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WE POWER THE FUTURE

www.lappinsulators.de Dipl.-Ing. Henning Albrecht Visit to IEC 07. June 2012

Introduction to Lapp Insulators Europe Group

WE POWER THE FUTURE

COMPANY INTRODUCTION

Sales: Employees: Located: Ranking EU: Ranking WW: Service: Honor: Economic Focus:

130 Mio. 1200 5 manufacturing locations in Europe (integration of Argillon in late 2008) Nr. 1 insulator producer Nr. 3 insulator producer One-stop-shopping experience for customers, all insulator types available Technology leader in the field of composite insulators Lapp Insulators is a German Enterprise having its economic main focus in Europe

Lapp USA
1916: Foundation Lapp

Wunsiedel
1901: Foundation of factory Holenbrunn Fa.J.v. Schwarz

Selb
1889: Foundation of porcelain factory Rosenthal 1900: Foundation of department E

Redwitz
1913: SIEMENS in Neuhaus

Jedlina Zdroj
(Sophienau) 1857: Foundation of porcelain factory Julius Schwarz 1859: Porcelain factory Joseph Schachtel

Turda
1981: Foundation

1921: Stemag

1936: RIG

1971: Rosenthal / Stemag

1950: New foundation in Redwitz

1945: Company was nationalized

1974: Rosenthal / Technik

1999: Acquired by management 2001: Acquisition of the insulators sector of CeramTec

1985: HOECHST / CeramTec

1996: CeramTec

1996: Acquisition Jedlina Zdroj

2001: Privatization 2001: Lapp Insulator GmbH & Co. KG 2005: Investment by Andlinger & Co. 2007: Joint Venture with Dallian Insulator Co. Ltd. 2002: Argillon 2004: Acquisition Turda 2008: Acquisition of Alumina and insulators sector Argillon

2011: Quadriga Capital (majority shareholder) -> Acquisition of Lapp Group

2012: LAPP INSULATORS

MANUFACTURING LOCATIONS

WUNSIEDEL (D)
Lapp Insulators' headquarters in Europe is located at the site in Wunsiedel. A wide range of insulators up to 1100 kV are manufactured for more than 100 years. Besides the production facilities one can find the management, the R&D division as well as further important administrative departments for the group. Capacity > 6.500 t porcelain 350.000 m Composite Insulators Production Area 100.000 m Employees 300 Foundation 1901 Specifics Headquarters of Lapp Europe Main R&D and sales departments Chemical / Physical Laboratory Competence center - Rodurflex Certification DIN EN ISO 9001:2000

Porcelain Insulators Long Rod Insulators Post Insulators Hollow Core Insulators Composite Insulators Long Rod Insulators - Rodurflex Line Post Insulators - Rodurflex Post Insulators - Rodurflex

SELB (D)
As one of two insulators manufacturers world wide Lapp is operating its own high voltage laboratory. It is a significant factor of success. Therefore, customer service and the development and research departments do benefit. Lapp Insulators is performing all type and design tests. Furthermore guided tours for schools and universities are offered. Building Dimensions 22m x 30m x 21m Employees 7 Year of Foundation 1928 Specifics Industrial monument Type and design tests of insulators and insulator strings according to all IEC-, ANSI- and DIN-VDE standards: AC testing: dry until 1300 KV / wet until 1000 KV lightning impulse testing: until 2100 kV switch impulse testing: until 1300 kV corona- and RIV- measurements mechanical tests: four point bending- and elongation tests material tests: leakage current- and puncture tests thermal and mechanical tests: temperature range between -50 C and +50 C

REDWITZ INSULATORS (D)


At Lapp's insulator site in Redwitz, which belongs to Lapp Insulators since 2008, porcelain and composite insulators are manufactured. The factory is specialised to meet the needs of the OEM - clientele. In addition one can find here LAPP's expertise in manufacturing the composite insulators - SIMOTEC. Capacity 7.500 t porcelain > 30.000 pcs. SIMOTEC - Insulators Production Area 19.000 m Employees 180 Certification DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 DIN EN ISO 14001:2005 OHRIS Specifics Competence center - SIMOTEC

Porcelain Insulators Post Insulators Hollow Core Insulators Composite Insulators Hollow Core Composite Insulators SIMOTEC

LeRoy (USA)
Lapp Insulators' headquarters in the US is located at the site in LeRoy, NY. A wide range of insulators are manufactured since the foundation of the Lapp Insulators in 1916. Besides the production facilities one can find the management, the R&D division as well as further important administrative departments for the group including the group holding organization. Capacity 3.000 t porcelain 100.000 m Composite Insulators Production Area 40.000 m Employees 120 Foundation 1916 Specifics Headquarters of Lapp Insulators Holding Certification DIN EN ISO 9001:2000

Porcelain Insulators Suspensions (cap & pin) Post Insulators Hollow Core Insulators Composite Insulators Long Rod Insulators - Rodurflex Line Post Insulators - Rodurflex Post Insulators - Rodurflex

JEDLINA ZDROJ (PL)


The factory, which was established in 1858, is located in the south west of Poland. It was one of the driving forces behind the development of porcelain for electrical applications in the 19th century. Today the factory is specialized on medium voltage and railway insulators. Capacity 2000 t Production Area 42.000 m Employees 135 Foundation 1858 Specifics coating of longrod insulators with RTV silicone rubber competence center for medium-voltage and railway insulators Certification ISO 9001:2000

Porcelain Insulators Long Rod Insulators Post Insulators Medium Voltage Insulators

