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Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan Utara Malaysia & IAQ Technology International Sdn Bhd

Since the mid 1980`s, microelectronic industries have Ilourished in Malaysia. Despite
being a dominant exporter of semi-conductor devices, our production activities have been
focused to the testing and packaging of wafers and dies. These wafers and dies were
mainly designed and pre-fabricated overseas. Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan Utara
Malaysia, KUKUM, is established as a public institution of higher learning on 25th July,
2001. With the construction oI its 'Wafer Fabrication Laboratory (WFL), in Kuala
Perlis, KUKUM has the vision to reverse our over reliance on imported technologies, as
well as spearhead and support human resources needed by our nation, at the same time
promoting indigenous talents and professionals in this field. This Wafer Fabrication
Laboratory (WFL) facility shall be primarily used for teaching undergraduate
microelectronic course leading to a degree. The laboratory is approximately 115m
cleanliness class from ISO Class 5 in the Yellow Room to ISO Class 8 in the Grey Area
(Utility Chase). The cleanroom are equipped with distributed process gases such as
purified nitrogen, oxygen and compressed dry air and 18.0M ultrapure water system
supplied to the three fume hoods. Exhaust air from the fume hood are exhaust to the
laboratory scrubber system for treatment. The WFL cleanroom constructed despite being
a teaching facility, was designed and specified to ISO Class 5 cleanroom standard, and
provided with features such as air showers, talk through and pass boxes usually found in
commercial facilities, it is our intention to exposed and teach students to appreciate the
stringent cleanroom protocols, health and safety requirement in addition to the formal
course works. In this paper, it describe the challenges, specification, design, development
and operation of the WFL.

The WFL in Kukum is the first and largest purpose built teaching laboratory constructed
by a university in Malaysia. The total area is 115m
which comprises of a yellow room
(ISO Class 5), white room (ISO Class 6), characteristic room (ISO Class 6), preparation
room (ISO Class 7), changing room (ISO Class 7), and grey area (ISO Class 8). The
WFL layout is as shown in figure 1.
The yellow room glass panels were coated with vinylas anti static high tack vinyl film
with UV protection. In addition, a characterization room is also equipped with yellow
The grey area housed all the support utilities required for the wafer fabrications processes.
Cylinders purified gases (compressed dry air, nitrogen, oxygen) are located along the
corridor in the grey area.
The gases are supplied to the laboratory via manual manifold system and distributed
stainless steel 316L tubing routed under the raised floor space of the yellow and white
room. A dew point sensor was installed for the compressed dry air.
A 18.0MO de-ionized water system was provided for the three fume hoods within the
cleanroom. This ultra high purity water system was sourced from Millipore, the piping
reticulate comprised of polypropylene pipes. The final outlet water purity at point of use
shall contain suspended particulate not larger than 0.5 m, heavy metal ions less than
50ppt, dissolved oxygen less than 1ppb and bacteria present shall be less than 5/mL.
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A custom made scale down chemical scrubber was installed to treat fume exhaust from all
the three fume hood. The scrubber body was constructed entirely from polyproperlene
panels. This laboratory sized scrubber has an air flow rate of 1,800m
/hr and fresh water
consumption of 30 litres per hour. The scrubber pump unit was interlocked to the FRP
exhaust fan rated at 1,800 m
/hr and 90mm aq external static. The exhaust stack
discharge velocity was designed to approximately 9m/s.

Like all other teaching laboratory in the world, besides teaching the educational aspect of
the course, our intention is also to expose our students to a fully functional cleanroom
environment. Students are expected to adhere to cleanroom protocols and environment
health and safety requirements expected in any commercial cleanrooms.

A competitive bid was called to qualified cleanroom vendors to submit proposals based
on a pre-defined performance specification. Langkah Stabil Sdn Bhd supported by
Airgate (M) Sdn Bhd submitted the most comprehensive and complete proposal. They
were contracted to design, construct, test and commission the cleanroom facilities.

The cleanroom design is based on some parameter which to suit the equipment operation.
The temperature inside the cleanroom should be achieved to 23 + 2 deg C and 50 + 5
RH. The difference pressure form the cleanroom area to outside environment should be
0.05 in. w.g. The room pressure between two cleanliness classes should have difference
0.05 in.wg. The air pressurization system is designed to avoid the outside air coming to
the room as well as the dust.

The laboratory would be built in an empty existing industrial building in Kuala Perlis as
shown below in figure 4. The available area is approximately 288m
and its height is
estimated to be about 8m high. The total area required for the cleanroom is only
approximately 115m
and and not more than 5m high.

With this available height, it may opted to construct a cleanroom with a negative plenum
to house the fan filter units cum service area, as well as accommodating the installation of
raised floor, the schematic is as shown in figure 6 on the next page.

The cleanroom construction began with the cleaning of the existing space. Structural
support using hollow section were erected to provide wall and ceiling stability. The inner
wall between the cleanroom and grey area were 50mm thick panels with static dissipative
finish on steel sheet and aluminium honeycomb core. The outer wall between the grey
area and the external were polyurethane insulated core sandwich panels with powder
coated finish steel sheet.

The existing floor within the cleanroom footprint was applied with damp proof membrane
and abacrete top coat finished with 2.0mm thick fully flexible antistatic vinyl sheet to
BS3261. Conductive adhesive were used to stick the vinyl to the floor and thermal
welding of all joints to form a seamless flooring. A 100mm skirting complete with cove
former and capping strip were applied to all edges.

Raised access floor system within the White and Yellow room were 600mm x 600mm x
35mm anti static steel panel with cementitious infill. Perforated raised floor panels were
uniformly located for under floor return air. The return air slots were located at low
levels along the perimeter wall panels adjacent to the grey area.

