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1 1 (a) Fig. 1 shows details of major plate boundaries.

Source : UCLA

Fig. 1 (i) With the aid of a clearly labeled diagram name and describe the plate boundary forming the Peru-Chile trench. [6]

The Nazca plate collides into the South American plate. The Nazca plate carries oceanic crust, Being denser Will be subducted beneath the South American plate, Which is less dense As it carries continental crust. The subducted limb of the Nazca plate will melt Due to high heat and pressure To produce silica-rich magma
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Which rises up fractures in the earths crust And cools to form subduction volcanoes. Sediments on the ocean floor and at the edges of the plates will also be contorted and folded To from the Andes fold mountains. A long, narrow and deep oceanic trench (Peru-Chile trench) is also formed. Faulting also occurs. Earthquakes will also occur, As the downward movement of the Nazca plate is smooth, but jerky (violent).

mark each max 4 diagram diagram max 4 total max 6 (ii) Compare and contrast the volcanoes found at /near the Peru-Chile trench to that at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. [5] volcanoes found at /near the Peru-Chile trench acidic (1/2m) Highly viscous flows slowly High volcano Conical shape steep and convex slope Formation violent euption mark each max 5 (b) Fig. 2 is an extract on the Haiti earthquake.
Magnitude 7.0 Quake Struck 10 Miles South of Port-Au-Prince The worst earthquake in 200 years hit Haiti at 4:53 pm on January 12th, 2010, followed by at least 24 aftershocks ranging from 5.0 to 5.9 on the Richter scale. Cause of the Haiti Earthquake There are two fault lines in Haiti that move in an east-to-west direction. The Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault system is located in the southern part of the country and the Septentrional fault system is in the north. The earthquake occurred on the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault system as a left-lateral strike slip, with the epicenter located 10 miles southwest of Port-Au-Prince. The depth of the quake was 6.2 miles below the earths surface. Shallow earthquakes like this cause more ground shaking, as opposed to deeper ones.

volcanoes found at the Mid-Atlantic RidgeBasic lava cone/ shield volcano (1/2 m) Fluid and more mobile Lower in height Broad based and concave slope Formation quiet eruption

Fig. 2
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3 Using information from Fig. 2 and studies that you have made, describe the causes of the earthquake and explain why it is such a major disaster. [6]

two fault lines in Haiti that move in an east-to-west direction. The Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault system is located in the southern part of the country and the Septentrional fault system is in the north. The earthquake occurred on the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault system as a left-lateral strike slip, enormous stress when friction prevents a smooth downward movement results in accumulation of stored energy in the rocks stress too much plates jerk free stored energy released in seismic wave which caused the ground to vibrate earthquake origin is 6.2 miles into the crust very shallow focus more severe caused major earthquake 7.0on the Richter Scale epicenter near large populated area capital city Port-au-Prince The damage brought about by natural disasters, such as earthquakes, can always be reduced with preventive measures. Do you agree? [8]
Effective Not effective Local authorities that grant However, land use approval to the control is not always construction of new easy. In developing infrastructure in countries, poor earthquake-prone areas migrants often end up can take into consideration setting up houses the location of these illegally in structures (whether they earthquake-prone are exposed to earthquake zones without damages by being near approval from plate boundaries or fault authorities as they are lines causing unable to afford earthquakes). proper housing in the city. Risk assessments can then be done, together with information pertaining to population distribution and the types of building construction. Eg. In the USA, maps showing different levels of risks to earthquakes are used to draw up building guidelines to ensure minimal damage during an earthquake. Such maps are often produced based on past records of earthquake occurrences.
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(c)

Measure 1 (pre-earthquake) Planning the location of infrastructure

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Measure 2 (pre-earthquake) Designing new infrastructure

Measure 3 (pre-earthquake) Strengthening existing infrastructure

New infrastructure in some earthquake-prone areas has been specially designed to withstand strong tremors, through the use of latest technology. For instance steel bars can be added to concrete walls to form shear walls which in turn help strengthen buildings and reduce rocking movements. Shock absorbers can also be used in building foundations to absorb tremors. Eg. Transamerica Pyramid in 1989, under an earthquake that measured 7.1 on the Richter Scale, the top floor of the building swayed for more than a minute, but there was no structural damage and no one was injured Existing infrastructure can be strengthened by wrapping steel frames round pillars of buildings and bridges or placing steel rods in existing structures. Fireproof materials and automatic shut-off valves can also be installed into gas pipes and electricity supplies to minimize the risk of fires in an earthquake

However, such a measure can only be undertaken by countries that have the necessary technical knowledge. Also, it expensive to construct such technology, which means that poorer countries will not be able to afford it. For example, the Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco cost S75million to build

