Interface To MD Nastran
Preference Guide
Volume 2: Thermal Analysis
Main Index
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Main Index
Contents
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Patran Interface to
Nastran Thermal,
1 Overview
Introduction 2
Using this Guide 3
Thermal Analysis 11
SteadyState Analysis 11
Initial Conditions in SteadyState Analysis 12
Transient Analysis 13
Initial Conditions in Transient Analysis 13
SteadyState and Transient Convergence Criteria 14
References 15
Objectives 19
Start Patran 21
Main Index
ii Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Create a Database 22
3 Building A Model
Introduction 46
Finite Elements 47
Nodes 47
Finite Elements 49
MultiPoint Constraints 50
Coordinate Frames 51
Material Library 52
Materials Form 53
Constitutive Models 55
Solid Properties 56
Fluid Properties 56
Phase Changes 56
Heat Generation1 56
Main Index
CONTENTS iii
Main Index
iv Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases 121
Subcase Parameters 123
SteadyState Subcase 123
Thermal Contact Table 126
Transient Subcase Parameters 128
Structural Heat Subcase Parameters 130
Output Requests 130
Direct Text Input 133
Main Index
CONTENTS v
7 Example Problems
Overview 174
Main Index
vi Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
A Files
Files 332
B Error Messages
Error Messages 334
C Supported Commands
File Management Statements 336
Main Index
CONTENTS vii
Main Index
viii Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Overview
1
J
Introduction 2
J
Using this Guide 3
J
Thermal Material Properties 5
J
Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions 7
J
Thermal Analysis 11
J
References 15
Main Index
2 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Introduction
1.1 Introduction
The Patran MD Nastran Heat Transfer Preference supports the full range of thermal analysis capabilities
available within MD Nastran. These capabilities include:
• conduction in one, two, and three dimensions
• fundamental convection
• one dimensional advection
• radiant exchange with space
• radiant exchange in enclosures
• specified temperatures
• surface and volumetric heat loads
• elements of thermal control systems
• contact conduction
MD Nastran can span the full range of thermal analysis from systemlevel analysis of global energy
balances to the detailed analysis associated with temperature and thermal stress limit levels. Within the
integrated PatranMD Nastran environment, you can simulate linear, nonlinear, steadystate, and
transient thermal behavior. You can apply loads and boundary conditions either on the model’s geometry
or on its finite element entities. MD Nastran’s sophisticated solution strategy automatically addresses the
existence and extent of nonlinear behavior and adjusts the solution process accordingly.
Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 3
Using this Guide
Running a Thermal Analysis (Ch. 4), describes how to select steadystate or transient analysis solution
types, define solution and subcase input data, select load cases, and submit the MD Nastran analysis job.
Results Processing and Visualization (Ch. 5), describes how to retrieve MD Nastran thermal analysis
results into the Patran database. This chapter also summarizes the options for sorting and graphically
rendering analysis results as contour or XY plots.
Example Problems (Ch. 7), presents more advanced engineering problems covering the following
applications:
• Transient thermal analysis (using the same flat plate model, plate.db, created in Getting
Started  A Guided Exercise (Ch. 2))
• Free convection on a printed circuit board
• Forced air convection on a printed circuit board
• Thermal contact resistance
• Typical avionics flow
• Radiation enclosures
• Axisymmetric flow in a pipe
• Directional heat loads
Main Index
4 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Using this Guide
Files (App. A), describes the files created when using the Patran MD Nastran thermal preference product.
Supported Commands (App. C) describes the MD Nastran input data used “behind the scenes,” including
File Management Statements, Executive Control Statements, Case Control Commands, and Bulk Data
Entries.
Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 5
Thermal Material Properties
Conductivity
Thermal conductivity is an intrinsic property of all materials and in the absence of any other mode of heat
transfer, provides the proportionality constant between the flow of heat through a region and the
temperature gradient maintained across the region (Fourier’s Law). Thermal conductivity is generally a
mild function of temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature for solids and generally increasing
with increasing temperature for liquids and gases. Additionally, within a solid, thermal conductivity can
vary due to material orientation (anisotropy). Preferential paths for heat flow can result. MD Nastran
allows for temperaturedependent and directionally dependent thermal conductivity.
Density
For the purpose of conserving mass, the density cannot be allowed to vary with temperature. Since grid
points are fixed in space in MD Nastran thermal analysis, if the density were to change with temperature,
Density*Volume would also be changing, thus altering the system mass.
Main Index
6 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Thermal Material Properties
Table 11 provides several sets of consistent units which may be used by MD Nastran for the various
material properties.
Table 11 Typical Units for Thermal Material Properties
Table 12 Thermal Table 13 W Table 14 Btu/h
Conductivity / rft
o
m F

o
C
Table 15 Specific Heat Table 16 J/ Table 17 Btu/l
k bm
oF
g
o
C
Table 18 Density Table 19 k Table 110 lbm/ft
3
g/
m
3
Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 7
Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions
Table 120 Typical Units for Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions
o o o
Table 121 Temperature Table 122 C Table 123 F R
o
K
Table 124 Normal Heat Flux Table 125 W/m Table 126 Btu/hrft2
2
Table 127 Directional Heat Flux Table 128 W/m Table 129 Btu/hrft2
2
Table 136 Convection Heat Flow Table 137 W/m Table 138 Btu/hrft2
2
Table 139 Advection Heat Flow Table 140 W Table 141 Btu/hr
Table 142 Convection Heat Transfer Table 143 W/m Table 144 Btu/hrft2
Coefficient 2oC oF
Table 145 Radiation to Space Table 146 W/m Table 147 Btu/hrft2
2
Table 148 Radiation Enclosure Table 149 W/m Table 150 Btu/hrft2
2
Note: Note: When applying flux type loads or boundary conditions to nodal points, the units will still be those
flux, i.e., loads per unit area. Patran’s input data forms for thermal loads and boundary conditions
require you to specify an associated nodal area.
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8 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions
The absorptivity can be dependent on temperature. The magnitude and components of the heat flux can
be defined as constant, spatial varying, or time varying.
Nodal Source
Heat can be applied directly on nodal points (or “grid points” in MD Nastran terminology). Nodal source
heat can be defined as constant, spatially varying in a global sense, or time varying.
Basic Convection
Basic convection boundaries can be defined. The approach to basic convection heat transfer in MD
Nastran is to define the basic convection via a heat transfer coefficient and associated ambient
temperature. The film coefficient is user specified and is available from a number of sources, including
Reference 1. (p. 14). The film coefficient can be defined as a function of temperature; the ambient
temperature can be defined as a function of time.
Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 9
Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions
The calculation of the heat transfer coefficient between the fluid and the adjoining wall requires the
specification of a film temperature. By default, this temperature will be internally calculated as the
average of the temperatures of the fluid and the adjoining wall.
Additional forced convection inputs consist of the type of convection relationship used to calculate the
energy transport and the method of calculating the heat transfer coefficient at the tube wall.
There are two choices with respect to the energy transport. The default method includes advection and
streamwise diffusion, and its theoretical basis is the StreamwiseUpwind PetrovGalerkin method, or
SUPG.