TURDA (RO)
The plant located in Turda (Cluj County) Romania, has a production experience of over 30 years in the manufacturing of ceramic insulators The company delivers high voltage ceramic insulators (>36 kV to 175 kV), therefore supporting the competitiveness of the Lapp Insulators business. Capacity 6.000 t Production Area 57.000 m Employees 400 Foundation 1981 Specifics youngest Lapp Insulators factory Certification DQS: October 2004: ISO 9001:2000 AFER: October 2001: ISO 9002:2000

Porcelain Insulators Long Rod Insulators Post Insulators Hollow Core Insulators

WE POWER THE FUTURE

PORCELAIN INSULATORS PRODUCT RANGE

MANUFACTORING TECHNOLOGY
Continuously enhanced - the production process of high-performance porcelain insulators
Over the decades we have refined the manufacture of ceramic insulators to perfection. Highly sophisticated monitored processes form the basis of a production system in which small customized product runs are implemented with the same precision and reliability as standard volume parts. Our improvement management system ensures an ongoing refinement of all processes and continuous advancement in cost efficiency. Selected ingredients of high purity and homogeneous properties are weighed, mixed to formula specifications, and subjected to a grinding process. Vacuum extrusion presses form the plastic filter cake into cylindrical blanks ("body") which are subjected to a closely controlled drying process to condition them for the following shaping steps. Vertical lathes are used to machine the blank to its desired contour. After a further precision drying stage the unfinished insulator already possesses a high strength due to the clay bond and is ready for the application of the glazing by an immersion process. The subsequent firing stage creates the very hard ceramic structure.

LONGROD INSULATOR
Suspension and tension towers in high voltage power lines and railway systems

LONGROD INSULATORS
Porcelain longrod insulators are produced according to international standards and customer specifications. They are used in power transmission lines and available up to 400 kN mechanical tensile load. Lapps design experts are also capable of designing complete insulator strings including hardware accessories. Porcelain longrod insulators are also available with silicone rubber coating for improved pollution layer performance. DIMENSIONS voltage class 1 - 1100 kV (> 170 kV in strings) maximum length 2000 mm core diameter 45 - 115 mm flexible creepage distances up to 50 mm / kV end fittings complying to IEC 60120, 60471 and DIN 48006 special types available PRODUCTION METHOD wet turning process C130 high strength alumina porcelain glaze colours brown RAL 8017 and grey ANSI 70 Experience since 1930 SPECIFICATIONS IEC 60433, IEC 60383, IEC 60672 FACTORIES Wunsiedel Jedlina Zdroj Turda APPLICATIONS suspension and tension towers in high voltage power lines and railway systems.

POST INSULATORS
for busbar supports, disconnect switches in high voltage substations

POST INSULATORS
Porcelain station post insulators according to IEC, ANSI and other standards are used in substations and related switching equipment. They are produced in single piece up to 2300 mm and can operate voltages up to 1100 kV in stacked configuration. Post insulators are subjected to compression, cantilever and torsional loads during service. Dimensions voltage class 1 - 1100 kV (> 245 kV in stacked configuration) maximum length 2300 mm maximum core diameter 288 mm flexible creepage distances up to 55 mm / kV conical shape (mainly used when dimensioning acc. to IEC standards) cylindrical shape (mainly used when dimensioning acc. to ANSI standards) Production Method wet turning process C130 high strength alumina porcelain, ultra high strength available C130 HS glaze colours brown RAL 8017 and grey ANSI 70 Specifications IEC 60273, IEC 60168, IEC 60672 Experience since 1930 Factories Wunsiedel, Redwitz, LeRoy, Turda Application busbar supports in substations, disconnect switches (post insulator + operating insulators) Platform supports for compensation systems

HOLLOW CORE INSULATORS


SF6 insulated switchgears, measuring equipment (CT, VT), bushings

HOLLOW CORE INSULATORS


Porcelain hollow core insulators acc. to IEC, ANSI and customer standards are produced with cylindrical, conical or straight inner and outer appearance up to a maximum length of 2800 mm in one piece. These insulator types are produced to withstand high mechanical forces such as inner pressure and cantilever. The design of these insulators is tailor-made to customer requirements. Lapp is capable of producing special shapes by applying latest state of the art manufacturing tools and technology. Dimensions voltage class 1 - 1100 kV maximum length 2800 mm (with gluing technology up to 9000 mm) maximum outside diameter 640 mm flexible creepage distances up to 40 mm / kV conical shape (mainly used in bushings and dead tank porcelains) cylindrical shape (mainly used in live tank systems) Production Method wet turning process C130 high strength alumina porcelain, ultra high strength available C130 HS glaze colours brown RAL 8017 and grey ANSI 70 Specifications IEC 62155, IEC 60672, IEC TS 62371 Experience since 1930 Factories Wunsiedel, Redwitz, LeRoy, Turda Application SF6-insulated switchgears, breakers (life and dead tank designs), current and voltage transformers, surge arresters, bushings

MEDIUM VOLTAGE INSULATORS


rural electrification, railway power lines

MEDIUM VOLTAGE INSULATORS


Lapp offers a wide range of low and medium voltage insulators. For applications ranging from 10-100 kV Lapp produces bushings, line posts, string insulators, and railway insulators. All these parts are also subject to the stringent quality requirements that are adopted from our high voltage products. Product quality is checked throughout production continuously. Dimensions For detailed information on our medium voltage insulators program please contact us for a printed copy. Production Method wet turning process C130 high strength alumina porcelain glaze colours brown RAL 8017 and grey ANSI 70, special colour: green coating of insulators with RTV silicone rubber acc. To customer request Specifications IEC 60433, IEC 60383, IEC 60672, EN 50119 Experience since 1900 Factories Jedlina Zdroj Application rural and railway electrification, medium voltage transformers

