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1 What is the advantage of software reusability? Explain the 3 generic views of software engineering? =The wide spread use of OOB technology has resulted in the creation of software components. A software component is essentially a software module or a class or a object. It should be designed and implemented so that it can be reused in many different programs. The advantage with software reuse is that ,it allows for faster software development and higher-quality programs. Modern reusable components encapsulate both data and the operations that manipulate the data into one unit. Software components are built using a programming language. The three generic views of software engineering are: i.The definition phase ii. The development phase iii. The maintenance phase The definition phase focuses on what. That is during definition, the software developer attempts to identify what function and performance are desire, what system behavior can be expected, and what validation criteria are required to define a successful system. This phase include three main task :system engineering, software project planning and requirements analysis. The development phase focuses on how. That is during definition, the software developer attempts to define data are to be structured, how design will be translate into a programming language etc. This phase include three main task: software design, code generation and software testing. The maintenance phase focuses on change that is associated with the software. the main four changes are: Correction: It is likely that the customer will find the errors .corrective maintenance changes the software to correct defects. Adaptations: Adaptive maintenance result in modification to the software to accommodate changes to its external environment. Enhancement: as software is used the customer will recognize the need for additional functional requirement that will benefit him. Prevention: prevention maintenance, often called software reengineering must be conducted in order to make changes to the computer software more easily. 2. What is a software? List out the important characteristics of software? = Software is a set of instructions or computer programs that when executed provide desired function and performance. The important characteristics of software are: i)Software is developed or engineered; it is not manufactured: Unlike hardware ,software is logical rather than physical. It has to be designed well before producing it. In sprit of availability of many automated software development tools, it is the skill of the individual, creativity of the developers and proper management by the project management that counts for a good software product. ii) Software does not wear out: At the time of progress, the hardware components start deteriorating-they are subjected to environmental maladies such as dust, vibration, temperature etc, and at some point of time they

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tend to breakdown. The defected components can then be traced and replaced. But software is not susceptible to the environmental change. So it does not wear out. The software works exactly the same way even after years it was first developed unless any changes are introduced to it. The changes in the software may occur due to the changes in the requirements. And this changes may introduce some defects in it thus. deterioration the quality of the software. So software need to maintained properly. iii) Most software is custom-built, rather than being assembled from existing components: Most of the engineered products are first designed before they are manufactured. Designing includes identifying various components for the product before they are actually assembled. Here several people can work independently on thes components thus making the manufacturing system highly flexible. In software breaking a program into modules is a difficult task since each module is highly interlink with other modules. 34. What are programming tools? =Today there are tools available that help to reduce the amount of time spents on the development of program. Let us see some of the popular one.. i)Source code tools. ii)executable code tools


3.Give the outline of an SRS as per IEEE standard ?Explain the important characteristics of a good SRS. =According to IEEE definition, a requirement is 1)a condition of capability needed a user to solve a problem. 2) A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system to satisfy a contract, standard specification, or other formally imposed document .Software requirements deal with the requirement of the proposed system and produces a document at the end of the requirements phase of software development cycle. Characteristics of a good SRS are: Complete: SRS defines precisely all the go-live situations will be encountered and the systems capability to successfully address them. Consistent: SRS capability function and performance levels are compatible, and the required quality features dont negate those capability functions. For example the only electric hedge trimmer that is safe is one that is stored in a box and not connected to any electrical cords. Accurate: SRS precisely defines the system capability in a real-world environment, as well as how it interface and interacts with it. This aspect of requirements is a significant problem area for many SRS. Modifiable: The logical hierarchical structure of the SRS should facilitate any necessary modifications Ranked: Individual requirements of the SRS are hierarchically arranged according to stability, security, or other parameter that helps in the design that and subsequent document. Testable: An SRS must be stated in such a manner that unambiguous assessment criteria Traceable: each requirement in an SRS must be uniquely identified to a source .

