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Jaimini Sutras - 1

I am a Sanskrit enthusiast and am still trying to get a good grip over this divine language. Though I am not an astrologer but I do have basic knowledge of this science & Jaimini Astrology which enabled me to understand and execute this translation.

The Commentary Of Venkatesha & Balakrishnananda Saraswati

Translated By VeneetVeneetVeneetVeneet Kumar,Kumar,Kumar,Kumar, IndiaIndiaIndiaIndia

Copy Editor: Chandrashekhar Sharma

Saptarishis Astrology Publisher:

Our Copy & Sanskrit Editor Shri Chandrashekhar Sharma opines that ‘Venkatesh has given some different interpretation of how to draw up Pada lagna and Varnadas than what is generally accepted. It can be pointed out that he does not seem to apply KaTaPaYadi system of decoding to the sutras that gives how to calculate pada if it falls in the 4th etc. Elsewhere too he gives interpretations based on both KaTaPaYadi system and meaning of words as understood normally. This gives a wider perspective to the knowledge contained in the sutras of Jaimini.’

It gives us great pleasure to introduce Veneet Kumar who has done this translation selflessly. Most important part of his submission was that it was done in a timely and systematic manner. This contribution by him to the World Jyotish Community only displays what a true vidya- karaka should do - use his God given ability to help mankind. He has a humble knowledge of Sanskrit which he has used so that lovers of Jaimini Astrology can study various commentaries. May this similarly encourage the young & uncorrupted hearts. If readers know any regional language or Sanskrit they are requested to come forward for translation. All of us should only pray & bless people like Veneet with - ‘May Ego & Selfishness - the destroyers of astrologers never touch the Knights of Astrology’

IIntroduIIntroduntroductionntroductionction:ction:::

N ot much is known regarding Venkatesha whose commentary has been presented here. The other commentator Balakrishnananda Saraswati was a contemporary of Venkatesha and was in fact his guru as Venkatesha himself says in the opening

verses (verse number three, second half). Although the manuscript does not say so but it is known from other sources that the name of Venkatesha’s commentary is Bhava- Kaumudi.The two commentaries on the Jaimini sutras presented here have been assembled from the following manuscripts donated by Shri Ravindra Bhagawat which are available on the Saptarishis Astrology website:-

1. http://www.saptarishisastrology.com/download/Manuscripts/JaiminiS

utras-VenkateshVyakhya0To25.zip

2. http://www.saptarishisastrology.com/download/Manuscripts/JaiminiS

utras-BalkrishnandSaraswati0To50.zip

3. http://www.saptarishisastrology.com/download/Manuscripts/JaiminiS utraNeelakanthaCommentary.pdf

4. http://www.saptarishisastrology.com/download/Manuscripts/Jaiminiy

aSutraVrittibyBalkrishnanandSaraswati1to50Manuscript.pdf

Both the commentaries are mostly in prose form except for a few quoted shlokas. These shlokas are italicized in the English translation for easy identification.

A lot of the text is common between the commentary of Balakrishna Saraswati and that of Venkatesha. As for the parts which are different, some of the differences are nothing more than small grammatical improvements in Saraswati’s work which hardly have any impact on the meaning of Venkatesha’s text while other differences are in the form of inclusion of additional explanatory material in Saraswati’s work. These have all been appropriately included in this article. Venkatesha’s text is maked in red while the additional text in Saraswati’s manuscript is presented in blue.

While assembling the text from these manuscripts the text common to all the manuscripts was chosen as it is while the text which varied in these manuscripts was chosen so as to provide a smooth semantic flow as well as maximize the information conveyed. In a few places the text in the manuscript was incomplete because of missing pages etc. At some of these places the missing verses seemed to have been borrowed from standard texts and they have been patched with proper notes at these points while at other places where there was no hint the missing pages have been indicated in the article. While all effort has been made to ensure that the translation is precise and error free but in case some errors have escaped notice and are observed by the learned readers they are kindly requested to bring it to our attention.

Jaimini Sutras – Venkatesh Vyakhya

। ौ

॥१॥

॥२॥ ौ ि । ौ ॥३॥ ौ

Salutations to Ganesha. Let there be prosperity.

1. She washes the lotus feet of Vishnu everyday; then again she plays on the head of Shiva; she

energizes men even those devoted to sinful acts; merged with the Yamuna she grants the fourfold objectives (dharma, artha, kama and moksha); let that mother of Bhishma, born out of earth, the

ornamet of mountain (Ganga) be for your prosperity.

2. Who have practiced the vast net of scriptures; whose immense fame has washed away the ill

influence of the Kali age; who have meditated on the feet of Shiva, which are also known as Brahm;

the feet of Lord Brahma are victorious on this earth.