WE POWER THE FUTURE

COMPOSITE INSULATORS PRODUCT RANGE

MANUFACTORING TECHNOLOGY
Patented manufacturing expertise for RODURFLEX composite insulators
The first manufacturing stage is the continuous pultrusion process yielding the FRP rod. The combination of a hydrolysis resistant epoxy resin with acid resistant glass fibers (ECR glass) is a safe assurance against brittle fracture. Rods are cut to length and visually inspected before being coated with a seamless sheath of high-temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber ensuring optimum adhesion. Prefabricated sheds are mounted on to the rod to complete the insulator. A subsequent vulcanizing stage creates a durable high-strength bond between the sheds and the rod sheath. The metal hardware is mounted by a cold-forming process and all insulators are subjected to mechanical inspection, after which the joints between the FRP rod and the metal components are sealed with a special silicone elastomer. This metastable compound creates a perfect seal which prevents the ingress of moisture for an unlimited period of time. A modular system comprising FRP rods of different diameters and any desired length up to 6 meters, various shed configurations (shapes, numbers, spacings) and a wide range of assorted end fittings allows the longrod insulator to be optimized for any specific application.

COMPOSITE LONGROD INSULATORS


Suspension and tension insulators for high voltage power transmission systems

LONGROD INSULATORS
The unique modular system of RODURFLEX longrod Insulators is the key design feature to offer flexible connecting lengths, creepage distances, shed profiles and a wide range of end fittings matching exactly the customers requirements. Dimensions voltage class 1-1100 kV (>800 kV serial coupling of single pieces) maximum connecting length 6 m as single design max. core diameter 63 mm, up to 1500 kN SML flexible creepage distances up to 55 mm / kV end fittings according to IEC 60120, 60471 Production Method Modular assembly system HTV silicone rubber, Generation III ECR-FRP rod, brittle-fracture resistant metastable silicone rubber sealing optimized shed profiles for all pollution classes available patented shallow underrib shed profile for enhanced creepage distances Standards IEC 61109, ANSI C29.11, ANSI C29.12 Experience since 1967 Factories Wunsiedel, LeRoy Application suspension and tension towers in high voltage power lines and railway systems

LINE POST INSULATORS


compact high voltage power transmission systems

LINE POST INSULATORS


The RODURFLEX product range features horizontal and vertical line post insulators with flexible top and bottom attachments meeting all application needs. Dimensions voltage class 1-550 kV maximum core diameter 101,2 mm (4"), up to 50 kNm flexible creepage distances up to 55 mm / kV braced post design for increased mechanical stability available complete assemblies including hardware fittings available Production Method Modular assembly system HTV silicone rubber, Generation III ECR-FRP rod, brittle-fracture resistant metastable silicone rubber sealing optimized shed profiles for all pollution classes available patented shallow underrib shed profile for enhanced creepage distances Standards IEC 61952, ANSI C29.17, ANSI C29.18 Experience since 1967 Factories Wunsiedel, LeRoy Application suspension and tension towers in high voltage power lines in compact configuration

STATION POST INSULATORS


for busbar supports in highvoltage substations

POST INSULATORS
The RODURFLEX product range features vertical line post insulators with flexible top and bottom attachments meeting all application needs. Dimensions voltage class 1-550 kV maximum core diameter 101,2 mm (4"), bis 50 kNm flexible creepage distances up to 55 mm / kV DIN, IEC and ANSI flanges available Production Method Modular assembly system HTV silicone rubber, Generation III ECR-FRP rod, brittle-fracture resistant metastable silicone rubber sealing optimized shed profiles for all pollution classes available patented shallow underrib shed profile for enhanced creepage distances Standards IEC 62231, ANSI C29.19, ANSI C29.9 Experience since 1967 Factories Wunsiedel, LeRoy Application switching equipment and busbar support in substations

MANUFACTORING TECHNOLOGY
Optimized manufacturing expertise for SIMOTEC composite insulators
Latest injection moulding technology is used for vulcanization of the silicone shed to the epoxy resin tube for insulators which can be up to 6 m long. Using a special primer on the tube permits chemical bonding with the shed, providing a durable connection under any condition. The point of connection between the tube and the metal end fitting is coated with silicone and is generally of a gastight design. The exact number of layers and wrapping angle for the tube is calculated to design the tubes for defined compression and bending loads. In this way LAPP INSULATORS can use tubes that are exposed to combined compressive and bending loads. As an option tubes with an inner liner made of polyester for protection against SF6-decay products can be provided.