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Unambiguous: SRS must contain requirements statement that can be interpreted in one way only. This is another area that creat significant problem for SRS development because of the use of natural language. Valid: A valid SRS is one in which all parties and project participants can understand, analyze, accept, or approve it. This is one of the main reason SRS are written using natural language. Verifiable: A verifiable SRS is consistent from one level of abstraction to another. Most attributes of a specification are subjective and a conclusive assessment of quality requires a technical review by domain experts. Using indicator of strength and weakness provide some evidence that preferred attributes are not present. 5) What is system testing? Why is it important? Bring out the difference between system testing and software testing? =System testing verifies that the system performs well with other system elements like hardware, information, and databases. It is important actually a series of different tests whose main purpose is to fully exercise the computer based system. A classic system problem is finger pointing this occurs where an error is uncovered and system element developer blames the order for the problem. Difference between system testing and software testing are: System testing are 4 Type: i) Recovery Testing: Is a system test that forces the software to fail in a variety of ways and verifies that recovery is properly performed . Recovery can be automatic or manual. If automatic re-initialization, check pointing mechanisms, data recovery, and restart are each evaluated for correctness. If recovery requires manual intervention, the meantime to repair is evaluated to determine whether it is within acceptable limits. ii) Security testing: It attempt to verify that protection mechanisms built into a system will it fact protect it from improper penetration. During this testing the tester plays the role of the individual who desire to penetrate the system. So, the system designer has to make the presentation cost greater than the value of the information to be obtained. iii)Stress Testing: it is designed confront programs with abnormal situations. This testing executes a system in a manner that demands resources in abnormal quantity. iv)Performance Testing: It is mainly used for testing real-time and embedded systems. It is design to test run-time performance of software within the context of an integrated system. It is often combined with stress testing. In software testing it is an important element of software quality assurance activity and it is the ultimate review of specification, design and coding phase. Testing function:--will find errors in software.It will show that the software functions appear to be working according to the specifications Indicates software reliability and software quality as whole. Test case Design: Any engineered software product can be tested in two ways: i)while-box Testing: It is also known as functional testing. Knowing the specified function that the product has been designed to perform, tests can be conducted to demonstrate that each function is fully operational. ii)Black-box testing: It is also known as structural testing. Knowing the internal working of the product, test can be conducted to ensure that all internal operations perform according to specification that all internal components have been adequately used. 6.What is the an evolutionary prototype model? Explain its significance?

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=The development of the prototype starts when the preliminary version of the requirement specification document has be developed .At this stage there is a reasonable understanding of system and its needs. After the prototype has been developed, the client are permitted to use the prototype system. Based on the client use. This cycle is repeated until the client has no modification on the system, at which stage the final requirements specification is ready for futher process like designing, coding and testing. Significan are: i) for prototyping the cost of the requirements analysis must be must be kept low, In order for it to be feasible. ii)The development approach followed is quick and dirty, the focus is on quicker development rather than on the quality. iii) only minimal documentation is required because it is throw away prototype model. iv)This model is very useful in projects where requirements are not properly understood in the beginning. v)It is an excellent method for reducing some types of risks involved with a projects. 7.What is a data dictionary? = The data dictionary is a repository of various data flows defined in a DFD. It states the structure of each data flow in a DFD. The component in the structure of a data flow may also be specified in the data dictionary, as well as the structure of files. The notation used to define the data structure are: + (plus) represent a sequence. | (vertical bar) representation selection means one or the other and *represent repetition means one or more occurrences. What is a baseline? Give two examples of baseline. = Baseline is a specification or product that has been formally reviewed and agreed upon, that thereafter serves as the basis for further development, and that can be changed only through formal change control procedure. The two examples of baselines are: i)SRS ii)Design Document 9.What are the limitations of waterfall model? Explain the Boehm Spiral model? Spiral model characteristics? =The limitations of waterfall model are: i)the process of software development consist of linear set of distinct phases ii)requirements analysis iii)project planning iv)system design v)detailed design vi)coding and unit testing vii)system integration and testing Spiral Model: This model is relatively a new model, proposed by Barry Boehm. It incorporate the elements of both the property approach along with the classic software lifecycle. The activities in this model can be organize like a spiral , that has many cycles. The model has been divided into four quadrants: First quadrants: each cycle here begins with the identification of objectives that cycle, the alternatives constraints associated with that objective.

