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(Was Non-linear signal processing in biomedicine)

Introduction

Lucas C. Parra Biomedical Engineering Department City College of New York

CCNY

We will cover basic principles of signals processing. We will emphasize examples and focus on electrical signals generated by the biological systems (biopotentials). We will introduce concepts from: filter theory statistical processes pattern recognition information theory probabilistic modeling Neurophysiology MATLAB Prerequisite: linear algebra, some programing language, complex variables. Literature

Eugene N. Bruce, Biomedical Signal Processing and Signal Modeling, John Wiley & Sons, 2000

Schedule

Week 1: Introduction Linear, stationary, normal - the stuff biology is not made of. Week 1-4: Linear systems (mostly discrete time) Impulse response Moving Average and Auto Regressive filters Convolution Discrete Fourier transform and z-transform Week 5-7: Random variables and stochastic processes Random variables Multivariate distributions Statistical independence Week 9-14: Examples of biomedical signal processing Probabilistic estimation Linear discriminants - detection of motor activity from MEG Harmonic analysis - estimation of hart rate in Speech Auto-regressive model - estimation of the spectrum of 'thoughts' in EEG Independent components analysis - analysis of MEG signals Klaman Filtering motion estimation

Schedule

Week 1: Introduction Linear, stationary, normal - the stuff biology is not made of. Week 1-4: Linear systems (mostly discrete time) Impulse response Moving Average and Auto Regressive filters Convolution Discrete Fourier transform and z-transform Week 5-7: Random variables and stochastic processes Random variables Multivariate distributions Statistical independence Week 8: Electrophysiology Origin and interpretation of Biopotentials Week 9-14: Examples of biomedical signal processing Probabilistic estimation Linear discriminants - detection of motor activity from MEG Harmonic analysis - estimation of hart rate in Speech Auto-regressive model - estimation of the spectrum of 'thoughts' in EEG Independent components analysis - analysis of MEG signals

Biomedical Signal Processing -Signal processing and statistical modeling methods useful when analysing biomedical signals, e.g.

Electro and Magneto Encephalography Electro Myograms and Cardiograms Circadian rhythm in body temperature Spike trains Speech ...

Linear transformation y = L[a]:

Physics often calls for linear combination of signals: Mass, force, energy Concentrations in solutions. Electrical and magnetic fields. Intensity of incoherent electromagnetic radiation (X-ray, visible light, radio-waves) Amplitude of acoustic signal. .... Lets look for example at EEG >> load eeg.mat

Example: We record frontal EEG electrode y(t). It will be contaminated with eye muscle activity. Assume eye muscle activity generates electrical source signal, x1(t), and some other frontal brain activity gives source, x2(t). Physics tells us that electrical potentials add up linearly:

y ( t )=[ a b ] x1 ( t ) x 2( t )

[ ]

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where [a b] represent the coupling coefficients for eye muscle and frontal activity respectively.

y (t )a x 1 (t )=b x 2 ( t )

Linearity is crucial because given an estimate of x1(t) and a for example from an electro-oculogram (EOG) we can subtract its influence on y(t):

>> plot([-x(1,:); x(8,:); x(2,:)]')

a x1 x1

>> plot(-x(1,:),x(8,:))

>> plot(-x(1,:),x(2,:))

Note that non-linearity can often be identified even in a 1D signal by it's harmonic distortions.

Harmonic distortion

>> psd(sin(x))

>> psd(atan(sin(x)) 9

Harmonic distortion explained ... For example distortion of quadratic nonlinearity leads to frequency doubling: Cubic leads triple frequencies:

x ( t )=sin ( t )

1 1 y ( t )= x ( t )=sin ( t )= cos ( 2 t ) 2 2 3 1 3 y ( t )=sin ( t )= sin ( t ) sin ( 3 t ) 4 4

2 2

y = f ( x )=

n= 0

1 f ( x) n ! xn

x

x =0

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Often 'normal' distributions are assumed, i.e. Samples are Gaussian distributed. Important because of many nice properties of the Gaussian probability density function (pdf):

1 x p ( x )= exp 2 2 2

( )

>> hist(randn(1000,1))

Convolution of Gaussian remains Gaussian Product of Gaussian remains Gaussian Parameter easy to estimate. Leads to least squares optimization criteria Sums of many random variables converges to Gaussian, e.g. Brownian motion

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Unfortunately many natural signals are NOT Gaussian.

On the left is an example of Tongue electro-myogram (EMG):

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The property of heteroscedastisity is often used in the context of financial time series. e.g. NY stock exchange index. It states that the signal is short term Gaussian with time varying standard deviation.

13

There are many non-stationary signals that can be explained in first approximation as heteroscedastic. In multiple dimensions these signals are also known as spherical invariant random processes.

Image features MEG activity Speech amplitudes NY stock variation

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Many natural signals are not stationary, and not normal, and many systems are not linear. Analysis and signal processing is OFTEN EASIER if one can assume stationary, normal signals and linear systems. It is important to identify the nature of the signals and possibly apply preprocessing to make the assumptions simpler. Non-linearity may be identified simply by looking at scatter plots, or harmonic distortions if a strong oscillation is present (often 60Hz). Non-Gaussian properties can be identified by looking at histogram. We will use cummulants to asses 'normality' quantitatively.

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Grading

Assignment 1: Reproduce the four figures on slides 8, 9, 11, 12 from the raw data. Use the files eeg.mat and tongemg.mat. For help on MATLAB run >> demo >> help Useful functions >> lookfor >> whos

In particular, if you are new to matlab, please make substantial time available to run the demo programs which are a very good introduction to matlab: basic matrix operations, line plotting, matrix manipulations, 2-D plots, matlab language introduction, axis properties, graphs and matrices, and maybe some of the desktop environment demos as you see fit.

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Grading

Good News - No final nor midterm exam! Bad News - Assignments: 1. MATLAB programing Turn in next week my email Needs to run correctly 75% of the time for passing. Needs to run perfectly 100% for the time for A+. May have pop quizzes to test undisclosed collaborations. 2. Proofs Turn in next week Easy, just to exercise the notation 3. Reading Understand the subject and cover gaps 4. May have pop quizzes on reading and programming assignments.

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Programming Assignments

If you copy code you will fail the course. Assignments due in one weeks time. Submit per email before class. Submit single executable file called: first_last_number.m, all lower case e.g. john_smith_3.m for John's 3rd assignment. No figures, no text files, nothing except executable code. Your program must load all required data. Assume that data files are in current directory. All required data will be posted on the web. Include 'clear all, close all' at the beginning of all programs. Do not use upper case letters for commands, e.g. Use axis() instead of 'AXIS()'. They may work for you but they don't work for me! If you had help during your work, you MUST name your partner. "Similar" submission are easy to spot. Undisclosed collaborations receive 0 credit. The criteria for full credit should be clear. If not, please ask in class. Do not take chances by assuming that your work is "sort of correct".

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