There are also two choices for picking the method for calculating the heat transfer coefficient that applies
between the fluid and the adjacent wall. The default method uses the following equation:
Expr Expp
h = Coef • Re • Pr (11)
The second method, chosen by picking the alternate formulation option, uses the following equation:
h =  • Coef • Re
k Expr Expp
• Pr (12)
d
h = =the heat transfer coefficient between the fluid and the adjacent wall (internally
calculated)
Coef = =a constant coefficient
Re = =the Reynolds number based on the diameter (internally calculated)
Pr = =the Prandtl number (internally calculated)
Expr = =the Reynolds number convection exponent
Expp = =the Prandtl number convection exponent
k = =the fluid conductivity
d = =the tube diameter
Radiation to Space
Radiation to space is a boundary condition that defines radiant exchange between a surface and
blackbody space. The inputs required for radiation to space are the absorptivity and emissivity of the
surface, the ambient temperature of space, and the radiation view factor between the surface and space
(usually equal to 1.0). The absorptivity and emissivity can both be temperature dependent. The ambient
temperature can vary with time. The exchange relationship is defined to be:
4 4
q = σ • View fac • ( ε e T e – α e T amb ) (13)
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10 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions
Calculation of radiation exchange requires that the temperatures be defined on an absolute scale (Kelvin
or Rankine). If the temperatures input in a problem involving radiation are either Celsius or Fahrenheit,
an internal conversion can be defined.
Radiation Enclosures
Radiation Enclosure exchange is similar to the Radiation to Space boundary condition; however, this type
of boundary condition takes into account the radiation exchange between discrete surfaces. As a result,
subsequent to building a finite element mesh, the geometric relationship (view factor) between individual
finite element surfaces must be determined. For enclosure radiation the view factors between surfaces are
internally calculated. Also, for enclosure radiation, the absorptivity is taken as being equal to the
emissivity (Kirchhoff’s Identity).
Calculation of the radiation view factors can be the most computationally intensive operation in heat
transfer analysis. MD Nastran has implemented a unique set of algorithms for solving this problem which
provides for both reasonable performance while maintaining an accurate calculation. To help facilitate
this calculation, the Can Shade and Can Be Shaded options have been added for those situations where
the shading is known. These options can help reduce the calculation time for radiation enclosures. Patran
also allows you to define multiple radiation enclosures. The view factors within each Radiation
Enclosure will be independently calculated from the view factors of the other enclosures.
In general, good view factor calculations require a reasonable surface mesh. Since the accuracy of the
view factors tends to decrease as the distance between elements is reduced and becomes on the order of
the element size, a mesh which prevents this sizing issue is recommended and is generally not too
restrictive.
Contact Conduction
If contact bodies are present in the model for a SOL 153, 159 or 600 analysis heat transfer will occur
between the contact bodies based on the properties defined on the contact bodies or via the contact table
accessible from the subcase parameters for. as the bodies get closer the contact changes from radiation to
convection to conduction. See the MSC Nastran Quick Reference Guide for more information.
Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 11
Thermal Analysis
SteadyState Analysis
The most general form of the steadystate heat balance equation is as follows:
4
[ K ] { u } + [ ℜ ] { u + T abs } = { P } + { N } (14)
This equation is inherently nonlinear due to the presence of the fourth power law radiation term. In
addition to the radiation term, many other nonlinearities may be introduced into this equation through the
coefficient matrices and boundary condition terms. Specifically, nonlinearities are introduced by
specifying the material properties and boundary conditions as temperature dependent as discussed in the
Thermal Material Properties, 5 and Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions, 7.
MD Nastran applies a NewtonRaphson iteration scheme for the solution of these nonlinear equations.
This process leads to the following form of the heat balance equation:
i i i
[ KT ] { ∆ u } = { R } (15)
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12 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Thermal Analysis
[ KT ]
i = =the tangential conductance matrix
i
i i i i 3 δN
= { ∆ u } ≅ [ K ] + 4 [ R ] { u + T a b s } – 
δu
{R}
i = =the residual vector
At each iteration, the lefthand side matrix and the righthand side vector are computed based on the
i i
temperature from the previous iteration (u ) . By solving for the unknown vector (∆u ) , the new
i+1
temperatures (u ) can be determined:
i i+1 i
{∆u} = {u –u} (16)
or
i+1 i
{u} = {∆u} + {u} (17)
Because of the expense of performing matrix decompositions, MD Nastran recalculates the residual
vector at each iteration, but only recalculates the tangent matrix when convergence is illusive or if it will
lead to improvement in the iteration efficiency. MD Nastran will attempt to achieve an optimum
converged solution by balancing various solution aspects such as: load bisection, residual updates,
tangent matrix updates, line searches, and BFGS updates. Further description of the methods employed
can be found in Reference 2. (p. 14).
For steadystate analysis, the defaults for controlling the nonlinear solution should be sufficient for most
problems. For those problems where additional control is required, the convergence tolerances for
Temperature, Load, and Work can be overridden. See SteadyState and Transient Convergence Criteria,
14 for more information.
Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 13
Thermal Analysis
Transient Analysis
The most general form of the transient heat balance equation is:
4
[ B ] { u· } + [ K ] { u } + [ ℜ ] { u + T abs } = { P } + { N } (18)
where, in addition to the terms already defined in the steadystate equation, we have:
[B] = the heat capacity matrix. (19)
du
u· =  (110)
dt
Because of its transient behavior, this equation must be integrated over time. The numerical method
implemented for performing the time integration is Newmark’s method. As in the steadystate case, this
equation also can be extensively nonlinear due to radiation and temperaturedependent material
properties and boundary conditions. As a result, nonlinear iterations are also required for the solution of
this equation. The iteration is performed within each time step until a converged solution for that time
step is achieved (see Reference 2. (p. 14) for more details).
Transient analysis requires specifying the total solution time. Solution time is defined by the initial time
step size and total number of time steps requested. The total solution time is determined from their
product. Because MD Nastran employs an automatic time stepping scheme (i.e., the time step is varied
by the solver as the solution progresses), the actual number of time steps used may ultimately be quite
different from the input request. In any event, the total amount of solution time will be approximately
equal to the initially calculated product within some small tolerance of the last time step size. The
advantage of using the adaptive time step algorithm is the potential for significantly reduced run times.
To avoid inaccurate results or unstable solutions, the proper choice of the initial time step is required. A
responsible initial time step is dependent on a number of factors, including the spatial size of the element
mesh and the thermal diffusivity of the material. The selection criteria is:
1 ρ ⋅ Cp
∆ t 0 ≅  ⋅ ∆ x 2 ⋅  (111)
10 k
Main Index
14 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Thermal Analysis
defined will automatically have a temperature of 0.0 assigned to it. This default temperature can be
changed in the Solution Parameters form for the given application, either steadystate or transient
analysis.
Caution must be exercised when specifying initial conditions relative to any specified temperatures
defined via a boundary condition. The initial condition temperature for these nodal points must match the
(Implicit and Explicit) boundary condition temperature at time equal to zero. Failure to match these
temperatures will cause an initial jump in the solution that can make convergence difficult to achieve.