Strengthened infrastructure may not be as strong as new ones designed to withstand tremors. Eg. 1994 Northbridge earthquake in USA buildings and flyovers strengthened with steel frames were badly damaged, while the new earthquakeresistant buildings within the same area remained undamaged. Present infrastructure may also not be amenable to engineering works to improve their stability during earthquakes. Hence they may need to be demolished altogether with new and improved ones erected. This will cost a lot of money though

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Measure 4 (pre-earthquake) Public Education

Measure 5 (pre-earthquake) Setting up earthquake monitoring and warning system

Earthquake drills are commonly conducted in earthquake-prone areas to educate and familiarize people on the correct protocol in the event of an earthquake. Eg. Such drills are conducted in Japanese schools and students have to crouch under the nearest table when the earthquake warning signal sets off. Posters and signs have also been produced to warn people about areas that are more prone to the effects of earthquakes eg. soft soil or low-lying coastal areas where tsunamis can occur. Such posters have also been used to educate people on what to do in the event of an earthquake. Eg. a poster at a harbour in Washington, USA advices the public to seek higher ground and move away from the coast in the event of an earthquake generating a tsunamis A planned system of detecting earthquakes to help people prepare for earthquakes can help prevent deaths and reduce damages. This can be done through the use of seismometers and computers that measure earth movements over time or capture signs that point to the possibility of earthquakes such as increases in earth tremors or changes in groundwater levels or sea levels. If signs of an earthquake are detected, the relevant authorities can then take the necessary actions.

People may ignore these measures as they become complacent, typically if a major earthquake has not struck the region for a long time. Eg. Japanese research has shown that Tokyo residents are less prepared for an earthquake than in other parts of Japan as the people have started taking things for granted since the last major quake occurred in 1923.

Earthquake predictions are not currently very accurate and may turn out to be false alarms. Thus authorities may ignore such warnings to avoid disruption to business and tourism.

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Eg. Haicheng, China 1975 owing to changes in ground levels and an increase in the amount of ground tremors, scientists predicted an impending earthquake. This led to authorities evacuating the city, eventually saving 90,000 lives from an earthquake that measured 7.3 on the Richter Scale. Such predictive technology can also be extended to tsunamis warning and forecast. The government can set up rescue operations to save earthquake victims trapped in the debris after the earthquake has occurred. People who have lost their homes can also be evacuated by the local authorities and housed in temporary shelters in places safe from ground zero. Other countries, international organizations like the United Nations and Red Cross and nongovernment organizations can also render humanitarian assistance by sending in foreign aid in the form of donations of food, water, blankets and other necessities for flood victims as well as first aid and medical teams to treat causalities. The affected country can also extend its rescue efforts to include help from foreign rescue teams which may be more experienced and possess better technology and knowledge, thus increasing its chances of saving more

Measure 6 (post-earthquake) Rescue aid

Due to a lack of resourced and skilled manpower, developing countries may not be so proficient and efficient in responding readily to the earthquake, thus hampering rescue efforts. The occurrence of aftershocks (minor earthquakes that occur after the main earthquake) may trigger landslides and further collapse of infrastructure that may slow down rescue efforts and result in more damage. Eg. It was extremely difficult for food, tents, medicine and other relief materials to reach the badly hit area of Pingwu County in Sichuan, China after the earthquake due to frequent aftershocks and landslides. Eg. After the Great Pakistan Earthquake in 2005, a 22-year-old

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people trapped in the earthquake rubble. Eg. After the Sichuan 7.8magnitude earthquake in 2008, 50000 troops were dispatched to Wenchuan and this ready response in large numbers of rescue workers have made an immediate impact in helping to rescue trapped survivors and distributing vital food and medical supplies to the people in need. Eg. The Israeli Defence Force Home Front Command rescue team of 250 personnel was swiftly dispatched to Turkey hours after the major earthquake in Bam and it managed to rescue 12 survivors of the earthquake and uncovered 146 bodies. Eg. Within hours of the devastating 7.6-magnitude earthquake in 2005 in Pakistan, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) teams were on their way to the hardest hit areas to distribute emergency supplies and assist the survivors to fortify against cold winter temperatures and rebuild their homes. Eg. In 2009, Italian Red Cross rescue teams were on the scene of the disaster within an hour after a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck the city of L'Aquila in central Italy, searching for people trapped in the rubble and providing emergency care for the injured. The Italian Red Cross also established a field hospital to treat the wounded and set up mobile kitchens to provide meals for the homeless survivors. Thirty-six woman buried in the rubble of an apartment building in Muzaffarabad died when rescuers were forced to abandon their bid to free her after a 5.6 magnitude aftershock made the British, German and Turkish rescue teams retreat for their own safety .

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ambulances from the Italian Red Cross are on rotation to evacuate injured people to hospitals in other parts near the epicentre. All measures described have their own advantages and disadvantages. The extent of effectiveness of earthquake prevention measures depends on the degree of adherence to these measures by communities living in earthquakeprone areas. In general, the least economically developing countries (LEDC) do not cope well with earthquakes as they are limited in terms of resources and manpower. However, natural disasters like earthquakes are notoriously hard to predict and their effects hard to calculate. Therefore even with the best and most thorough measures in place, lives may still be lost and properties damaged. The only thing we can do is to prepare ourselves as much as possible to meet the challenges brought on by natural disasters such as earthquakes.