3. Having the name Shrutinaresha, that is the one versed in the scriptures; famed by the name of

Abhinava Dravidaarya, that is the new aacharya of Dravidas; may the distinguished yati and teacher Balkrishna reveal knowledge in front of me.

4. I, by the name of Venkatesha, the son of the daughter of Shri Gangadhar; whose name is famed in the south; who has a firm practice in the scripture of Jyotisha; having saluted the feet of Gauri and Shiva elaborate upon the Jaiminiya Jataka through intelligible words.

SutraSutraSutraSutra –––– 1.1.11.1.11.1.11.1.1

With the sutra upadesham etc begins the Jataka which is a collection of the sutras of Jaimini. Its small exposition now begins.

Whatever is instructed is called an upadesha, an instruction. Here instruction means a secret (something which is not very clearly mentioned and hence needs elaboration). Auspicious and inauspicious indications are present (in one’s horoscope) according to ones karma. We shall elaborate upon them. This is what this Resolution Sutra 1 states.

SutraSutraSutraSutra –––– 1.1.21.1.21.1.21.1.2 andandandand 1.1.31.1.31.1.31.1.3

ँँँँ

ि

1 Resolution sutra is the sutra at the beginning of a text stating its objective.

Each of the twelve signs cast aspects only on some of the twelve signs. They do not cast aspects everywhere. This is what is indicated by the two sutras.

ँँँँ

Riksha means signs, Aries etc. All signs aspect the opposite signs. For a sign one of the sixth, eighth and seventh sign is the opposite sign. How does the sixth, eighth or seventh sign become the opposite sign? This should be known from the cyclic placement chart. This chart shall be shown ahead.

Bha means sign. All signs aspect the two signs which are placed in the neighbourhood. Thus each sign aspects three other signs – this meaning is established. For cardinal signs neighbouring signs are fifth and eleventh in-order; the same become third and ninth in off- order. Similarly the opposite sign in cardinal signs is the eighth in-order and the same is sixth in off-order. In fixed signs sixth is the opposite sign in-order and the same is eighth in off-order. Neighbouring signs in fixed are third and ninth in-order and the same are eleventh and fifth in off-order. For mutable signs the opposite sign is seventh and neighbouring signs are fourth and tenth in both order as well as off-order. This has also been said in the Vriddha-Karikas by the following two shlokas:

Mutable signs aspect mutable signs, fixed signs aspect cardinal signs and cardinal signs aspect fixed signs; excluding the sign situated in the neighbourhood each sign aspects three signs. A fixed sign aspects cardinal signs excluding the second sign; a cardinal sign aspects fixed signs excluding the last sign; a mutable sign aspects mutable signs excluding itself; this is the tradition.

This means the cardinal sign Aries aspects Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius excluding the neighbouring Taurus. Cancer, excluding the neighbouring Leo, aspects Scorpio, Aquarius and Taurus. Libra, excluding the neighbouring Scorpio, aspects Aquarius, Taurus and Leo. Capricorn, excluding the neighbouring Aquarius, aspects Taurus, Leo and Scorpio. Taurus in off-order, excluding the neighbouring Aries, aspects Capricorn, Libra and Cancer. Leo also in off order, excluding the neighbouring Cancer, aspects Aries, Capricorn and Libra. Scorpio, in off-order, excluding the neighbouring Libra, aspects Cancer, Aries and Capricorn. Aquarius, excluding the neighbouring Capricorn, aspects Libra, Cancer and Aries. Gemini aspects Virgo, Saggitarius and Pisces. Virgo again aspects Sagittarius, Pisces and Gemini. Sagittarus aspects Pisces, Gemini and Virgo. Pisces aspects Gemini, Virgo and Sagittarius.

Here the description of the aspects of the signs could have been paraphrased for brevity but they are each mentioned separately to emphasize that the second and twelfth signs should not be considered as the neighbouring signs but only the ones mentioned in the shlokas should be considered as the neighbouring signs. Therefore also the dual number in paarshvabhe restricts the incorporation of more than two signs as the neighbouring ones.

SutraSutraSutraSutra –––– 1.1.41.1.41.1.41.1.4

ि

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The aspector-aspected relationship defined with respect to the signs is extended over to the planets by the following sutra.

