio problems problems Nb of resource realloc preparation failures P423b Nb of resource realloc preparation failures because no PDCH could be found because no PDCH could be found Resource realloc preparation fail rate due P423b / P403b Resource realloc preparation fail rate due to lack of radio resources to lack of radio resources Resource realloc prep efficiency rate (P403b - P423b) / P403b Resource realloc prep efficiency rate Nb of resource realloc failures due external P425b Nb of resource realloc failures due external request (suspension request or Flush request (suspension request or Flush message) during exec of the realloc message) during exec of the realloc procedure procedure Nb of resource realloc failures due to BSS P403b - P423b - P425b Nb of resource realloc failures due to BSS pb during exec of the realloc procedure P407b - P405b pb during exec of the realloc procedure Exec fail rate due to BSS pb (P403b - P423b - P425b Exec fail rate due to BSS pb P407b - P405b) / P403b Resource realloc exec efficiency rate P405b / (P403b - P423b) Resource realloc exec efficiency rate P404b P404b / (P404a + P404b + P404c + P404d) P406b P406b / P404b P408b P408b / P404b P424b P424b / P404b (P404b - P424b) / P404b P426b

P404b - P424b - P426b P408b - P406b (P404b - P424b - P426b P408b - P406b) / P404b P406b / (P404b - P424b)

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Page 122

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

QoS Indicators, TBF Resources Re-allocation, Trigger T3


123

DL and UL TBF progress: Resources re-allocation T3


TBF resources re-allocation : trigger T3 Downlink Uplink Nb of TBF candidate for resource realloc P403c Nb of TBF candidate for resource realloc Resource realloc ratio due to trigger T1 P403c / (P403a + P403b + Resource realloc ratio due to trigger T1 P403c + P403d) Nb of resource realloc successes P405c Nb of resource realloc successes Resource realloc success rate P405c / P403c Resource realloc success rate Nb of resource realloc exec fail due to P407c Nb of resource realloc exec fail due to radio problems radio problems Resource realloc exec fail rate due to radio P407c / P403c Resource realloc exec fail rate due to radio problems problems Nb of resource realloc preparation failures P423c Nb of resource realloc preparation failures because no PDCH could be found because no PDCH could be found Resource realloc preparation fail rate due P423c / P403c Resource realloc preparation fail rate due to lack of radio resources to lack of radio resources Resource realloc prep efficiency rate (P403c - P423c) / P403c Resource realloc prep efficiency rate Nb of resource realloc failures due external P425c Nb of resource realloc failures due external request (suspension request or Flush request (suspension request or Flush message) during exec of the realloc message) during exec of the realloc procedure procedure Nb of resource realloc failures due to BSS P403c - P423c - P425c Nb of resource realloc failures due to BSS pb during exec of the realloc procedure P407c - P405c pb during exec of the realloc procedure Exec fail rate due to BSS pb (P403c - P423c - P425c Exec fail rate due to BSS pb P407c - P405c) / P403c Resource realloc exec efficiency rate P405c / (P403c - P423c) Resource realloc exec efficiency rate P404c P404c / (P404a + P404b + P404c + P404d) P406c P406c / P404c P408c P408c / P404c P424c P424c / P404c (P404c - P424c) / P404c P426c

P404c - P424c - P426c P408c - P406c (P404c - P424c - P426c P408c - P406c) / P404c P406c / (P404c - P424c)

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Page 123

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

QoS Indicators, TBF Resources Re-allocation, Trigger T4


124

DL and UL TBF progress: Resources re-allocation T4


TBF resources re-allocation : trigger T4 Downlink Uplink Nb of TBF candidate for resource realloc P403d Nb of TBF candidate for resource realloc Resource realloc ratio due to trigger T4 P403d / (P403a + P403b + Resource realloc ratio due to trigger T4 P403c + P403d) Nb of resource realloc successes P405d Nb of resource realloc successes Resource realloc success rate P405d / P403d Resource realloc success rate Nb of resource realloc exec fail due to P407d Nb of resource realloc exec fail due to radio problems radio problems Resource realloc exec fail rate due to radio P407d / P403d Resource realloc exec fail rate due to radio problems problems Nb of resource realloc preparation failures P423d Nb of resource realloc preparation failures because no PDCH could be found because no PDCH could be found Resource realloc preparation fail rate due P423d / P403d Resource realloc preparation fail rate due to lack of radio resources to lack of radio resources Resource realloc prep efficiency rate (P403d - P423d) / P403d Resource realloc prep efficiency rate Nb of resource realloc failures due external P425d Nb of resource realloc failures due external request (suspension request or Flush request (suspension request or Flush message) during exec of the realloc message) during exec of the realloc procedure procedure Nb of resource realloc failures due to BSS P403d - P423d - P425d Nb of resource realloc failures due to BSS pb during exec of the realloc procedure P407d - P405d pb during exec of the realloc procedure Exec fail rate due to BSS pb (P403d - P423d - P425d Exec fail rate due to BSS pb P407d - P405d) / P403d Resource realloc exec efficiency rate P405d / (P403d - P423d) Resource realloc exec efficiency rate P404d P404d / (P404a + P404b + P404c + P404d) P406d P406d / P404d P408d P408d / P404d P424d P424d / P404d (P404d - P424d) / P404d P426d

P404d - P424d - P426d P408d - P406d (P404d - P424d - P426d P408d - P406d) / P404d P406d / (P404d - P424d)

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Page 124

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

QoS Indicators, DL Resources Re-allocation T1, B8 B9


Give an interpretation of the QoS evolution after B9 migration

B9
125

D Lresou rcereallocT 1
2500

B9 migration

1 20 1 00 80

2000

E x ternal stop F ail radio F ail B S S P repfail S uccess %S uccess

1 500 60 1 000 40 500 20 0

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Page 125

1200000 1000000

1400000

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

400000 200000

800000 600000

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

DL resource realloc T2

Give an interpretation of the QoS evolution after B9 migration

QoS Indicators, DL Resources Re-allocation T2, B8 B9

Page 126
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B9 migration

1 0 / 0 3 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 0 5 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 0 7 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 0 9 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 1 1 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 1 3 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 1 5 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 1 7 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 1 9 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 2 1 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 2 3 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 2 5 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 2 7 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 2 9 /2 0 0 5 1 0 / 3 1 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 0 2 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 0 4 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 0 6 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 0 8 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 1 0 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 1 2 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 1 4 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 1 6 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 1 8 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 2 0 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 2 2 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 2 4 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 2 6 /2 0 0 5 1 1 / 2 8 /2 0 0 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

BSS fail

Prep fail

Success

Radio fail

% Success

External stop
126

B9

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

QoS Indicators, DL Resources Re-allocation T3, B8 B9


Give an interpretation of the QoS evolution after B9 migration

B9
127

D Lresou rcereallocT 3
300000 250000 200000 1 50000 1 00000 50000 0

B9 migration

1 00 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 1 0 0

E x ternal stop R adiofail B S Sfail P repfail S uccess %S uccess

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Page 127

3.2 Data Transfer Progress

50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

DL resource realloc T4

Give an interpretation of the QoS evolution after B9 migration

QoS Indicators, DL Resources Re-allocation T4, B8 B9

Page 128
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B9 migration

1 0 /0 3 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /0 5 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /0 7 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /0 9 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /1 1 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /1 3 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /1 5 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /1 7 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /1 9 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /2 1 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /2 3 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /2 5 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /2 7 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /2 9 /2 0 0 5 1 0 /3 1 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /0 2 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /0 4 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /0 6 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /0 8 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /1 0 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /1 2 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /1 4 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /1 6 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /1 8 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /2 0 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /2 2 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /2 4 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /2 6 /2 0 0 5 1 1 /2 8 /2 0 0 5 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

BSS fail

Prep fail

Success

Radio fail

%Success

External stop
128

B9

B9
129

3 Description of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Counters and Indicators

3.3 Data Transfer Release

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Page 129

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Release

B9
130

TBF release

Normal release

Modified B9

Acceptable release

Abnormal release

Cell reselection

Radio

Gb

Modified B9

Suspend

PDCH fast preemption

Reallocation execution failure others

BSS

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Page 130

3.3 Data Transfer Release

Normal TBF Release

B9
131

Normal TBF release

UL TBF release

DL TBF release

Without Delayed Final PUAN

With Delayed Final PUAN

With extended UL TBF


new B9

With Delayed DL TBF release

Without DL TBF Extension

With DL TBF Extension

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DL TBF is said to have been extended in case of an UL TBF establishment during the DL TBF delayed release; the DL delayed phase is extended up to the release of the UL TBF and restarted afterwards

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3.3 Data Transfer Release

UL TBF, Normal Release, without Delayed Final PUAN


132

MS

MFS
Active UL Data transfer

SGSN

one but last useful RLC data block (CV=1)


PDTCHUL

last useful RLC data block (CV=0) last LLC PDU Packet uplink ack/nack (FAI=1), (FAI=1) polling PACCHDL all blocks acknowledged Packet control ack
P22

In case no DL TBF is established, it is better to delay the UL TBF release to be able to establish quickly a subsequent DL TBF on the PACCHDL of the delayed UL TBF rather than on CCCH or PCCCH

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Page 132

3.3 Data Transfer Release

UL TBF, Normal Release, with Delayed Final PUAN


133

MS

MFS
Active UL Data transfer

SGSN

one but last useful RLC data block (CV=1)


PDTCHUL

last useful RLC data block (CV=0) last LLC PDU


PACCHDL

Packet uplink ack/nack (FAI=0) last block not acknowledged

PACCHDL

Packet uplink ack/nack (FAI=1), polling last block acknowledged Packet control ack
P22

T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN expiry

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Timer T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN corresponds to the duration during which the UL is maintained alive in order to be able to establish a DL TBF on PACCH: T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN = 0.4 s (default value). It can be set at the OMC-R level. It should be long enough to let the server send its response to the uplink PDUs received from the MS, while remaining short enough in order not to jeopardize the sending of further uplink PDUs by the MS. Setting T_DELAYED_FINAL_PUAN = 0 s leads to disable this feature.

Page 133

3.3 Data Transfer Release

UL TBF, Normal Release, with extended UL TBF

B9
134

Active UL Data transfer

one but last useful RLC data block (CV=1)


PDTCHUL

last useful RLC data block (CV=0) last LLC PDU


PACCHDL

Packet uplink ack/nack (FAI=0) last block not acknowledged


USF Dummy RLC data block USF Dummy RLC data block

Packet uplink ack/nack (FAI=1), polling PACCHDL last block acknowledged Packet control ack
P22

T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL expiry

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 134

3.3 Data Transfer Release

DL TBF,Normal Release,Delayed DL TBF no Extension


135

MS
Active DL data transfer

MFS one but last useful RLC data block (FBI=0)


PDTCHDL

last useful RLC data block (FBI=0), polling


last block not mentioned

T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL

Packet downlink ack/nack (FAI=0)


PACCHUL

not last acknowledgement

Dummy UI command (FBI=0), polling Packet downlink ack/nack (FAI=0)


Delayed DL data transfer

Dummy UI command (FBI=0), polling Packet downlink ack/nack (FAI=0) Dummy UI command (FBI=1), polling
last block mentioned

T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL

Packet downlink ack/nack (FAI=1)


DL TBF released

T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL expiry P9

last acknowledgement

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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As soon as all the useful blocks have been transferred, the Delayed DL TBF release procedure is triggered in order to allow: to send a coming LLC PDU frame using the same radio resources without being obliged to establish the DL TBF again (T3192 running or not). the MS to establish a UL TBF on PACCH rather than on CCCH or PCCCH. The DL TBF goes from Active state to Delayed state. As the MS will trigger a local DL TBF release if it does not receive DL RLC data blocks (T3190 is running) the MFS is scheduling Dummy UI command blocks in DL according to the following timers: T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL is the duration between the last useful RLC block sent to the MS (eventually completed with a Dummy UI command) and the first Dummy UI command block sent during the DL TBF delayed phase. T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL = 60 ms (default value). It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. 2 timers are used to define the period between 2 DL Dummy UIs sent to the MS: T_MIN_POLL (=60ms), in case of the MS is alone on the PDCH which carries the PACCH T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL (=200ms) in case of the MS is multiplexed on the PDCH which carries the PACCH A global timer t_delayed_dl_tbf_rel monitors the whole Delayed DL TBF release procedure. At t_delayed_dl_tbf_rel expiry, the DL TBF stays in Delayed phase before being actually released. This timer corresponds to the typical response time of a network server as seen from this MFS. t_delayed_dl_tbf_rel = T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME = 1600 ms (default value). It can be set at the OMC-R level.

Page 135

3.3 Data Transfer Release

DL TBF,Normal Release,Delayed DL TBF with Extension


136

MS
Delayed DL TBF release is on-going

MFS Dummy UI command (FBI=0), polling Packet downlink ack/nack (FAI=0) with Channel request Packet UL assignment USF Scheduling Dummy UI command (FBI=0), polling UL RLC data block Packet downlink ack/nack (FAI=0)
T_ACK_WAIT

T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL

UL TBF establishme nt

T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL is stopped T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_UL

Delayed DL TBF release is extended

UL RLC data block

Dummy UI command (FBI=0), polling Packet downlink ack/nack (FAI=0) Packet uplink ack/nack (FAI=1), polling
UL TBF is released

T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_UL

Packet control ack


Delayed DL TBF release is resumed from beginning

T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL is restarted

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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If a UL TBF is established during a Delayed DL TBF release phase then: the countdown of this Delayed DL TBF release phase is stopped (timer t_delayed_dl_tbf_rel). the Dummy UI command blocks are sent in the DL in order that the MS does not release the DL TBF. The Delayed DL TBF release phase is said to be extended. Two cases of UL TBF should be considered: question-answer traffic: corresponds to WAP services or WEB browsing where the UL command induced by the user are small and usually lead to a transfer of only one LLC PDU: The UL polling period induced by Dummy UI command scheduling is kept to T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_ POL . -T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_INITIAL = 60ms (default value). It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. Other cases: correspond to applications like UL FTP file transfer where a lot of LLC PDUs have to be transferred during the same TBF: The UL polling period induced by Dummy UI command sending is increased to T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_ UL in order to decrease the UL load due to the Delayed DL TBF release phase in favor of the UL FTP throughput . -T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_POL_UL = 2 s (default value). It cannot be set at the OMC-R level. As soon as the UL TBF is released, the Delayed DL TBF: the countdown of the Delayed DL TBF release procedure is resumed from the beginning (t_delayed_dl_tbf_rel restarted). the scheduling period of Dummy UI command blocks for the Delayed DL TBF is set back to T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_ POL. At the end of a Delayed DL TBF procedure, the DL TBF is released and the counter P9 is incremented whether the Delayed DL TBF phase has been extended or not.