Conclusion

Marks 1-3m 4-6m

7-8m

Descriptors No examples given. Simple statements on the strategies. No indication of the effectiveness of the strategies. At least 1 named example is given. Simple details of strategies are given. Simple indication of effectiveness and/or ineffectiveness of strategies. 6m: If student merely mentions the example (eg. This is done in Japan.) At least 1 named example is given. Example used to explain the point (details provided about the example that helps illustrate the answer) Specific details of both strategies are given. Specific elaboration of at least 2 strategies (effectiveness AND ineffectiveness for each strategy). 8m: 7m requirement fulfilled with linkage back to question

Success Strategy 1 Strategy 2 Conclusion / stand (links back to question)

Challenge

HOW TO MARK With reference to the 5 boxes in the table above, if students answers cover :
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Any 1 box, award 1-3 marks. Any 2 boxes, award 4 marks. Any 3 boxes, award 5 marks. All 4 boxes, award 6-7 marks (6 marks if the students merely mention the example, and 7 marks if the example is used to explain the point). Award 8 marks if a stand is provided in the answer. If no examples are given, students are to be awarded Level 1, max of 3 marks.

(a)

Study Figs. 3A and 3B.

Climograph of Oslo, Norway Fig.3A

Climograph of New Delhi, India Fig.3B


Source: http://www.drought.unl.edu

(i) Identify the type of climate in Fig. 3B and account for the pattern of temperature and rainfall. [5] tropical monsoon climate. High mean annual temperatures of 28C Small annual temperature range of about 20C Total annual rainfall of 800mm Distinct wet and dry season Distinct wet season between June and Sept and a distinct dry season between Nov to May Why are tropical monsoon climates hot throughout the year? Although slightly further away from the equator as compared to countries with equatorial climates, sun rays are still concentrated over a small area Temperature range is smaller during wet season due to thick cloud cover during this period which traps solar radiation during day and night Why are summers in tropical monsoon areas hotter than winters? During summer, sun is directly overhead; during winter, sun is lower in the sky Why are tropical monsoon areas very wet in summer and dry in winter? Due to northeast monsoon (offshore) dry Nov to May southwest monsoons (onshore) wet June to Oct moisture pick up from Indian ocean mark each max 5 (ii) Identify the type of natural vegetation found in Fig. 3A and Fig. 3B. [2]
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10 Fig. 3a Cool Temperate Climate Fig. 3B Tropical Monsoon climate - 1 mark each (iii) Describe how the natural vegetation in Fig. 3A adapts to the climate.[5] Evergreen (photosynthesis takes place once it reaches 6C) Small, needle-like with thick waxy cuticles and few stomata (to reduce moisture loss) Store water for use in winter when ground is frozen Female cones produce seeds while male cones produce pollen Cones protect against harsh winters Thick bark (to protect against cold and frost) Flexible and downward-sloping branches ( cone-shaped trees) (for snow to roll off and to protect against strong winds) Shallow and spreading (to absorb water when snow melts) 1 mark each with explanation MAX 5

(b) Read the extract in Fig. 4, from The Washington Post on El Nino
NOAA: This year warmest on record so far
BY DAVID A. FAHRENTHOLD AUGUST 13, 2010

So far, this has been the hottest year in recorded history. On Friday, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration released new data showing that, from January to July, the average global temperature was 58.1 degrees. That was 1.22 degrees over the average from the 20th century, and the hottest since 1880, when reliable records begin.And, while NOAA experts say global climate change isnt the only reason that 2010 has been so hotan El Nino event earlier in the year pushed temperatures upits still the most important reason. Source: The washinto Post

Fig. 4 Describe and explain the weather conditions associated with the phenomenon of El Nino. [5] El Nino phenomena can result in floods and droughts Alternate patterns of heating and cooling between eastern and western part of the Pacific Ocean Every 3-7 years usually in December Trade wind pushing warm surface water eastwards Abnormal warming of surface ocean water In the eastern part of the South pacific Ocean off Peru S America This abnormal ocean water warming induce hot air to rise form cloud bring extreme heavy rain to Peru and other part of western Pacific resulting in flood 1mark Droughts occurs in countries off western Pacific Indonesia and Australia 1 mark (c) The newspaper article in Fig. 5 shows one of the many strategies taken to control deforestation in Indonesia. Identify and assess the effectiveness of OTHER measures taken. [8]