Fortunately, the default analysis setup will automatically enforce these temperatures to be equal at the
start of the problem.
Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 15
References
1.6 References
1. Holman, J. P., Heat Transfer, Sixth Edition, McGrawHill Book Company, 1986.
2. Chainyk, Mike, MSC/NASTRAN Thermal Analysis User’s Guide, Version 68, The MacNeal
Schwendler Corporation, 1994.
3. Peterson, Ken (ed.), MSC/NASTRAN Encyclopedia, Online Documentation CDROM, The
MacNealSchwendler Corporation, 1995.
Main Index
16 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
References
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Main Index
18 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Introduction
2.1 Introduction
This guided exercise shows you in stepbystep fashion the basics of MD Nastran thermal modeling,
analysis, and results visualization using Patran. By intention, the geometry is simple, as are the applied
loads and boundary conditions. We will create the geometry for a rectangular metal plate, mesh it with
quadrilateral elements, specify material and element properties, apply thermal loads and boundary
conditions, run a steadystate thermal analysis to determine temperature distributions, and visualize the
results using Patran’s postprocessor.
Before attempting this exercise, please complete the guided tour provided at the top of the Patran online
help system. It gives you an overview of the Patran user interface, including the layout of the main form,
the various application selections, the use of menus and forms, mouse picking, and basic modeling
operations. Although the menu options for thermal analysis differ from those for structural analysis,
Patran has a common lookandfeel across both disciplines.
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 19
Objectives
2.2 Objectives
The objectives in this exercise are to:
• Create a new database defined for MD Nastran thermal analysis.
• Define geometry for a rectangular plate.
• Mesh the structure with quadrilateral elements.
• Modify the mesh.
• Define the plate’s material as aluminum. Specify a thermal conductivity of 204 W/moC, specific
heat of 896 J/kgoC, and a density of 2707 kg/m3.
• Define the plate’s thickness to be 0.1 m.
• Clean up the display.
• Apply heat flux of 5000 W/m2 to the right edge of the plate.
• Apply to the left edge of the surface a convection boundary condition with heat transfer
coefficient of 10.0 W/m2oC and ambient temperature of 20 oC.
• Perform a steadystate thermal analysis using MD Nastran within the Patran system.
Main Index
20 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Objectives
1m
Aluminum Plate
K = 204 W/moC
Cp = 896 J/kgoC
ρ = 2707 kg/m3
h = 10.0 W/m2oC
3m q = 5000.0 W/m2
Tamb = 20.0 oC
Thickness = 0.1 m
T = 50 oC
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 21
Start Patran
Main Index
22 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Create a Database
Patran
File Group Viewport Viewing Display Preferences Tools Help
File
© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY
New...Ctrl N
Open... Ctrl O
Close Ctrl W
$#Save
Session file patran.ses.01
Ctrl S started recording at 25
$#Save
Recorded by
a Copy Patran 03:36:58 PM
$# FLEXlm Initialization complete. Acquiring license(s)...
s
Utilities
hp, 2
Import...
Export...
Session
s
Print...
Report...
Quit Ctrl Q
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 23
Create a Database
New Database
Template Database Name
/patran/patran3/template.db
New Database Name Change Template ... NOTE: If only the MD Nastran
Preference is accessed by the
model, the
Modify Preferences... mscnastran_template.db
can be used as template database
to save disk space.
Filter
/tmp/*.db
Apply Filter Cancel
Directories Database List
/tmp/. mdl.db
/tmp/..
Main Index
24 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Create a Database
The New Model Preferences form will appear, which will display MD Nastran as the default analysis
solver.
Tolerance
u Based on Model
uu Default
Approximate Maximum
Model Dimension:
10.0
Analysis Code:
MD Nastran
Analysis Type:
Thermal STEP 3: Toggle the Analysis Type
setting to Thermal.
OK Reset
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 25
Create a Rectangular Geometric Surface
Geometry
Action: Create
Object: Surface STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action:Create
Object:Surface
Method: XYZ Method:XYZ
Surface ID List
Surface Type
Auto Execute
[0 0 0]
Apply
Y
Z X
Main Index
26 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Mesh the Surface with Elements
Finite Elements
Action: Create
Object: Mesh STEP 1: Toggle the Object setting to Mesh.
Type: Surface
Output Ids
The Global Edge Length is 0.1, which is the default setting. We
Node Id List will leave this value as is for now. (We will change it later, after
1 we mesh the surface.) The global edge length specifies the
physical length of each element. If you are making 10 elements
to comprise 1 unit (for example, 1 m) in length, you would
Element Id List specify an edge length of 0.1 to create 300 elements.
1
Element Topology
Quad4
Quad5
STEP 2: Click inside the databox under the heading Surface
Quad8 List. You can now use the mouse to click on the actual surface
you want to mesh. Click anywhere on the surface we have
made.
Mesher
u IsoMesh uu Paver
IsoMesh Parameters...
Surface List
Surface 1
Y
Z X
Apply
STEP 3: Click on Apply. A mesh of 300 quadrilateral elements will be generated on the surface with elements
automatically numbered.
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 27
Modify the Mesh (Reduce the Number of Elements)
Table 21 STEP 1: Click on the erasure icon at the top right corner of the Patran main form. The word undo will
appear, and Patran will automatically delete the created mesh (the last specified action).
STEP 2: Click on the paintbrush icon. The words Refresh Graphics will appear, and the geometric
surface will be regenerated exactly as it appeared before we applied the mesh.
Main Index
28 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Modify the Mesh (Reduce the Number of Elements)
Output IDs
Node ID List
1
Element ID List
1 STEP 3: Note that the Finite Elements form is still
visible. Change the Global Edge Length from 0.1 to 0.2.
This will create elements of 0.2 units (meters) in length,
Global Edge Length which will result in a coarser mesh of 75 quadrilateral
elements. Click on Apply.
0.2
Y
Z X
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 29
Specify Material Properties
Materials
Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input
Input Options
Main Index
30 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Assign Element Properties
Element Properties
STEP 1: Click inside the Property Set Name databox. Type in the name
Action: Create plate.
Dimension: 2D
Type: Shell
STEP 2: Click on Input Properties.
Existing Property Sets
STEP 3: The Input Properties form appears. The
word alum will appear within the Material Property
Sets listbox. Click on this word. The Material
Name databox will now appear as m:alum.
Property Set Name
plate
STEP 4: Type in 0.1 in the Thickness databox.
Input Properties
Stan. Homogeneous Plate(CQUAD4)
Property Name Value Value Type
Input Properties ...
Add Remove
Application Region
Surface 1
STEP 6: From the Element Properties form, click on the Select Members databox. Patran will display two
icons to the left of the Element Properties form. The first icon represents surface or face; the second
represents 2D element. The two options allow you to apply properties either on the geometric entity (in
this case, the surface) or on the finite elements.
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 31
Assign Element Properties
STEP 7: We will apply properties directly on the geometry. Pick the top icon; it will
turn black when you pick it.