Page 136

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Normal Release, Exercise

B9
137

Exercise1: Using the trace 1, find the duration between two consecutive Dummy UI command blocks during the Delayed DL TBF release procedure
New B9

Exercise 2 :Using trace number 9 , find duration of the extended phase

Time allowed: 30 minutes

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 137

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Acceptable Release

B9
138

Acceptable release

Cell reselection

Suspend

PDCH fast preemption

MS is reselecting a neighbor cell while in PTM

MS is establishing a CS connection while in PTM


Modified B9

PDCH carrying PACCH of the TBF is to be released

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 138

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Acceptable Release, Cell Reselection, NC0 scenario 1


139

MS
DL transfer PDTCHDL PACCHUL

MFS serving cell


useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling

MFS target cell

SGSN

Packet DL Ack/Nack

The MS decides for cell reselection

N3105 ++
UL transfer establishment in the new cell UL transfer The MS sends an LLC PDU to warn the SGSN about its new cell location

LLC PDU
(TLLI,new BVCI)

P434c
UL

P434d
DL

FLUSH-LL
(TLLI,old BVCI)

FLUSH-LL ACK
(TLLI)

P396b

P396a

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Counter P434d (resp.P434c) gives the number of DL (resp. UL) TBFs which have been released due to an NC0 reselection. It is therefore incremented in this scenario. In this scenario where the FLUSH-LL message is received before the Radio Link Supervision counter N3105 reaches the limit, N3105 is stopped when the FLUSH_LL message is received.Therefore the TBF release is not counted as an abnormal release due to radio. P302b (resp. P302c) is not incremented. Only P396a (resp. P396b) counting the number of TBF release due to the reception of a FLUSH_LL message is incremented.

Page 139

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Acceptable Release, Cell Reselection, NC0 scenario 2


140

MS
DL transfer PDTCHDL

MFS serving cell


useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling

MFS target cell

SGSN

Packet DL Ack/Nack
PACCHUL

The MS decides for cell reselection


UL transfer establishment in the new cell

N3105 ++
UL DL

T_WAIT_FLUSH

N3105 limit

P302c

P302b

RADIO STATUS
UL transfer The MS sends an LLC PDU to warn the SGSN about its new cell location

LLC PDU
(TLLI,new BVCI)

UL

P434c

DL

P434d

FLUSH-LL
(TLLI,old BVCI)

FLUSH-LL ACK
(TLLI)
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9 All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Counter P434d (resp.P434c) gives the number of DL (resp. UL) TBFs which have been released due to an NC0 reselection. It is therefore incremented in this scenario. In this scenario where the FLUSH-LL message is received after the Radio Link Supervision counter N3105 reaches the limit, the radio resources are released when N3105 reaches the limit. Therefore the TBF release is counted as an abnormal release due to radio. P302b (resp. P302c) is incremented whereas P396a (resp. P396b) is not. The timer T_WAIT_FLUSH is started when the abnormal TBF release is triggered. When the FLUSH_LL message is received while T_WAIT_FLUSH is running then T_WAIT_FLUSH is stopped and P434d (resp. P434c) is incremented. In case the FLUSH_LL message is received after T_WAIT_FLUSH has expired then P434d (resp. P434c) is not incremented but P302b (resp. P302c) is.

Page 140

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Acceptable Release, Cell Reselection, NC2


141

MS
DL transfer PDTCHDL

MFS serving cell


useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling

MFS target cell

SGSN

T3158

Packet DL Ack/Nack
PACCHUL

Better cell

expiry T3158
The MS switches to the new cell

Packet measurement report


PACCHUL

PACCHDL T_ACK_WAIT

Packet cell change order, polling


new cell (BCCH,BSIC)

Packet control ack

MFS trigger cell reselection


Radio resources are released locally

UL transfer establishment in the new cell

T_WAIT_FLUSH

UL transfer MS sends an LLC PDU to warn the SGSN about its new cell location

LLC PDU
(TLLI,new BVCI)

P396a
DL

P396b
UL

FLUSH-LL
(TLLI,old BVCI)

FLUSH-LL ACK
(TLLI)

P434b

P434a

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The chart above corresponds to the typical scenario of an NC2 reselection. The same P396a (resp. P396b) counter is incremented in case of a TBF release due to an NC0 reselection provided that the FLUSH-LL message is received before a TBF drop is detected. This should almost always happen in case of NC2 cell reselection since the Radio Link Supervision process is frozen after the BSS gets the Acknowledgment of the Packet Cell Change Order message sent to the MS. In case a TBF Abnormal Release is detected by the Radio Link Supervision process then P302b (resp. P302c) as well as P434b (resp. P434a) is incremented but P396a (resp. P396b) is not.

T3158 = NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T NC2 in PTM or NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_I in case of NC2 in PIM = measurement report interval timer

Page 141

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Acceptable Release, Cell Reselection, Counters


142

MS in PIM

Cell reselection NC0+NC2 P397

MS in PTM

No TBF release

TBF release

TBF release due to flush NC0+NC2 P396b / P396a

TBF release due to radio P302c / P302b Flush before T_Wait_Flush expiry after

TBF release due to cell reselection

No counter incremented

NC2 P434a / P434b

NC0 P434c / P434d

counter UL TBF / DL TBF


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Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

The chart above concerns the PM counters incremented during a cell reselection procedure. P397 is incremented each time a FLUSH_LL is received by the MFS relating to a certain serving cell. P396a, P396b, P434a, P434b, P434c and P434d are incremented only for TBF release during a cell reselection procedure. P302b and P302c are global counters relating to TBF abnormal release due to radio. They are incremented when the TBF abnormal release is triggered due to a cell reselection or not.

Page 142

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Acceptable Release, MS Suspend, scenario 1


MS
DL transfer PDTCHDL

B9
143

BSC
useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling

MFS

SGSN

MSC/VLR

Packet DL Ack/Nack
PACCHUL

useful RLC data block useful RLC data block

The MS enters the CS dedicated mode Suspend MS Suspend


P98c
DL
DL TBF Release due to Suspend

Suspend PDU
P98d
UL UL

DL

P98a P98e

P98b P98f
New in B9

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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the counter(s) P98c and/or P98d are incremented counts the number of MS SUSPEND messaged received for a DL (resp UL) TBF. If the TBF is released due to the reception of MS SUSPEND message then the counter P98a and/or P98b is incremented, The difference between P98a and P98e in DL (resp P98b and P98f in UL): see next slide.

Page 143

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Acceptable Release, MS Suspend, scenario 2


MS
DL transfer PDTCHDL

B9
144

BSC
useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling

MFS

SGSN

MSC/VLR

Packet DL Ack/Nack
PACCHUL

useful RLC data block useful RLC data block

DL
Abnormal DL TBF Release

P302b

RADIO STATUS
T_WAIT_FLUSH

Suspend

MS Suspend
P98c P98e
DL

P98d P98f
UL
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New in B9

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

If the TBF is released due to the reception of MS SUSPEND message then the counter P98e and/or P98f is incremented, even if the TBF has been released before the reception of the suspend in the previous T_WAIT_FLUSH seconds. When TBF is released before the MFS receives the MS SUSPEND message, in this case the MFS increments the Radio Problem related counter(s) P302b and/or P302c rather than the counter(s) P98a and/or P98b. In this case the Radio related counter(s) is(are) incremented. the counter(s) P98c and/or P98d are incremented in both cases since P98c (resp P98d) counts the number of MS SUSPEND messaged received for a DL (resp UL) TBF.

Page 144

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Acceptable Release, Fast preemption


145

MS
DL transfer PDTCHDL

MFS
useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling

Packet DL Ack/Nack
PACCHUL

useful RLC data block useful RLC data block

Traffic load

Packet TBF release


PACCHDL

P146

P147

The PDCH carrying the PACCH of the TBF is released

DL

UL

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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A PDCH de-allocation following a PDCH preemption procedure can lead to a TBF release before the normal end of the TBF if the PACCH of the related TBF is carried by the PDCH which is de-allocated. This can be avoided thanks to the TBF Re-allocation procedure on Trigger T1. However if radio resources are lacking the TBF Re-allocation can failed and the TBF is abnormally released.

Page 145

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF Abnormal Release


146

Abnormal release

Radio

BSS

Gb

others

Reallocation execution failure Radio link failure

Real radio link failure

Blocking situation

Some Suspend

Stagnating transmissio n window

Real radio problems

Some Cell reselection

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Real radio problems corresponds to : TBF release due to a radio resource reallocation failure TBF release due to the Suspend or Cell reselection cases which are counted as a TBF release due to radio problem

Page 146

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF, Abnormal Release, Radio


147

Radio link failure:

DL

P302b

UL

P302c

Real Radio link failure:


Coverage Interference Too low efficiency of RLC blocks transmission
DL

Some Suspend : Some Cell reselection :

P98c-P98a

UL

P98d-P98b
UL

DL

P434b+P434d-P396a

P434a+P434c-P396b

Re-allocation execution failure:

P407a+P407b+P407c+P407d
UL DL

P408a+P408b+P408c+P408d

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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A radio link failure can be due to a real radio problem like coverage, interference but also to undetected problems at BSS level like bad hardware components, Abis microwave link transmission. After a radio link failure, a RADIO STATUS message is sent to the SGSN on Gb interface with one of the following causes: radio contact lost with the MS: when the radio block transfer has been interrupted. radio link quality insufficient to continue the communication: when the radio block transfer is not efficient enough. Recalls: N3105 is the counter monitoring the radio link during a DL TBF. It is incremented each time a Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message scheduled by the MFS is not received from the MS. N3101 is the counter monitoring the radio link during a UL TBF. It is incremented each time an up-link RLC block scheduled by the MFS is not received from the MS. N3103 is the counter monitoring the normal end of a UL TBF. It is incremented each time the Final Packet Control Ack message scheduled by the MFS at the end of the UL TBF is not received from the MS.

Page 147

3.3 Data Transfer Release

TBF, Abnormal Release, Gb, BSS, Others


148

Gb:

P11

P24

DL

UL

BSS: no specific counter

Other abnormal release cases:


Blocking situation (MS error, too high UL traffic) Stagnating transmission window (MS error, radio problem)
P303a
DL

P303b
UL

P385a

P385b

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 148

3.3 Data Transfer Release

Exercise
149

Exercise 1: Using the trace 11, find which kind of TBF release is observed Exercise 2: Using the trace 13, find which kind of TBF release is observed

Time allowed: 30 minutes

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Page 149

3.3 Data Transfer Release

QoS Indicators
150

DL and UL TBF release TBF establishment TBF end Normal release rate Cell reselection Acceptable release rate Radio Drop causes PDCH fast preemption Suspend procedure

Radio fail during resource re-alloc exec BSS

time

Gb Other problems: blocking situation + N_stagnating window


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Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

Page 150

3.3 Data Transfer Release

QoS Indicators, KPI


151

DL and UL TBF release: Drop rate


TBF releases and drops Downlink Normal release rate P9 / (P90a + P90b + P90c + Normal release rate KPI P90d + P90e + P90f) Acceptable release (P146 + P98c + P434b + Acceptable release rate P434d) / (P90a + P90b + P90c rate KPI + P90d + P90e + P90f) Drop rate (P90a + P90b + P90c + P90d Drop rate + P90e + P90f - P9 - P146 P98c - (P434b + P434d)) / (P90a + P90b + P90c + P90d KPI + P90e + P90f) Release rate due to PDCH P146 / (P90a + P90b + P90c Release rate due to PDCH fast pre-emption + P90d + P90e + P90f) fast pre-emption Release rate due to Release rate due to suspend procedure from P98a / (P90a + P90b + P90c + suspend procedure from P90d + P90e + P90f) MS MS Release rate due to cell (P434b + P434d) / (P90a + Release rate due to Flush reselection P90b + P90c + P90d + P90e message + P90f) Uplink P22 / (P30a + P30b + P30c) (P147 + P98d + P434a + P434c) / (P30a + P30b + P30c) (P30a + P30b + P30c - P22 - P147 - P98d - (P434a + P434c)) / (P30a + P30b + P30c)

P147 / (P30a + P30b + P30c) P98b / (P30a + P30b + P30c)

(P434a + P434c) / (P30a + P30b + P30c)

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Page 151

3.3 Data Transfer Release

QoS Indicators, TBF Abnormal Release


152

DL and UL TBF release: TBF drops


TBF drop causes Downlink Radio problem : radio link P302b / (P90a + P90b + P90c Radio problem : real radio failure + P90d + P90e + P90f) pb + reselections Real radio drop rate (P302b - (P98c - P98a) Real radio drop rate (P434b + P434d - P396a) + P407a +P407b + P407c + P407d) / (P90a + P90b + P90c + P90d + P90e + P90f) Radio failure during radio (P407a + P407b + P407c + Radio failure during radio resource realloc execution P407d) / (P90a + P90b + P90c resource realloc execution + P90d + P90e + P90f) Gb problem P11 / (P90a + P90b + P90c + Gb problem P90d + P90e + P90f ) N_StagnatingWindow P385a / (P90a + P90b + P90c N_StagnatingWindow + P90d + P90e + P90f) Blocking situation P303a / (P90a + P90b + P90c Blocking situation + P90d + P90e + P90f) BSS problem (P90a + P90b + P90c + P90d BSS problem + P90e + P90f - (P146 + P98c + P434b + P434d) - P9 (P302b - (P98c - P98a) (P434b + P434d - P396a) + P407a + P407b + P407c + P407d)) - P11 - P385a - P303a) / (P90a + P90b + P90c + P90d + P90e + P90f) Uplink P302c / (P30a + P30b + P30c) (P302b - (P98d - P98b) - (P434a + P434c - P396b) + P408a +P408b + P408c + P408d) / (P30a + P30b + P30c) (P408a + P408b + P408c + P408d) / (P30a + P30b + P30c) P24 / ( P30a + P30b + P30c) P385b / (P30a + P30b + P30c) P303b / (P30a + P30b + P30c) (P30a + P30b + P30c - (P147 + P98d + P434a + P434c) - P22 (P302c - (P98d - P98b) - (P434a + P434c - P396b) + P408a + P408b + P408c + P408d)) - P24 - P385b P303b) / (P30a + P30b + P30c)

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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On a DL TBF: Radio problem: N3105 exceeds the limit (6) or too low TX efficiency (<10%). Blocking situation: no reception of the PDAN with Final indicator = 1 at the end of the Downlink TBF during T_TBF_BCK_REL = 3 seconds (MS error) OR the transmission window of the MFS is stalled during T_TBF_BCK_REL = 3 seconds (radio problem). Stagnating window: the RLC counter N_StagnatingWindowDL is incremented when the Same oldest RLC data block in the transmittion window is not acknowledged by the received bitmap of the last Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message. The DL TBF is released because the RLC counter N_Stagnating WindowDL exceeds the system parameter N_STAGNATING_ WINDOW_DL_LIMIT =8 (MS error). On a UL TBF: radio problem: N3101 or N3103 exceeds the limits (48 and 1) or too low TX efficiency (<10%). Blocking situation: Reception of N_UL_Dummy_Limit = 15 dummy UL RLC blocks (MS error or radio problem) OR no reception of the Packet Control Ack at the end of the Uplink TBF during T_TBF_BCK_REL = 3 seconds (MS error). Stagnating window: the RLC counter N_StagnatingWindowUL is incremented provided that the receive window is stalled whenever a UL RLC data block whose BSN is different from the receive window state variable V(Q) and is received a round trip delay after the previous sending of a Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message. The UL TBF is released because the RLC counter N_StagnatingWindowUL exceeds the system parameter N_STAGNATING_WINDOW_UL_LIMIT = 8 (MS error or radio problem).