Indonesia announces two-year moratorium* on deforestation


By Pierre-Henry Deshayes (AFP) May 26, 2010

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OSLO Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono said Wednesday he would introduce a two-year moratorium on deforestation, a large source of income for his country which also contributes heavily to global warming.
moratorium* A period of time in which there is a suspension of a specific activity until future events warrant a removal of the suspension or issues regarding the activity Source: http://www.globalforestwatch.org/

Fig. 5
Students may include following material: Effectiveness Conservation of Conservation refers to the forests setting aside of portions of rainforest as nature reserves whereby logging companies, commercial farmers and other investors are prohibited from logging and exploiting these areas. Instead, activities like ecotourism that do not damage the environment are allowed and encouraged. Ensures that many plants and animal species will be left undisturbed Eg.: MOF also protects the rainforests in Kalimantan through the conservation of forests, that is, For example, Betung Kerihun Nature Reserve was set up in 1992 and is currently the largest nature reserve in West Kalimantan. Covering an area of 8000 sq. km, it is home to diverse range of animals including orang utans, honey bears, white-fronted monkeys. This reserve also extends into Brunei & Malaysia and is also referred to as the Heart of Borneo. World Wildlife (WWF), an international organization, collaborating with the three nations to manage the reserve sustainably. In Kalimantan, a national action plan that identifies the priorities for conserving biodiversity has also been prepared. The Basic Environmental Law legally requires an Non-effectiveness Inefficient monitoring of protected areas does not stop exploitation of forests. For example, in Kalimantan rainforest, Indonesia, illegal logging activities are still occurring in these reserves as they are difficult to monitor and detect due to the vastness of the reserve and the remoteness of the logging sites Also there are not enough park rangers and nature reserve officials to help detect and monitor illegal logging activities Bribery of monitoring officials is common and clearance of forest still carried out In land-scarce countries e.g. Singapore, conservation is difficult to achieve because land is needed to build houses for population. Furthermore, land also needed for industries, infrastructure and other economic activities. For example, Bukit Timah Expressway built on previously forested land, has facilitated transportation in the

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environmental impact assessment for all environment-related projects. For example, currently only 4% of Amazon rainforest (Brazil) protected as environmental reserves. Government plans to increase amount by 3 times in 2012. 20% of Amazon rainforest set aside as tribal reserves. This allows Amazonian Indians living in Brazil to protect their culture and habitat. They are the only ones allowed to clear the forest and they cannot sell the land. This prevents commercial logging companies from exploiting the rainforest for their own profits Afforestation is planting trees in areas that were previously bare or used for other land uses while reforestation is planting trees in areas that were previously forested. In each case, it ensures that there is replenishment of trees in the natural environment In Kalimantan, afforestation is carried out on agricultural lands previously abandoned by farmers. These lands are usually located on the fringes of villages and existing forest. In addition, reforestation in the form of teak trees are also planted in formerly forested areas. Tree Plantations: where specific tree species are grown for the purpose of harvesting them for economic use This provides hade and lower temperatures It also increases interception of rain and hence reduce western part of Singapore. This improved accessibility has come at the expense of loss of tropical rainforests.

Afforestation and reforestation

Monoculture tree plantations absorb the same nutrients from the soil and deplete soil fertility rapidly E.g. growing eucalyptus or pine trees on tree plantations Alter natural habitat of floral and fauna and threaten their existence In agro-forestry, selection of tree and crop varieties must be carefully done so that they will not fight for the same nutrients from the soil The rates at which the forests are replanted are slower than the rates at which they are cleared. One reason why the rates of afforestation and reforestation are slow is because the

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surface runoff and soil erosion This also increases evapotranspiration Agro-forestry is when trees are grown and nurtured on farms to provide wood for charcoal and shade and food for farmers The MOF has implemented the Forests and Land Restoration Initiative, which involves the participation and cooperation of forest users such as the local people and timber companies, in ensuring that forests are successfully restored Through the Initiative, MOF aims to replant 900 000 hectares of forests annually. The local people are involved in replanting the trees in areas affected by forest fires while timber companies are required to replant and retain at least 25 commercially valuable trees per hectare in areas they have logged. Timber companies must pay reforestation fees to fund the cost of replanting trees in the areas that have logged. In 2005, a project to grow popular trees like the Brazilian cedar and mahogany was implemented by the Amazon Ecological Research Centre on a deforested area near Manaus of about 10,000 hectaresPlanting trees in areas that were previously bare or used for other land uses In most places where afforestation and reforestation are carried out, teak trees are commonly planted. Teak is commercially valuable and grows well in tropical rainforest. Teak is fast growing and takes about five years before incentives given to the local people to replant the trees were not attractive enough for them. Since only teak trees are planted, the original biodiversity is lost. The replanted teak trees cannot support the variety of flora and fauna of the original rainforests.