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Second quadrants: is associated with risk analysis activity. It used to evaluate different alternatives. That are based on the objective and constraints listed in the first quadrant. The importance of evaluation is that there is a risk assessment phase to evaluate the development effort and the associated risk involved for that particular iteration. Third quadrants: Is about engineering activity which actually involve the development of the software, and uses various development strategies that resolve the uncertainties and risks. It may include some activities like simulation, etc. The last phase is the customer evaluation phase. It involves a review of the preceding development stage. Based on the outcome of the development step the next phase is planned. Characteristic: i) It uses an iterative approach and with in each iteration it introduces a phase of risk analysis to accommodate for the changing environment. ii) It allows the usage of prototyping at any stage to be able to further refine requirement and therefore reduce risk element. iii) It maintains a systematic approach as in the case of waterfall model. iv) Although this model is quite flexible, it has some problems associated with it like, risk analysis is a major phase in this model and assessment of risk involve a greater technical expertise.


10.What is cohesion and coupling? Explain different cohesion and coupling? =Cohesion is a measure of the relative functional strength of a module. It is an extension of information hiding concept. A cohesion module must perform a single task within a software procedure, requiring little interaction with procedures that are performed in other parts of program. Strongest cohesion is most desirable (7),weakest cohesion(1)is least desirable: 1.coincidental cohesion: no apparent relationship among module elements. 2.Logical cohesion: some inter element relationship exit, 3.Temporal cohesion: element are usually bound through logic (2) and are executed one time. 4.Communication cohesion: all element are executed at one time and also refer to the same data. 5.Sequential cohesion: output of the element is input to the next model structure bears close resemblance to the problem structure. 6.functional cohesion: all elements relate to performance of a single function. 7.information cohesion: complex data structure all its functions, obj. Coupling: coupling is a measure of the relative interdependence among modules, Strength of coupling depends on interface complexity, type of connections and communication between modules. Strongest (1) is least desirable, the weakest (5) is most desirable. 1.content coupling :cross modification of local data by other modules. 2.common coupling: Global data cross coupling. 3. control coupling: control flag etc. 4.Stamp coupling: selective sharing of global data items.

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5. Data coupling: parameter lists are used to pass /protect data items. 11.Explain the necessary design steps for transaction mapping? =steps are: i)Review and fundamental system model. ii)Review and refine data flow diagrams for the software. iii)Determine whether the DFD has transform or transaction characteristics. iv)Identify the transaction center and flow characteristics along each action path. v)May the DFD to a program structure amenable transaction processing. vi)Factor the refine the transaction structure and the structure each action path. vii)refine the first iteration architecture using design heuristics for improved software quality. 12.Bring out the differences between white- box and block - box testing? =White Box Testing: It is a test case design method or this testing method is used for designing test cases. It uses control structures of procedural design to derive the test cases. Using this method the software engineer derive the case test case: i.Guarantee that, all independent paths with in a module have be used at least once. ii. used of decisions which are based on true and false value or user decisions based on the true and false value. iii).Execute all the loop at their boundaries and within their internal bound i.e.for = 1 to 10 2,3,4..9 (boundaries) (Internal Bound) iv)use internal data structure to assure then validity. v)white box testing handles errors such as logical errors and typographical errors. Block box testing: Is also known as behavioral testing or partition testing. It focuses on the functional requirement of the software. The engineer can derive sets of input conditions that satisfy all the functional requirements of a program. This is performed is later stages of testing. It purposely discards control structures and focuses on information domain. It find different type of error likei)Incorrect function: ii) Interface error: iii) Error in data structures iv) performance errors. v) initialization and termination errors.