COMPOSITE HOLLOW CORE INSULATORS


SF6 insulated switchgears, measuring equipment (CT, VT), bushings

HOLLOW CORE INSULATORS


SIMOTEC Hollow core composite insulators acc. to IEC, ANSI and customer standards are produced with cylindrical, inner and outer appearance up to a maximum length of 6000 mm in one piece. These insulator types are produced to withstand high mechanical forces such as inner pressure and cantilever. The design of these insulators is tailor-made to customer requirements. Due to the use of high quality LSR silicone rubber these insulators perform extremely well even under severe climatic conditions and under pollution eliminating the need of maintenance or cleaning of the switches they are use in. Due to the compact and light design SIMOTEC hollow core composite insulators play a significant role in the manufacture of high-quality and reliable switchgears. Dimensions voltage class 1 - 800 kV maximum connecting length 6 m as single design multi-part designs available, maximum outside diameter 580 mm creepage distances up to 31 mm/kV Production Method injection moulding technology, LSR-silicone rubber FRP-tubes made by filament winding process for combined bending and pressure stress Standards IEC 61462 (2007) Experience since 1995 Factories Redwitz Application SF6-insulated switchgears, breakers (life and dead tank designs), current and voltage transformers, surge arresters, bushings, cable terminations

Insulating Materials
1. PORCELAIN 2. EPOXY RESIN
(not in Lapp Portfolio)

3. RUBBERS SIR (Silicon Rubber) EPR (e.g. EPDM) Ethylen Prophylen Rubber EVA (Ethylen Vinyl Acetat) Blends EPDM/SIR 4. GLASS
( not in Lapp Portfolio)

Company

Products - LAPP Insulators GmbH


Porcelain Insulators
Longrod insulators (up to 550 kN, 2100 mm length) Solid core post insulators (core diameter up to 275 mm, 2600 mm length) Hollow insulators (outer diameter up to 580 mm, 2600 mm length) Rotary insulators (operating stacks) Medium voltage and line post insulators

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex


Tailormade longrod insulators (up to 1.500 kN, up to 6.000 mm length) Traction line insulators Medium voltage and line post insulators Hollow insulators Tailormade insulation applications (fibre optic bushings, hot sticks...)

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Clay Alumina Kaolin Feldspar Mixing and grinding Extrusion Pre-drying

Ceramical preparation
our raw materials: kaolin, feldspar, quartz. Delivered in silos, grinding in tumbling mills: 96% Al2O3, 4% Mg2[Si2O6]

Machining Drying Glazing Sintering (Firing) Mounting of metal parts

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Raw material / silo and preparation


25 silos / 50 t each 5 tumbling mills 3,5 t each 70% recycled / 30% new mass

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Filter pressing
filtercake pressing (70% recycled mass, 30% new mass)

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Extrusion
breaking of filtercakes in the shredder and extrusion of the pugs in the vacuum press (max. length of pugs 4 m, weight approx. 3 to)

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Shaping
electrical pre-drying of pugs and shape forming (CNC). hollows: one-step machining in - and outside

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Drying
controlled conditions, temperature and air-humidity (in dependence of shrinkage)

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Glazing
dipglazing (grey and brown) sprayglazing of special articles

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Firing
in reducing atmosphere using shuttle kilns, firing times depending on the corediameters

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Cutting and grinding


with diamond tools, depending on customers requirements

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Mounting of end fittings


acc. to customers requirements with lead antimon, sulfur or portland cement; conical or cylindrical with sanded ends.

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Testing
Tension, cantilever, inner pressure and ultrasonic tests (thermal mechanical cycle tests)

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Final tests
type and design tests in our own laboratory

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Composite Insulators System

Rodurflex

More than 40 Years of Service Experience

Introduction Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

The RODURFLEX Module System

A modular system of variable lengths, different shed shapes and sizes ...

...and different types of end fittings for all common SML levels...

...allow RODURFLEX insulators to be designed for any service condition

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

The RODURFLEX Module System


Station Post Insulators A modular system of variable lengths, different shed shapes and sizes ...

...allow RODURFLEX insulators to be designed for any service condition

Production Process
porcelain composite
Body preparation Rod pultrusion Grinding Extrusion Drying Extrusion

Shaping Drying

Shed mounting and vulcanization

Glazing Firing Assembling Sealing

Cutting Grinding Assembling

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Pulltrusion of ECR( Electrical Grade Corrosion Resistant) FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastic) rod

Transparent rods provide visible quality

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators THE SILCONE SHEATH IS CURED AND VULCANIZED TO THE ROD

CURED AND BONDED RUBBER

HIGH TEMP OVEN CURED AND BONDED RUBBER

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Extrusion of seamless HTV silicone sheath

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Rod Cutting & Desleeving

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Data of rubber injection presses : clamping force : 5000 kN 2 Heating + clamping plates : 710x1050mm specific injection pressure : 2160 bar injection volume : 5200 cm ( 8 kg silicone) time effective double tool systeme

High pressure injection moulding of sheds

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Pre-fabricated wheather sheds Rodurflex, seam not crossing gradients, no mechanical stress

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Weathersheds Rodurflex after removal of surplus from moulding

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Shed Mounting

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Duration depending on volume of insulators

Temperature approx. 200C

Vulcanization

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Compression of end fittings

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

AUTOMIZED APPLICATION OF META STABLE SEALING SYSTEM

- permanent sticking - permanent elastic - no gaps: -50C +100C (-58 F + 212 F)

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators


END FITTING TO ROD / INSULATING BODY META STABLE SEALING SYSTEM

- 2K meta stable silicone (paste) - special end fitting design (lake) - non-RTV (no gap formation at cold temp.) - temperature range: -50C +100C (-58 F + 212 F) - experience since 1981 (development, field trials at RWE)

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

RODURFLEX Sealing System Application

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Packing

Rodurflex

Field Experience

Rodurflex Field Experience

Worldwide experience with Rodurflex


more than 40 years in more than 70 countries up to Um=765 kV service voltage

EHV WORLD WIDE EXPERIENCE RODURFLEX POLYMER KV 800 765 765 500 DC 500 525 525 533 DC 420 420 420 420 420 420 LOCATION KEPCO - KOREA AEP HYDRO QUEBEC LADWP GE/BPA HYDRO QUEBEC CHINA ESKOM SO AF RWE GERMANY ESKOM SO AF EOS SWITZERLAND UAE, Iran, Middle East VENEZUELA REE - SPAIN QTY 168 40 184 213 243 17 14,662 SHIPPED 1999 - 2005 1980 1977-93 1980-84 2003 1982 1992-2001