Planets placed in the cardinal, fixed and dual signs also aspect the signs in the same way as the signs in which they are placed. Just like a sign aspects three other signs similarly the planets positioned in a sign also aspect the planets positioned in the other three signs in the previously described manner (that is planets in cardinals aspect those in fixed etc). It is mentioned in the Vriddha-Karikas:

A planet in a fixed sign aspects the one in a cardinal sign; the one in a cardinal sign aspects the one in a fixed sign; the one in a dual sign aspects the one in a dual sign; excluding the one placed in the neighbouring sign. Planets in the fixed signs aspect those in the cardinal signs; planets in the cardinal signs aspect those in the fixed signs; planets in the dual signs aspect those in the dual signs.

Therefore the planets aspect in the same way as the sign in which they are placed. Rest is as described earlier. (That is planets in Aries aspect planets in Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius etc.)

Now we describe the cyclic placement chart. Dual signs are in the corners. The remaining signs are placed in the form of a square bed as follows - Aries and Taurus are in the upper side, Cancer and Leo are towards the right, Libra and Scorpio are in the lower side and Capricorn and Aquarius are in the left side – this is what the experienced men say. But in practice from the viewpoint of dual signs, according to chaturasre ghatanaanaa, that is similar signs should be placed square to each other, circular placement should be known to be better for this sutra (in which the four cardinal signs, the four fixed signs and the four dual signs are all placed at the four corners of a square from each other).

Just like sutras are joined together for the sake of brevity similary by omitting cha this sutra could have been shortened for efficacy. But by this reading of the present sutra tannishthastadvachcha the cha here stands to include those aspects of planets which are mentioned in other standard texts. It is said

Saturn, Jupiter, Mars and other planets aspect positions tridasha, trikona, chaturasra and saptama with increasing quarter strength.

Tridasha means third and tenth and is the first position. Trikona means fifth and ninth and is the second position. Chaturasra means fourth and eighth and is the third position. And saptama means seventh and is the fourth position. In the first three positions each position includes two signs. And in each of these four positions the strength of the aspect increases in

these four positions the strength of the aspect increases in ब Square Placement ँ ब ।

Square Placement

।११

।११

४। ।१०

। ।११ । ।११ ब ४। ।१० ब Circular Placement Cardinal etc signs aspect the

Circular Placement

Cardinal etc signs aspect the above mentioned signs from themselves

Cardinals aspect in-order 5|8|11 signs

Fixed aspect off-order 5|8|11 signs

Dual aspect both in-order and off- order 4|7|10 signs

बबबब CyclicCyclicCyclicCyclic PlacementPlacementPlacementPlacement ChartChartChartChart

the sequence one-fourth, half, three-fourths and full. But if one thinks that this sequence of increasing strengths of aspects is obeyed by all planets then it is not so. Rather this sequence of strengths is to be conjoined with the later mentioned sequence of planets to determine the strength of the aspect of each planet. Therefore for Saturn the sequence of increasing strength of aspect is trikona, chaturasra, saptama and tridasha. For Jupiter the sequence is chaturasra, saptama, tridasha and trikona. For Mars the sequence is saptama, tridasha, trikona

and chaturasra. For the remaining planets the sequence is tridasha, trikona, chaturasra and saptama. These four positions mentioned in the shloka should be looked in the circular placement chart. This meaning of the shloka is obtained from tradition.

SutraSutraSutraSutra 1.1.51.1.51.1.51.1.5

Just like different kinds of aspects have been mentioned to ascertain specific results similarly to take us further tawards ascertaining specific results Jaimini mentions something called an Argala.

From the result-giving object under study, whether it is a planet or a sign, Daara, Bhaagya and Shoola houses cause Argalas - this is the meaning. In this text the standard sequence KaTaPaYadi is frequently employed and should be used to decode some terms. While using

this sequence when a number greater than twelve is encountered multiples of twelve should be rejected and the remainder should be considered.

Five letters beginning from Ka, Ta, Pa and eight beginning from Ya should be known by the intelligent people.

Therefore sarvatra savarnaa bhaavaa rashayashcha na grahaah according to these sutras it is clearly indicated that everywhere in this text the signs and houses which are occupied by planets should be decoded using KaTaPaYadi sequence. (Using this sequence the meaning of Daara, Bhaagya and Shoola is four, two and eleven respectively.) Thus those positioned in the fourth, second and eleventh houses cause argalas. If there is a planet positioned in the house then the aspects should also be considered along with the argala. In this way for all signs, by proper counting, planets in the fourth, second and eleventh houses are argala causing planets. If there is one argala causing planet then the argala is mild; if two, then medium; if three, then full. Another way to interpret the sutra is by breaking it up as daarabhaagyashoolastaargalaa nidhyaatuh. This means that entities in the fourth, second and eleventh from the nidhyatri, that is from any sign are argalas. This argala is of two kinds – that caused by auspicious planets and that caused by inauspicious planets.