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13.Discuss Mccalls software quality factors? = Mccalls software quality factors: It focuses on three important aspects of a software product it is operational characteristics, its ability to undergo change, and its adaptability to new environments. These aspects of software quality can be visualized to have three dimensions: Production Operation: deals with quality factors such as correctness, reliability, efficiency, integrity and usability. Product transition: Deals with portability, reusability, interoperability. Product revision: deals with maintainability, flexibility, and testability. these three factors are shown in following diagram::::


McCall software quality factors Correctness: The extent to which a program satisfies its specification and fulfills the customer mission objectives. Reliability: The extent to which a program can be expected to perform its intended function with required precision. Efficient: The amount of computing resources and code required by program to perform its function. Integrity: The to which access to software or data by unauthorized person can be controlled. Usability: The effort required to learn, operate, prepare input, and interpret output of a program. Maintainability: The effort required to locate and fix an error in a program. Flexibility: The effort required to modify an operational program. Testability: The effort required to test a program to ensure that it performs its intended function. Portability: The effort required to transfer the program from one hardware or software system environment to another. Reusability: The extent to which a program can be reused in other application. Interoperability: The effort required to couple one system to another. 14. What is change control? Why is it important? =Change control is an important activity of SCM, which control the changes in software requirements. Change control is important because all the change requests initiated by customers are analyzed by CCB. CCB accepts or rejects change keeping in view the impact of change on cost, quality and schedule of software project. 15.What is the importance of SQA plan ? =The SQA plan provides a road map and a layout for the software quality assurance activity. 16) Name the different types of software reviews? =Reviews are conducted at various points during software development to find out the errors that can be removed. Software reviews are needed to :

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i)Point out the needed improvements in the product. ii) Confirm those areas of the product where improvement are not needed. iii) Make the technical work more manageable. Types of reviews: i)Informal reviewInformal reviews could be unscheduled and ad-hoc wherein issues could be discussed and clarifications obtained. These is called as coffee shop reviews. ii) Formal reviewalso called as Formal technical review(FTR) -This is the most effective filter for software engineering processes. -This is an effective means of improving software quality. 10. How do you classify risks? =The various categories of risks are: Project risk: Threatens the project plan of a proposed software product. Technical risk: Threatens the quality and timeliness of the proposed software. Business risk: Threatens the viability of the proposed software. Known risk: Is obtained from the careful evaluation of the project plan. Predictable risk: Is obtained from the experience of a past software project. Unpredictable risk: Is difficult to find and cannot be known in advance.


17.What are the three main areas where interface design is focused ? =i)Internal Design interface:---Internal design interface, also called inter-modular interface design is driven by the data that flows between the modules and the characteristics of the programming language in which the software is to be built. This design must support data validation and error handling algorithms with in a module. ii)external design Interface:-- the external design interface evaluates each of the external entity represented in the EFD of the analysis phase. The data and control requirements of these external entities are determined before going in for this design. Here again, the design must support data validation and error handling algo with in a module. iii)User Interface Design: The user design process begins with task analysis and modeling. The task analysis and modeling is a design activity that can be applied to understand the task and actions the user performs using OOB approach. 18.List and describe the components of users documentation ? = Documentation assumes a very important role. Because it is in this phase that the skill need to be passed from the development team to the users. And the users have to be extensively trained for it. So, proper communication in the form of user document because very essential. The nature and number of user documents usually vary across application and organizations. Based on the following factors. *The nature of software, its complexity, interface etc. *User groups depending on the nature of usage their exposure and training levels of users. *volume of information presented . *Document usage mode, whether it has to be an instructional mode, reference mode or both. Users documentation component are: Title page, restriction, warranties, Table of contents, List of illustrations, Introductions, Body of document, Error condition and recovery, Appendices, Bibliography, Glossary, Index. 19. What are source code tools ?