Page 152

3.3 Data Transfer Release

QoS Indicators, TBF Drops, Graph 1/2


153

Downlink Data Transfer


BSS pb
500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Gb drop Blocking drop Stagnat drop Radio pb % Acc Release % Norm Release

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 /0 8/

30 /0 8/

16 /0 8/

09 /0 9/

18 /0 8/

22 /0 8/

14 /0 8/

28 /0 8/

01 /0 9/

26 /0 8/

24 /0 8/

07 /0 9/

11 /0 9/

05 /0 9/

03 /0 9/

Uplink Data Transfer


BSS pb
350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

13 /0 9/

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 03

20 03

Gb drop Blocking pb Stagnat pb Radio pb % Acc Release % Norm Release

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

14 /0 8/ 20 03 16 /0 8/ 20 03 18 /0 8/ 20 03 20 /0 8/ 20 03 22 /0 8/ 20 03 24 /0 8/ 20 03 26 /0 8/ 20 03 28 /0 8/ 20 03 30 /0 8/ 20 03 01 /0 9/ 20 03 03 /0 9/ 20 03 05 /0 9/ 20 03 07 /0 9/ 20 03 09 /0 9/ 20 03 11 /0 9/ 20 03 13 /0 9/ 20 03

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The causes of drop during a DL data transfer are mainly radio problems. The causes of drop during a UL data transfer are radio problems + blocking problems (MS error suspected because seen on every network).

Page 153

3.3 Data Transfer Release

QoS Indicators, TBF Drops, Graph 2/2


154

Thresholds
When the Delayed DL TBF release is not activated and CS2 is not used at the beginning of the TBF:
the UL/DL TBF normal release rate is seen as good above 98%

When the Delayed DL TBF release is activated or CS2 is used at the beginning of the TBF (default value):
The threshold of the DL TBF normal release rate should be lower

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The QoS threshold values assume that the MS mobility (reselection) is negligible. The typical values for a DL TBF normal release rate: When a Delayed DL TBF release is activated: 95% When a Delayed DL TBF release is activated and CS2 is activated at the beginning of the TBF: 90% The longer the TBF duration the higher the probability to drop. There is a high probability to be in CS2 during the Delayed phase. The typical values for UL TBF normal release rate: When CS2 is activated at the beginning of the TBF: 98.3%, 98.9% A UL TBF is often short. The Coding Scheme is always CS1 during the MS contention resolution (based on TLLI) for security. RLS procedures are active during the delayed phase.

Page 154

3.3 Data Transfer Release

QoS Indicators, UL TBF state, B8 B9


Give an interpretation of the QoS evolution after B9 migration

B9
155

UL TBF state
800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 02/21/2006 02/22/2006 02/23/2006 02/24/2006 02/25/2006 02/26/2006 02/27/2006 02/28/2006 03/01/2006

B9 migration

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Success % Active

03/02/2006

03/03/2006

03/04/2006

03/05/2006

03/06/2006

03/07/2006

03/08/2006

03/09/2006

03/10/2006

03/11/2006

03/12/2006

03/13/2006

03/14/2006

03/15/2006

03/16/2006

03/17/2006

03/18/2006

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

03/19/2006

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Page 155

B9
156

3 Description of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Counters and Indicators

3.4 MS Sessions / Transfers

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Page 156

3.4 MS Sessions / Transfers

Definitions
157

Transfer
Exchange of RLC data blocks between the MS and the BSS The bias of a transfer is the main direction of the transfer in terms of number of bytes transferred

Session
Uninterrupted sequence of data transfers between the MS and the BSS
begin: a UL or DL TBF is established for an MS in PIM on-going: at least one TBF is established end: the last on-going UL or DL TBF is released

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During a transfer the MS and the BSS exchange some RLC blocks either in UL only or in DL only or in the two directions. A transfer can correspond to: One complete TBF Part of one TBF Part of two TBFs One complete TBF together with part of one TBF in the other direction The first transfer of a session corresponds to the start of the first TBF of the session. Then the Alcatel BSS regularly determines the bias of the on-going transfer of the MS. The number of octets transferred in both directions is counted and averaged for that purpose. If disabled, the bias remains the one chosen at the establishment of the TBF. By default, a transfer is deemed downlink biased (at first establishment), except in case the MS context is created upon receipt of a 2-phase access UL establishment request, in which case the bias is set to uplink. As soon as the bias of the transfer is about to change the ongoing transfer terminates and a new transfer begins. A session never ends when a DL TBF is released but at the expiry of timer T3192, in case there is no UL TBF on-going in the meantime.

Page 157

3.4 MS Sessions / Transfers

Example
158

A session made of:


5 TBFs (1 DL, 4 UL) 3 transfers (1 DL biased, 2 UL biased)
change of bias change of bias

DL TBFs

active

delayed

UL TBFs Bias UL Xfer 1 DL Xfer 2 Session UL Xfer 3

Transfers

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Transfer 1 and 3 are UL biased. Transfer 2 is DL biased.

Page 158

3.3 Data Transfer Release

Exercise

B9
159

Exercise 1: Using the trace 14, find bias direction along transfer

Time allowed: 30 minutes

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Page 159

3.4 MS Sessions / Transfers

QoS Indicators
160

Sessions and transfers


Session Number of sessions Average duration Average number of DL/UL TBF per session

Transfer

Cumulated time an MS is engaged in DL/UL biased transfers % of time DL/UL TBF are granted the maximum nb of PDCHs they support and the corresponding MSs are engaged in DL/UL biased transfers

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Page 160

3.4 MS Sessions / Transfers

QoS indicators, MS Sessions


161

MS Sessions

GPRS/EGPRS sessions Number of GPRS and EGPRS sessions P413 Average duration of a session ((P419 + P420) / 10) / P413 Downlink Uplink Average number of (P90a +P90b + P90c + Average number of (P30a + P30b +P30c) / DL TBF established P90d + P90e + P90f) / UL TBF established P413 per session P413 per session

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Page 161

3.4 MS Sessions / Transfers

QoS Indicators, MS Transfers


162

MS Transfers
Bias of the ongoing transfers Downlink Uplink Cumulative time MS P419 / 10 Cumulative time MS P420 / 10 are engaged in DL are engaged in UL biased transfers biased transfers Donwlink biaised ratio P419 / (P419 + P420) Uplink biaised ratio P420 / (P419 + P420) Cumulative time MS P411/10 Cumulative time MS P412/10 are served by DL TBF are served by UL TBF and engaged in DL and engaged in UL biased transfers biased transfers Cumulative time DL P409/10 Cumulative time UL P410/10 TBF are granted the TBF are granted the maximum number of maximum number of PDCH they support and PDCH they support and the corresponding MS the corresponding MS are engaged in DL are engaged in UL biased transfers biased transfers % of time DL TBF are P409 / P411 % of time UL TBF are P410 / P412 granted the maximum granted the maximum number of PDCH they number of PDCH they support and the support and the corresponding MS are corresponding MS are engaged in DL biased engaged in UL biased transfers transfers

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Determination of the Bias: Uplink : when a first UL TBF is established using the 2-phase access on a CCCH or PCCCH Downlink : in any other case

Page 162

3.4 MS Sessions / Transfers

QoS Indicators, MS Transfers, Example


163

change of bias

PDCH preemption of 2 TS active

change of bias delayed


2TS 2TS

DL TBFs

3TS 4TS

4TS

2TS

UL TBFs Bias

2TS

1TS

1TS

1TS

2TS

UL Xfer 1

DL Xfer 2 Session

UL Xfer 3

Transfers

time P419 P411 P409 P420 P412 P410


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Transfer 1 and 3 are UL biased. Transfer 2 is DL biased.

Page 163

3.4 MS Sessions / Transfers

QoS Indicators, Graph


164

DL session
250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 102 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86

Time Opt alloc DL Time bias Time bias %Time Opt Alloc

03

03

03

03

03

03

03

03 9/ 20 13 /0

03

03

03

03

03

03

03

9/ 20

9/ 20

9/ 20

9/ 20

8/ 20

8/ 20

9/ 20

8/ 20

8/ 20

8/ 20

8/ 20

8/ 20

8/ 20

8/ 20

05 /0

01 /0

03 /0

07 /0

26 /0

20 /0

14 /0

16 /0

18 /0

22 /0

24 /0

28 /0

30 /0

UL session
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 /2 00 3 /2 00 3

09 /0

11 /0

9/ 20

03

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Time Opt alloc UL Time bias Time bias %Time Opt Alloc

/0 8

/0 8

/0 8

/0 8

/0 8

/0 8

/0 8

/0 8

/0 8

/0 9

/0 9

/0 9

/0 9

/0 9

/0 9 11

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

01

03

05

07

09

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

13

/0 9

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The typical values of the DL TBF optimal allocation time rate (without resource re-allocation): Without congestion (GSM+GPRS): 93%, 94%, 95%, 96% With congestion: 79.5% The UL TBF optimal allocation time rate can be biased, due to the restriction on P29. However, on small area, it can give typical values: Without congestion (GSM+GPRS): 68.5%, 76%, 92%, 98% With congestion: 98% These typical values are highly dependent on the penetration rate of class 9 or class 10 mobiles (mobiles able to use 2 TSs on the UL path).

Page 164

B9
165

3 Description of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Counters and Indicators

3.5 Resource Usage

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Page 165

3.5 Resource Usage

BSS Resources, Air Interface


166

The BSS uses several resources to transfer data between the MS and the GPRS core network Air interface resources
Physical channels: MPCDH, SPDCH logical channels:
control channels
- without MPDCH: BCCH, AGCH, PCH, RACH - with MPDCH: PBCCH, PAGCH, PPCH, PRACH

traffic channels: PDTCH associated signaling channel: PACCH

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Page 166

3.5 Resource Usage

BSS Resources, GPU


167

The GPU resource (BSS internal resource)


The GPRS traffic of a group of cells is handled by the GPU function mapped on a hardware component: the GPU board

Ater G P

Gb

BSC
8 PCM

U 8 PCM

SGSN

in MFS equipment

UL

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Each GPU handles the GPRS traffic of cells belonging to the same BSS. There is a maximum number of GPUs to monitor the traffic of one BSS. Up to 240 PDCHs can be active at the same time on the same GPU.

Page 167

3.5 Resource Usage

BSS Resources, Abis/Ater Interface

B9
168

The Abis resources can be seen as a pool of Abis nibbles shareable between all TREs of a given sector (basic Abis nibbles) or all the TREs of a given BTS (extra and bonus Abis nibbles). An M-EGCH organizes the transmission resources (pool of Abis nibbles and Ater nibbles) given to a TRX for its PS traffic.

TRX 3

M-EGCH 3 TRX 2

Abis
TRX 1

M-EGCH 2

Ater

M-EGCH 1

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For EGPRS traffic, an EGCH physical channel is allocated per PDCH which is a set of n GCHs, n depending on the maximum CS or MCS number that can be used on the PDCH:
Schem e CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9 M odulation G MSK G MSK G MSK G MSK G MSK G MSK G MSK G MSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK Raw data rate (in kbit/s) 8 12 14.4 20 8.8 11.2 14.8 13.6 17.6 22.4 29.6 27.2 44.8 54.4 59.2 Num ber of GCH 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5

Page 168

3.5 Resource Usage

BSS Resources, Gb Interface


169

Gb interface resource
A BVC is the logical identifier to which is linked the traffic of a cell carried over the Gb interface The traffic of all the BVCs controlled by the same GPU is multiplexed and carried by the 64 Kbit/s PCM time slots on the Gb interface
BVCI= 2 BVCI=3

BVCI= 1

Gb

BSC1
GPU

BVCI=5 BVCI= BVCI= 4 6

SGSN
8 PCM

BSC2

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Page 169

3.5 Resource Usage

BSS Resources, BSC - MFS exchanges

B9
170

BSC MFS messages

RR Allocation Indication

BSC RR Usage Indication

MFS

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Thanks to the Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation feature, the MFS no longer needs to request the BSC for additional SPDCHs (as in B8); as all the usable PS-capable radio timeslots are explicitly allocated to the MFS through the RR Allocation Indication message. However, the RRM-PRH entity has the responsibility for handling the RR Allocation Indication and RR Usage Indication messages, especially for the following tasks: interpretation of the SPDCHs_Allocation bitmap contained in the RR Allocation Indication message (in particular, if a SPDCH is removed in the bitmap, then a preemption process may have to be started, cf. section 4 for more details), building and sending of the SPDCHs_Confirmation bitmap, the SPDCHs_Usage bitmap, the SPDCHs_RadioUsage bitmap and the DTM_TCH bitmap, through the RR Usage Indication message.