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it is suitable for logging, as compared to about 20 years for other types of trees. Restoration of forests has been possible in areas in East Kalimantan where the local people are actively involved in the projects Controlled logging is encouraged to minimize damage in rainforests that are being logged. It involves the careful management of forests that are being logged, through measures such as law enforcement, as well as education and research. This allows countries like Indonesia to continue to engage in the sale of timber which provides the country with a valuable source of revenue. An example of controlled logging is selective cutting where commercially viable tress are first identified and logged, while the other nonvaluable trees are retained. In this way, much of the forest area remains undisturbed. This method is different from the common way of logging where clear cutting is carried out. In clear cutting, an entire forested area is logged. This method has resulted in wastage and great damage. The MOF has introduced laws to ensure that the forests are carefully logged. Severe penalties such as fines and imprisonment are enforced on irresponsible timber companies companies for offences such as illegal logging. The MOF has also arranged for education and research programmes for timber companies so that they are informed if the damage caused by logging and what

Controlled logging

It is difficult to monitor logging and detect illegal logging activities in remote parts of forests due to inefficient supervising officials, a shortage of manpower and remoteness of forested areas. Some studies have shown that selective cutting may be as damaging as clear cutting in that a significant variety of plant species could be damaged during selective logging. This is because as trees are selectively removed, the neighbouring trees or various plant species like ferns and orchids growing on them may be damaged since they are usually connected by lianas that wrap around rainforest trees. Largest trees are cut down in selective logging. This leaves a larger gap in the canopy. More sunlight reaches the forest floor to dry up the ground. This might spark off natural forest fires. More spontaneous fires may result in dry weather. Felled rainforest tree will be transported out of the forest, creating skid paths that allow

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could be done to reduce the extent of damage. Old system of logging concessions and selective cutting is being replaced by the Production Forest Management Unit (KPHP) system in Central Kalimantan. In many cases where company licences have been revoked, the Ministry has taken over the management of these concessions. In 1998, the government issued a new policy that limited concession areas to a maximum of 400 000 hectares per concessionaire throughout the country. At the operator level, a guidebook for tree harvesting in tropical forest has also been published. Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) continues to be promoted and has involved the establishment of RIL demonstration sites. Since 1996, around 100 forest concessionaires have been trained in RIL techniques. Additionally, through selective cutting, forests are given an opportunity to regenerate and young trees are able to grow well to replace the old ones as overcrowding at the canopy later is reduced. Young trees are able to grow to replace old trees as overcrowding at the canopy layer is reduced. Unlike clear cutting, this method minimises soil erosion. Since forest fires are a major cause of deforestation and air pollution, the Indonesian government has implemented a policy that makes it illegal to clear forests by burning in Kalimantan. A new law which would be issued on more people to access the forest More expensive than clear-cutting as special equipment needed to log selectively. For example, helilogging which is the use of helicopters to carry out selective logging is very expensive and deemed as a cost-inefficient measure for the profitmotivated plantation companies.

Controlling forest fires

Controlling fires has not been very effective as haze continues to occur annually in Southeast Asia and pose economic cum health threats to the nations there. Some plantation companies continue to

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September 8, 2009 would burn the forests because give the authority to the it is the cheapest way to office of the environment clear land. ministry to arrest the Many people are also perpetrators of forest and reluctant to stop burning land fires in the country. forests as a way of The government has clearing land for introduced measures to agriculture. They are monitor forest fires through used to their traditional an Integrated Forest Fires farming methods Protection System and a inherited from past National Fire Management generations. Plan. To educate the people on the impacts of forest fires, the government has conducted annual forest fire awareness campaigns to discourage the local people such as villagers from using fire to clear forests for farmland. In addition, mapping to classify forest areas prone to serious forest fires is being carried out, and in collaboration with Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei, a forest fire information system has been established. A National Fire Management Plan was legalised in1999 whereby a national team is set up for forest fire control All in all, each measure has its merits and drawbacks. Despite its limitations, it is still necessary for these forestry management strategies practices to be implemented so as to reduce the rate of deforestation in Indonesia. If that is the case, there should not be any dependence on one policy measure per se but to mitigate the impacts of deforestation, a basket of preventive measures ought to be put into practice. In comparison, I would consider the conservation of forests to be the most effective way to reduce the rate of deforestation as it means that large portions of forests are set aside as nature reserves where no commercial logging is allowed. In an absolute sense, this immediately preserves a considerable area of natural forests.

Conclusion

Marks 1-3m

Descriptors No examples given. Simple statements on the strategies. No indication of the effectiveness of the strategies.
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4-6m 7-8m At least 1 named example is given. Simple details of strategies are given. Simple indication of effectiveness and/or ineffectiveness of strategies. 6m: If student merely mentions the example (eg. This is done in Kalimantan) At least 1 named example is given. Example used to explain the point (details provided about the example that helps illustrate the answer) Specific details of both strategies are given. Specific elaboration of at least 2 strategies (effectiveness AND ineffectiveness for each strategy). 8m: 7m requirement fulfilled with linkage back to question Effectiveness Ineffectiveness

Causes Conservation of Forests Another forest management policy measure Conclusion/stand (links back to question)

HOW TO MARK With reference to the 4 boxes in the table above, if students answers cover: Any 1 box, award 1-3 marks. Any 2 boxes, award 4 marks. Any 3 boxes, award 5 marks. All 4 boxes, award 6-7 marks (6 marks if the students merely mention the example, and 7 marks if the example is used to explain the point). Award 8 marks if a conclusion/stand is provided in the answer. If no examples are given, students are to be awarded Level 1, max of 3 marks.