SutraSutraSutraSutra –––– 1.1.6,1.1.6,1.1.6,1.1.6, 1.1.7,1.1.7,1.1.7,1.1.7, 1.1.81.1.81.1.81.1.8

ि ि

ि

Now Jaimini mentions a fourth kind of argala.

If there is a connection of the kaama house, which is of the third house, by virtue of aspect, shadvarga, conjunction etc. with three or more malefic planets then the third house also becomes an argala. It should be noted that only when the third house has a malefic connection that there is an argala not when it is under the influence of auspicious planets. In the fourth, second and eleventh houses argala is present in both cases when auspicious influences are present as well as when malefic influences are present.

Another interpretation of the sutra could be that when the argala present in the third house is influenced by three or more malefic planets then it becomes endowed with strength. That is it becomes unobstructed. Thus argala in the third house influenced by three or more malefic planets is unobstructed while argala in the third house created by one or two malefic

planets as well as argalas in the other three houses whether created by auspicious or by malefic planets can be obstructed – such seems to be the meaning. Because the argala in the third house influenced by three or more malefic planets is unobstructed and because it is different in character from the other argalas, this sutra has been separately created. Hence now the obstructing factors for the three argalas in the daara etc houses are being mentioned.

For the argala in fourth the house in the tenth; for the argala in second the house in the twelfth and for the argala in eleventh the house in the third – these are the three opposing factors for the three argalas. That is they are the destructors of the respective argalas. For the argala in the third house created by one or two malefic planets the eleventh house should be known to be the obstructor. The opposing factors of the opposing factors are mentioned in the next sutra.

Not the ones at a lesser degree or weaker than them. This means if the planets in the tenth, twelfth, third and eleventh houses are at a lesser degree or are weaker than the respective planets in the fourth, second, eleventh and third houses then the planets in tenth etc houses do not oppose the argalas in fourth etc houses. That is they do not obstruct the argala. Jaimini will describe the calculation of the strength of planets in the future sutra. Jaimini will also mention greatness or smallness by virtue of degrees through the sutra aatmaa etc. This argala and the opposing argala have been elaborated in the Vriddha Karikas.

Argalas from houses placed second, eleventh and fourth from the planet/house under study is called auspicious argalas while argalas from twelfth, third and tenth are known as opposing argalas.

Argalas from the houses, aspecting planets, from the result aspecting planets and from the result giving planets which are in the second, eleventh and fourth houses are called auspicious argalas. Argalas from the result giving planets and from houses casting aspects or houses containing planets which are in the twelfth, third and tenth houses are known as opposing argalas. An argala which opposes the auspicious argala is only known as an opposing argala. Or else the shloka could be interpreted as follows - argalas in the second etc houses from the aspector that is the result giving sign are auspicious argalas and those in the twelfth etc houses are opposing argalas.

SutraSutraSutraSutra –––– 1.1.9,1.1.9,1.1.9,1.1.9, 1.1.101.1.101.1.101.1.10

ूूूू

ऽू

Now again Jaimini shows another kind of argala.

ूूूू

In trines, that is in the fifth and ninth houses, argala, opposing argala and invalidation of opposing argala are identical to the previous description. That is they are as described in the sutras daara etc and rishpha etc. Since the fifth house occurs first in sequence of fifth and ninth and is placed closer to the daara that is the fourth house than the ninth house, and

because ninth is the tritrikona (and not trikona) and because by the term trikona the fifth house appears first, fifth is the place of argala. The ninth house is the place of opposing argala – such is the right conclusion. Moreover, argala is created in the fifth house by both auspicious and malefic planets and in the ninth house opposing argala is created. Argala created by planets other than auspicious and malefic should be known to be identical with earlier description. A distinction in the case of Ketu is mentioned in the next sutra.

For Ketu ninth house is the house of argala. Argala related to Ketu is in the ninth house and opposing argala is in the fifth house – such is the meaning. That is in the case of Ketu, out of the fifth and ninth houses, ninth is the house of argala and fifth is the house of opposing argala.

Or else another interpretation of the sutra could be that argala and opposing argala for Ketu are opposite to that of the lagna. Thus tenth, twelfth and third are houses of argala and fourth, second and eleventh are the houses of opposing argala – such is the meaning. Just like, since the third argala is unobstructed so its sutra kaamasthaa etc. was created separately similarly because of the special results of trines and because of vipariitam ketoh that is in order to mention the inversion of argala in the trines in the case of Ketu the sutra praagvattrikone was created separately.