637 1994-96 25,000 1979-2005 11,195 1978-2004 2,013 1992-2004 18,690 1987-2005 2,734 1998 16,108 1992-2005

SUB TOTAL Equals to approx. 8.000 km

>90,000

Rodurflex Field Experience


ADWEA, SCECO, RWE

420/550kV

REE

HQ AEP

765kV

BPA/LADWP

145/170/245/300/362kV

Rodurflex Field Experience

6m

Advanced OHTL Designs

Study Crossrope Design for 765 kV South Africa

Rodurflex Field Experience

Advanced OHTL Designs

Design for 420 kV Compact Line Palmiet Stikland South Africa Fv= 22 kN; Fh = 65 kN

Rodurflex Field Experience

Extreme SML Tensions Sets e.g. River Crossings SML=4 x 1500kN = 6000kNcompare to 420 kV Elbe Crossing in Germany with PLRI: 4 x 300kN = 1200kN

Rodurflex Field Experience


2007 Mozambique Phase Spacer Caia-Marromeo

Rodurflex Field Experience


1980/90s 533 kV HVDC line Cabora Bassa, RSA

HVDC

Rodurflex Field Experience

HVDC
1984 500 kV HVDC line Pacific Intertie, USA

Rodurflex

Lahmeyer Presentation Abu Dhabi

SERVICE EXPERIENCE WITH RODURFLEX COMPOSITE INSULATORS AT ADWEA (ABU DHABI WATER AND ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES)

Dipl.-Ing. Peter Kleyersburg former Lahmeyer International GmbH Abu Dhabi, UAE

Situation 30 years ago, Arabian Peninsula Situation with conventional insulators Reasons for the use of composite insulators Rodurflex Insulators as counter measure of pollution caused problems Conclusion

Situation 30 years ago, Arabian Peninsula

Situation 30 years ago A challenge for Lahmeyer International:


1977 oil boom: increased need for energy in Abu Dhabi problems with porcelain long-rod insulators, open shed profile cd = 43 mm/ kV new proposed OHTL 220 kV Abu Dhabi Al Ain as well as power supply to Abu Dhabi airport by 132 kV OHTL (80ies) common standard IEC 815 1986 (still valid today) pollution problems during operation on OHTL with conventional insulators typical failure mode: flashovers during night and early morning hours cause: condensation on hydrophilic surfaces which have been heavily contaminated by industrial and natural (desert, coast) pollution main problem: pollution accumulation happens in extreme short period of time (few months, even few days) power supply of expanding projects (airport, urban development, oil fields and industry) on risk

Situation with conventional insulators

Situation with conventional insulators


1. Cleaning of existing insulation by hand, dry and wet, of course in de-engergized surrounding energized, with de-mineralised water and permanently installed washing devices energized, with de-mineralised water and mobile washing devices

2.

Hydrophobication of existing insulation with Silicone-grease with RTV Silicone-Elastomere (Sylgard)

Situation with conventional insulators

unsatisfying results with adopted cleaning methods unreliable equipment, especially by energized cleaning method (mobile washing systems) cleaning by hand is often required de-energization of transmission lines generally good experience with use of hydrophobic media on existing insulators (greases, coating), however, difficult handling and high cost of RTV coatings silicone greases were not widely used due to existing difficulties in service (tendancy to pollution)

Reasons for the use of composite insulators

Reasons for the use of composite insulators positive experience with hydrophobic surfaces investigations of composite insulators Selection of Rodurflex composite insulators Generation III which was proven in service for more than 10 years already and therefore had the most successful reference available Rodurflex Generation III (ECR-FRP, HTV-sheds and housing, crimped end fittings, meta stable sealing) quickly resulted in an adequate counter measure to all encountered problems due to extensive electrification in the 90ies the customer (ADWEA) was forced to accept a completely new technology due to the existing problems and so they decided to use Rodurflex composite insulators on a complete transmission line for the first time this decision was backed by positive service performance of Rodurflex composite insulators in other parts of the world

Rodurflex Insulators as counter measure of pollution caused problems

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL

Rodurflex 37 mm / kV not a single insulator related outage after 14 years continuous operation after 15 years of service the OHTL was removed and replaced by a cable due to urban development; the removed insulators were then returned to Lapp for intensive research work the successful performance of this line was the justification for all later 245 kV and 420 kV lines equipped with composite insulators in Abu Dhabi

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL

Design:

Type: Production: Um: UB: Service time: CD: SML: Fittings:

HTV Silicone Rubber Composite Insulator GENERATION III with assembled pre-moulded HTV silicone sheds, vulcanised to an extruded HTV silicone sleeve. 30/39(148)1855 1989/1990 145 kV 132 kV 14 years 37 mm/kV related to Um 225 kN Crimped design, forged steel, clevis

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL Pollution severity

Lab. No.

