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torsion of noncircular sections

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20.1

Introduction

The torsional theory of circular sections (Chapter 16) cannot be applied to the torsion of noncircular sections, as the shear stresses for non-circular sections are no longer circumferential. Furthermore,plane cross-sections do not remain plane andundistorted on the applicationof torque, and in fact, warping of the cross-section takes place. As a result of h s behaviour, the polar second moment of area of the section is no longer applicable for static stress analysis, and it has to be replaced by a torsional constant, whose magnitude is very often a small fraction of the magnitude of the polar second moment of area.

20.2

Consider a prismatic bar of uniform non-circular section, subjected to twisting action, as shown in Figure 20.1.

Let,

T

u

= = = = =

torque displacement in the x direction displacement in they direction displacement in the z direction the warping function rotation I unit length Cartesian co-ordinates

v w

8

x, y, z

=

=

493

Consider any point P in the section, which, owing to the application of T,will rotate and warp, as shown in Figure 20.2:

u

=

=

-yze

xze

(20.1)

= =

~ ( xy)) ,

(20.2)

e x w

= = =

E ,

EY

EZ

Y ,

and therefore the only shearing strains that exist are yn and, ,y

y ,

=

- + ax

aw

au az

(2

(20.4)

-y)

494

,y

=

aw + a ~ =

ay

az

e(?+,)

(20.5)

The equations of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of dimensions dx obtained with the aid of Figure 20.3, where,

Txr

dy

dz can be

Ta

and

Tyz

Tzy

- x

h ,

or

-h + X ?ax

hyz

(20.6)

495

and (20.8)

Let, (20.9)

-ax

2..

ay

(20.10)

where x is a shear stress function. By differentiating equations (20.9) and (20.10) with respect to y and x, respectively, the following is obtained:

-a:x +-

a:x

ax*

ay*

- -a2y

ax.

ay

1 - - - a2Y

ax . ay

(20.1 1)

Equation (20.11) can be described as the torsion equation for non-circular sections. From equations (20.7) and (20.8):

rxz = G9-

ax

ay

and

(20.12)

rF

-G9- ?Y

ax

(20.13)

496

Equation (20.1 l), which is known as Poisson's equation, can be put into the alternative form of equation (20.14), which is known as Laplace's equation.

-a2y +ax2

a2y

ay2

(20.14)

20.3

t =

=

-4

11

(txz x

(20.15)

Y -

Tyz

xx)dr.dy

(20.16)

To determine the bounduly value for x, consider an element on the boundary of the section, as shown in Figure 20.5, where the shear stress acts tangentially. Now, as the shear stress perpendicular to the boundary is zero,

ty

sincp

+ txz coscp

497

or

-.ex&(-$)

+ C o x ) . ( .

ax

ayh

or

GO*

where s is any distance along the boundary, i.e. x is a constant along the boundary.

Problem 20.1 Determine the shear stress function x for an elliptical section, and hence, or otherwise, determine expressions for the torque T, the warping function wand the torsional constant J.

498

Solution The equation for the ellipse of Figure 20.6 is given by (20.17)

and this equation can be used for determining the shear stress function x as follows:

2 2

c( a -+ ; + y )

(20.18)

where C is a constant, to be determined. Equation (20.18) ensures that xis constant along the boundary, as required. The constant C can be determined by substituting equation (20.18) into (20.1 l), i.e.

c(;

therefore

$)

-2

c =

and

-a2b2 a2 + b2

x =

a2bz (a + b Z )

(20.19)

where x is the required stress function for the elliptical section. Now,

Tvz

-GO-& -

ax

GO 2xb2 a + b 2

499

and

-G8[[

2xb a

i

2ya

a + b

-2G8

ab

a

+

but

[ydA

=

Ixx

nab 4

and, p 2 d A

=

Iw =

nu 3b 4

therefore

-2G0

ab a

+

(7 7)

+

6

(20.20)

-GBna 3b T =

a + b

therefore

-2ay

Txz

-(a2

(a

b)

b2)T lra3b3

+

Txz

2TY nab

(20.21)

TY*

nu 3b

-2Tx

(20.22)

500

=b

- - 2T

nab

(20.23)

and occurs at the extremities of the minor axis. The warping function can be obtained from equation (20.2). Now,

(a2 +

i.e.

@ ax

=

( - 2 ~ + a

b)

(u + b)

therefore (20.24)

the same equation for W, namely equation (20.24), can be obtained. Now,

w = warpingfunction

501

therefore w =

(b - a) oxy (a2 + b)

(20.25)

T J

=

G O

(20.26)

or

G8J

(20.27)

Equating (20.20) and (20.27), and ignoring the negative sign i n (20.20),

G h a b 3

GBJ

(a therefore

J

=

b)

J =

Problem 20.2

Determine the shear stress function x and the value of the maximum shear stress f for the equilateral triangle of Figure 20.7.

502

Solution

The equations of the three straight lines representing the boundary can be used for determining x, as it is necessary for x to be a constant along the boundary.