Application Region
Select Members
Surface 1 STEP 8: Now click anywhere on
the geometric surface. The
surface will be highlighted in red.
The Select Members databox will
Add Remove now appear as Surface 1.
Application Region
Main Index
32 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Define the Temperature at the Plate’s Bottom Edge
Action: Create
STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action:Create
Object: Temp (Thermal) Object:Temp (Thermal)
Type:Nodal
Type: Nodal
Default...
Type: Static
Existing Sets
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 33
Define the Temperature at the Plate’s Bottom Edge
Application Region
Select Geometry Entities
Surface 1.4 STEP 9: With your mouse, position the cursor on the bottom
edge of the surface. Click on the edge. You will see Surface 1.4
appear in the Select Geometry Entities databox. This means we
have selected Edge number 4 in Surface number 1.
Add Remove
Application Region
OK
STEP 11: Click on OK. You must also click on Apply located on the
Loads/Boundary Conditions form.
Note: A label on the bottom of your model will appear showing a boundary condition of
50 oC applied to the desired edge of the surface.
Main Index
34 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Apply Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge
Load/Boundary Conditions
Action: Create
Default...
Type: Static
Existing Sets
Apply
STEP 4: Click on the Input Data button. The Input Data form
will appear.
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 35
Apply Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge
Input Data
Spatial Fields
Reset
OK Cancel
Next, click on Select Application Region located on the Loads/Boundary Conditions form.
Main Index
36 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Apply Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge
STEP 8: Two icon choices will appear, Surface and Edge. Click on
the bottom icon, Edge.
Geometry Filter
u Geometry
uu
FEM
Add Remove
Application Region
STEP 10:
Click on Add.
Y
Z X 50.00 50.005000.
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 37
Apply Convection to the Plate’s Left Edge
Load/Boundary Conditions
Action: Create
Option: To Ambient
Default...
Type: Static
Existing Sets
Target Element Type: 2D STEP 3: Toggle the Target Element Type setting to 2D.
Input Data... STEP 4: Click on the Input Data button. The Input
. Data form will appear.
Select Application Region..
Apply
Main Index
38 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Apply Convection to the Plate’s Left Edge
Input Data
STEP 6: Click inside the Edge Surface Option: Edge Form Type: Basic
Convection Coef databox and
type in 10. Edge Convection Coef * Temperature Function
10
Ambient Temperature
STEP 7: Type in an 20
Ambient Temperature of
20.
Next, click on Select Application Region located on the Loads/Boundary Conditions form.
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 39
Apply Convection to the Plate’s Left Edge
STEP 9: Two icon choices will appear, Surface and Edge. Click on the bottom icon,
Edge.
Geometry Filter
u Geometry
uu
FEM
Add Remove
STEP 11:
Click on Add. Application Region
10.00 5000.
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40 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Perform a SteadyState Thermal Analysis
Analysis
Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action:Analyze
Method: Full Run Object:Entire Model
Method:Full Run
Note: The Full Run Method will run the job in the
Code: MD Nastran background. If Method is changed to Analysis
Deck, Patran will translate the MD Nastran input file
Type: Thermal but will not run the job.
Available Jobs
plate
Job Name
STEP 2: Make sure that the Job Name setting is plate.
plate
Job Description
Translation Parameters...
Note: In the background, Patran will submit the needed
input data information to the MD Nastran solver. The
Solution Type... heartbeat icon at the top right of Patran main form will
turn blue, indicating that Patran’s forward translator and
MD Nastran are active in the background. (In your
Direct Text Input... XTERM windows, from which you launched Patran, you
can similarly note a message indicating that MD
Nastran has been executed.) When the analysis is
Subcase Create... completed, you are ready to visualize the results.
Subcase Select...
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 41
Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot)
Analysis
Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action:Read Output2
Method: Translate Object:Result Entities
Method:Translate
Code: MD Nastran
Type: Thermal
Available Jobs
plate
Job Name
STEP 2: Make sure that the Job Name setting is
plate plate.
Job Description
Translation Parameters...
STEP 3: Click on the Select Results File button. A
new form will appear called Select File that lists all
Select Results File... the available output2 files. (Note that these files all
have the extension .op2).
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42 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot)
When the heartbeat becomes green again, click on the Results application selection located on the Patran
main form. The Results Display form will appear.
Results
Action: Create
Quantity: Magnitude
Animate
STEP 3: Click on Apply.
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started  A Guided Exercise 43
Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot)
Select the Save and Close operations from the File menu to save your plate.db file. We will perform
a transient thermal analysis on this model in Example Problems (Ch. 7).
You have now learned the basics of steadystate thermal analysis using Patran and MD Nastran. Example
1  Transient Thermal Analysis (Ch. 7) builds on this example. The remaining examples in Example
Problems (Ch. 7) describe more advanced applications.
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44 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot)
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Building A Model
3
J
Introduction 46
J
Finite Elements 47
J
Coordinate Frames 51
J
Material Library 52
J
Finite Element Properties 57
J
Loads and Boundary Conditions 66
J
Load Cases 101
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46 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Introduction
3.1 Introduction
Building a model for heat transfer analysis can be divided into several steps:
Import or create the You can either import the geometry for your model from a CAD definition or
geometry create it within Patran. For a complete description of this process, see Patran
Reference Manual, Part 2: Geometry Modeling.
Define the finite element The objective of this step is to subdivide the geometry into nodes and elements.
mesh Temperatures are calculated at the nodal points in the analysis. Heat conduction
takes place within the elements. This step is described briefly in Finite Elements,
47. For more complete information, see Patran Reference Manual, Part 3:
Finite Element Modeling.
Define material properties In a steadystate conduction analysis, the thermal conductivity of one or more
materials must be defined. In a transient analysis, the specific heat and density of
the materials must also be defined. Sophisticated analyses may also require latent
heat or fluid viscosity to be defined. This step is described in Material Library, 52.
Define element properties The elements that define the heat conduction paths in the body can be
characterized geometrically as 1D, 2D, 3D, or axisymmetric. All elements have
associated material properties. In addition, onedimensional elements must have
their crosssectional properties defined, and shell elements must have their
thickness defined. This step is described in Finite Element Properties, 57.
Define loads and boundary Defining loads and boundary conditions is often the most difficult step in building
conditions a model for thermal analysis. In a steadystate analysis, fixed temperatures can be
specified at any nodal points in the model. This applies to structural nodal points
as well as ambient nodal points. In a transient analysis, temperatures specified on
nodal points may be fixed or time varying.
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 47
Finite Elements
Patran
© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY
For more information on how to create finite element meshes, see Mesh Seed and Mesh Forms (p. 25)
in the Reference Manual  Part III. For information on the concepts of multipoint constraints, see the
Patran Thermal User’s Guide, Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis.