Position
st

ESDD in mg/cm 0,85

NSDDi n mg/cm 2,78

2989/1 (V) 2989/1 (V)

1 shed bottom side shank nd between 2 rd and 3 shed 4 shed top side 1 shed bottom side shank nd between 2 rd and 3 shed
th st th

1,78

7,48

2989/1 (V) 2989/8 (H) 2989/8 (H)

0,30

1,84

0,17

0,94

0,31

3,18

2989/8 4 shed top 0,18 0,64 (H) Note: V: vertical mounting; H: horizontal mounting :

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL Results of electrical tests


Values Measured Measured

Characteristic per Lab.No. 2989/2 Lab.No. 2989/6 drawing polluted cleaned polluted cleaned [kV] BIL pos. BIL pos. 50% LIFO pos. 50% LIFO neg. PF Wet PF CFO Wet PF Dry PF CFO Dry 965 965 [kV] 957 996 985 1024 490 575 355 452 575 590 [A] Leakage current @ 84kV 325-314 [kV] 969 1004 1000 1004 550 564 590 610 [A] 285278 [kV] 960 1002 988 1031 410 466 575 598 [A] 320-318 [kV] 966 997 996 1027 544 567 603 617 [A] 290280

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL Results of mechanical tests (SML = 225 kN)

Lab. No.

UTS Breaking Load in kN 275 299 285 304 286 301

Kind of rupture

2989/1 2989/2 2989/3 2989/4 2989/5 2989/6

Pull out top fitting Pull out top fitting Pull out bottom fitting Pull out bottom fitting Pull out bottom fitting FRP rod fracture bottom fitting

Conclusion

Conclusion
severe pollution problems lead to the pioneer use of Rodurflex composite insulators in UAE Rodurflex insulators used for more than 14 years showed no problems and secured the interference free power transmission in Abu Dhabi and are by far superior to the conventional insulators realized with less specific creepage distance (37 mm / kV vs. 52 mm / kV) A detailed study on Rodurflex insulators used in service for 15 years showed electrical and mechanical performance was equal to the new state no signs of erosion or traces of electrical activity no signs of ageing since the 90ies ALL new OHTLs in Abu Dhabi up to 420 kV are exclusively designed with composite insulators

Conclusion

in total more than 500.000 insulator years of positive service performance under extreme conditions are available further to just being a solution to pollution related line problems Rodurflex composite insulators help to cut costs, for example the tower cost for a 400 kV line can be reduced by approx. 25% and so the total cost of the line gets reduced by 8% because composite insulators offer equal or superior insulating performance with reduced section length. Similar composite insulators of other manufacturers have been introduced to the UAE market and also showed no failure up to now, however, without the RODURFLEX-typical long reference period

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators

CLASSIFICATION OF INSULATORS

1. Insulators with passiv surface

2. Insulators with active surface


and this means: is there interaction with the pollution layer?

Interaction means:

the insulating material interacts with the pollution layer e.g. transferring hydrophobicity

What is Hydrophobicity?

Comparision Rodurflex with Ceramic Surface


New Surface

New ceramic surface

New silicone surface

In a new, non-polluted stage most surfaces are water repellent = hydrophobic.

Hydrophobicity Transfer

Comparision Rodurflex with Ceramic Surface


Surface polluted by quartz slurry
(Pollution Conditions IEC 815)

Polluted passiv surface

Polluted active surface

E.G.:The pollution layer on a ceramic/glass/EPR surface is hydrophilic. E.G.:The pollution layer on a silicone surface becomes hydrophobic.

Hydrophobicity Transfer

Comparision Rodurflex with Ceramic Surface Surface polluted by sand

Polluted ceramic surface

Polluted silicone surface

The pollution layer on a ceramic or glass surface is wettable. The pollution layer on a silicone surface becomes hydrophobic.

Hydrophobicity Transfer

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

Effect of Hydrophobicity
pollution layer water repellent

low leakage currents low risk of flashover low line losses no cleaning required

Hydrophobicity

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

Characteristics of Hydrophobicity Transfer of Silicone rubbers (SIR)


Effect: - Hydrophobization of surface/pollution layers - Recovery of temporarily reduced hydrophobicity, e.g. by excessive sparking

Mechanism: Diffusion of low molecular weight silicone components Speed: depending on: - type of SIR material - thickness of surface layer - thickness of bulk material - temperature - age with Rodurflex silicone rubber no loss of silicone rubber material is measureable

Losses:

Hydrophobicity

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

Hydrophobicity of a 0.6 mm Layer on SIR Plates of Various Thickness After a Storage of 16 Days at T = 20 C
Hydrophobicity transfer depends on :
Wetting angle [deg]

thickness of SIR material

thickness of silicone rubber plate [mm]

Hydrophobicity

Hydrophobic Effect
Water Pollution Layer

Silicone Shed

Hydrophobicity

HTV SIR the best solution to have -> excellent hydrophobicity -> good tracking behaviour

Molecular Silicone LMW


(low molecular weights)

Hydrophobic Effect

Performance and Silicone Compoundation


Balanced filling Highly ATH filled silicone rubber Performance of Hydrophobicity Transfer Effect T&E (creepage) Resistance

Outdoor performance

41% PDMS 46% ATH

RTV2/LSR 30-35% PDMS 60-70% ATH

80% PDMS 10% ATH

Silicone content in % by weight 100% PDMS 0% ATH

ATH content in % by weight

0% PDMS 100% ATH

BREAK ?

Brittle Fracture

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

Brittle Fracture

Normal fracture caused by overload Delamination of the rod occurs

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

Brittle Fracture
Insulator with widely used standard E-Glass fibres

Brittle fracture: The fracture surface is mainly perpenticular to the rod axis. Most of the E-glass fibres seems to be cut. The remaining fibres cannot bear the load => fracture due to overload.