Page 170

3.5 Resource Usage

BSS Resources, Scenario for GCH establishment


MFS
Selection of the Ater and Abis nibbles (1) (2) Abis-Nibbles-Allocation (All the BTS Abis nibble ids) (3) Those two messages are sent in sequence by the MFS Transmission-Allocation-Request (Ater nibble ids, BSC Abis nibble ids, MFS connection references) (6) Ater to Abis nibble switching (7) Transmission-Allocation-Confirm (Ater and BSC Abis nibble ids, MFS and BSC connection references) (8) RSL-Allocate-Abis-Nibbles (All the BTS Abis nibble ids) (4)

B9
171

BSC

BTS

Abis nibble allocation to the TRE (5)

64K Ater TS crossconnection to DSP (9) Activate (TRE-Id) (10)

Activate-Ack (11)

As many as the number of new GCHs in the MEGCH link

The established GCHs can carry PS traffic

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This GCH establishment scenario is valid if there are free ABIS and Ater resources ( nibbles)

Page 171

3.5 Resource Usage

BSS Resources, Scenario for GCH release

B9
172

MFS

BSC
Release (1)

BTS

Release-Ack (2)

As many as the number of GCHs to remove from the MEGCH link RSL-Allocate-Abis-Nibbles (All the remaining BTS Abis nibble ids) (4)

Abis-Nibbles-Allocation (All the remaining BTS Abis nibble ids) (3) Those two messages are sent in sequence by the MFS Transmission-Deallocation-Command (BSC connection references) (6)

Abis nibble deallocation from the TRE (5)

Ater to Abis nibble deswitching (7) Transmission-Deallocation-Complete

(Ater nibble ids, MFS connection references) (8)


,) 64K Ater TS decrossconnection from DSP (9)

Release of the Ater and Abis nibbles (10) (11)

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This GCH establishment scenario is valid if there are free ABIS and Ater resources ( nibbles)

Page 172

3.5 Resource Usage

Exercise

B9
173

Exercise 1: using trace 1 , identify the different messages for Abis and Ater resource allocation. Exercise 2 : using same trace find different messages for the de allocation of these resources

Time allowed: 10 minutes

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Page 173

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, PDCH

B9
174

GPRS radio resources: PDCH

New B9

PDCH usage

Smooth PDCH traffic adaptation Average , max, min number and reduction rate of MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT

Cumulated time PDCHs : - use at least one DL/UL TBF - carry GMM traffic PDCH dynamic establishment success rate Soft preemption

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Page 174

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT Follow-up

B9
175

GPRS radio resources PDCH: MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT


INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT AVERAGE VALUE Average value of allocated SPDCH over the observation period. CELL (P414bis) / (PERIOD)

INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT MAX VALUE Maximum value of allocated SPDCH in the whole granularity period. CELL (P415bis)

INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT MIN VALUE Minimum value of allocated SPDCH in the whole granularity period. CELL (P416bis)

INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT REDUCTION RATE Reduction rate of allocated SPDCH value integrated over the granularity period. CELL ((P415bis*GP) P414bis) / (P415bis*GP))

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Page 175

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, PDCH Usage

B9
176

Counter number P451a P451b P452 P38e P38f

Name CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_UL_TBF_CELL CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL_TBF_CELL CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL_TBF_GMM_SIG_CEL L CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_USED_DL_CELL CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_USED_UL_CELL

Definition Cumulated time during which an UL TBF uses one PDCH, for all PDCHs of the TBF, and for all TBFs of the cell (in GPRS or EGPRS mode). Cumulated time during which an DL TBF uses one PDCH, for all PDCHs of the TBF, and for all TBFs of the cell (in GPRS or EGPRS mode). Cumulated time during which a DL TBF established for GMM signalling purposes uses a PDCH (in GPRS or EGPRS mode), for all TBFs of the cell. Cumulated time during which a PDCH is used by at least one DL TBF (in GPRS or EGPRS mode), cumulated over all the PDCHs of the cell. Cumulated time during which a PDCH is used by at least one UL TBF (in GPRS or EGPRS mode), cumulated over all the PDCHs of the cell.

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Page 176

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, PDCH Usage

B9
177

formula P496 P495

Name MIN_NB_USED_SPDCH_CELL MAX_NB_USED_SPDCH_CELL Soft pre-emption

Definition Minimum number of used slave PDCHs in the . Maximum number of used slave PDCHs in the cell.

P417 (P403a + P404a) / P417

NB_PREEMPTED_PDCH

Number of PDCH released after having been marked by the soft pre-emption procedure Average number of UL+DL TBF candidates to a T1 reallocation per PDCH released after having been marked

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Page 177

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, MPDCH


178

GPRS radio resources: MPDCH

MPDCH usage

MPDCH resource allocation is static no indicators

MPDCH signaling traffic

PPCH PRACH PAGCH PACCH

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Page 178

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, MPDCH Signaling


179

GPRS radio resources: MPDCH signaling


MPDCH signalling traffic Dedicated PPCH signalling load on all the existing MPDCH P61 Number of PACKET PAGING REQUEST for PS paging sent P61a to the MS on PPCH Number of PACKET PAGING REQUEST for CS paging sent P61b to the MS on PPCH Number of Packet DL assignment messages on PPCH P61 - 0.5*P61a - 0.5*P61b Occupancy rate of PS paging messages on PPCH load 0.5 * P61a / P61 Occupancy rate of Packet DL assignment messages on PPCH (P61 - 0.5*P61a - 0.5*P61b) / P61 PRACH signalling load on all the existing MPDCH PRACH signalling load due to NC2 feature % PRACH load induced by NC2 feature Dedicated PAGCH signalling load on all the existing MPDCH UL PACCH signalling load on all the existing MPDCH P399 P438d (P438d / P399) * 100 P400 P401

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The Factor of 0.5 comes from the fact that a PACKET PAGING REQUEST can contain 2 paging messages (like in GSM between Paging Commands and Paging Requests).

Page 179

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, CCCH


180

GPRS radio resources: CCCH

CCCH load

RACH PCH: PS paging, CS paging, Immediate assignment AGCH

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Page 180

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, CCCH Load


181

GPRS radio resources: CCCH load

CCCH load P53a / MC8A Paging usage rate due to GPRS PCH use due to GPRS Immediat Assignment P53c Ratio PS/CS paging through SGSN P53a / (P53a+P53b) P62c / MC8C RACH usage rate due to GPRS (P49 + P27) / (MC8B + P49 + P27) AGCH usage rate due to GPRS

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P53a = Number of (BSCGP) PAGING REQUEST for PS paging sent to the MS (through the BSC which manages the PCH resource). (used for instance for an MT picture transfer MMS service). P53b = Number of (BSCGP) PAGING REQUEST for CS paging sent to the MS (through the BSC which manages the PCH resource) -> Need of the Gs interface. P53c = Number of (BSCGP) IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT sent to the MS (through the BSC which manages the PCH resource) for a DL TBF establishment when the MS is in DRX mode. GSM Paging Command (one per Mobile) or GPRS (BSCGP) PAGING REQUEST are merged into PAGING REQUEST on the radio layer.

Page 181

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, CCCH, Graph


182
GPRS/GSM AGCH breakdown
450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0
14 /0 8/ 20 03 16 /0 8/ 20 03 18 /0 8/ 20 03 20 /0 8/ 20 03 22 /0 8/ 20 03 24 /0 8/ 20 03 26 /0 8/ 20 03 28 /0 8/ 20 03 30 /0 8/ 20 03 01 /0 9/ 20 03 03 /0 9/ 20 03 05 /0 9/ 20 03 07 /0 9/ 20 03 09 /0 9/ 20 03 11 /0 9/ 20 03 13 /0 9/ 20 03

4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

PS AGCH Tot AGCH % PS AGCH

CS AGCH

GPRS/GSM RACH breakdown


450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0
14 /0 8/ 20 03 16 /0 8/ 20 03 18 /0 8/ 20 03 20 /0 8/ 20 03 22 /0 8/ 20 03 24 /0 8/ 20 03 26 /0 8/ 20 03 28 /0 8/ 20 03 30 /0 8/ 20 03 01 /0 9/ 20 03 03 /0 9/ 20 03 05 /0 9/ 20 03 07 /0 9/ 20 03 09 /0 9/ 20 03 11 /0 9/ 20 03 13 /0 9/ 20 03

4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Tot RACH % PS RACH

GPRS/GSM PCH breakdown


20000000 18000000 16000000 14000000 12000000 10000000 8000000 6000000 4000000 2000000 0
14 /0 8/ 20 03 16 /0 8/ 20 03 18 /0 8/ 20 03 20 /0 8/ 20 03 22 /0 8/ 20 03 24 /0 8/ 20 03 26 /0 8/ 20 03 28 /0 8/ 20 03 30 /0 8/ 20 03 01 /0 9/ 20 03 03 /0 9/ 20 03 05 /0 9/ 20 03 07 /0 9/ 20 03 09 /0 9/ 20 03 11 /0 9/ 20 03 13 /0 9/ 20 03

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

CS PAging PS Imm. As PS PAging %io PS Pag

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Page 182

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, Abis nibble

B9
183

GPRS radio resources: Abis nibble

Abis nibble counters Number of free nibbles: - Minimum of free extra or bonus Abis nibble

Number of used nibble - Maximum number extra or bonus used nibbles

Cumulated Time during which there are free Abis nibbles

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Page 183

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, Abis nibble


GPRS radio resources: Abis nibble usage

B9
184

Abis interface - Abis nibble usage Cumulative time (in seconds), per BTS ,during which there are free extra and bonus Abis nibbles available. Cumulated time during which extra and bonus Abis nibbles are used in the cell, cumulated over all extra and bonus Abis nibbles. Minimum number of free extra and bonus Abis nibbles. Maximum number of extra and bonus Abis nibbles currently used in the cell (by a GCH channel)

P472

P466

P484 P465

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Free Extra and bonus nibbles are given per BTS. Free extra and bonus nibbles are extra and bonus nibbles not currently used in a GCH

Page 184

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, GPU


185

GPRS radio resources: GPU

GPU counters

Overall traffic MS capabilities breakdown Processing limitation, GCH interface

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Page 185

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, GPU Usage


186

GPRS radio resources: GPU usage


GPU traffic Number of LLC PDU transferred (UL+ DL) P104 Number of UL+DL TBF establishment requests P107 per GPU Number of UL+DL TBF establishment successes P106 per GPU (UL+DL) TBF success rate per GPU (P106 / P107) * 100 Number of PS PAGING request per GPU P391a Number of CS PAGING request per GPU P391b

MS capabilities Number of MS contexts created for Releases P450a 1997 or 1998 mobile stations. Number of MS contexts created for non-EGPRS P450b capable Release 1999 onwards mobile stations Number of MS contexts created for EGPRS P450c capable Release 1999 onwards mobile stations. Ratio of MS contexts created for Releases 1997 P450a / ( P450a+P450b+P450c) or 1998 mobile stations. Ratio of MS contexts created for non-EGPRS P450b / ( P450a+P450b+P450c) capable Release 1999 onwards mobile stations Ratio of MS contexts created for EGPRS capable P450c / ( P450a+P450b+P450c) Release 1999 onwards mobile stations.

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Page 186

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, GPU Load

B9
187

GPRS radio resources: GPU load : DSP and CPU


GPU load DSP congestion duration (in seconds). P384 / 10 Percentage of time during which the DSP is in P384 / 10 / GP congestion Cumulated time during which the GPU stays in P402 / 10 the PMU CPU overload state due to PMU CPU power limitations. Percentage of time during which the GPU stays P402 / 10 / GP in the PMU CPU overload state due to PMU CPU power limitations. Average PMU CPU power budget of the GPU P76a / 10 Maximum PMU CPU power budget of the GPU P77a / 10 This counter cumulates the time during which at P201 least a DSP is in CPU load state This counter cumulates the time during which at P202 least a DSP is in CPU overload state

New B9 New B9

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PMU = Packet Management Unit, is responsible for the following tasks: RRM (Radio and Resource Management): for TBF, PDCH and MPDCH allocation/de-allocation, radio resource re-allocation of existing TBFs, PS paging, PDU queuing and Packet System Information BSCGP stack management (MFS-BSC interface) Gb stack management (MFS-SGSN interface) The PMU functions are supported by the PPC board (Power PC). The DSP board supports the Packet Transfer Unit (PTU) functions: RLC layer management MAC layer management L2EGCH layer management L1EGCH layer management

Page 187

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, GCH

B9
188

GPRS radio resources: GCH usage


Modified B9

GCH counters

Cumulated time: - GCHs are in excess in a cell - GCHs are in deficit in a cell - GCH is busy in a cell - GPU is in Ater congestion - GPU is in high Ater usage state Number of GCHs : - max number of GCHs busy per GPU - max number of GCHs busy per cell - Min number of GCHs busy per GPU - max number of GCHs in deficit cell -

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Page 188

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, GCH Load

B9
189

GPRS radio resources: GCH load in time


Ater interface - GCH Maximum number of busy GCH (16k channel) in P100b the GPU Cumulative time (in seconds) during which a P100c GCH (16k channel) is busy in the cell. The counter is integrated over all the GCH available in the cell. Cumulative time (in seconds) during which a P101 GCH resource (16k channel) is available in the GPU Cumulative time (in seconds), per cell ,during P471 which there is a excess of GCH resources (16k channel). Cumulative time (in seconds), per cell , during P470 which there is a deficit of GCH resources (16k channel). Atermux congestion duration (in seconds) due to P383a a lack of GCH transmission resources on the Atermux interface % of time the GPU is in Ater congestion state P383a / GP Time (cumulated over a granularity period) P383b during which the GPU remains in "high" Ater usage % of time the GPU is in high Ater usage state P383b / GP
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

New B9

New B9

New B9

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New counters in B9: P100e, P100c, P470,P471

Page 189

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, GCH Load

B9
190

GPRS radio resources: GCH load in number per cell and per GPU
New B9

Ater interface - GCH Maximum number of GCH in deficit reached in P469 the cell. Maximum number of busy GCH (16k channel) in P100f the GPU. Minimum number of busy GCH (16k channel) in P100e the GPU. Maximum number of busy GCH (16k channel) in P100d the cell.

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For a DRFU BTS, a GCH is said busy when it is connected to a given PDCH. For an Evolium BTS, a GCH is said busy when it is connected to a given TRX (as part as an M-EGCH).

Page 190

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, Ater nibble

B9
191

GPRS radio resources: Ater nibble usage

Ater nibble counters Number of free nibbles: - Minimum of Ater - Minimum of free extra or bonus Ater nibbles

Number of used Nibble - Maximum number extra or bonus used nibbles Cumulated Time during which there are free Ater nibbles given per GPU

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Page 191

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, Ater nibble

B9
192

GPRS radio resources: Ater nibble usage


Ater interface Ater nibbles usage Minimum number of free Ater nibbles. Minimum number of free extra and bonus Abis nibbles. Free extra and bonus nibbles are extra and bonus nibbles not currently used in a GCH. Maximum number of extra and bonus Abis nibbles currently used in the cell (by a GCH channel). Cumulative time (in seconds), per GPU ,during which there are free Ater nibbles. A free Ater nibble is an Ater nibble not currently used by a GCH.