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=Today there are tools available that help to reduce the amount of time spent on the development of programs. There are two commonly Source code tools are: i)Editing tools, these relate to the editing of source code. iI)browsing tools, helps to view the source code. Tools that are required for working with executable codes. It helps in code creation, debugging, testing tools. Code creation has four major tools which help the developer in converting the source code into executable code: Linker, code libraries, code generations and macro-preprocessor. Debugging tools: help in debugging the code. Testing tools: help in tracing the code errors. 20.Explain unit testing environment? =Steps in Unit test environment are: i)Interface: is tested to ensure that information properly plow into and out of the program unit under test. ii)Local Data Structure: is examined to ensure that data stored temporarily maintains its integrands during all steps in algorithms execution. iii) Boundary conduction: are tested to ensure that the module operates properly at boundaries established to limit or restrict processing. vi)Independent paths though the control structure are executed to ensure that all statements in a module have been executed at-least once. v) Finally, all error handling paths are tested.


A driver is a software that accept test case data, passes it to the module to be tested and prints the relevant results. A stub is a dummy sub program, that replace the modules that are subordinate to the module to be tested. It does minimal data manipulation prints verification of entry and returns. Unit testing is advantages when a module to be tested defines only one function, and that the number of test cases are reduced which in turn makes error handling easier. A module with high cohesion. 21) Explain the road map SQA plan? =Road map SQA plan are : i)Purpose of plan ii)Reference iii)Management a)Organization b)Task c)Responsibilities

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iv)Documentation. a)Purpose. b. Required software engineering document c. Other documentation v) Standards, practices and conventions a. Purpose b. Conventions vi) Review and audits a.Purpose b. Review Requirements 1.Software requirement review 2.Design review 3.Software verification and validation reviews 4.Functional audit 5.Physical audit 6.In process audit 7.Management review vii)test viii)Problem reporting and corrective actions ix)Tools techniques. x. Code control. Xi) Media control xii)Records collection, maintence, and retention xiv)Training xv)Risk management. 22.Explain software design principles? =Software design principles are : *The design should not be suffer from tunnel vision-a good design should consider alternative approaches based on the requirements of the problem resources available and the design concepts. *The design should be traceable to the analysis model-since the design needs to satisfy multiple requirements of a problem, it is necessary to have a means of tracking the requirements. *The design should not reinvent the wheel-design time should be used for representing new ideas and integrating the already existing design patterns instead of going for reinvention. *The design should minimize the intellectual distance between the software and the problem as it exists in the real world-the structure of the software design should reflect the structure of the problem domain. *The design should be exhibit uniformity and integration-a design is uniform if it appears that one person developed the entire thing. In order to achieve this, the design rules, format, style etc. will have to defined for the design team before design work begins. If the interface are well defined for the design components then the design is said to be integrated. *The design should be structured to accommodate change. *The design should be structured degrade gently, even when aberrant data, events, or operation conditions are encountered.