Nodes
Nodes in Patran will translate into unique GRID Bulk Data entries in MD Nastran. Nodes can be created
either directly using the Node object, or indirectly using the Mesh object. Each node has associated
Reference (CP) and Analysis (CD) coordinate frames. The ID is taken directly from the assigned node
ID. The X1, X2, and X3 fields (Node Location List) are defined in the specified CP coordinate frame. If
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48 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Elements
no reference frame is assigned, the global system is used. The PS and SEID fields on the translated GRID
entry are left blank.
Finite Elements
Action: Create
Object: Node
Method: Edit
Node ID List
1
Coord 0
The analysis frame (CD of the GRID) is the ID of the
which the loads and boundary conditions are define
Refer. Coordinate Frame reference coordinate system for any output in vecto
temperature gradients and heat fluxes.
The coordinate system in which the node location is
Coord 0 GRID) can be the reference coordinate frame, the a
frame, or a global reference (blank), depending on
forward translation parameter “Node Coordinates.”
Auto Execute
(0 0 0)
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 49
Finite Elements
Finite Elements
The Finite Elements application in Patran assigns element connectivity, such as Quad/4 (CQUAD4), for
standard finite elements. The type of MD Nastran element to be created is not determined until the
element properties are assigned. See the Element Properties Form, 58 for details concerning the MD
Nastran element types. Elements can be created either explicitly using the Element object or implicitly
using the Mesh object.
Finite Elements
Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Surface
Output IDs
Node ID List
1
Element Topology
Quad4
Quad5
Quad8
Mesher
u IsoMesh uu Paver
IsoMesh Parameters...
Surface List
Apply
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50 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Elements
MultiPoint Constraints
Multipoint constraints (MPCs) can also be created from the Finite Elements menu. These are special
element types that define a rigorous algebraic relationship between several specified nodes. The forms
for creating MPCs are found by selecting MPC as the Object on the Finite Elements form.
For MD Nastran thermal analysis, the MPC object is used to implement temperature coupling.
Finite Elements
Action: Create
Object: MPC
Analysis Preferences:
Code: MD Nastran
Type: Thermal
Creates an explicit MPC between a dependent
grid point and one or more independent grid
MPC ID points. This constraint is used to specify a grid
point temperature to be a weighted combination
2 of any number of other grid point temperatures.
The dependent term consists of a node ID, while
an independent term consists of a coefficient and
a node ID. An unlimited number of independent
terms can be specified, while only one dependent
term can be specified;
A1T1+A2T2+ ...AnTn = 0
Define Terms... where T1 must be defined to be the dependent
node temperature.
Apply
Note:
1. Patran automatically sets the A1 field on
the MPC entry to 1.0.
2. When specifying initial temperature condi
tions, the nodal temperatures associated
with the node points in an MPC must
identically satisfy the MPC constraint
equation.
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 51
Coordinate Frames
Patran
© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY
Main Index
52 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Material Library
Patran
© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 53
Material Library
Materials Form
This form appears when you select Materials from the main menu. The Materials form provides options
for specifying MD Nastran material data.
Materials
Action: Create
* Filter
Existing Materials
Material Names
Defines the material name. A unique material ID will be
assigned during translation.
Description
DATE: 01Apr92
Time: 17:08:02 Describes the material that is being created.
Code: MD Nastran Indicates the active analysis code and analysis type.
These selections are made on the
Type: Preferences>Analysis (p. 431) in the Patran Reference
Thermal Manual.
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54 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Material Library
The following table outlines the material properties for MD Nastran thermal analysis.
MD Nastran Temp
Object Constitutive Model Bulk Data Input Data Dep
Isotropic Solid properties MAT4, MATT4 Thermal Conductivity yes
Density no
Fluid properties MAT4, MATT4 Thermal Conductivity yes
Density no
Latent Heat no
Heat generation MAT4, MATT4 Heat Generation Multiplier yes
2D Orthotropic Solid properties MAT5, MATT5 Thermal Conductivity Kx/Kr yes
Density no
Heat generation MAT5, MATT5 Heat Generation Multiplier yes
3D Orthotropic Solid properties MAT5, MATT5 Thermal Conductivity Kx yes
Density no
Heat generation MAT5, MATT5 Heat Generation Multiplier yes
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Chapter 3: Building A Model 55
Material Library
MD Nastran Temp
Object Constitutive Model Bulk Data Input Data Dep
2D Anisotropic Solid properties MAT5, MATT5 Thermal Conductivity Kxx yes
Density no
Heat generation MAT5, MATT5 Heat Generation Multiplier yes
3D Anisotropic Solid properties MAT5, MATT5 Thermal Conductivity Kxx yes
Density no
Heat generation MAT5, MATT5 Heat Generation Multiplier yes
Constitutive Models
The material properties for isotropic materials are divided into different categories called constitutive
models, as follows:
Solid Properties, 56
Fluid Properties, 56
Phase Changes, 56
Heat Generation1, 56
For a single material, you only need to define the constitutive models and properties necessary for the
particular analysis. For example, in a steadystate analysis of a simple solid, you need only define the
thermal conductivity. The phase changes and heat generation constitutive models need to be defined only
when these effects are present in the analysis.
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56 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Material Library
Solid Properties
Thermal conductivities may be defined for isotropic, orthotropic, and anisotropic materials. When the 2D
orthotropic material is used in an axisymmetric analysis, the conductivity Kr applies to the radial
direction and the conductivity Kz is along the axis of symmetry. The conductivities may be defined as
functions of temperature by creating temperaturedependent functions in the Fields application and then
referencing these functions on the Materials form.
Density and specific heat define the heat capacity of the body and are needed only in transient analysis.
Fluid Properties
The dynamic viscosity is used in the calculation of the Reynolds (Re) and Prandtl (Pr) number in forced
convection/advection applications and applies only to the Flow Tube element. The fluid specific heat,
thermal conductivity, and density are also required for the formulation of the advective Streamwise
Upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) elements. This is the case even for steadystate analysis.
DVρ Cp µ
Recall Re =  and Pr =  (31)
µ K
Phase Changes1
To model a phase change, you need to specify the latent heat and a finite temperature range over which
the phase change is to occur. You also need to specify the lower boundary of the transition temperature
as well as the reference enthalpy. The reference enthalpy is defined as the enthalpy corresponding to a
zero temperature if the heat capacity Cp is a constant. If the heat capacity is temperature dependent, then
the enthalpy must be defined at the lowest temperature value in the tabular field.
For pure materials, the temperature range over which the phase change takes place can be quite small,
whereas for solutions or alloys the range can be quite large. Numerically, the wider the range the better.
It is not recommended to make this range less than a few degrees.
Heat Generation1
The heat generation multiplier allows the definition of a temperaturedependent rate of volumetric heat
generation to be defined. Usually a temperaturedependent function will be defined in Fields and selected
on the Materials form. The value defined by this field will multiply the rate of heat generation defined on
the Applied Heat, Volumetric Generation LBC. If the heat generation is not temperature dependent, only
the Volumetric Generation LBC needs to be defined.
1
If you define this constitutive model, you must also define a constitutive model for Solid Properties.