P486 P484

P465

P474

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Page 192

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, Impact of EDGE activation, 1/2


193

Ater resources capacity must be increased for EDGE


Example for one GPU board with 2 AterMux for GPRS
Total_Ater_GIC_available 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 168 167 166 165 164 163 162 161 160 159 158 157 156 155 154 153 152 151 150 149 148 147 146 145 144 143 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 135 134 133 132 131 130 129 128 127 126 125 124 123 122 121 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 10,0% 0,0% Ater_Cong_Rate 70,0%

464 GCHs 348 GCHs 232 GCHs

60,0% 50,0% 40,0% 30,0% 20,0%

2 AterMux are not enough for EDGE traffic

4 AterMux are needed to avoid Ater congestion

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Ater_Cong_Rate = P383a / GP = Percentage of time all GCHs are busy in the GPU Total_Ater_GIC_available = Number of GCHs available for traffic is not a counter but a configuration variable depending on the number of AterMux connected to the GPU and which available for traffic

Page 193

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, Impact of EDGE activation, 2/2


194

DSP congestion can occur in the GPU even if enough Ater resources are available
Same GPU: EDGE is activated cell by cell
Total_Ater_GIC_available 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 0,0% 1,0% 0,5% GPU_Cong_Rate 3,0%

464 GCHs 348 GCHs 232 GCHs


1,5% 2,5% 2,0%

The more cells are EDGE capable the higher the GPU DSP congestion

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GPU_Cong_Rate = (P384/10) / GP = Percentage of time the GPU is in DSP congestion Total_Ater_GIC_available = Number of GCHs available for traffic is not a counter but a configuration variable depending on the number of AterMux connected to the GPU and which available for traffic

Page 194

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, BVC


195

GPRS radio resources: BVC BVC

Number of DL LLC bytes

Received from the SGSN Discarded due to congestion Not rerouted Well received from the SGSN Discarded due to a Suspend procedure Rerouted

Number of UL LLC bytes BVC availability


Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

Received from the MS

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Page 195

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, BVC, Traffic, Availability


196

GPRS radio resources: BVC traffic, BVC availability


BVC (cell) traffic Downlink Number of DL LLC bytes received from SGSN Number of DL LLC bytes received by MS in GPRS ACK mode Number of DL LLC bytes received by MS in GPRS NACK mode Number of DL LLC bytes received by MS in EGPRS ACK mode Number of DL LLC bytes received by MS in EGPRS NACK mode Number of DL LLC bytes discarded due to congestion Average DL useful throughput in kbit/s DL LLC congestion rate Number of DL LLC bytes discarded due to suspend procedure % of DL LLC bytes discarded due to suspend procedure Downlink LLC bytes well rerouted DL LLC bytes not rerouted DL LLC bytes well received DL LLC bytes well received rate P43 P43a P43b P43c P43d P10 ((P43 - P10) * 8) / (GP * 1000) P10 / P43 P99 Uplink Number of UL LLC bytes received from MS Number of UL LLC bytes received from MS in GPRS ACK mode Number of UL LLC bytes received from MS in GPRS NACK mode Number of UL LLC bytes received from MS in EGPRS ACK mode Number of UL LLC bytes received from MS in EGPRS NACK mode Number of UL LLC bytes discarded due to congestion at SNS level P44 P44a P44b P44c P44d P23

P99 / P43 P95 P96 P43 - P10 - P96 (P43 - P10 - P96) / P43 BVC (cell) unavailability Time during which the BVC associated to a cell is unavailable for traffic P67

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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LLC bytes discarded: relating to the PDU LifeTime expiry or to the GPU buffer congestion (can be linked to degraded DL Flow Control algorithm). P99: The introduction of the Suspend-Resume mechanism between the MFS and the SGSN can generate GPRS QoS problems. If the suspend time exceeds the tolerable threshold for the distant server the MS is connected to, it can generate disconnection from the server. Even though, the disconnection does not mean that the PDP context is deactivated. It belongs to IP GSS feature (capacity to generate dummy IP blocks to keep the Gi link alive). P96 is likely to be sensitive to a lot of reselection problems an MS has to face in the GPRS network (no GPRS resources available in the selected cell, reselection of an MS in a new cell belonging to a new MFS or a new SGSN, etc).

Page 196

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, PVC and BC unavailability


197

GPRS radio resources: BVC PVC

Time unavailaibility

BC

Time unavailaibility

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Page 197

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, PVC and BC unavailability


198

GPRS radio resources: PVC , BC unavailability

Percentage of time during which the PVC (Permanent Virtual Connection) is not available on Gb Interface. Percentage of time during which the BC (Bearer Channel) is not available on Gb Interface

Gb interface PVC, BC P34/10/GP

P33/10/GP

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Page 198

3.5 Resource Usage

QoS Indicators, Graph


199

Details of downlink LLC traffic


9000000 8000000 7000000 6000000 5000000 4000000 3000000 2000000 1000000 0 100.2 100 99.8 99.6 99.4 99.2 99 98.8 98.6 98.4

Blocked bytes Discarded bytes Not rerouted Rerouted bytes Received bytes %Well receiv

4000000 3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0

14 /0 8/ 20 03 16 /0 8/ 20 03 18 /0 8/ 20 0 3 20 /0 8/ 20 03 22 /0 8/ 20 03 24 /0 8/ 20 03 26 /0 8/ 20 03 28 /0 8/ 20 03 30 /0 8/ 20 03 01 /0 9/ 20 0 3 03 /0 9/ 20 03 05 /0 9/ 20 03 07 /0 9/ 20 03 09 /0 9/ 20 03 11 /0 9/ 20 03 13 /0 9/ 20 03

Details of uplink LLC traffic

UL sent bytes

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

14 /0 8/ 20 03 16 /0 8/ 20 03 18 /0 8/ 20 03 20 /0 8/ 20 03 22 /0 8/ 20 03 24 /0 8/ 20 03 26 /0 8/ 20 03 28 /0 8/ 20 03 30 /0 8/ 20 03 01 /0 9/ 20 03 03 /0 9/ 20 03 05 /0 9/ 20 03 07 /0 9/ 20 03 09 /0 9/ 20 03 11 /0 9/ 20 03 13 /0 9/ 20 03

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Page 199

B9
200

3 Description of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Counters and Indicators

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

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Page 200

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

Modulations and Data Rates


201

Data rate per radio TS (RLC payload)


Scheme Modulation GPRS GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK EGPRS 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK Maximum rate (kbps) 21.4 15.6 13.4 9.05 59.2 54.4 44.8 29.6 / 27.2 * 22.4 17.6 14.8 / 13.6 * 11.2 8.8

CS-4 CS-3 CS-2 CS-1 MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 * case of padding
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

8PSK modulation to provide higher data rates GMSK modulation to ensure a certain level of performance in case of poor radio conditions

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Page 201

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

DL CS Adaptation
202

AV_RXQUAL_LT 7

CS-1
CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y+ CS_HST_DL_LT CS_QUAL_DL_1_2_X_Y CS-1 or CS-2 (hysteresis)

CS-2
CS_QUAL_DL_2_3_X_Y + CS_HST_DL_LT CS_QUAL_DL_2_3_X_Y CS-2 or CS-3 (hysteresis) C S_QUAL_DL_3_4_X_Y

CS-3
0 0 100%

CS-4
AV_SIR 15 BLER 0%

CS-3 or CS-4 (hysteresis) CS_SIR_DL_3_4_X_Y CS_SIR_DL_3_4_X_Y + CS_SIR_HST_DL CS_BLER_DL_3_4 CS_BLER_DL_4_3

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The change from CS3 to CS4 is not only based on AV_RXQUAL_LT for the two following reasons: The RXQUAL range only goes down to 0.2%. However, the change of coding scheme from CS3 to CS4 will probably have to be done for even lower values. Indeed, when the coding scheme is CS4, in static (AWGN), a BLER of 0.1 (typical value of the BLER threshold to change from CS3 to CS4) is obtained for a raw BER of 1-(1-0.1)1/456 = 2.10-4. This raw BER would be larger in multipath channels but is likely to remain below 0.2%. This means that CS_QUAL_DL_3_4 should be close to 0 and that a condition based on RXQUAL is not sufficient to change the coding scheme from CS3 to CS4. If the changes from CS3 to CS4 and from CS4 to CS3 are based on different metrics, a Ping-Pong effect can occur. Indeed, it can happen that the conditions to change from CS3 to CS4 and CS4 to CS3 are simultaneously true in some situations. In case a TBF is established on PDCHs of a non-hopping BCCH TRX or on PDCHs using a FHS including the BCCH frequency a new algorithm is used for adaptation between CS3 and CS4 based on BLER computation and comparison to threshold. Indeed in these 2 cases most of the MS will not report any C/I measurements on idle frames.

Page 202

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

UL CS Adaptation
203

GPRS CS adaptation in the UL


AV_RXQUAL_LT 7

CS1
CS_QUAL_UL_1_2_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_LT CS1 or CS2 (hysteresis) CS_QUAL_UL_1_2_X_Y

CS2
CS_QUAL_UL_2_3_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_LT CS_QUAL_UL_2_3_X_Y CS2 or CS3 (hysteresis)

CS3
CS_QUAL_UL_3_4_X_Y + CS_HST_UL_LT CS3 or CS4 (hysteresis) CS_QUAL_UL_3_4_X_Y

CS4
0 0
Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

AV_SIR 15

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In the up-link, the RXQUAL is available in CS4 and the SIR measurements are not reported by the BTS to the MFS so far. Therefore, it is possible to use also RXQUAL measurements to change the coding scheme from CS3 to CS4 or from CS4 to CS3, contrary to the downlink algorithm, for which the SIR is used.

Page 203

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

DL MCS Adaptation
204

In RLC acknowledged mode, the MFS applies a given MCS taking into account:
Current MCS:
MCS-1 to MCS-4 in GMSK MCS-5 to MCS-9 in 8-PSK

Average Power Decrease: APD set = [0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10] MS OUT OF MEMORY state
= Off then LA tables with IR are used = On then LA tables without IR (Type I ARQ) are used

In RLC unacknowledged mode, the MFS applies a given MCS taking into account:
Current MCS:
MCS-1 to MCS-4 in GMSK MCS-5 to MCS-9 In 8-PSK

Average Power Decrease: APD set = [0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10]

Each combination of these criteria corresponds to a specific LA table

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Extract of a table when APD=0dB, Type 1 ARQ, 8PSK table: if MCScurrent belongs to {5,6,7,8,9}
CV_BEP 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 MEAN_BEP 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 4 1 1 1 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 5 1 1 2 2 2 3 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 6 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 7 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8

Page 204

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

UL MCS Adaptation
In RLC acknowledged mode, the MFS applies a given MCS taking into account:
Current MCS:
MCS-1 to MCS-4 in GMSK MCS-5 to MCS-9 in 8-PSK

B9
205

APD of the MS: APD set = [0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10] EN_IR_UL state


= enable then LA tables with IR are used = disable then LA tables without IR (Type I ARQ) are used

In RLC unacknowledged mode, the MFS applies a given MCS taking into account:
Current MCS:
MCS-1 to MCS-4 in GMSK MCS-5 to MCS-9 In 8-PSK

Average Power Decrease: APD set = [0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10]

Each combination of those criteria corresponds to a specific LA table

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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In the up-link the same tables as in the down-link apply.

Page 205

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

exercise

B9
206

Exercise 1: using trace 20 , find at what time the MCS is changed

Time allowed: 15 minutes

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Page 206

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

QoS Indicators
207

CS and MCS adaptation PDTCH RLC blocks Number of useful blocks, retransmitted blocks, lost bytes for GPRS CS1,2,3,4 for EGPRS MCS1, , MCS9 Retransmission rate, lost rate Useful CSx and MCSx distribution GPRS Coding Scheme increase and decrease Throughput per cell, per PDCH, per TBF PACCH RLC blocks

PDTCH occupancy PACCH occupancy

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Page 207

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

QoS Indicators, RLC Statistics, GPRS Mode


208

CS and MCS adaptation: RLC statistics in GPRS mode


RLC statistics Downlink Uplink Number of useful PDTCH CS1 : P55a Number of useful PDTCH CS1 : P57a RLC blocks acknowledged by CS2 : P55b RLC blocks acknowledged by CS2 : P57b the MS in GPRS ack mode CS3 : P55c the MS in GPRS ack mode CS3 : P57c CS4 : P55d CS4 : P57d Number of retransmitted CS1 : P20a Number of retransmitted CS1 : P21a PDTCH RLC blocks in CS2 : P20b PDTCH RLC blocks in CS2 : P21b GPRS ack mode CS3 : P20c GPRS ack mode CS3 : P21c CS4 : P20d CS4 : P21d Number of lost PDTCH RLC CS1+CS2+CS3+CS4 : P72c Number of lost PDTCH RLC CS1+CS2+CS3+CS4 : P72d bytes in GPRS bytes in GPRS nack mode nack mode PDTCH RLC block (P20a + P20b + P20c + PDTCH RLC block (P21a + P21b + P21c + retransmission rate in GPRS P20d) / (P55a + P55b + retransmission rate in P21d) / (P57a + P57b + ack mode P55c + P55d + P20a + P20b GPRS ack mode P57c + P57d + P21a + P21b + P20c + P20d) + P21c + P21d) PDTCH RLC block CSx / P55x / PDTCH RLC block CSx / (P57x) / (CS1+CS2+CS3+CS4) ratio (P55a+P55b+P55c+P55d) (CS1+CS2+CS3+CS4) ratio (P57a+P57b+P57c+P57d) In RLC ack mode, rate of (P20a*160+P20b*240+P2 In RLC ack mode, rate of (P21a*160+P21b*240+P2 RLC retransmitted data 0c*288+P20d*400)/(P20a RLC retransmitted data 1c*288+P21d*400)/(P21a bytes sent on PDTCH and *160+P20b*240+P20c*2 bytes sent on PDTCH and *160+P21b*240+P21c*2 encoded in CS-x 88+P20d*400+P55a*160 encoded in CS-x 88+P21d*400+P57a*160

KPI

KPI

KPI 55d*400)
Average TX_EFFICIENCY P335

+P55b*240+P55c*288+P
Average TX_EFFICIENCY

+P57b*240+P57c*288+P 57d*400)
P336

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The average TX_EFFICIENCY is equal to:


TX _ EFFICIENCY = 100

NB _ RECEIVED i =1 NB _ SENT

i =1

i
ni

1 ni

Where: NB_SENT is the number of transmitted RLC data blocks, NB_RECEIVED is the number of correctly received RLC data blocks (i.e., blocks for which a positive acknowledgment is reported), i is equal to the number of information bits in the i-th correctly received RLC data block divided by the number of bits per RLC data block with GMSK modulation (456 in GPRS). This ratio only depends on the coding scheme used for the i-th correctly received RLC data block and is between 0 and 1 in GPRS. The values of the number of information bits per RLC data block for each coding scheme are defined in 05.03 TS Specification document. CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 0.40 0.59 0.68 0.94 ni is the number of RLC data blocks in the i-th radio block. Therefore, this number is always equal to 1 for GPRS, It is computed every TX_EFFICIENCY_PERIOD (=200) RLC data blocks. It is compared to TX_EFFICIENCY_ACK_THR (=10%) or TX_EFFICIENCY_NACK_THR (=15%) to trigger radio drop.
Page 208

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

QoS Indicators, RLC Statistics, EGPRS Mode


CS and MCS adaptation: RLC statistics in EGPRS mode
RLC statistics Downlink Number of useful RLC MCS1 : P55e blocks sent in RLC MCS2 : P55f acknowledged mode on PDTCH and encoded in MCS-1/2//9. MCS9 : P55m MCSx, retransmitted data bytes MCS-x lost bytes In RLC ack mode, ratio of useful RLC blocks sent in RLC acknowledged mode on PDTCH and encoded in MCS-x In RLC ack mode, rate of RLC retransmitted data bytes sent on PDTCH and encoded in MCS-x Uplink Number of useful RLC MCS1 : P57e blocks sent in RLC MCS2 : P57f acknowledged mode on ....... PDTCH encoded in ....... MCS-1/2/3/4. MCS9 : P57m

B9
209

Modified in B9

KPI

KPI

MCSx, retransmitted data bytes MCS-x lost bytes P72d P55x/(P55e+P55f+P5 In RLC ack mode, ratio 5g+P55h+P55i+P55j of useful RLC blocks +P55k+P55l+P55m) sent in RLC acknowledged mode on PDTCH and encoded in MCS-x P20e/(P20e+(P55e*1 In RLC ack mode, rate 76+P55f*224+P55g* of RLC retransmitted 296+P55h*352+P55i data bytes sent on *448+P55j*592+(P55 PDTCH and encoded in k*896+P55l*1088+P MCS-x

P20e

P21e P73d P57x/(P57e+P57f+P5 7g+P57h+P57i+P57j +P57k+P57l+P57m)

Modified in B9
p21e/(p21e+((P57e*1 76+P57f*224+P57g* 296+P57h*352+(P57i *448+P57j*592+(P57 k*896+P57l*1088+P 57m*1184)/2)) / 8))

55m*1184)/2)/ 8))

Modified in B9

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Page 209

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

QoS Indicators, CS Adaptation


210

CS and MCS adaptation: CS adaptation


Coding scheme adaptation Downlink Uplink Number of CS P351a Number of CS P352a adaptions from a given adaptions from a given coding scheme to a less coding scheme to a less robust coding scheme. robust coding scheme. Does not apply to Does not apply to EGPRS TBFs EGPRS TBFs Number of CS P351b Number of CS P352b adaptions from a given adaptions from a given coding scheme to a coding scheme to a more robust coding more robust coding scheme. Does not apply scheme. Does not apply to EGPRS TBFs to EGPRS TBFs Average number of CS P351a / (P90a + P90b + Average number of CS P352a / (P30a + P30b + increase per TBF P90c + P90d + P90e + increase per TBF P30c) P90f) Average number of CS P351b/ (P90a + P90b + Average number of CS P352b / (P30a + P30b + adaptions decrease per P90c + P90d + P90e + adaptions decrease per P30c) TBF P90f) TBF

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Page 210

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

80000000 70000000 60000000 50000000 40000000 30000000 20000000 10000000 0

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9


10

QoS Indicators, DL CS usage, Graph

GPRS DL useful RLC traffic

Page 211
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/3 1 11 / 20 /0 0 5 2 11 / 20 /0 0 5 4 11 / 20 /0 0 5 6/ 11 20 /0 0 5 8 11 / 20 /1 0 5 0 11 / 20 /1 0 5 2 11 / 20 /1 0 5 4/ 11 20 /1 0 5 6 11 / 20 /1 0 5 8 11 / 20 /2 0 5 0 11 / 20 /2 0 5 2 11 / 20 /2 0 5 4 11 / 20 /2 0 5 6 11 / 20 /2 0 5 8 11 / 20 /3 0 5 0 12 / 20 /0 0 5 2 12 / 20 /0 0 5 4 12 / 20 /0 0 5 6 12 / 20 /0 0 5 8 12 / 20 /1 0 5 0 12 / 20 /1 0 5 2 12 / 20 /1 0 5 4 12 / 20 /1 0 5 6/ 20 05

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

CS1 usef

CS2 usef

CS3 usef

CS4 usef

%io CSx usef

211

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

QoS Indicators, DL MCS usage, B8 B9


Give an interpretation of the QoS evolution after B9 migration
MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9

B9
212

B8
100% 80%

TRX class 2 & 4 (MaxMCS=9)

B9
(MaxMCS=9)

B9
(MaxMCS=8)

60%

40%

20%

0%

High proportion of MCS5 due to High Ater Usage

High usage of MCS9

Better usage of MCS8

Thanks to Dynamic Abis Statistical Multiplexing


All rights reserved 2005, Alcatel

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

Caution: animated slide (with hidden objects).

Page 212

3.6 CS and MCS Adaptation

QoS Indicators, UL MCS usage, B8 B9


Give an interpretation of the QoS evolution after B9 migration
B8 (GMSK only)
10 0 % 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

B9
213

B9

(8PSK in UL)

High Usage of MCS9 during UL FTP tests

MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4

MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9

8PSK being used in UL right after B9 migration

Thanks to : Dynamic Abis Statistical Mux 8 PSK in UL

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Caution: animated slide (with hidden objects).

Page 213

B9
214

3 Description of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Counters and Indicators

3.7 Cell Reselection

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Page 214

3.7 Cell Reselection

NC0, Success
215

MS
DL transfer PDTCHDL

MFS serving cell


useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling useful RLC data block useful RLC data block, polling

MFS target cell

SGSN

Packet DL Ack/Nack
PACCHUL

The MS decides for cell reselection

UL transfer establishment in the new cell UL transfer The MS sends an LLC PDU to warn the SGSN about its new cell location

RADIO STATUS LLC PDU


(TLLI,new BVCI)

P434c
UL TBF release

P434d
DL TBF release

P436
NC0 reselectio n success

FLUSH-LL
(TLLI,old BVCI)

FLUSH-LL ACK
(TLLI)

P396b

P396a

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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Counter P434c (resp.P434d) gives the number of UL (resp. DL) TBFs which have been released due to an NC0 reselection. These TBFs can have been previously counted as abnormally released or acceptably released due to the reselection depending on the occurrence time of the FLUSH-LL message: If the FLUSH-LL message is not received before T_WAIT_FLUSH expiry after the TBF was released due to radio link failure then the previous TBF release is considered as abnormal and counter P434c/P434d counting the number of DL/UL TBF acceptable release due to reselection is not incremented. Instead a TBF abnormal release due to Radio and counter P302b/P302c is incremented. If the FLUSH-LL message is received before T_WAIT_FLUSH expiry after the TBF was released due to radio link failure then the previous TBF release is considered as acceptable and P434c/P434d is incremented. If the FLUSH-LL message is received before the radio link failure occurs the TBF is released and P396b/P396a counter is incremented. P436 provides the number of successful NC0 cell reselection when the mobile was in Packet Transfer Mode in the old cell.

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3.7 Cell Reselection

NC2, Request / Success


MS
DL transfer

B9
216

MFS serving cell

MFS target cell

SGSN
NC2 cell reselection request

T3158 expiry T3158

Packet measurement report


PACCHUL

New B9

P223
UL TBF

P226
DL TBF Radio resources are released locally

Packet cell change order, polling


The MS switches to the new cell

Packet control ack

new cell (BCCH,BSIC)

PACCHDL

P221

P222

T_ACK_WAIT

UL transfer establishment in the new cell

T_WAIT_FLUSH

UL transfer MS sends an LLC PDU to warn the SGSN about its new cell location

LLC PDU FLUSH-LL


(TLLI,old BVCI) (TLLI,new BVCI)

New B9

NC2 cell reselection success

P227
UL TBF release

P224
DL TBF release

FLUSH-LL ACK
(TLLI)

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New counters in B9:.P221, P222, P223, P226 for request and P227, P224 for successes If a PCCO is sent for a MS supporting a DL TBF and an UL TBF, then both P223 and P226 are incremented. If a FLUSH is received for a MS supporting a DL TBF and an UL TBF, then both P224 and P227 are incremented.

Page 216

3.7 Cell Reselection

NC2, Request / Success per causes


MS
DL transfer

MFS serving cell

MFS target cell

217

SGSN

T3158 expiry T3158

Packet measurement report


PACCHUL

NC2 cell reselection request for cause:


P433d P433c P433a P433b
T_ACK_WAIT

too bad uplink quality too bad downlink quality too low downlink level better neighbor cell
Radio resources are released locally

Packet cell change order, polling


The MS switches to the new cell

Packet control ack

new cell (BCCH,BSIC)

PACCHDL

UL transfer establishment in the new cell

T_WAIT_FLUSH

UL transfer MS sends an LLC PDU to warn the SGSN about its new cell location

LLC PDU FLUSH-LL


(TLLI,old BVCI) (TLLI,new BVCI)

P434a
UL TBF release

P434b
DL TBF release

NC2 cell reselection success for cause:


P435d P435c P435a P435b

too bad uplink quality too bad downlink quality too low downlink level better neighbor cell

FLUSH-LL ACK
(TLLI)

P396b

P396a

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Page 217

3.7 Cell Reselection

NC2, Failure
MS
DL transfer

B9
218

MFS serving cell

MFS target cell

SGSN

T3158 expiry T3158

Packet measurement report


PACCHUL

NC2 cell reselection request


PACCHDL T_ACK_WAIT

Packet cell change order, polling


new cell (BCCH,BSIC)

Packet control ack


The MS switches to the new cell
UL transfer establishment in the new cell is impossible

Radio resources are released locally

Packet channel request


PRACH

T_WAIT_FLUSH

Packet uplink assignment


PAGCH

USF scheduling
PDTCH

Packet cell change failure


PACCH

P228
UL TBF DL TBF

P464

P437a
Target cell rejected

P437b
Target cell not rejected

P225

New B9

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The above case assumes that MPDCH is configured in the cell. When receiving the PACKET CELL CHANGE FAILURE message, the MFS will increment either P437a or P437b according to the cause value reported by the MS in the message. Counter P464 aims to count rejection due to load in target cell (new criteria in B9) Counter P228/P225 is incremented in case of the MS reports to the MFS a Packet Cell Change Failure message (PCCF) Counter P437a is incremented if the cause included in the PCCF reported is one of the following "Frequency not implemented "No response on target cell "Immediate Assign Reject or Packet Access Reject on target cell Counter P437a is incremented if the cause included in the PCCF reported is one of the following: "On going CS connection "MS in GMM Standby state Forced to the Standby state New counters inB8: P437a, P437b.

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3.7 Cell Reselection

QoS degradation
219

QoS degraded due to cell reselection


Throughput [kbit/s]
1. CS change TBF 1 (Cell 1) Cell Re-Selection

Data Call Duration


1. CS change TBF 2 (Cell 2)

CS 2

Average Throughput Throughput


CS 1

4 sec

t0

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

Time [s]

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Page 219

3.7 Cell Reselection

NACC and (P)SI Status 1/4


QoS improved with NACC and (P)SI status
Throughput [kbit/s]
1. CS change TBF 1 (Cell 1) Cell Re-Selection

B9
220

Data Call Duration

1. CS change TBF 2 (Cell 2)

CS 2

Average Throughput Throughput


CS 1

1 sec

t0

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

Time [s]

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Page 220

3.7 Cell Reselection

NACC and (P)SI Status 2/4


In the source cell
P460c

B9
221

Minimum Network Assisted cell reselection duration


MS

NC0 MODE MFS Cell A UL or DL TBF MFS Cell B

P460b

Maximum Network Assisted cell reselection duration.

Packet Cell Change Notification

P460a

Average Network Assisted cell reselection duration


Packet Neighbor Cell Data (SI1)

Retrieval of SI instances

P458
Number of times the procedure of broadcast of neighbor (P)SI messages is invoked Packet Neighbor Cell Data (SI3) Packet Neighbor Cell Data (SI13) Packet Cell Change Continue

P458

P459

Signaling load induced in the cell by the procedure of broadcast of neighbor (P)SI messages

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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The duration of a NACC cell reselection is measured in the source cell between the start of emission of Packet Neighbour Cell Data messages (following the reception of the Packet Cell Change Notification message) and the reception of the Flush-LL message. The source cell is the cell where the cell reselections are outgoing.

The duration of a NACC cell reselection is measured in the source cell between the start of emission of Packet Neighbour Cell Data messages and the reception of the Flush-LL message

Page 221

3.7 Cell Reselection

NACC and (P)SI Status 3/4


MS
On going UL or DL TBF Packet Measurement Report / PACCH Packet Neighbour Cell Data (S1) / PDCH Packet Neighbour Cell Data (SI3) / PDCH Packet Neighbour Cell Data (SI13) / PDCH Packet Cell Change Order / PACCH (4) Packet Control Acknowledgement / PACCH Packet Channel Request / PRACH Packet Uplink Assignment / PCCCH On going UL TBF (8) UL LLC PDU [TLLI] FLUSH-LL PDU [TLLI, old BVCI] T_Ack_Wait T_Wait_Flush
P458

B9
222

BSS Serving cell

BSS Target cell


NC2 MODE

SGSN

FLUSH-LL-ACK PDU [TLLI, deleted]

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Page 222

3.7 Cell Reselection

NACC and (P)SI Status 4/4


In target cell (P) SI status

B9
223

P456

P457

Number of times the procedure of broadcast of serving cell PSI for Packet PSI Status or the procedure of sending of Packet Serving Cell Data for Packet SI Status is invoked. Signaling load induced in the cell by the procedure of broadcast of (P)SI messages

MS

MFS Cell A UL or DL TBF

MFS Cell B

Packet SI Status (SI2, SI2bis, SI2ter msg type missing)

P456
Packet Serving Cell Data (SI2) Packet Serving Cell Data (SI2bis) Packet Serving Cell Data (SI2ter)

P457

UL or DL TBF

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This mechanism is applied in both NC0 and NC2 P457: Number of RLC blocks used : 1) To broadcast a PSI message for Packet PSI Status feature 2) To send a PACKET SERVING CELL DATA message for Packet SI Status feature.