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Another meaning of the sutra could be that since in the sutra singular number has been used for trikona hence only the fifth house is indicated. Therefore just like the argala in the third house the argala in the fifth is also unobstructed. In this case the ninth house should not be thought of as opposing this argala. vipariitam ketoh would mean that with Ketu as the lagna

the ninth house would be an argala. In this case also the fifth house should not be thought of as opposing this argala. The sutra should be considered to have been created separately because this argala is unobstructed. Therefore like in the sutra daara etc argala is also created from the fifth and ninth houses.

Or else another meaning of the sutra could be that argala in the fifth is not created only by three or more malefic influences like the one in the third but rather by all kinds of influences just like in the daara etc sutra – by auspicious, malefic as well as other influences, by one, two, three as well as more planets. vipariitam ketoh For Ketu argala is opposite to the one for lagna that is argala is created in the fifth by three of more malefic influences as in the third house.

Or else another interpretation of the sutra could be that argala is created in the fifth by counting in-order while for Ketu argala is created in the fifth by counting off-order.

SutraSutraSutraSutra –––– 1.1.111.1.111.1.111.1.11

ि

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िब

To ascertain special results Jaimini now begins the section on temporary significators. Permanent significators are mentioned later.

Beginning with Sun and ending with Saturn – this is the group of seven; ending with Rahu – this is the group of eight. Amongst these, whichever planet, by virtue of its kalaa etc (degrees, minutes etc) is the most advanced that becomes the Atmakaraka. Kalaa means divisions. Kalaa, vikalaa etc are the divisions of signs. Kalaa actually means sixteenth part. But because it is synonymous with division hence the word kalaa here should be understood as division of a sign (that is relative longitude). If the kalaas or degrees are equal then the next division vikalaa or minutes should be used to decide the greatness. Here greatness caused by the virtue of signs should not be considered – such is the tradition. (This means all planetary longitudes should be measured relative to the respective sign of placement.) As has been said in the Vriddha-Karikas:

One at the greatest degrees is the atmakaraka; one at the least degrees is the antyakaraka; one at an intermediate degree is of intermediate significance; it is also called an upakaraka (sub-significator).

The one having greatest degree is the Atmakaraka; it is the king of the native – such is the meaning. Other planets become sub-significators according to rules described later – this is the meaning of the text.

If two or more planets have the same longitude and a karaka is lost then permanent

significators should be used to ascertain respective results.

One could say that the sutra can be phrased as aatmaadhikah kalaadibhih nabhogoshtanaam for the sake of brevity. But the word adhika has been used in the sutra. So to indicate that Rahu becomes the atmakaraka by having the smallest longitude ashtanaam vaa has been mentioned separately. How do we know this? Because Rahu travels in opposite direction so it becomes greater by virtue of having a smaller longitude. If the sutra were nabhogoshtaanaam then Rahu would seem to contend for the post of the atmakaraka in the same was as other planets (that is by having the largest longitude). When two or more planets contend for the post of Brahma then according to the sutra raahuyoge vipariitah Rahu becomes the Brahma only when it has the smallest longitude. This is mentioned in the Neelakantha commentary.

Or else when two or more planets have the same longitude and the seventh karaka is lost then Rahu can be included. Therefore the secondary statement ashtanaam vaa has been added.

Or else as per the future sutra maatraa saha putram etc the eighth karaka shall be lost and in that context separate inclusion of Rahu has been done here.

One may ask why Ketu has not been included through navaanaam vaa. The answer to that would be that because Rahu and Ketu have the same longitude and so cannot be different karakas. Hence ashtanaam vaa is appropriate.

If the Atmakaraka is debilitated or conjoined with malefics then it gives miseries like

bondage etc in its sub-periods. If it is exalted or conjoined with auspicious planets then it frees the individual even if he is bound by other planets. Or else an adverse Atmakaraka gives bondage in the world by its malefic influence.

A special point needs to be mentioned here. If Saturn has the largest longitude and is

retrograde then he shall remain the karaka for twenty-seven days. But not after that. Beginning from itself upto the division occupied by the Moon - in this sequence the planet which has greatest longitude or the planet which has the greatest longitude at that moment - from that planet the results should be adjudged.

SutraSutraSutraSutra –––– 1.1.121.1.121.1.121.1.12

Now Jaimini mentions the pre-eminence of the just described Atmakaraka.