Side BC This side can be represented by the expression

(20.29)

x - f i y - - 2a 3

=

(20.30)

x

+

f i y -

(20.3 1)

The stress function x can be obtained by multiplying together equations (20.29) to (20.31):

= C ( x + a / 3 )x ( x - f i y - 2 d 3 )

L+fiy-2~/3) (20.32)

C{~3-3~Y)-a~2+~2)+4a/27}

=

From equation (20.32), it can be seen that x the boundary condition is satisfied. Substituting x into equation (20.1 I),

C(6x - 2 ~ +) C ( - ~ X - 2 ~ ) =

- 4aC

= =

-2 -2 l/(2a)

c

therefore

1 1 2

k x 2a

- 3334

- (Y + y2)

2a 27

(20.33 )

503

Now

1 (-6x37) - 2

2y}

(20.34)

Along

y

Now

0, r,

0.

therefore

(20.35)

As the triangle is equilateral, the maximum shear stress i can be obtained by considering the variation of Ialong ~ any edge. Consider the edge BC (i.e. x = -a/3):

T , ,

(edge BC)

(20.36)

.i.

=

0. Therefore

(20.37)

-G8af2

504

20.4

Equation (20.1 1) lends itself to satisfactory solution by either the finite element method or the finite difference method and Figure 20.8 shows the variation of x for a rectangular section, as obtained by the computer program LAPLACE. (The solution was carried out on an Apple II + microcomputer, and the screen was then photographed.) As the rectangular section had two axes of symmetry, it was only necessary to consider the top right-hand quadrant of the rectangle.

20.5

Prandtl noticed that the equations describing the deformation of a thm weightless membrane were similar to the torsion equation. Furthermore, he realised that as the behaviour of a thin weightless membrane under lateral pressure was more readily understood than that of the torsion of a noncircular section, the application of a membrane analogy to the torsion of non-circular sections considerably simplified the stress analysis of the latter. Prior to using the membrane analogy, it will be necessary to develop the differential equation of a thm weightless membrane under lateral pressure. This can be done by considering the equilibrium of the element AA ' BB 'in Figure 20.9.

505

Let,

pressure (N/m2)

az x ax

dy

( ax

az a2z

ax

506

Component of force on AB in the z-direction is F x - x dx aY Component of force on A ' B 'in the z-direction is F x

az

az a2z

Resolving vertically

therefore

-a2z +-

a2z

ay2

P --

ax2

F

=

(20.38)

If 2 = x in equation (20.38), and the pressure is so adjusted that P/F equation (20.38) can be used as an analogy to equation (20.11). From equations (20.12) and (20.13), it can be seen that

T ,

=

(20.39)

T~ =

Now,the torque is

(20.40)

Now y and dx are as shown in Figure 20.10, where it can be seen that

section. Therefore the

Is

dx is the area of

1 1 5

dx x dy

(20.41)

507

Figure 20.10

[ [ g

=

x x x d r x dy

(20.42)

T

Now

(20.43)

T -- GO J

= =

20.6

Consider the varying circular section shaft of Figure 20.1 1, and assume that,

u

= w = o

where,

u

v

w

= =

=

508

E,

= radial strain = 0

= = =

E,

E,

hoopstrain = 0 axialstrain

=

y ,

Thus,there are only two shear strains, yle and y&, which are defined as follows:

yle = shearstrainintheraplane =

av v - -

ar

av -

aZ

But

, T

=

G y ,

.(E-:)

G-

(20.45)

and

TO= =

C;r Or

av

aZ

(20.46)

509

Let K be the shear stress function where (20.48) and (20.49) which satisfies equation (20.47). From compatibility considerations

or (20.50)

(20.5 1)

510

or

(20.53)

T~

cosa

T,sina

(20.54)

where cosa

=

dz ds

(20.55)

sina

dr -

ds

or

--=

2dK r2 d

K is a constant on the boundary, as required. Equation (20.53) is the torsion equation for a tapered circular section, which is of similar form to equation (20.11).

i.e.

Plastic torsion

511

20.7

Plastic torsion

The assumption made in this section is that the material is ideally elastic-plastic, as described in Chapter 15, so that the shear stress is everywhere equal to T,,~, the yield shear stress. As the shear stress is constant, the slope of the membrane must be constant, and for this reason, the membrane analogy is now referred to as a sand-hill analogy. Consider a circular section, where the sand-hill is shown in Figure 20.12.

From Figure 20.12, it can be seen that the volume (Vol) of the sand-hill is

Vol

=

--srR2h 3

but

T~~ =

G0

where

0 = twist/unit length

G

. :

modulus of rigidity

h G0 R

-0

T ~ , ,

or

h

and

R.ryplGO

x R3ryp

Vol

=

3G0

512

Now

J

=

Vol

~RR~T,,/(~C~)

and

Tp

GBJ

G O

2lrR3rYp/(3G8)

therefore

Tp

2rcR3~,,J3

where T, is the fully plastic torsional moment of resistance of the section, which agrees with the value obtained in Chapter 4. Consider a rectangular section, where the sand-hill is shown in Figure 20.13.

Vol=1 o b h - -1 (-o 1x ~ ) x h x 2 2 3 2

1

= -abh

a2h -6

= -(36-a)

ah 6

Plastic torsion

513

and or

T~ =

GO x slope of sand-hill

G8 x 2h/u

Vol

=

u (3b - )ayp

12G8

Now

J

=

V O ~ =

a2(3b- U ) T , , J ( ~ G ~ )

and Tp therefore Tp

= =

G8J

u2(3b - u)TY,,/6

where Tpis the fully plastic moment of resistance of the rectangular section. n Figure 20.14. Consider an equilateral triangular section, where the sand-hill is shown i

(a) Plan

514

Now

T~~ =

G6

slope of sand-hill

or

and

9fiG8

and

T,,

2G8

a 3Tvp -

90G8

q,

*a 3T.v,, 9 0

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