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

Brittle Fracture
Standard E-glass fibre after 10 days of immersion in 1nHNO3.
(nitric acid)

The glass fibre is destroyed due to a dissolving process of the glass network.

The mechanical strength is drastically reduced.

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

Brittle Fracture
ECR( Electrical Grade Corosion Resistant)glass fibre after 30 days of immersion in 1nHNO3.
(nitric acid)

The glass fibre is resistant to the acid due to modification of the glass network.

The mechanical strength is not influenced.

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

Brittle Fracture
Stress corrosion or brittle fracture can occur if acid attacks glass fibres under tensile load.
Acids are already in the environment or may be produced under influence of moisture and electrical discharges. Combination of moisture and electrical discharges can result in the creation of nitric acid (HNO3). To avoid line dropping due to stress corrosion brittle fracture resistant FRP( Fibre Reinforced Plastic) rods must be used. Brittle fracture resistant rods can be produced by using corrosion resistant glass fibres, such as ECR fibres (Electrical grade corrosion resistant).

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex

Brittle Fracture
Test set-up for stress corrosion test of FRP rods

ball bearing sample weight


(equivalent to 67% SML)

acid container
(1n nitric acid)

The test is passed if no fracture of the core occurs within 96h under load.

Back

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators

Design of Rodurflex Generation III


HTV silicone ECR- 1983 INTRODUCTION

1979
FORMULATION

Forged steel

1985

chemical bonding

HTV silicone

1979
FORMULATION

silicone rubber sealing 1982

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators What makes a good composite insulator?

Materials
bad good

bad

Impossible

Usual Case

Design
good Very difficult Know how needed
RODURFLEX

Kaerners Matrix (1994)

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators

Hydrophobicity Transfer Mechanism (HTM), CIGRE D1.14

pollution layer water repellent

low leakage currents low risk of flashover low line losses no cleaning required

Prof. Kindersberger (1989)

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators Pollution Performance - Comparison
Required geometrical Creepage distances to obtain the same electrical performance under pollution (KIWIT 1970: Practical Experience with Outdoor Insulation)

Silicone Rubber Composite

Porcelain Longrod

Glass/Porcelain Disk

75% -45%

100%
reference

120%

CONCLUSION: To operate under same pollution conditions, a silicone rubber composite insulator only requires 40..45% of the CD required for Glass/Porcelain Disks. A silicone rubber composite is Therefore more economical or can withstand a level of 2 pollution classes higher than glass.

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators

HTM impact on LCC and Service Costs


250 [$/year] 200 150 100 50 0 132 kV line
Calculated by M/s Powerlink, Australia
Silicone insulator coated ceramic disc ceramic disc with washing

275 kV line

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators Pin Corrosion
Glass/Porcelain Disks: not hydrophobic surface high Leakage currents DC component in Leakage current galvanic cell PIN CORROSION

Silicone rubber composite with HTM & hydrophobic surface: not hydrophobic surface very low Leakage currents no DC component in Leakage current no galvanic cell NO PROBLEMS

Maintenance costs, lower lifetime, worse LCA


Life expectancy: 1730a

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators


Composite insulators offer low weight => low transport and installation costs

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators

Advantages of RODURFLEX Composite Insulators


Enables new OHTL Insulation Design (Crossarms,Crossropes etc.) Superior Pollution Performance (Hydrophobicity Transfer Mechanism) Extreme UV, Weather and Environmental Resistant HTV Silicone Housing Enables Extreme Creepage Designs (Patented Underrib Sheds) Earthquake Resistant Brittle Fracture Resistant (ECR Glass Epoxy FRP Core) Fail-safe meta stable sealing system Extreme strength classes SML up to 2000 kN possible for single unit Vandalism Proof Able to withstand Extreme Dynamic and Impact loads Light Weight: Easy Transport, Handling, Installation Light Weight: offers EHV OHTL designs Short Lead-Time Flexible in Design Reduced Life-Cycle Costs Proven for more than 40 years

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators


Main Advantages (Summary):

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators

RODURFLEX: High Pollution Applications


China Arabic Peninsula REE Spain USA California USA Florida South Africa India Australia North Africa Chile, Peru Iran * up to (525, 750 kV) (420 kV*) (420 kV*) (525 kV*) (525 kV*) (420, 765 kV*) (420, 765 kV) (525 kV*) (420 kV*) (245 kV*) (420 kV*) UAE, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Jemen

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap& Pin Insulators



Applications of Composite Insulators New Transmission Lines


Due to the light weight and compact design of composite insulators new line and new tower designs are possible resulting in lower construction and erection costs. Replacement of Conventional Insulators, which experienced flashover or require extensive maintenance. Line hardware need not to be changed. Silicone rubber insulators offer superior performance in polluted areas. Upgrading of existing lines or designing Compact Lines Composite insulator strings are in many cases shorter than conventional ones. Interphase spacers to prevent galopping conductors from clashing together. Composite insulators offer light weight combined with high mechanical strength and high flexibility. Post and Line Post insulators Due to their light weight composite line post insulators may be mounted directly on the pole without using crossarms. Hollow insulators/Line Arrestors Housings for current transformers, bushings or surge arresters.