The Atmakaraka is the lord of bondage and liberation. He is the king of the individual – this is the meaning. Just like a world famous king is the authority for bondage and liberation that is, he is the authority for putting one in jail and freeing one from jail and can put even his sons and ministers in jail or free them from jail or pay them honour according to their good or bad deeds; just like he distributes the fruits provided by his ministers similarly this Atmakarka is also a king of the individual. He is the prime presider over happiness and sorrow. Just like the ministers perform their tasks related to the kingdom only by following the king, similarly the upakarakas (sub-significators) provide their results only in accordance with the Atmakaraka. Just like when the king is displeased the ministers etc are unable to perform the works of their friends etc and when the king is pleased then they are even able to do works against their enemies similarly upakarakas give their results only in compliance with the Atmakaraka – such a meaning should be derived.

SutraSutraSutraSutra –––– 1.1.13,1.1.13,1.1.13,1.1.13, 1.1.14,1.1.14,1.1.14,1.1.14, 1.1.15,1.1.15,1.1.15,1.1.15, 1.1.16,1.1.16,1.1.16,1.1.16, 1.1.17,1.1.17,1.1.17,1.1.17, 1.1.18,1.1.18,1.1.18,1.1.18, 1.1.191.1.191.1.191.1.19

ॅॅॅॅ

। म

ऽऽऽऽ

(Here pages are missing in the manuscript. Only later part of the shlokas was available which seemed to be from Saravali. The former parts have been patched from this text.)

ि

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ऽऽऽऽ ऽऽऽऽ

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ऽ ऽ

(page missing in the manuscript.)

Now Jaimini mentions the Amatyakarak

By the virtue of coming just after the prime karaka in terms of possesing lesser degrees the planet becomes Amatyakaraka. Amongst all the karakas the one which has the largest degree becomes the king also known as the Atmakaraka. In the same sequence the one which is lesser than it becomes the Amatyakaraka. Now Jaimini mentions the Bhratrikaraka.

ॅॅॅॅ

By the virtue of coming just after the Amatyakaraka in terms of possessing lesser degrees the planet becomes Bhratrikaraka. The planet which is lesser than the Amatyakaraka becomes the Bhratra. Similarly is mentioned ahead. Now Jaimini mentions the Matrikaraka

The planet having lesser degrees than Bhratri planet becomes the Matrikaraka. Now Jaimini mentions the Putrakaraka

ऽऽऽऽ

The planet having lesser degress than the Matrikara is the Putra – such is the meaning. Now Jaimini mentions the Jnatikaraka

The planet having lesser degress than the Putrakara or lesser degrees than the Matrikaraka is the Jnati planet. Because in the future sutra Putrakaraka is said to be identical with Matrikaraka therefore Jnatikaraka is supposed to succeed the appropriate karaka here. Now Jaimini mentions the Darakaraka

The planet having lesser degrees than Jnatikaraka becomes the Darakaraka – this should be known. The cha in the end of the sutra indicates that for the sake of completeness not only the Darakaraka but the permanent significator, pada and upapada should also be used to ascertain results of wife.

(Now the concept of mutual karakaship is introduced. Pages containing initial part of the shlokas were missing in the manuscript but the ending parts of the shlokas were available from where it seemed that the shlokas were from Saravali.)

If planets are in their own sign or are in mulatrikona sign or are exalted and are also in Kendras then they become karakas of each other. Acharya Hari says that they become karkas only when they are in the Kendras. If in a Cancer ascendant, Saturn is in Libra, Jupiter and Moon are in the ascendant and Mars and Sun are in Aries then these become mutual karakas. If planets are exalted or are in a friend's house or are in their own sign then also they are called karakas. Chanakya says that Sun in the tenth in the above example especially becomes a karaka. If a planet is in lagna, fourth house or tenth house then also it becomes a karaka. Some say that planet in eleventh also becomes a karaka but this is not the opinion of the sages. An individual born in a low caste will rise high in life through karakas. An individual born in a royal family becomes a king without doubt.

This means that if planets are in their own signs, friend’s sign or are exalted and are also mutually in angles then they become mutual karakas. Amongst them the planet in the tenth becomes the king of karakas. By the term mutual karakas it is meant that they provide benefitial results in each others’ dashas. Similarly planets in their own divisions (hora, navansha etc) in mutual Kendras also become karakas. A special result is said for the lagna which is also a Kendra. Planets in fourth or tenth houses are the karakas of the lagna even if they are not in their own sign etc. But the planet in the lagna is not their karaka. Similar is the situation with planets in the eleventh even if they are not in their own sign. If a planet is in its own sign or is in a friend’s sign or is exalted but is not in the lagna and if a planet tenth

to it is its permanent friend as well a temporary friend then irrespective of where this latter planet is placed, the two planets, that is the one in tenth and the one in its own house become mutual karakas. Similarly one should also bring to study all the special results related to karakas mentioned in the other texts. Rest is easy. Now Jaimini mentions an option for the Putrakaraka

Some acharyas speak of the Putrakaraka together with Matrikaraka. That is they say that the two karakas are one and the same.