Page 223

3.7 Cell Reselection

Exercise

B9
224

Exercise 1: What kind of cell reselection procedure ( NC0 or NC2 / with or without NACC) you can observe in Trace10,11, 12 and Trace13? Exercise 2: For each case of cell reselection,
Find specific messages to NACC (P)SI status if any find old and new cell identities.

Time allowed: 30 minutes

Exercise 3 : looking the content of SI Status can you guess which SI where given during NACC procedure

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Page 224

3.7 Cell Reselection

QoS Indicators

B9
225

NACC and (P)SI status reselection NCO reselection Number of successes, Nb of DL/UL TBF releases NC2 reselection
NC2 reselection start Number of requests Number of successes, Nb of DL/UL TBF releases Success rate Failure causes Target cell rejected Target cell not rejected Reselection time TBF establishment end time
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Outgoing Incoming

Max Avg Min

Page 225

3.7 Cell Reselection

QoS Indicators, NC0


226

Cell reselection: ALL = NC0+NC2


NC0+NC2 re-selection P397 NC0 re-selection Number of successful NC0 cell re-selection P436 Number of successful cell re-selection

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Page 226

3.7 Cell Reselection

QoS Indicators, NC2 1/3


227
NC2 re-selection Number of NC2 cell re-selection request P433a cause PT1 (too low downlink level) Number of NC2 cell re-selection request P433b cause PT2 (better neighbour cell) Number of NC2 cell re-selection request P433c cause PT3 (too bad downlink quality) Number of NC2 cell re-selection request P433d cause PT4 (too bad uplink quality) Ratio of NC2 re-selection cause Emergency (P433a+P433c+P433d) / (P433a+P433b+P433c+P433d) * 100 Ratio of NC2 re-selection cause Better Condition Number of NC2 cell re-selection success cause PT1 (too low downlink level) Number of NC2 cell re-selection success cause PT2 (better neighbour cell) Number of NC2 cell re-selection success cause PT3 (too bad downlink quality) Number of NC2 cell re-selection success cause PT4 (too bad uplink quality) Number of NC2 cell re-selection requests Number of NC2 cell re-selection successes NC2 cell re-selection success rate (P433b) / (P433a+P433b+P433c+P433d) * 100 P435a P435b P435c P435d P433a+P433b+P433c+P433d P435a+P435b+P435c+P435d (P435a+P435b+P435c+P435d) / (P433a+P433b+P433c+P433d)

Cell reselection: NC2

KPI KPI

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Page 227

3.7 Cell Reselection

QoS Indicators, NC2 2/3

B9
228

P437a

Number of NC2 cell reselection failures reported by the MS which leads to reject the target cell for a while. Number of NC2 cell reselection failures reported by the MS which does not lead to reject the target cell for a while. Number of NC2 cell reselection failures reported by the MS due to load (cause : "immediate assign reject" or "packet access reject on target cell") Rate of NC2 failures due to BSS problem Minimum duration of successful incoming intra-RA intraMFS NC2 cell reselections (measured in the target cell). Maximum duration of successful incoming intra-RA intraMFS NC2 cell reselections (measured in the target cell). Average duration of successful incoming intra-RA intraMFS NC2 cell reselections (measured in the target cell). Minimum duration of successful outgoing NC2 cell reselections (measured in the source cell) Maximum duration of successful outgoing NC2 cell reselections (measured in the source cell) Average duration of successful outgoing NC2 cell reselections (measured in the source cell)

P437b

New in B9 Modified in B9

P464 (((P433a) + (P433b) + (P433c) +(P433d)) - ((P435a) + (P435b) + (P435c) + (P435d)) - (P437b) - (P437a) P464) / ((P433a) + (P433b) + (P433c) +(P433d)) P432c

P432b

P432a P431c P431b P431a

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P432x counters are taking into account only the Cell Reselections for which Serving and Target cells belong to the same RA and the same MFS.

Page 228

3.7 Cell Reselection

New B9 QoS Indicators, NC2 3/3


Counter number P221 Name

B9
229

New in B9

Definition

NB_PCCO_ACK_UL_NC2_CELL_RESEL

Number of Packet Cell Change Order acknowledged by the MS while in UL transfert

P222

NB_PCCO_ACK_DL_NC2_CELL_RESEL

Number of Packet Cell Change Order acknowledged by the MS while in DL transfert. Number of Packet Cell Change Order messages sent while in DL transfer. Number of FLUSH-LL PDU received after a Packet Cell Change Order has been sent to the MS while in DL transfer.

P223

NB_PCCO_NC2_CELL_RESEL_DL_TBF

P224

NB_FLUSH_NC2_CELL_RESEL_DL_TBF

P225

NB_PCCF_NC2_CELL_RESEL_DL_TBF

Number of Packet Cell Change Failure received from the MS after a Packet Cell Change Order has been sent to the MS while in DL transfer Number of Packet Cell Change Order messages sent while in UL transfer. Number of FLUSH-LL PDU received after a Packet Cell Change Order has been sent to the MS while in UL Number of Packet Cell Change Failure received from the MS after a Packet Cell Change Order has been sent to the MS while in UL transfer.

P226

NB_PCCO_NC2_CELL_RESEL_UL_TBF

P227

NB_FLUSH_NC2_CELL_RESEL_UL_TBF

P228

NB_PCCF_NC2_CELL_RESEL_UL_TBF

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Page 229

3.7 Cell Reselection

New B9 QoS Indicators, NACC (P)SI Status

B9
230

Counter number P456 NB_PSI_PROC

Name

New in B9

Definition

Number of times the procedure of broadcast of serving cell PSI for Packet PSI Status or the procedure of sending of Packet Serving Cell Data for Packet SI Status is invoked. Signaling load induced in the cell by the procedure of broadcast of (P)SI messages Number of times the procedure of broadcast of neighbor (P)SI messages is invoked Signaling load induced in the cell by the procedure of broadcast of neighbor (P)SI messages Average Network Assisted cell reselection duration. Maximum Network Assisted cell reselection duration. Minimum Network Assisted cell reselection duration.

P457 P458 P459 P460a P460b P460c

NB_PSI_MES NB_NEIGH_PSI_PROC NB_NEIGH_PSI_MES AV_SOURCE_NACC_CELL_RESEL_TIME MAX_SOURCE_NACC_CELL_RESEL_TIME MIN_SOURCE_NACC_CELL_RESEL_TIME

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Page 230

3.7 Cell Reselection

end-user QoS improvement with NC2, 1/2


231

Enhanced cell reselection can be easily tested and evaluated through drive test route
DL FTP transfer of a file In a bi-band network (GSM900,GSM1800) GSM1800 cells are favored in CS idle mode: CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET = 20dB Route length is about 1.150 Km Two 900 cells and two 1800 cells are covering MS is GPRS multi-slot class 8 (4+1)
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Page 231

3.7 Cell Reselection

end-user QoS improvement with NC2, 2/2


232

Gain in throughput
NC0 34,7 kbits/s

NC2 + GPRS redirection 40,2 kbits/s

9 reselections during transfer


60 50 40 30 300 20 10 0 1 28 55 82 109 136 163 190 217 244 271 298 325 200 100 0 700 600 500 400 RLC_Throughput_DL Se rvBC CH

2 reselections during transfer


600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1 33 65 97 129 161 193 225 257 289 321 353 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ServBCCH RLC_Throughput_DL

9 interruptions

2 interruptions

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233

4 Detection of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

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Page 233

4 Detection of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

Session Presentation
234

Objective: to be able to detect the main GPRS QoS problems of the Alcatel BSS Program:
4.1 General Principles 4.2 Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

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Page 234

235

4 Detection of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

4.1 General Principles

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Page 235

4.1 General Principles

KPI, Warning Indicator


236

A lot of QoS indicators are computed from BSS GPRS counters QoS indicators that will be followed-up by management are called KPI: Key Performance Indicator Among all BSS GPRS QoS indicators some are used to detect QoS problems: they are called WARNING indicators
usually all KPIs other major indicators as from radio optimizer view

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Page 236

4.1 General Principles

QoS Threshold, Sampling Indicator


237

A WARNING indicator is often attached a QoS threshold value to decide if the indicator value is bad or not In case a WARNING indicator value is considered as bad then another indicator called the SAMPLING indicator and attached to the WARNING indicator must be checked A SAMPLING indicator is attached a sample threshold value to decide if the WARNING indicator value is relevant or not

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Page 237

4.1 General Principles

QoS Problem Detection


238

List of BSS QoS indicators I1. I2. I3. I4. I5, I6, I7, I8, etc

no

Are some Warning indicator values bad? yes

end

Check the related Sampling indicator value

no

Is the Warning indicator value relevant?

yes

Analyze QoS problem

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Page 238

4.1 General Principles

QoS Problem Detection, Exercise


239

Exercise: Using analogy with BSS GSM QoS indicators find the Sampling indicator attached to each of the following GPRS Warning indicators:
TBF establishment success rate TBF drop rate NC2 Cell reselection success rate

Time allowed: 10 minutes

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Page 239

240

4 Detection of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

4.2 Main BSS GPRS QoS problems

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Page 240

4.2 Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

Exercise 1: List Them


241

Exercise 1: List the main BSS QoS problems seen as a QoS degradation by the end user
BSS GPRS QoS problems are relating to Data transfer problems between the MS and the GPRS Core network, which are due to the BSS

Time allowed: 15 minutes

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Page 241

4.2 Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

Exercise 2: Find Warning and Sampling Indicators


242

Exercise 2: Find the Warning and Sampling indicators which will be used to detect each of these problems:
Data transfer not established Data transfer degraded Data transfer interrupted Data transfer dropped

Time allowed: 15 minutes

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Page 242

4.2 Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

Exercise 3: UL Data Transfer Establishment Degradation


243

Exercise 3: Find the Warning indicator degraded by difficulties to establish a UL TBF resulting in a TBF establishment after MS repetitions of channel request
Can this problem be identified through QoS indicators? If not, what must be done to find the cause of the UL data transfer establishment degradation?

Time allowed: 15 minutes

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Page 243

4.2 Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

Exercise 4: DL Data Transfer Establishment Degradation


244

Exercise 4: Find the Warning indicator degraded by difficulties to establish a DL TBF resulting in a TBF establishment after MFS repetitions of channel assignment
Can this problem be identified through QoS indicators? If not, what must be done to find the cause of the DL data transfer establishment degradation?

Time allowed: 5 minutes

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Page 244

245

5 Analysis of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

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Page 245

5 Analysis of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

Session Presentation
246

Objective: to be able to analyze the main GPRS QoS problems of the Alcatel BSS Program:
5.1 Find the Causes of a BSS GPRS QoS Problem 5.2 Characterize the QoS indicators used in the analysis of a BSS GPRS QoS Problem 5.3 What kind of QoS Problem is recorded in the Trace?

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247

5 Analysis of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

5.1 Find the causes of a BSS GPRS QoS problem

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Page 247

Exercise 1a: Find the probable causes of a BSS GPRS QoS problem

For each of the 4 typical BSS GPRS QoS problems, mark the probable cause(s) each cause corresponding to a specific BSS PM counter
QoS problem probable cause MS suspend TBF establishment failure
(1)

TBF throughput degradation

TBF interruption

TBF drop

Gb

Radio

Cell reselection

Congestion

MS error (1) Fast PDCH pre-emption of the PDTCH carrying the PACCH of the TBF Fast PDCH pre-emption of the PDTCH carrying only a PDTCH of the TBF
(2)

BSS problem

Sub-optimal usage of radio resources

(3)

(1) MS error are not counted in a specific counter (2) any software or hardware failure, occuring in the BSS, provok ing a TBF problem not counted as another cause (3) any reason why a mobile involved in a TBF get a data throughput lower than its transfer capability

Page 248

Exercise 1b: Find a more detailed reason for some of the probable causes of a BSS GPRS QoS problem probable cause Fast PDCH Fast PDCH pre-emption pre-emption Sub-optimal of the of the usage of PDTCH PDTCH radio carrying carrying the resources only a PACCH of PDTCH of the TBF the TBF

Congestion

Radio

Gb

MS suspend

Cell reselection

reason Interference NC2 cell reselection not activated NC2 cell reselection not efficient Lack of PDCH resources
(1)

Lack of CCCH resources

Lack of Abis resources

Lack of Ater resources

Lack of GPU resources T_PDCH_PREEMPTION parameter value too low BSS SW or HW failure

GSS SW or HW failure Re-allocation trigger T1 is not efficient Abis MW problem System or protocol error between BSS and GSS Coverage

Abis signalling overload Bad setting of cell reselection parameters Bad setting of CS/MCS adaptation parameters High CS traffic

High PS traffic

(1) can be due to:

tow low MAX_PDCH parameter value, too high CS traffic, too high PS traffic, too long Delayed DL TBF Release phase, poor re-allocation algorithm efficiency BSS SW or HW failure
Page 249

250

5 Analysis of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

5.2 Characterize the QoS indicators used in the analysis of a BSS GPRS QoS Problem

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Page 250

Exercise 2a: Characterize the QoS indicators used in the analysis of a TBF establishment failure Congestion % TBF establishment failure due to congestion Lack of PDCH resources % TBF establishment failure due to radio congestion bad MAX_PDCH parameter setting

Maximum nb of established SPDCH Average MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT reduction rate Check MAX_PDCH parameter value

high CS traffic

Average MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value Nb of PDCH released after having been marked by soft pre-emption Average nb of TBF candidates to T1 re-allocation per PDCH released after having been marked by soft pre-emption

high PS traffic

Maximum nb of established SPDCH Average MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value

Lack of Abis resources Lack of Ater resources Lack of GPU resources

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT reduction rate too long Delayed DL TBF % of time established DL TBFs are release phase active Ratio of DL TBF resumptions per established DL TBF Average TBF duration Average MS session duration Average number of GPRS sessions per call Check T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME parameter value poor re-allocation Average nb of TBF established per algorithm efficiency MS session Nb of TBF re-allocation requests Re-allocation success rate use GSM indicators and BSS BSS SW or HW failure equipement alarms use GSS indicators and/or GSS GSS SW or HW failure equipment alarms % TBF establishment failure due to Abis congestion % TBF establishment failure due to Ater congestion % TBF establishment failure due to (DSP+CPU) GPU congestion

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Exercise 2a: Characterize the QoS indicators used in the analysis of a TBF establishment failure (suite) Radio % TBF establishment failure due to radio Coverage use GSM indicators Interference use GSM indicators use GSM indicators and Abis Abis MW problem transmission alarms use GSM indicators and BSS BSS SW or HW failure equipement alarms NC2 cell reselection not Number of NC2 cell activated reselection requests Lack of CCCH resources use GSM indicators