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 57
Finite Element Properties
Patran
© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY
Main Index
58 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Element Properties
Element Properties
Use this option menu to define the element’s dimension. Th
options are:
Action: Create 0D (point elements)
1D (bar elements)
Dimension: 1D 2D (tri and quad elements)
3D (tet, wedge, and hex elements)
Type: Beam
Option (s):
General Section This option is only presented for 1D Beam and Rod
elements.
Input Properties...
Application Region
Select Members
Add Remove
Application Region
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 59
Finite Element Properties
The available element types are described briefly in the table below.
Area
• Curved w/ CBEND Material Name
Pipe
Section Center of Curvature
Pipe Thickness
• Tapered CBEAM Material Name
Section
Cross Sect. Areas
• Rod • General CROD Material Name
Section
Area
• Pipe CTUBE Material Name
Section
Outer Diameter @ Node
Pipe Thickness
• Conductor CELAS1 Thermal Conductance
• Capacitor CDAMP1 Thermal Capacitance
• Flow Tube CHBDYP Material Name
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60 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Element Properties
Thickness
• Axisym CTRIAX6 [Material Orientation]
Solid
Material Name
3D • Solid CHEXA Material Name
CPENTA
CTETRA
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 61
Finite Element Properties
Input Properties
Curved General Sec. Beam (CBEND)
Defines the material for the
Property Name Value Value Type element.
OK
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62 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Element Properties
Input Properties
Curved Pipe Section Beam (CBEND) Defines the material for the
element.
Property Name Value Value Type
Material Name Mat Prop Name The center of curvature of the pipe
bend can be defined as a vector
from the first node to the center or
Center of Curvature Vector by selecting an existing node
located at the center.
Mean Pipe Radius Real Scalar
OK
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 63
Finite Element Properties
Defines the tube OD at each end of the element. These values can either be real values or references to
existing field definitions. The Outer Diameter at Node 1 property is required. The Outer Diameter at Node 2
Property is optional.
Input Properties
OK
Flow Tube
This element defines heat transfer based on 1D fluid flow. A material with the Fluid constitutive model
defined must be selected. In addition, the diameters of tube at each end must be defined; if only the
diameter at node 1 is defined, the tube diameter is assumed to be constant at that value. The value for the
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64 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Element Properties
diameter may either be real or a reference to an existing field definition. The Flow Tube elements can
be referenced in the Loads/BCs application to support several types of forced convection and advection
conditions.
2D Shell Elements
These elements provide for conduction and heat capacitance within a planar area. Heat is not transferred
through the thickness of the shell.
OK
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 65
Finite Element Properties
3D Solid Elements
These elements provide for conduction and heat capacitance within a volume. A material property must
be selected to define the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat.
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66 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Patran
© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 67
Loads and Boundary Conditions
definition of full functionality, see Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 27) in the Patran Reference
Manual.
Load/Boundary Conditions
Indicates the category of heat loads or boundary condition.
Action: Create The choices are Temp (Thermal) for prescribing temperatures,
Initial Temperature, Boundary Temperature, Applied Heat,
Object: Convection Convection, Radiation, and Contact.
Type: Element Uniform The Type options are Nodal, Element Uniform, and Element
Variable. Nodal is applied explicitly to nodes. Element Uniform
defines a constant value to be applied over an entire element,
element face, or element edge. Element Variable defines a
Option: Coupled value that varies across an entire element, element face, or
element edge.
Analysis Type: Thermal
Current Load Case: Indicates the specific type for each general category of
loads/boundary condition. The choices for each Object are
Default... shown on page 68.
Type: Static
Loads or boundary conditions defined here are associated
with the Current Load Case. By default, this is a static
Existing Sets (steadystate) load case called Default. To create heat loads
or boundary conditions for a transient analysis, you must
create a TimeDependent load case in the Load Cases
application.
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68 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
The following table outlines the options for creating MD Nastran thermal loads and boundary conditions:
Target Element
Object Option Type Type Region 2
• Temp Nodal  
(Thermal)
• Initial Nodal  
Temperature
• Applied Heat • Normal Fluxes Nodal  
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D 
Element Variable
• Directional Fluxes Nodal  
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D 
• Nodal Source Nodal  
• Volumetric Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D 
Generation
• Total Heat Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D
• Convection • To Ambient Nodal  
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D 
• Flow Tube To Element Uniform 1D 
Ambient
• Coupled Nodal  Nodal
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D Nodal, 1D, 2D,
3D
• Coupled Flow Tube Element Uniform 1D Nodal, 1D, 2D,
3D
• Coupled Advection Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D 1D
• Duct Flow Element Uniform 1D 2D, 3D
• Radiation • Ambient Space Nodal  
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D 
• Ambient Nodes Nodal  Nodal
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D Nodal 1D, 2D, 3D
• Enclosures Nodal  
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D 
• Contact • Deformable Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D
• Rigid Body
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 69
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Main Index
70 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Surface 2.4
OK
Note: When applying any of the convection or radiation forms involving two
application regions, both regions must use the same geometry filter.
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 71
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Surface Area
The total amount of heat radiated or convected from a surface or input from a heat source depends on the
area of the surface. For nodal loads and boundary conditions, the nodal area must be defined explicitly.
For faces of 2D or 3D elements, the area is calculated from the relative locations of the nodal points. For
the edge of a shell element, the area is calculated from the nodal points location and the shell thickness.
For general or tapered beam elements, the rod element, or the curved beam with general section, the area
is calculated as:
( 4. • π • cross_sectional_area ) • beam_length
For the rod or curved beam with pipe section, the area is calculated as:
2 • π • radius • beam_length
For directional flux or radiation enclosure on 1D elements, the Patran MD Nastran forward translator will
automatically calculate the projected area based on the normal vector specified for the given elements.
Spatial Dependence
Many of the quantities defined on the Loads/BCs forms are allowed to vary as a function of the model’s
spatial coordinates. This variation is described by first defining a spatial field using the Fields application
and then selecting this field from the Spatial Fields listbox on the Loads/BCs Input Data form. Creation
of spatial fields is described in more detail in Fields Forms (p. 210) in the Patran Reference Manual.
Temperature Dependence
Many of the quantities defined on the Loads/BCs forms are also allowed to vary as a function of
temperature. An example is Convection Coefficient. The convection coefficient can take on different
values depending on the surface or fluid temperatures at each point in the model. All quantities that are
allowed to vary as a function of temperature have a second databox on the Loads/BCs Input Data form
with the *Temperature Function label above it. This indicates that the temperature function multiplies
the value in the databox to its immediate left (this value may be a constant or may come from a spatial
field). Functions of temperature are described by defining a temperaturedependent field in the Fields
application. To create this Field, you must set the Object to Material Property. You may then select the
created field from the Temperature Dependent Fields listbox on the Loads/BCs Input Data form.
For convenience, if you have specified a temperaturedependent function but do not specify any value in
the far left column, Patran will assign a default value of 1.0 to that databox.