Long Rod Types


Easier to handle

Cap & Pin Types


6 times the weight and erection at site limited self cleaning performance

optimal self cleaning Performance Hydrophobicity lower radio interference voltage protectable against power arcs (arcing devices)

higher radio interference voltage

not fully protectable against power arcs

Long Rod Types


no cascade flashovers

Cap & Pin Types


cascade flashovers possible thermal puncture possible self fractures with glass (shattering) V-strings: angel between two substrings depends on wind/weight load

no thermal puncture no self fractures

V-strings: narrow strings possible with special intermediate fittings

Composite Longrod vs. Cap & Pin

Long Rod Types


Price 20-30% lower

Cap & Pin Types

Composite Longrod vs. Cap & Pin

Reseach & Development

Reseach & Development


R&D Partners

Prof. Hinrichsen

Prof. Clemens Prof. Kindersberger Prof. Kurrat Prof. Grossmann

Prof. Brsch

Technology Survey
100

10

HVDC
UHV

Capacity in GW

765kV 400/500kV

1200kV

0.1

Subtransmission

0.01

Smartgrids
0.001 1 10

HVDC - Smart
100 1000 10000

Transmission Distance in km

Reseach & Development


R&D: New Design Tools (FEM)

Reseach & Development


R&D : FEM/BEM Tools

Reseach & Development


R&D on Field Calculations (HSU Hamburg)

Reseach & Development


R&D: New Design Tools (STRI Insulator Selection Tool IST)

HVAC HVDC
AC/DC Solid Layer AC / KIPTS

Reseach & Development

AC KIPTS Natural Pollution Performance 123kV


1,7 1,6 1,5

Glass Antifog 33mm/kV

1,4 1,3 1,2 1,1 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,001
1,1

0,01

0,1

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)


30 1,0

Rodurflex 31mm/kV

28 26 24

0,9

0,8

22 20 18

0,7

0,6 16 0,5 14 12 0,001 0,01 0,1 1

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

Insulation Length (m)

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

1,8

48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14

Insulation Length (m)

AC KIPTS Natural Pollution Performance 245kV


3,4 3,2 3,0

Insulation Length (m)

Glass Antifog 29mm/kV

2,8 2,6 2,4 2,2 2,0 1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 1,0 0,001 2,2 2,1 2,0 1,9 0,01 0,1 1

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)


30

Insulation Length (m)

1,8 1,7 1,6 1,5 1,4 1,3 1,2 1,1 1,0 0,9 0,001

Rodurflex 31mm/kV

28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12

0,01

0,1

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

3,6

48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14

AC KIPTS Natural Pollution Performance 420kV


6,0 5,5 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 0,1 1

Insulation Length (m)

5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 3,0 2,5 2,0 0,001

Glass Antifog 25mm/kV

0,01

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)


3,6 3,4 30 28 26

Insulation Length (m)

3,2 3,0 2,8 2,6 2,4 2,2 2,0 1,8

Rodurflex 25mm/kV

24 22 20 18 16 14

1,6 12 0,001 0,01 0,1 1

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

3,8

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

AC KIPTS Natural Pollution Performance 550kV


7,5 7,0

Insulation Length (m)

6,5 6,0 5,5 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 3,0 2,5 0,001

Glass Antifog 26mm/kV

0,01

0,1

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)


5,0 4,8 4,6 4,4 28 26 4,2 4,0 3,8 3,6 3,4 3,2 3,0 2,8 2,6 2,4 2,2 2,0 0,001 0,01 0,1 1 14 12 18 16 30

Rodurflex 28mm/kV

24 22 20

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

Insulation Length (m)

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

8,0

48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14

AC KIPTS Natural Pollution Performance 765/800kV


12,0 11,5 11,0 10,5 10,0 9,5 9,0 8,5 8,0 7,5 7,0 6,5 6,0 5,5 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 0,001 0,01 0,1 1 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14

Insulation Length (m)

Glass Antifog 24mm/kV

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)


7,0 6,5 30 28

Insulation Length (m)

6,0 5,5 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5

Rodurflex 24mm/kV

26 24 22 20 18 16 14

3,0 12 0,001 0,01 0,1 1

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

Reseach & Development 800kV Design for Pollution


12,0 11,0

Insulation Length (m)

Disk String: Heavy: 9.0 m

10,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 3,0 0,001


6,2 6,0 5,8 5,6 5,4 5,2 5,0 4,8 4,6 4,4 4,2 4,0 3,8 3,6 3,4 3,2 3,0 2,8 2,6 0,001

Very Heavy: 12.0 m

0,01

0,1

1
28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)

Heavy: Very Heavy:

5.0 m 5.9 m

Insulation Length (m)

RODURFLEX String:

Very Light

Light

Medium

Heavy

Very Heavy

15 14 13 12

0,01

0,1

Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm)

RODURFLEX - IST

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem)

Required Insulation Length:

13,0

42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8

Research & Development

Materials Functional Properties


Electrical Field Control (Vars, BaTiO3)

Reseach & Development Mikro Varistors

Research & Development Mikro Varistors

Resistance

Voltage

Reseach & Development Varistors Field Control


(prevent so called dry band arcing)

Water Film ARC

varistor filled Silicon Current Flow through Insulating Material

Discharge free Insulators

Reseach & Development Varistors Field Control


Black=Vars applied to sheds (patent PCT/EP2009/000983), owner Lapp

Reseach & Development Varistors Field Control

Reseach & Development Varistors Field Control

Normal Insulator

Varistor Controlled Insulator

Reseach & Development Varistors Field Control


1 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6

Linear (A-B: 2915mm) "Referenz 3 x LG 75/22/1270 (A-B: 3215mm)) Lichtbogenzwischenarmaturen

U(x)/Uo

0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 500 1000 1500

1 x CS160 30/65(134)3000 (A-B: 2600mm)

xA-B

2000

2500

3000

mm

3500