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Values and Motivation

_____________________________________________________________________________ _ Q. 1 A. 1 Define values, critically evaluate Allport-Vernon classification of values. How values affect the business processes. Values are ever encompassing concepts. Values are tingled with moral flavor involving an individuals judgment of what is right, good or desirable. They are at the core of personality of an individual and therefore are a powerful. Definition: a value is defines as a concept of the desirable, an internalized criterion or standard for evaluation a person possesses. Such concepts and standards are relatively few and determined or guide an individuals evaluation in everyday life. Milton Rokeach, a noted psychologist, has defined values as global beliefs that guide action and judgments across a variety of situations. He further said Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct (or end-state of existence) is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct (or end-state of existence). Allport-Vernons classification of values They have categorized values into six major types as follows: 1. Theoretical - interest in the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic thinking.

2. Economic Interest and practically, including the accumulation of wealth. 3. Aesthetic Interest in beauty, form and artistic harmony. 4. Social - Interest in people and human relationships. 5. Political Interest in gaining power and influencing other people. 6. Religious - Interest on unity and understanding the cosmos as a whole. Different people place different importance to the above six value types often ranking from first to sixth and helps understanding the behavior of people. The fact that people in different occupations have different value systems has led the progressive organizations to improve the values - job fit in order to increase employee performance and satisfaction. Corporate culture is a system of shared values (what is important) and beliefs (hoe things work) that creates behavioral norms (the way we do things) to guide the activities of organizational members and facilitates higher performance. It is stated:

Every excellent company we studied is clear on what it stands for, and takes the process of values shaping seriously As a system of shared values, the corporate culture reflects a climate within which people value the same things and apply these values to benefit of the corporation as a whole. E.g. The dominant value of customer service. This value shall help to keep everyone from the top management down to the person on the factory floor pulling in the same direction. Corporate values may be put down as slogans like The family feeling by an airline company. The strength of such slogans in communicating values lies in the basic premise that values can influence behaviour. To the extent employees understand and share corporate values, their behaviour should be more uniform and consistent. The performance of individuals, groups and the organization as a whole will increase and benefit all. The managers who feel a sense of compatibility between their personal values and those of the organization experience a feeling of success in their lives, some high regard for organizational objectives and significant stakeholders, and have a healthy assessment of the values and ethics of their colleagues, subordinates and bosses. Q. 2 A. 2 Define motivation. Critically evaluate contribution of McGregor to motivation. Motivation may be defined as the managerial function of ascertaining the motives of subordinates and helping them to realize those motives. McGregors Participations model Douglas McGregor presented two set of assumptions about human beings which he thought were implied by the actions of autocratic and permissive managers. The first set of assumptions is contained in the theory x and the second in theory y which were not based on any research, but are intuitive deductions. Theory X Theory X believes that autocratic managers often make the following assumptions about their subordinates who in general: 1. Has an inherent dislikes for work and will avoid it, if he can. 2. Is lazy and avoids responsibility. 3. Is indifferent to organizational goals: and 4. Prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all.

According to McGregor this is a traditional theory of what workers are like and what management must do to motivate them. Workers have to be persuaded and pushed into performance. This is the managements task. Management can offer reward to a worker who shows higher productivity and can punish him if his performance is below standard. This is the carrot and stick approach to motivation and ways to control the people. McGregor questioned the assumptions of theory x which followed carrot and stick approach to motivation of people and suggested autocratic style of leadership. He felt that management by direction and control is a questionable method for motivating such people whose psychological and safety needs have been satisfied and whose social, esteem and self-actualization needs are becoming important. For such people, Theory Y seems to be applicable. Theory Y Managers with theory Y orientation make the following assumptions about their subordinates who in general: 1. Does not inherently dislike work. Depending upon controllable conditions: work may be a source of satisfaction or punishment. 2. Will exercise self direction and self control in the service of objectives to which he is committed; 3. Commitment to objectives is achievement; a function of the rewards associated with their

4. Learn under proper conditions, not only to accept, but also to seek responsibility and: 5. Has the capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems: it is widely, not narrowly distributed in the population. It assumes that goals of the organization and those of the individuals are not necessarily incongruent. The basic problem in most of the organizations is of securing commitment of workers to organizational goals. Workers commitment is directly related to the satisfaction of their needs. It places great emphasis on satisfaction of the higher needs of the employees. It does not rely on the use of authority as an instrument of command and control. It assumes that employees exercise self-direction and self-control in the direction of the goals to which they feel themselves committed. They could be motivated by delegation of authority, job enlargement and management by objectives and participative management practices.