3 (a)

Study the 1:50 000 Map Extract provided of Bindura, Zimbabwe, and answer the following questions. (i) Describe the general direction of the River Pote in the southern part of the map. [1] west to east 1 mark (ii) Identify the river feature in GR 2172 and give an account for its formation. [5] Ox-bow lake 1 mark

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As the outer banks of a meander continue to be eroded through processes such as hydraulic action the neck of the meander becomes narrow and narrower. Eventually due to the narrowing of the neck, the two outer bends meet and the river cuts through the neck of the meander. The water now takes its shortest route rather than flowing around the bend. Deposition gradually seals off the old meander bend forming a new straighter river channel. Due to deposition the old meander bend is left isolated from the main channel as an ox-bow lake. Over time this feature may fill up with sediment and may gradually dry up (except for periods of heavy rain). When the water dries up, the feature left behind is known as a meander scar.

Diagram 2 marks description mark each max 5 marks (iii) Calculate the general gradient along the cadastral boundary towards south from its crossing of the railway (grid reference 180860) to the top of the highland at the trigonometrical station 17/T in GS 1885. [2] vertical height gradient = ----------------------- = horizontal distance = 1:4 0r 0.253 (b) Fig. 6 shows a river feature that is sometimes found at the mouth of a river in the tropical region as it enters the sea. 1338 -1100 228 ---------------- = ---------900 900

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Source : http://www.livius.org/

Fig. 6 (i) Explain the conditions that have led to the formation of the river feature shown in Fig.6. [4] River must have abundant sediments when entering sea amount of load carried at maximum for deposition Mouth of river shallow / gentle gradient where Speed of flow & energy are minimal ideal for deposition Tidal currents not too strong Otherwise sediments will be washed away before deposition takes place Coast slope must be gentle with shallow coastal waters Ideal for keeing deposited sediment intact Absence of large lakes along course of river Prevent load from being siphoned off mark each max - 5 (ii) Name and describe the characteristics of the type of vegetation that may most likely be found along the coastal region of this river feature. [5] Mangrove 1 mark Prop (stilt) roots (rhizhopora) anchor trees in mud Fruits of rhizophora have sharp tips javelin-like Evergreen and broad Thick and leathery (to reduce moisture loss) Smooth and waxy with drip tips (to enable rainwater to flow off) Leaves of avicennia secrete excess salt Leaves of B, R and S species store salt in old leaves Flowers are colourful (to attract insects) Fruits of avicennia are buoyant Fruits of rhizophora fall off after they have germinated, and have sharp tips Aerial (breathing) roots (avicennia and sonneratia) are exposed during low tide Kneed roots (bruguiera) provide support on soft soil 1/2 mark each max - 5 (c) River flooding can be controlled. Discuss this statement with reference to specific examples. [8]
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Strategy River re-alignment


Eg. Lower Mississippi River shortened by 240km

Effective
Strengths: o Straightening of river channel o Removes meanders so as to reduce the length of the rivers o Purpose : increase the speed of flow o Advantages : o Water flows away more quickly o Faster flow also helps to remove sediments accumulated on the river bed and hence deepen the river channel to increase its capacity to hold water o Less flooding results

Ineffective
Weaknesses: o More flooding downstream results as a higher volume of water flows downstream o Shortening the course of the river through realignment shrinks the areas of wetland because the river flows over a smaller area. Affect the survival of plants and animals living in wetlands o Increased sediments in the oceans resulted in less sunlight reaching the ocean floor which affects the growth of marine life e.g. seagrasses and coral reefs o A lot of resources and manpower are required to carry measure out Weaknesses: o Accumulation of more sediments downstream because a higher speed of flow where channelisation is carried out has resulted in more erosion of the river bed. o Silting of rivers leads to a raised river bed and hence reduced capacity of river to hold water. o A lot of resources and manpower are required to carry measure out

River re-sectioning
o o Eg. Mississippi River in USA Eg. Singapore River and Kallang River has been widened and deepened by dredging

Strengths : o Widening and deepening the river channel Purpose : o channel holds more water and reduces flooding o more surface runoff can enter river channel without causing flooding o Smoothen the river bed and banks by replacing soil of the river banks and bed with cement and granite o Less friction between water and river banks and bed o Faster flow Strengths : o Building artificial levees and dykes along rivers, or concrete structures such as revetments and gabions o Increase capacity of rivers to hold water o Divert flow of water from the banks to the centre of the channel o As a result. protect erosion of banks and hence reducing the amount of eroded