Here seven karakas beginning with the Atmakaraka and ending with the Darakaraka have been indicated. Here if two planets have the same longitude and acquire same karakahood other than Atmakaraka then since the seven planets beginning with the Sun are unable to signify Atma upto Daara so for that purpose Rahu should also be accepted. This is what ashtaanaam vaa means. If three planets contend for the same karaka position other than the Atmakaraka then like Rahu, Ketu should not be considered because the sutra does not say navaanam vaa. In this case the last karaka will be lost. Other aacharyas do not accept Matrikaraka and Putrakaraka to be the same in this case. If four or more planets … (page missing in the manuscript).

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Now Jaimini speaks about the permanent significators through sutra Bhagini etc. In the beginning he mentions the Bhaginikaraka.

Aara, that is Mars, indicates sister – this is well known. Syala which is also indicated by Mars means brother-in-law. Mars also indicates younger brother and one’s own mother. In this way permanent significators mentioned in other texts should also be considered. Example Moon should be known to be the significator of mother. ravishukrayoh praanijanakah chandraarayorjananii apraaniyapi paapdrishtah this is mentioned in future sutras by Jaimini himself wherein Moon is said to be the karaka for mother. Hence Sun is the karaka for father – this is not mentioned here explicitly but is still to be incorporated from the later part of the text. Now Jaimini mentions the Mercury as the upakaraka for maternal-uncles etc

From the next planet that is Mercury relatives like maternal-uncles and maternal relations or relations similar to mother should be adjudged. The term iti here indicates the significants mentioned in the other texts. Rest is as described in the previous sutra. Now Jaimini mentions Jupiter in terms of being a karaka for paternal grandfather etc

(Paternal grandfather, husband, children) should be known from Jupiter. Because of a contradiction with the previous sutra where an Anityakaraka was mentioned for ascertaining children this word eva emphasizes that Jupiter should also be used in this context. Now Jaimini states Venus to be the karaka for wife etc.

Antevasin (literally – the one in the end) – because Jupiter has been mentioned in the previous sutra this term can stand for both Jupiter as well as Venus. From the unmentioned (and hence the right meaning of the term antevasin) Venus, wife, one’s own mother and father, both in-laws, (maternal grandfather) and others significants mentioned in the other texts, all these should be ascertained – this is the meaning.

(Page missing in the manuscript) These sutras bhaginyaaratah syaalah etc have been elaborated upon by the ancients.

Ninth from Sun for father; fourth from the moon for mother; third from Mars for brother; sixth from Mercury for maternal-uncle; fifth from Jupiter for son; seventh from Venus for wife; eighth from Saturn for death - this is how father etc should be adjudged.

The word iti here stands to include those substances which are signified by Mars etc. which are mentioned in other texts. They are mentioned here in brief.

Time and soul are signified by the Sun, mind by Moon, strength by Mars, speech by Mercury, knowledge and happiness by Jupiter, lust by Venus and sorrow by Saturn. Sun and Moon are kings, Mars is commander-in-chief, Mercury is prince, Jupiter and Venus are ministers and Saturn is servant. Sun is reddish-black, Moon is white, Mars is not too dark red-white, Mercury is dark green, Jupiter is white limbed, VenusVenusVenusVenus isisisis darkdarkdarkdark orororor blackblackblackblack and Saturn is black. Colours copper red, white, deep red, green, yellow, varigated and black are signified by the planets beginning with Sun; Fire, Water, Kartikeya, Vishnu, Indra, Sachi and Brahma are the lords of the planets beginning with Sun. Mercury and Saturn are neuters, Moon and Venus are females and the rest are males. Fire, earth, ether, water and wind are presided over by planets beginning with Mars. Venus and Sun are lords of brahmanas, Mars and Sun are the lords of kshatriyas, Moon is the lord of vaishyas and Mercury is the lord of shudras. Moon, Sun and Jupiter are saatvik in nature, Mercury and Venus are raajasik and Mars and Saturn are taamasik. Eyes brown as honey, body equal in height and width, dominated by pitta and having less hair - this is the appearance of Sun. Small and round body, dominated by vata and kapha, intelligent, sweet in speech and beautiful eyes - this is the appearance of Moon. Callous sight, young, large hearted, pitta dominated, restless, slender waisted - this is the appearance of Mars. Speaking multiple meanings, always interested in humour, dominated by pitta, vata and kapha - this is