Time Dependence
When the Current Load Case is Time Dependent (set from the Load Cases application), a timedependent
field listbox appears on the far right column of the Loads/BCs Input Data form. This column contains
databoxes that allow the time dependence of the quantities in the far left column of the Input Data form
to be defined. Just as for spatial and temperature dependencies, you must first create a time dependence
in the Fields application. To create the field in the Fields application, you must set the Object to Non
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72 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Spatial and the Method to Tabular Input. You must also define a set of timeload multiplier pairs. This
field can then be selected from the Time Dependent Fields listbox on the Loads/BCs Input Data form.
For convenience, if you have specified a timedependent function but do not specify any value in the far
left column, Patran will assign a default value of 1.0 to that databox.
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 73
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Temp(Thermal)
Forms associated with the Temp(Thermal) Object allow you to define nodal temperatures that remain
constrained during the analysis. The Temp(Thermal) Input Data forms for steadystate (Static) and
transient (Time Dependent) load cases are shown below.
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74 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Input Data
Spatial Fields
spatial_fld1
spatial_fld2
Input Data
OK Reset Cancel
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 75
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Initial Temperature
Initial temperature is required in a timedependent analysis. In a nonlinear steadystate analysis, initial
temperatures are input as an initial guess to improve the convergence rate and often to provide
initialization for the nonlinear iterative solution scheme.
As a user convenience, if most of the initial nodal temperatures are to be the same, you can define this
temperature using the Default Init Temperature databox in the Solution Parameters form invoked from
the Analysis application. Any initial temperatures defined using this Initial Temperature option in
Loads/BCs will take precedence over the default value defined in the Analysis application. The Input
Data form for Initial Temperature is very similar to the form for steadystate temperature shown above.
The input option is described in the table below.
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76 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Input Data
Form Type: Advanced If the Form Type is toggled from Basic to Advanced
Node ID databox appears.
Surface Option: Top
Top Surf Heat Flux For 2D elements, the heat flux can be applied to the
bottom, or edge of the surface.
Control Node ID
Spatial Fields
Reset
OK Cancel
The following table describes the options for defining a heat flux.
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 77
Loads and Boundary Conditions
SteadyStateAnalysis
Figure 34
Input Data
Heat Flux
OK Reset Cancel
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78 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Transient Analysis
For a timedependent load case, the Input Data form with the Form Type changed from Basic to
Advanced and the Thermal Vec Type changed to Transient is shown below.
Input Data
Surface Option: Top Form Type: Advanced Thermal Vec Type: Transient
Top Surf Absorptivity * Temperature Function
OK Reset Cancel
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 79
Loads and Boundary Conditions
The following table describes the options for the forms shown on page 77 through page 78.
Main Index
80 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 81
Loads and Boundary Conditions
ConvectionTo Ambient
This option allows for the definition of the most basic form of convection boundary condition. Heat is
exchanged between the surface of the body and a surrounding media, the temperature of which is known.
The form for a steadystate load case and 2D element type are shown below.
Input Data
Ambient Temperature
OK Reset Cancel
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82 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
The options for this convection boundary condition are shown in the table below.
With MSC.Nastran Version 68, the Patran MD Nastran Forward Translator will average the values for
Surface Temp (Ts) and Ambient Temp (Ta) to acquire the Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2. Average Temp will
be used as the temperature at which the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will be
determined.
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 83
Loads and Boundary Conditions
boundary, then, must be equal to (mdot * Cp * T)in  (mdot * Cp * T)out, where in and out refer to the
inlet and exit states of the fluid stream. Typically, the inlet temperature is specified and the exit
temperature is determined as part of the solution.
The forced convection part of the problem allows the fluid stream tube to communicate with the
surrounding environment. You can determine the heat transfer coefficient for a particular problem
externally, or use the generalized correlations available through the preference and MD Nastran heat
transfer solver. The particular application has a lot to do with the viability of either approach.
A practical example of the use of Flow Tube to Ambient is the situation of analyzing a flow tube in a free
stream of large mass flow and essentially constant temperature. A flow tube in an automobile radiator is
a good example where the flow tube models the flow stream in the tubing (engine coolant) and the
ambient environment is that of the air rushing across the tubes at the local air temperature.
Physical Model
Flow Flow
in out
Tin Tout
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84 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
The Input Data form for a transient load case is shown below.
Input Data
Form Type: Advanced
Mass Flow Rate * Time Function
OK Reset Cancel
The following table describes the options for defining this convection boundary condition.
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 85
Loads and Boundary Conditions
h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp or
h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp*k/d
By default, the first form is chosen with EXPR and EXPP equal
to 0.0.
Reynolds Exponent  An advanced option to define the Reynolds number convection
exponent EXPR.
Prandtl Exponent, Heat In  An advanced option to define the Prandtl number convection
exponent EXPPI for heat transfer into the working fluid.
Prandtl Exponent, Heat Out  An advanced option to define the Prandtl number convection
exponent EXPPO for heat transfer out of the working fluid.
Reference Temperature  An advanced option for defining the temperature used in
Option calculating material properties for the fluid. The options are:
average of surface and ambient temperatures, surface
temperature, ambient temperature, or temperature at a user
defined node. By default, this reference temperature is taken as
the average of surface and ambient temperatures.
Film Node ID  An advanced option for selecting an existing node for fluid film
temperature.
With MSC.Nastran Version 68, the Patran MD Nastran Forward Translator will average the values for
Surface Temp (Ts) and Ambient Temp (Ta) to acquire the Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2. Average Temp will
be used as the temperature at which the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will be
determined.
ConvectionCoupled
This advanced option for applying a convection boundary condition allows for the explicit definition of
the convecting surface (Application Region 1) and a set of nodes (Application Region 2) between which
heat is exchanged by convection. Mathematically, the exchange mechanism is similar to that for
Convection to Ambient, except here Application Region 2 may be something other than basic ambient
fluid points and their temperatures need not be specified in the description of the problem. The
temperatures in Application Region 2 may be part of the solution. In addition, there does not need to be
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86 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
a onetoone correspondence between nodal points in Region 1 and those in Region 2. The Input Data
form for a steadystate load case is shown below.
Input Data
OK Reset Cancel
Application Region 1
The input options for coupled convection are shown in the table below.
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 87
Loads and Boundary Conditions
With MSC.Nastran Version 68, the Patran MD Nastran Forward Translator will average the values for
Surface Temp (Ts) and Ambient Temp (Ta) to acquire the Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2. Average Temp will
be used as the temperature at which the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will be
determined.
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88 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
tube input diameters are used in the calculation of the Reynolds number and subsequently in calculating
the heat transfer coefficient.
Application
Region 1
(Flow Tube)
mdot
1
Res = 
hA
Convection Resistance
Application
Region 2
(Structure)
When this capability is applied, there must be general correspondence (one flow tube element for every
structural element grid point pair) between the flow tube node points in Application Region 1 and the
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Chapter 3: Building A Model 89
Loads and Boundary Conditions
structural node points in Application Region 2. The Input Data form for a steadystate load case is shown
below.
Input Data
Form Type: Advanced
Mass Flow Rate
Reynolds Exponent
OK Reset Cancel
The input options for coupled flow tube convection are described in the table below.