Gb

% TBF establishment failure due to Gb pb system or protocol error trace Gb interface between BSS and GSS GSS SW or HW failure

BSS

% TBF establishment failure due to BSS pb BTS, BSC or MFS use GPRS LAPD counters, software or hardware BSS indicators and alarms failure trace Abis, Ater interface system or protocol error trace Abis, Ater interface between BSS and MS

MS error

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Exercise 2b: Characterize the QoS indicators used in the analysis of a TBF throughput degradation

% time MS engaged in a TBF in Sub-optimal usage the direction of the bias and they of radio resources are granted the maximum nb of TS they support in that direction Lack of PDCH resources % of partial TS allocation success bad MAX_PDCH parameter setting Maximum nb of established SPDCH Average MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT reduction rate Check MAX_PDCH parameter value high CS traffic Average MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value Nb of PDCH released after having been marked by soft pre-emption Average nb of TBF candidates to T1 reallocation per PDCH released after having been marked by soft preemption high PS traffic Maximum nb of established SPDCH Average MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT reduction rate too long Delayed DL TBF % of time established DL TBFs are active release phase Ratio of DL TBF resumptions per established DL TBF Average TBF duration Average MS session duration Average number of GPRS sessions per call Check T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME parameter value poor re-allocation algorithm efficiency Average nb of TBF established per MS session Nb of TBF re-allocation requests Re-allocation success rate BSS SW or HW failure GSS SW or HW failure use GSM indicators and BSS equipement alarms use GSS indicators and/or GSS equipment alarms

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Exercise 2b: Characterize the QoS indicators used in the analysis of a TBF throughput degradation (suite) % time MS engaged in a TBF in the direction of the Sub-optimal usage bias and they are granted of radio resources the maximum nb of TS they support in that direction Lack of Abis resources % TBF establishment failure due to Abis congestion Cumulative time during a GCH resource is busy in the cell Cumulative time during which there is a deficit of GCH resources in the cell Maximum number of GCH in deficit reached in the cell % TBF establishment failure due to Ater congestion % of time the GPU is in GCH congestion % TBF establishment failure due to (DSP+CPU) GPU congestion % of time the SPDCH are degraded due to Ater congestion Ratio of RLC blocks transmitted on most robust CSx (or MCx) % of retransmission of RLC blocks for CS (or MCS) TBF_CS_INIT Check CS and MCS adaptation paramaters value Ratio of RLC blocks transmitted on most robust CSx (or MCx) % of retransmission of RLC blocks for CS (or MCS) TBF_CS_INIT Check CS and MCS adaptation paramaters value

Lack of Ater resources

Lack of GPU resources

Bad setting of CS (or MCS) adaptation parameters

Bad setting of CS (or MCS) adaptation parameters

Fast PDCH preNb of PDCH released after emption of the having been marked by soft PDTCH carrying only pre-emption a PDTCH of the TBF high CS traffic Average MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value Average nb of TBF candidates to T1 reallocation per PDCH released after having been marked by soft pre-emption

Radio Ratio of RLC blocks Coverage / Interference transmitted on most robust CSx (or MCx) % of retransmission of RLC blocks for CS (or MCS) TBF_CS_INIT use GSM indicators

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Exercise 2c: Characterize the QoS indicators used in the analysis of a TBF interruption CAUTION: % TBF acceptable release rate can increase be due to the modification of the duration of the delayed state phase of the Delayed DL TBF release procedure after parameter tuning. Therefore check evolution of the indicator : % TBF acceptable rele Fast pre-emption of the PDCH TBF release rate due to fast carrying the pre-emption PACCH of the TBF Re-allocation trigger T1 TBF re-allocation trigger T1 is not efficient success rate Check T_PDCH_PREEMPTION parameter value Lack of PDCH resource high PS traffic see previous cases MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT reduction rate % TBF establishment failure due to radio congestion MS Suspend TBF release rate due to MS suspend high CS traffic Average MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value Nb of PDCH released after having been marked by soft pre-emption Average nb of TBF candidates to T1 re-allocation per PDCH released after having been marked by soft pre-emption Average number of GPRS sessions per call Cell reselection TBF release rate due to cell reselection NC2 cell reselection not activated NC2 cell reselection is not efficient

Number of NC2 cell reselection requests NC2 cell reselection success rate Number of NC2 cell reselection requests Check NC2 cell reselection parameters value

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Exercise 2d: Characterize the QoS indicators used in the analysis of a TBF drop CAUTION: % TBF abnormal release rate can increase be due to the modification of the duration of the delayed state phase of the Delayed DL TBF release procedure after parameter tuning. Therefore check evolution of the indicator : % TBF acceptable releas Radio TBF drop rate due to radio Coverage Interference Abis MW problem BSS SW or HW failure TBF drop rate due to stagnating TX window TBF drop rate due to blocking situation system or protocol error trace Abis, Ater interface between BSS and MS Gb TBF drop rate due to Gb system or protocol error trace Gb interface between BSS and GSS BSS TBF drop rate due to BSS BTS, BSC or MFS software or hardware failure

use GSM indicators use GSM indicators use GSM indicators and Abis transmission alarms use GSM indicators and BSS equipement alarms

MS error

use GPRS LAPD counters, BSS indicators and alarms trace Abis, Ater interface

Cell reselection

TBF drop rate due to radio NC2 cell reselection not activated and NC0 cell reselection takes long time

Number of NC2 cell reselection request Number of NC0 cell reselection success per call

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257

5 Analysis of the Main BSS GPRS QoS Problems

5.3 What kind of QoS Problem is recorded in the Trace?

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Page 257

5.3 What kind of QoS Problem is recorded in the Trace?

Exercise
258

What kind of BSS GPRS QoS problem you can observed in the trace 20?

Time allowed: 15 minutes

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B9
259

6 APPENDIX

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6 Appendix
Content:
6.1 Real radio drop 6.2 (P) SI messages details 6.3 Exercises on NACC (P)SI STATUS 6.4 Main KPI 6.5 Important KPI 6.6 Whats new or modified in B9

B9
260

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Page 260

6.1 Real radio drop

Radio drop and reselection


261
Cell Reselection 397

Real Radio Drop


YES

PIM

= Counted Late = Counted (All On Time) = 302 (434 396)


No Release No Counter

NO (PTM) 3105 Overload NO YES

302

COUNTED

NO

FLUSH YES

FLUSH YES

NO

FLUSH ON TIME

396

FLUSH LATE = All - On Time

ALL FLUSHs

434

END

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6.1 Real radio drop

Radio drop and suspend


262
VOICE CALL

Real Radio Drop


= Counted Late = Counted (All On Time) = 302 (98c 98a)

3105 Overload NO

YES

302

COUNTED

NO

SUSPEND YES

SUSPEND YES

NO

SUSPEND ON TIME

98a

SUSPEND LATE = All - On Time

ALL SUSPENDs

98c

END

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6.2 (P) SI messages details 1/2


Codage du Message Type des SIs dans les messages PNCD/PSCD
SI 1 SI 2 SI 2 bis SI 2 ter SI 2 quater SI 3 SI 4 SI 5 SI 5 bis SI 5 ter SI 6 SI 7 SI 8 SI 9 19 1A 02 03 07 1B 1C 1D 05 06 1E 1F 18 04 SI 13 00

B9
263

SI 14 SI 15 SI 16 SI 17 SI 18 SI 19 SI 20

01 44 3D 3E 40 41 42

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6.2 (P) SI messages details 2/2


Codage du Message Type des PSIs dans les messages PNCD
- PSI1 - PSI2 - PSI3 - PSI3 bis - PSI3 ter - PSI3 quater - PSI4 - PSI5 - PSI6 - PSI7 - PSI8 - PSI13 - PSI14 - PSI15 C4 C8 CC D0 F0 F4 D4 D8 C0 E0 E4 DC E8 F8

B9
264

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Appendix

6.3 Exercises on NACC (P)SI STATUS


265

A/ extracting Packet Neighbor Cell Data message trace 12 could you find what are the SI Message Type number sent to the mobile ? B/ extracting PSI status message in the same trace could find what are SI message missing for the Mobile?
For your help , please use the information in previous 2 pages

Time allowed: 20 minutes

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Page 265

Appendix

6.4 Main KPI


266

Total number of TBF establishment requests TBF establishment success rate Drop rate Acceptable release rate Normal release rate In RLC ack mode, rate of RLC retransmitted data bytes sent on PDTCH and encoded in CS-x PDTCH RLC block CSx / (CS1+CS2+CS3+CS4) ratio PDTCH RLC block retransmission rate in GPRS ack mode In RLC ack mode, ratio of useful RLC blocks sent in RLC acknowledged mode on PDTCH and encoded in MCS-x In RLC ack mode, rate of RLC retransmitted data bytes sent on PDTCH and encoded in MCS-x Number of NC2 cell re-selection requests NC2 cell reselection success rate

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Appendix

6.5 important KPI


267

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DL TBF Establishment
Request % allocated Success % Success GPRS_DL_TBF_Request GPRS_DL_TBF_estab_allocated_rate GPRS_DL_TBF_success GPRS_DL_TBF_success_rate TRDTERQN QRDTEAPR TRDTESUN QRDTESUR

UL TBF Establishment
Request % allocated Success % Success GPRS_UL_TBF_request GPRS_UL_TBF_estab_allocated_rate GPRS_UL_TBF_success GPRS_UL_TBF_success_rate TRUTERQN QRUTEAPR TRUTESUN QRUTESUR

DL TBF Reallocation (DL TBF Estab)


% DL Realloc Suc GPRS_DL_TBF_Realloc_Success_Rate TRDRRSUR

UL TBF Reallocation (UL TBF Estab)


% UL Realloc Suc GPRS_UL_TBF_Realloc_Success_Rate TRURRSUR

DL data transfert
% Normal Release % Acc release % drop TBF DL GPRS_DL_TBF_normal_release_rate GPRS_DL_TBF_acceptable_release_rate GPRS_DL_TBF_drop_rate QRDDTNRR QRDDTACR QRDDTARR

UL data transfert
% Normal Release % Acc release % drop TBF UL GPRS_UL_TBF_normal_release_rate GPRS_UL_TBF_acceptable_release_rate GPRS_UL_TBF_drop_rate QRUDTNRR QRUDTACR QRUDTARR

DL Coding scheme usage (and Partially DL RLC Traffic)


CSx Useful Bytes MCSx Useful Bytes GPRS_DL_useful_throughput_CSx_bytes_ack GPRS_DL_useful_throughput_MCSx_bytes_ack GPRS_DL_useful_throughput_radio_EGPRS_TB F_avg GPRS_DL_useful_throughput_radio_GPRS_TBF _avg TRPDDBYGAN TRPDDBYEAN

kbps per EGPRS TBF kbps per GPRS TBF UL Coding scheme usage (and UL RLC Traffic)
CSx Useful Bytes MCSx Useful Bytes

TRPDDTBEGA TRPDDTBGPA

GPRS_UL_useful_throughput_CSx_bytes_ack GPRS_UL_useful_throughput_MCSx_bytes_ack GPRS_UL_useful_throughput_radio_EGPRS_TB F_avg GPRS_UL_useful_throughput_radio_GPRS_TBF _avg

TRPDUBYGAN TRPDUBYEAN

kbps per EGPRS TBF kbps per GPRS TBF

TRPDUTBEGA TRPDUTBGPA

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DL RLC trafic
% CSx Retrans CSx retrans MCSx retrans %MCSx Retrans GPRS_DL_RLC_PDTCH_CSx_retransmissing_ack_r ate GPRS_DL_RLC_bytes_PDTCH_CSx_retransmissing _ack GPRS_DL_RLC_bytes_PDTCH_MCSx_retransmissi ng_ack GPRS_DL_RLC_bytes_PDTCH_MCSx_retrans_ack_ ratio QRDDTRRR QRDDTRRBCN QRPDDRMN QRPDDRMO

UL RLC trafic
% CSx Retrans CSx retrans MCSx retrans %MCSx Retrans GPRS_UL_RLC_CSx_PDTCH_retransmissing_ack_r ate GPRS_UL_RLC_bytes_PDTCH_CSx_retransmissing _ack GPRS_UL_RLC_bytes_PDTCH_MCSx_retransmissi ng_ack GPRS_UL_RLC_bytes_PDTCH_MCSx_retrans_ack_ ratio QRUDTRRR QRUDTRRBCN QRPDURMN QRPDURMO

PDCH Allocation (to be reviewed)


DL Optimal Alloc %DL Optimal Alloc UL Optimal Alloc %UL Optimal Alloc GPRS_DL_biased_and_DL_optimal_allocation_time GPRS_DL_biased_and_DL_optimal_alloc_percent GPRS_UL_biased_and_UL_optimal_allocation_time GPRS_UL_biased_and_UL_optimal_alloc_percent QRDRRSUT QRDRRSUP QRURRSUT QRURRSUP

PDCH usage
GPRS_PDCH_traffic_time

Definition
Cumulative time during which the slave PDCHs are established and carry at least one UL or DL TBF.(established in GPRS mode or EGPRS mode). Cumulative time during which the slave PDCHs are established and carry at least one UL or DL TBF.(established in EGPRS mode) Percentage of time during which the established PDCHs in traffic are supporting EGPRS traffic.

Ref Name
ARPDCUSBUT

GPRS_PDCH_EGPRS_traffic_time

ARPDCUSEGT

GPRS_PDCH_EGPRS_traffic_time_rati o

ARPDCUSEGO

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Appendix

6.6 Whats new or modified in B9


270

New UL TBF release management: Delayed Final PUAN with extended UL TBF and associated counters/indicators UL TBF Establishment, Failures : new counters DL TBF Establishment, Failures : new counters New Data Transfer Establishment QoS Indicators TBF Acceptable Release modifications and Associated counters/Indicators New UL MCS Adaptation and Associated Counters/Indicators New BSS Resources Management and associated counters/indicators New NC2 counters/indicators New Cell Reselection feature : NACC/(P)SI Status and associated counters/indicators

Introduction to GPRS and E-GPRS QoS Monitoring / B9

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UL TBF Establishment, Failures : new counters Abis congestion Too many TBF DSP with CPU in load state DL TBF Establishment, Failures : new counters Abis congestion Too many TBF CPU load TBF statistics: duration, number, throughput, distribution on volume TBF Acceptable Release: MS is establishing a CS connection while in PTM UL MCS Adaptation New coding schemes MCS5->MCS9 New NC2 counters/indicators P227, P228, P223, P221, P225, P464 New BSS Resources Management GCH,PDCH, TBF estblishment,

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271

End of Module

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