Bank protection
o o Eg. embankments in Pasir Ris Park, Singapore Eg. construction of levees, bolder revetments along the Mississippi River, USA Eg. Vietnam has ~6000km of river dykes built by hand

Weaknesses: o Natural habitats of plants and animals are destroyed when the banks are lined with concrete surfaces o Increased rate of erosion on other parts of the river bank o Sediments built up and river becomes shallower. Heavy rain causes river to overflow which leads to flooding o Cost in maintaining defenses are expensive

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sediments from the banks entering the rivers o Maintain a higher capacity of the rivers to hold water Strengths : o Roots of trees and plants hold soil together along the river banks o Reduce collapse of banks into the channel o Vegetation slows down rate of surface runoff entering the rivers o Vegetation also reduces the amount of eroded materials being washed into the rivers o Eyesore

Planting vegetation
o Eg. vegetation clearance along Geylang River in Singapore Eg. mangrove protection along Mekong River by Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam

Weaknesses : o Excessive shade provided by too much vegetation planted on the river banks prevent sunlight from reaching the river bed, killing aquatic plants

A full answer does not need to include all the above points.

Levels Descriptors 1-3m No examples given. Simple statements on the strategies. No indication of the effectiveness of the strategies. 4-6m At least 1 named example is given. Simple details of strategies are given. Simple indication of effectiveness and/or ineffectiveness of strategies. 7-8m At least 1 named example is given. Specific details of both strategies are given. Specific elaboration of at least 2 effectiveness AND 2 ineffectiveness for each strategy. Strategy Re-alignment Bank protection Effective Ineffective

HOW TO MARK With reference to the 4 boxes in the table above, if students answers cover : Any 1 box, award 1-3 marks. Any 2 boxes, award 4 marks. Any 3 boxes, award 5-6 marks. All 4 boxes, award 7-8 marks. If no examples are given, students are to be awarded Level 1, 1-3 marks. 4 (a) Fig. 7 shows a coastal feature.

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Source: http://cgz.e2bn.net/

Fig. 7 (i) Identify feature A. With the aid of clearly annotated diagram/s, describe how A is formed. [6] A wave cut platform / shore platform 1 mark

Gently sloping coastal land surface with cliff behind it Destructive waves at exposed coast erode steep slope through hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition and solution Waves erode along line of weakness to form notch Erosion proceeds and notch is deeply cut to form cave Cave collapses and cliff is formed Steep cliff retreats landwards, gently sloping land stretching out towards sea from base of cliff Shore platform is covered with rock fragments from receding cliff Rocks carried forward and backward by swash and backwash
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23 smoothen the platform Diagram max 3, explanation max 3 - max mark 5 (ii) What is most likely to happen at B over time? Explain your answer. [3] slope fail / land slide /slumping collapsed cliff / cliff fail, active wave erosion house nearly topple over, floor of the house collapse / removed based of the cliff undercut, basal undercutting processes hydraulic action / abrasion along line of weakness notch cliff base weaken mark each max 3 (b) Fig. 8 shows the path of the monsoon wind in India and Pakistan in the month of June. Monsoon Rains Continue in Flood-Ravaged Pakistan
By SALMAN MASOOD August 9, 2010

ISLAMABAD, Pakistan Monsoon rains fell on several parts of Pakistan on Monday, causing landslides in the north, raising water levels in already bloated rivers and further hindering the governments aid efforts. Pakistans Meteorological Department forecast more rain for the next 24 hours, adding further hardship for the millions of people affected by Pakistans worst flooding in 80 years. Pakistani television broadcast images of people sitting on trucks, buses and tractors as they made their way out of the city. Many more were faced with fuel shortages in the city.Helicopter service remained suspended in northern Swat Valley because of bad weather in the early part of the day. United States military helicopters resumed operations later in the afternoon around 2:30 p.m. and rescued 500 people in Kalam and other parts of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Province, a spokesman for the United States Embassy said. The valley remains cut off from rest of the country, with major bridges and roads washed away and landslides blocking a major road leading into the valley. Hundreds of thousands of people were left stranded and in need of food, medication and clean drinking water, according to rescue workers. Aid workers were using donkeys or traveling by foot to reach people. In Sindh Province in southern Pakistan, water levels continued to rise at Sukkur Barrage, raising fears that the dam might not be able to withstand the force of water. Three spillways and six canals were opened Monday to ease the water pressure. The United Nations has said about six million people in Pakistan have been affected by the floods and at least 1,500 have died. Government officials seemed overwhelmed and daunted by the magnitude of the devastation caused by the floods. [Turn over

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Hina Rabbani Khar, the state minister for economic affairs, broke into tears as she described the plight of her constituency in the Muzaffargarh district of southwestern Punjab to Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani during a meeting that was broadcast live on state-run television.We were not prepared for this kind of a disaster, Ms. Khar said, her voice quivering and tears running down her face. People have not had food or drinking water for the past seven days,
Source: The New York Times