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Fan filter units with stainless steel casing complete with HEPA filter at 99.9995% rated
for 0.12 m fits nicely onto the ceiling grid. The ceiling T were 1200mm x 600mm grid
with 25mm thick blank ceiling panels. As the fan filter units are located at the ceiling
chamber, the ceiling selected are design to withstand human loads under normal
circumstances to facilitate maintenance. All ceiling blank panels and HEPA fan filter
units had been gasketed seal to the ceiling grid to prevent infiltration of contaminant
directly into the cleanroom. The HEPA filters are also isolated from the fan filter units
motor section to minimize vibration. The entire ceiling was suspended from the
secondary ceiling. Turnbuckles were used to level the ceiling with the help of using a
laser theodolite. Cleanroom teardrop lights were fastened along the ceiling grids, the
ceiling grids have screw grooves that accommodate screws, this will prevent the ceiling
grid to be punctured. Teardrop lighting installed complete with clear see through U shape
covers and aluminium covers.

All pipes and electrical trunking penetrations through wall are sealed with a non out-
gassing silicon based sealant.

Many a times personnels may forget to switch on the utilities upon entering the
cleanroom. Thus two way switching are provided for lights, fan filter units, air
conditioning before and after the air shower.

Three way switching were also provided for the scrubber system, one each remote
switches are located within the white and yellow room. On activation on either of these
buttons, the scrubber system will start to operate, however all three buttons need to be off
to stop the scrubber system. The scrubber exhaust fan was interlocked to the scrubber
system pump unit, when the scrubber pump starts to operate, the fan will simultaneously
start and like wise for stopping.

Emergency panic push buttons are provided at both the exits within the white room.
During emergency, the power supply to all switch/ power socket outlets and air
conditioning may be shut down by depressing these emergency push buttons.

A three doors air shower was installed at the changing room. Upon entrance into the air
shower from the changing room, one exit door will lead into the white room and the other
into the grey area. The air shower was equipped with a high static fan, washable pre-filter
and 99.99% HEPA filter rated at 0.3 m, the nozzles air discharge velocity 23m/s + 20%.

Passbox shown in figure 7 with an effective dimension 600mmW x 600mmD x 600mmH
were installed between the preparation room and the characterization room. The pass box
was equipped with micro electro-magnetic interlock switch to prevent both the doors to
be open together, warning buzzers and indicator lights were incorporated on both sides of
the pass box. Two cleanroom through talk as shown in figure 8 which

consisted oI overlapping mylar 'S diaphragms were installed in the preparation room, to
facilitate clear communication and visibility to the white room and characterization room.

The air handling units were supplied with two stage filtrations before the conditioned air
was introduced into the ceiling plenum, the pre-filter rated at 25-30% efficiency and after
filter rated efficiency of 90-95%. The outside air needed to maintained the cleanroom
under positive pressure with reference to the adjacent space at all times are also pre-
filtered rated efficiency 25-30%. The air conditioning system shall be discussed later.

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Total heat exhaust required for the process equipment were approximately 1,790m
/hr, a
720 rpm with 25mm aq external static axial fan was provided for this purpose. The main
duct were routed within the negative plenum and droppers duct dropped directly to the
exhaust points. The main duct immediately after the axial fan was installed with a
motorized shut off damper to minimize infiltration of contaminant into the clean room
during shut down.

There are three automatic sliding doors each leading into the Yellow Room,
Characterization Room and Preparation Room. These sliding doors were operated by
push buttons located beside sliding doors both at the inside and outside of the rooms.
At the changing room a clean garment storage cabinet with 99.99% efficiency HEPA
filters rated at 0.3 m and 2mm thick anti static vinyl sheet as front cover. This garment
storage cabinet was located just before the physical barrier cum shoe rack.

Upon completion, the cleanroom is entirely cleaned with HEPA vacuum cleaner and
subsequent wipe down with mixture 50% IPA and 50% DI water. Following the
commissioning of the air conditioning system, all persons entering the cleanroom are
required to gowned in Iully 'bunny suits. Entrance to the grey area shall only require the
wearing of cleanroom smock and shoes.

Following to the testing and commissioning of the air conditioning system, the air
conditioning is allowed to run for two days continuously to reduce the particulate that is
left in the cleanroom. All final filters were protected with 80% filters. The following
tests were conducted Cleanroom enclosure integrity test, Airborne particulated test, Light
level test, Air velocity and airflow test, Pitot traverse of the main duct Hepa Leak test,
Humidity and temperature

The facilities provided for this cleanroom are comparable to commercially installed
cleanrooms. It may be said that the provision were over kill for a teaching laboratory, it is
also our intention to expose our undergraduate to the 'real-life cleanroom environment,
the protocols and environmental, health and safety requirements and practices within

1. R. W. Hendricks 'An Undergraduate Microchip Fabrication Facility
2. Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments standards
ISO 14644-1, 2, 4, 5 & 6

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Figure 1: Kukum Wafer Laboratory Facility Layout

Figure 2 : The Completed Wafer Fabrication Laboratory

Figure 3: Cylinder Purified Gases, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Compressed Dry Air (Left) De-
.. ionized water system (Right)

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Figure 4 : Scrubber FRP Exhaust Fan

Figure 5 : Existing Industrial Building

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Figure 7: Perspective View of Cleanroom

Figure 8 : Scrubber System & Electrical Control Panel

Figure 9 : Pass Box Figure 10 : Talk Through

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Figure 11: Enclosure Integrity Test Detected Hole In Joint.