the nature of Mercury. Large body, brown hair and eyes, supreme intelligence, dominated by kapha - this is the appearance of Jupiter. Happy, attractive appearance, beautiful eyes, dominated by kapha and vaata, having black and curled hair - this is the appearance of Venus. Saturn is lazy, with monkey-brown eyes, slender and long body, has tough teeth, tough hair on body and head and is dominated by vata. Nerves, bones, blood, skin, semen, fat, marrow are respectively signified by Saturn, Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and Mars. Temples, water bodies, fire places, places of entertainment, treasuries, bed and godowns are respectively signified by Sun etc. Blankets, new clothes, burnt clothes, wet clothes, medium clothes, tough clothes and torn clothes are respectively signified by Sun etc. Copper, emerald, gold, brass, silver, pearl and iron are respectively signified by Sun etc. Saturn, Venus, Mars, Moon, Mercury and Jupiter signify seasons beginning with spring. They also signify seasons depending upon whose drekkana is in the lagna. Ayana (half-year), kshana, day, seasons, months, fortnight and year are respectively signified by Sun etc. Bitter, salty, pungent, sweet, sour and astringent are the tastes signified by the same planets. Mercury and Jupiter in the east, Sun and Mars in south, Saturn in west and Venus and Moon in north - these are the directions in which planets become strong. Moon, Mars and Sun are strong during night, Mercury is strong at all times and remaining planets are strong during the day. Evil planets are strong in dark fortnight and mild planets are strong in bright fortnight. Planets are also strong in their own years, own days, own horas and own months. This is the description of the kalabala – strength based on time. The sequence of natural strength of planets is Saturn, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Moon and Sun. Sun generates trees with a strong center, Saturn generates foul trees, Moon generates trees with sap, Mars generates thorny trees, Jupiter generates trees bearing fruits, Mercury generates trees which do not bear fruits, Venus generates trees which bear flowers. Moon again generates trees which are sweet and smooth and Mars generates bitter trees. Rahu signifies the chandala caste, Ketu signifies the shudra caste. Snake dominated places are said to belong to Rahu, Ketu and Saturn. Multi-coloured clothes are signified by Rahu and clothes with big holes by Ketu. The mineral of Rahu is Lead and of Ketu is blue gem. Yellow cloth is signified by Jupiter, Venus signifies silk, Sun signifies red cloth, white silk is signified by Moon, black silk by Mercury, red cloth by Mars. Saturn signifies multi- coloured and black robes, Rahu signifies torn and varigated clothers. Ketu signifies cloth having shape and form. Venus signifies the Spring season, Mars and Sun signify Summer, Moon signifies rainy season, Mercury signifies Winter, Jupiter signifies Hemanta and Saturn signifies Shishira. Rahu signifies eight months and Ketu signifies three months. Rahu, Saturn, Moon and Mars are dhaatu planets, Venus and Sun are moola planets and Jupiter and Mercury are jiva planets. All this is mentioned in the texts.

In this way the significations of planets indicated in the other texts should also be brought to study in this context.

SutraSutraSutraSutra –––– 1.1.241.1.241.1.241.1.24

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Now Jaimini indicates the natural strength of the planets

Manda means Saturn is the lowermost, the weakest amongst the seven planets beginning with the Sun. Other planets beginning with Sun are weaker in succession – this should be known. To determine the natural strengths of planets this sequence is mentioned by the ancients – Saturn, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Moon and Sun are stronger in succession.

Another interpretation of the sutra could be derived by breaking it as mandah jyaayan graheshu. All beings are subordinate to the planet which determines age and since Saturn is the significator of the age of all affairs hence Saturn is superior – this is the meaning.

Or else another interpretation of the sutra could be that amongst the planets beginning with Sun, Saturn is the oldest. Because in the sutra ekam dwau etc in the beginning of the chapter where naisargik dashas are explained Saturn is the said to be the oldest that is has the longest naisargik dasha duration and other planets are placed below it. Similarly in other texts also because of being a significator of age and because of being vriddha that is the oldest in terms of age Manda is indicated in the sutra graheshu etc.

(After mentioning the strongest planet the commentator now mentions the strongest house.) Lagna should be known to be strong even if there are different kinds of karakas and signs placed in the twelve houses of the chart. Lagna is the significator of body, of bodily sorrow and happiness and of luck hence it is the root of everything. Other houses and planets give results according to whether the lagna is strong or weak. Just like only when a canvas exists that a painting can exist. Only whe n the person in the form of lagna exists that the fruits of the other houses can come into existence.

If two, three or more planets contend for the same karaka position then how should one decide? Through their natural strengths.

To Be Continued ……………

To Be Continued ……………