(i) Explain the formation of monsoon wind in Pakistan in the month of June. [4] Northern Hemisphere experiences summer in June, Southern Hemisphere experiences winter warm air over NH, low pressure, cold air over SH, high pressure, cold air blows south to north in SH, wind blow out as SE Monsoon, in NH, deflected east forming SW Monsoon blows across Indian Ocean bringing rain to Pakistan mark each, max 4 marks (ii) Based on the newspaper article, describe and explain the impact of floods on people and the economy of Pakistan. [4] Environment impact landslides in the north, raising water levels in already bloated rivers and further hindering the governments aid efforts. landslides blocking a major road leading into the valley. Rescue effort suspended in northern Swat Valley because of bad weather Economic impact People faced with fuel shortages in the city. with major bridges and roads washed away Social Impact Hundreds of thousands of people were left stranded and in need of food, medication and clean drinking water, The United Nations has said about six million people in Pakistan have been affected by the floods and at least 1,500 have died. People have not had food or drinking water for the past seven days mark each max- 4 mark (c) Discuss the effectiveness of measures taken by countries to reduce the impact of droughts. Give named examples to support your answer. [8]
Non-effectiveness However, irrigation is only possible in places with water bodies which provide source of water supply.

Students may include following material: Effectiveness Irrigation Irrigation refers to bringing water to areas which receive little or no rain with proper irrigation techniques, water losses

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can be reduced Transvasement or the artificial passing of water from one river basin to another helps to solve hydrological imbalance use of sprinkler method helps to save water o Eg. farmers in Turkey use spray irrigation whereby sprinklers drip water sparingly directly onto crops, conserving water for use during drought Irrigation is effective to a certain extent as water can be made available to crops at a time when it is most needed and erases the necessity of relying on natural rain which may be unreliable or delayed It is a technique to induce rain formation it is done by introducing particles like silver iodide & dry ice or frozen carbon dioxide into the sky to act as nuclei for condensation to take place. these chemicals are useally scattered into the air by aeroplanes or by machines on the ground over time,, clouds form when water droplets coalesce. when water droplets are heavy enough, they fall as rain it is successful in Thailand as it has eased a serious drought by 80% there has been wide spread use of cloud seeding technology to induce rain in China. It may still be cheaper than other schemes to solve water shortages Irrigation techniques require training& if improperly used can result in over irrigation, leading to waterlogging & salinisation which adversely affect water quality. Irrigation techniques maybe expensive which only the rich can afford, thus widening income between rich and poor farmers

Cloud seeding

However, cost is very high & success may not always be guaranteed, resulting in draining of financial resources In china, it has caused political strife & bitterness within neighbouring regions which accuse each other of stealing ranby using cloud seeding

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Eg.Beijing has to raise 136 billion yuan for a south-north water diversion project that will direct water from Yangtze river to other partsof northern China Introduction of desalination However, the which converts sea water into technology involving drinking water by removal of sophisticated alt content through reverse processes of filtration osmosis through thin membrane to remove impurities is effective as it solves water very costly shortage to a certain extent eg. Algeria in North Africa solves the problem of water shortage by investing in a seawater desalination plant using the technology of a Singapore-based company, Hyflux All in all, each measure has its merits and drawbacks. Despite its limitations, it is still necessary for these management strategies practices to be implemented so as to reduce the impact of drought. If that is the case, there should not be any dependence on one policy measure per se but to mitigate the impacts of drought, a basket of preventive measures ought to be put into practice. In comparison, I would consider the >>>>>>>>> to be the most effective way to reduce impact of drought o

Advanced technology

Conclusion

Marks 1-3m 4-6m

7-8m

Descriptors No examples given. Simple statements on the strategies. No indication of the effectiveness of the strategies. At least 1 named example is given. Simple details of strategies are given. Simple indication of effectiveness and/or ineffectiveness of strategies. At least 2 named example is given. Example used to explain the point (details provided about the example that helps illustrate the answer) Specific details of both effective and limitation are given. Specific elaboration of at least 3 strategies (effectiveness AND ineffectiveness for each strategy). 8m: 7m requirement fulfilled with linkage back to question Causes Conservation of Effectiveness
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Ineffectiveness

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Forests Another forest management policy measure Conclusion/stand (links back to question) HOW TO MARK With reference to the 4 boxes in the table above, if students answers cover: Any 1 box, award 1-3 marks. Any 2 boxes, award 4 marks. Any 3 boxes, award 5 marks. All 4 boxes, award 6-7 marks (6 marks if the students merely mention the example, and 7 marks if the example is used to explain the point). Award 8 marks if a conclusion/stand is provided in the answer. If no examples are given, students are to be awarded Level 1, max of 3 marks.

End-of-the-paper

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