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*Design is not coding, coding is not design-design model has a higher level of abstraction than the source code. Major decisions are at design phase and only small decisions are taken at the implementation phase. *The design should be assessed for quality as it is being created , not after the fact a number of design concept and design measures are available and can be used to access qualities of the software. *The design should be reviewed to minimize conceptual errors-major semantic errors like omissions, ambiguity, inconsistency etc. 23.Explain any three principles need to be followed for data design approach? =Principles data design approach:: i)The systematic analysis principle applied to function and behavior should also be applied to data-representation of data objects, relationships, data flows, content should be considered in a similar way that we derive, review and specify the functional requirement and preliminary design. ii)All data structures and operations to be performed on each should be identified the design of an efficient data structure must take the operations to be performed on the data structure into account. iii)A dictionary should be established and used to define both data and program design- a data dictionary represent the relationship among data objects and the constraints on the data element of a data structure. iv)Low-level data design decisions should be deferred until late in the design process the overall data organization may be defined during requirements analysis, refined during preliminary design specified in detail during the later design process. v)The representation of data structure should be known only to those modules that must make direct use of data contained within the structure this indicates the importance of information hide and the concept of coupling. 24. Explain different types of integration testing with suitable example? =It is a Systematic technique for constructing the program structure while constructing tests to find errors associated with interfacing. There are two categories of Integrated testing: i)Incremental Integration: The program is constructed and tested in small segments where error are easier to isolate and correct. Interface are more likely to be tested completely and systematic test approach is applied. II)Non- Incremental Integration: It uses a Big bang approach to construct the program. All models are combined in advance. And the entire program is tested as a whole. Errors are more and difficult to isolate and correct. Incremental Integration strategies are: i)Top down Integration:*is an incremental approach to the construction of program structures. *Modules are integrated by moving down ward through the control hierarchy, beginning with the main control module. Modules subordinate to main control module are incorporated into the structure in either a depth-first or breadth-first manner.



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Depth-First Integration:This would integrate all modules on major control path of the structure. The major control path can be arbitrarily selected and it depend an application specific characteristics. ExampleSelecting left path, modules m1,m2 and m5 would be integrated first, next either m8 or m6 would be integrated. Then central and right hand paths are built. Breath-first integration: Incorporates all modules directly subordinate at each level moving across the structure horizontally. Modules m2,m3 and m4 are integrated first ,next control level m5,m6,ans so on. Top down Integration is performed following steps: a) The main control module is used a test drive, and stubs are substituted for all modules directly subordinate to the main control module. b) Depending on the integration approach subordinate stubs are replaced one at a time with actual model. c)Tests are conducted as each module is integrated. d) On completion of each set of tests, another stub is replaced with the module. e)Regression testing may be conducted to ensure that new errors have not been introduced. ii)Bottom-up integration: This modules at the lowest level in the program structured are constructed and tested. Bottom-up Integration is performed following steps: a) Low level modules are combined into clusters that perform a specific software sub function. b) A driver is written to co-ordinate test case input and output. c)The cluster is tested. d)Drivers are removed and clusters are combined moving upward in the program structure. In this diagram, modules are combined to from cluster 1,2 &3. Each cluster is tested using a driver. Modules in clusters 1 and 2 are subordinates to ma. Driver D1,D2 are removed and the cluster 1,2 are interfaced directly to ma. Similarly, driver D3 of cluster 3 is removed and then cluster 3 is integrated to module mb. Then ultimately modules ma & mb are integrated with module mc.



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iii)Sandwich testing: A best compromise between two methods It uses a top down strategy for upper levels of the program structure, coupled with a bottom-up strategy for subordinate levels. 25.Explain following fundamental software design concepts? i) Stepwire refinement ii) Software architecture iii) Modularity = i)Stepwise Refinement: = Stepwise Refinement is a top-down approach where a program is redefined as a hierarchy of increasing levels of details. It causes the designer to elaborate on the original statement, providing more and more details at end of each refinement step. The refinement may start during the requirements analysis and conclude when the detail of the design is sufficient for conversion into code. As task are refined, the data associated with the task may have to be refined, decomposed, or structured. And processing procedures and data structures are likely to be refined in parallel. ii)Software architecture: It refers to the overall structure of the software and the ways in which that structure provides the conceptual integrity for a system. The architecture of the procedural and data elements of a design represents a software solution for the real-world problem defined by the requirements analysis. A set of architectural patterns enable a software engineer to reuse the design level concepts. Properties associated with an architectural design are; a)Structural Properties: This defines the component of the system the way these components are grouped and interact with one another. b)Extra-Functional properties: This describes about manner in which the design architecture achieves requirements for system characteristics like performance, capacity, reliability, security, etc c)Families of related system: The design of similar systems usually encounter similar design patterns. So, architectural design should have the ability to reuse architectural building blocks. iii)Modularity: Modularity derives from architecture. Modularity is a logical portioning of the software design that allow complex software to be manageable for purposes of implementation and maintenance. There are five important criteria for defining an effective modular system that enable use to evaluate a design method: a)Modular decomposability: If a design method provides a systematic way for decomposing a problem into sub problem, it will reduce the complexity of the over all problem, there by achieving the effective modular solution.


