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Democracia x/e Repblica Renato Janine Repblica: povo como soberano. Leis e regras de aplicao popular, via representao.

Neste sentido: repblica representativa. Democracia: s/ ordem poltica ou conjunto de leis especfico. Oposio heurstica. Aristteles: democracia gananciosa. Polloi. Conotao social nos gregos que degringola na modernidade. Repblica e dever. Repblica e soluo da tenso democrtica advinda da coicidncia entre mando e poder. Representao. Riscos que uma democracia sofre sem a repblica. Estabilidade republicana + ideal de liberdade. Democracia como instrumento. Riscos da democracia. Carter social da democracia. Definio Democracia tem de ser republicana. Outro:
. Instead of emphasizing the importance of "rule by the people" and the ideal of political equality (as the classical democracy does), the classical republicanism advocates selfgovernment, mixed constitution and the need for a government that reflects the interests not only of "the many (the people)," but also of "the one (the monarch)" and "the few (the aristocrats)," which in pre-modern days were regarded as two distinct classes separate from the people ("the many").

Auto-governo na renascena. Liberdade. Repblica: legitimidade e estabilidade.


To be sure, many of the classical republicanism's premises and propositions are the same as those of democracy. The classical republicanism and the classical democracy have the same goals: a society sustained by civic virtue, in which people live a happy life by devoting to public good and committing to civic duties. People are by nature political and social, according to the classical political thinkers, and that is why people can be happy only by living in a political association.

Insuflar a virtude poltica x viabiliz-la. Virtu anti-natural. Dever.


, Machiavelli points out the important connection between republicanism and individual liberty. Unlike the classical republicans, Machiavelli is among the first to foresee the modern distinction between "the public" and "the private." In an often neglected but very important treatise titled The Discourses, Machiavelli does not believe that there is a natural or God-given way of organizing the political order. To Machiavelli, it is the task of "politics" to create order in the world, and the objective of politics is to strive to gain, maintain and use power. At the same time, a nation can never become strong and dominating unless its people have been enjoying liberty, and the way to guarantee liberty is to have a mixed constitution, not to meddle with people's private life, and to

expand by constantly engaging in wars. In the end, however, Machiavelli places collective and national interest above individual liberties, and he is concerned more with national strength than with individual happiness. As such, like his classical predecessors, Machiavelli is ultimately an illiberal republican. society. As such, modern republicanism has abandoned the centrality of mixed constitution in classical republicanism. Instead, it emphasizes the importance of a broad social basis for government power.

separation of power, not mixed constitution, is more important to modern republicanism. In modern terms, republicanism and democracy are no longer incompatible . Instead, they tend to focus on different aspects of the same political regime, and they are complementary to each other. Republicanism explains the source and nature of governmental power in a democracy, while democracy provides the mechanism for a government to be truly republican. In addition, the classical idea of mixed constitution, and the modern idea of separation of power, can be regarded as a way to control the problem of democratic tyranny.

Textos/ caderno Otanes. Povo e igualdade perante a lei. Racionalidade inicialmente expressa na Plis. Democracia se consolida no sculo V. Guerras mdicas e expanso ateniense. Cidadania ativa e participativa. (mas tem que ser controlada). Final do sculo V: guerra do Peloponeso, derrota de Atenas e governo dos 30 tiranos. Dois aspectos em Otanes: Isonomia (Igualdade perante s lei). Funes atribuidas por intermdio de sorteio. Crtica: Megbizos. Insensatez e insolncia da multido. Falta de conhecimento/ competncia. Democracia como amizade em torno da mediocridade. Plato: piora. Oligarquia para a democracia: cobia. Ora a democracia surge, penso eu, quando aps a vitria dos pbres, estes matam uns, expulsam outros, e partilham igualmente com os que restam o governo e as magistraturas, e esses cargos so, na maior parte, tirados sorte. Aristteles: Cidade difere de outras formas de organizao poltica poir ser autrquica (soberana)(. o fim de desenvolvimento de comunidades naturais; cidade existe em vista de sim emsma. Nela os hjomens satisfazem suas necessidades. s nela e por ela que o homeme alcana sua plenitude (o homem um animal poltico por natureza). Mais do que ser social. Plis atualiza potencialidade humana. Atualizao pelo prprio homem de sua natureza poltica. Idia de que a cidade produz bem mtuo. 3 formas so adequadas e dependem das circustncias. Captulo IV do Livro III. Homem por natureza um animal social. O bem comum. Captulo IV. Imprio da lei.

Maquiavel Preservao da liberdade poltica. Perfeio da constituiao romana: permisso do desequilbrio/ estado de necessidade. Recuperao do povo como gerente da coisa pblica. Virtude. Modo como se confere a autoridade e a durao desse mandato. Estado de necessidade. Fiscalizao clara. Captulo trigsimo quyinto.