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b)Modular Composability: It is design method enables the exiting design components to be assembled in to a new system, it will produce a modular solution for the problem. c)Modular understandability: If a module can be understood as a single unit without referring to other modules, it will be easier to build a module and make changes easily. d)Modular continuity: If any small changes to the system requirements result in changes to individual module, rather than system-wide changes, the impact of change induced it will be minimum. e)Modular Protection If the aberrant condition occurs with in a module and it effects are constrained with the module, the impact of error induced on it will be minimum. 33. What is the difference between verification and validation? = Verification is a set of activities that ensures that the software correctly implements a specified function while Validation is a set of activities that ensures that the software that has been built, is traceable to the customer requirements.


26.What are the general components that user document should have? =component are :Title page, Restriction, warranties ,Table of contents, list of illustrations, Introduction, Body of document, Error conditions and recovery, appendices, Bibliography, glossary, Index. 28. Project scheduling and tracking? = Software project scheduling is an activity that distributes estimated effort across the planned project duration by allocating the effort to specific software engineering tasks. Once the development schedule has been established, tracking and control activity begins. Each task noted in the schedule is tracked by the project manager. If a task falls behind schedule, the manager can use an automated project scheduling tool to determine the impact of schedule slippage on intermediate project milestones and the overall delivery data. So, resources can be redirected, tasks can be reordered, delivery commitments can be modified to accommodate the problem that has been uncovered. Like this, the software development can be controlled. It involves quality assurance & control and change management & control. 29.What is risk management? What are the different types risks? =Risk management is an discipline whose objectives are to identify address and eliminate software risk items before rework. Different types of risks are: *project risks, threaten the project plan. *Technical risks, threaten the quality and timeliness of the software to be built. *Business risk, threaten the viability of the software to be built in the next category. *Known risks, can be uncovered from careful evaluation of the project plan.


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*Predictable risks, are obtained from the past project experience. *Unpredictable risks, they cannot be known in the advance and are difficult to find. 30.What is the difference between integrated help and add on help? =Integrated help facility is designed into the software from the beginning, and it is often context sensitive, enabling the user to select from those topics that are relevant to the actions currently being performed. It provides a very quick help for the user. Add-on help facility is added to the software after system has been built. It is an on-line user's manual with limited query capabilities. 31.What is structured programming? =Structured programming is a important procedural design technique, which refers to the use of a set of existing logical constructs from which any program could be formed. The constructs fundamental to structured programming are sequence, condition, and repetition. Sequenceits implements processing steps that are essential in the specification of any algorithm. Conditionprovides the facility for selected processing based on some logical occurrence. Repletionprovides looping. 32.What is a throwaway prototype? = In the throwaway prototype approach, the prototype is constructed with an idea that it will be discarded after the completion of analysis and the final system will be built from the scratch. 27. List out two general scheduling technique? List out difference between them? =i)Gantt Charts: *A Gantt chart is a project control technique that can be used for several purpose like scheduling. *It is bar chart. Each bar represents an activity, drawn against time-line. *The length of each bar proportional to the length of the time planned for the activity. *Help in scheduling of project activities but not identifying them. *Simple and easy to understand. *used for small and medium sized projects. *they show the tasks and their duration clearly. *they dont show inter task DEPENDENCIES. Pert chart:* It is program evaluation and review technique. *It is network of boxes and arrows. *Each box represents an activity. *Arrows indicates the dependencies of activities on one another. *Some boxes can be designated as mile stones. *PERT can have starting and ending dates. *PERT is suitable for larger projects. *Not as simple as Gantt charts.