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90 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp or h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp*k/d
With MSC.Nastran Version 68, the Patran MD Nastran Forward Translator will average the values for
Surface Temp (Ts) and Ambient Temp (Ta) to acquire the Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2. Average Temp will
be used as the temperature at which the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will be
determined.
ConvectionCoupled Advection
This advanced option enables the connection between an advection stream and a structural surface. For
this capability, the forced convection tube relationships are essentially turned off by setting the constant
coefficient for forced convection to 1.E20. The convection connection between the flow stream and the
surface is determined from basic convection; Q = h * A * (T1  T2). Here the internally calculated area
A is the area associated with the structural surface elements. The user must specify the value of the heat
transfer coefficient, h. In steadystate analysis, the flow tube diameters are of little consequence for this
capability since no Reynolds Numbers or heat transfer coefficients are determined internally. In transient
analysis, the fluid speed needs to be produced by the correct choice of fluid properties and tube diameter.
There need not be any particular correspondence between the nodes on the flow tube and those on the
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Chapter 3: Building A Model 91
Loads and Boundary Conditions
surface elements; Patran uses a closest approach algorithm to associate the surface elements with the
stream tube elements. The Input Data form for a steadystate load case is shown below.
Input Data
Form Type: Advanced
Convection Coefficient * Temperature Function
OK Reset Cancel
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92 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
T = 0.0 Res → ∞
Flow
Tube
1
Res = 
hA
In MD Nastran terms, the flow tube ambient points are brought together and set to 0.0 degrees
temperature. The forced convection resistance is set to a large number (negligible heat transfer
coefficient). The connection between the fluid and structure is affected through basic convection with a
userspecified heat transfer coefficient. The input options are described in the table below.
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Chapter 3: Building A Model 93
Loads and Boundary Conditions
With MSC.Nastran Version 68, the Patran MD Nastran Forward Translator will average the values for
Surface Temp (Ts) and Ambient Temp (Ta) to acquire the Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2. Average Temp will
be used as the temperature at which the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will be
determined.
ConvectionDuct Flow
This feature enables the user to associate a 1D fluid stream with a surface or duct composed of 2D or 3D
(shell or solid) elements. When specifying the duct flow attributes, the target element type is 1D and the
region2 specification will be 2D or 3D. It would be good modeling practice to provide flow stream
element discretization level of approximately the same level as the adjoining structure with respect to the
streamwise direction. Fluid connections can only be made between the flow tube and 3 noded triangular
elemental surfaces or 4 noded quadrilateral elemental surfaces.
The structural surface may represent a physically more complex geometry composed of surface fins. The
increased area associated with extended surfaces can be accounted for in duct flow by using the Extended
Surface Multiplier on the Input Data menu. The actual convection surface area will equal the area
calculated by the code from the elemental areas times this surface multiplier. On this same menu, mass
flow rate refers to the duct mass flow rate (total flow).
The proper treatment of the heat transfer coefficient relationship depends on the input for the flow tube
diameters, defined in this application as the hydraulic diameters (DH). The flow tube hydraulic diameter
is the dimension used in internally calculating the Reynolds Number. It will also automatically be used
as the diameter in the Input Data, Formula Type Option equation for the heat transfer coefficient. With
this formulation, the advection flow heat transfer coefficient is based on the gross dimensions of the
structure and is input to the code through the input of hydraulic diameter. It is the user’s responsibility to
determine an appropriate DH. The mass flow rate and fluid material properties represent the actual
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94 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
total/real flow characteristics for the duct. The actual elemental surface area flow attachment is accounted
for internally through the triangle and quadrilateral surface element area calculations and may be
enhanced by the extended surface multiplier to represent a finned surface.
Input Data
Mass Flow Rate * Time Function
h=coef*Re**Expr*Pr**Expp
Film Node ID
h=k/d*coef*Re**Expr*Pr**
Reynolds Exponent
OK Reset Cancel
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Chapter 3: Building A Model 95
Loads and Boundary Conditions
h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp or h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp*k/d
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96 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
RadiationAmbient Space
This option defines a boundary condition for a surface exchanging radiant energy with an ambient
temperature in space. The Input Data form for 3D element types is shown below.
Input Data
Ambient Temperature
View Factor
OK Reset Cancel
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Chapter 3: Building A Model 97
Loads and Boundary Conditions
RadiationAmbient Nodes
This is an advanced option for applying a radiation boundary condition to a surface. You select both the
surface (Application Region 1) and a set of nodes that define the temperature to which the surface is
exchanging heat by radiation (Application Region 2).
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98 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
RadiationEnclosures
This option defines a radiation boundary among a set of surfaces making up a cavity or enclosure. Each
surface is defined independently using the form below. The surfaces are grouped to form an enclosure by
specifying the same Enclosure ID (integer) on all surfaces making up the enclosure.
Input Data
Enclosure ID
Emissivity * Temperature Function
OK Reset Cancel
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Chapter 3: Building A Model 99
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Cavity 1 Cavity 2
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100 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Can Be
Can Be Can Shade, but
Shaded, but
Shaded, but cannot be shaded
cannot shade
cannot shade
(Third Body Shadowing)
Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 101
Load Cases
Patran
File Group Viewport Viewing Display Preferences Tools Help
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Main Index
102 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Load Cases
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Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Main Index
104 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Introduction
4.1 Introduction
To run a thermal analysis, you use the procedure described below.
Select the solution type The solution type can be either steadystate or transient analysis.
Define the solution related input data The purpose of this step is to change the default settings of jobrelated
input data, such as Maximum Run Time, Default Initial Temperature,
Radiation Parameters, and options for view factor calculations.
Define the subcase data Similar to the previous step, the defaults for nonlinear iteration
controls, time increments, and output requests can be altered in the
Subcase Create section of the Analysis menu form.
Select load cases This step selects load case(s) for an analysis job.
Submit the job When a job is ready for analysis, the MD Nastran solver can be
retrieved by clicking on the Apply button on the main Analysis form.
You can modify the default settings of translation parameters, or you
can insert additional data entries using the Direct Text Input form
before submitting your analysis job.
Read the analysis results The analysis results must be read into the Patran database by invoking
the Read Output2 Action on the Analysis form. The results can then be
processed by selecting the Results toggle on the Patran application
selections.
To submit a single load case, steadystate analysis job to MD Nastran, you need only click on the Apply
button on the main Analysis form. Patran will automatically control the appropriate default settings and
other related selections.
In the Patran MD Nastran Interface, a subcase can be thought of as a Patran load case with some
additional parameters (e.g., Output Requests) associated with it. This association is further strengthened
since the default subcases are created for each load case and have the same name as their associated load
case. In this document, the terms “load case” and “subcase” are used interchangeably. When a specific
form is referenced, Load case and Subcase are capitalized.
Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 105
Review of the Analysis Form
Patran
© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY
Main Index
106 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of the Analysis Form
Analysis Form
This form appears when you select Analysis from the main menu. When preparing for an analysis run,
select Analyze as the Action.
Analysis
Actions can be set to:
Analyze
Action: Analyze Read Output2 (p. 125)
Read Input File (p. 545) in the Patran Interface
Object: Entire Model to MD Nastran Preference Guide (support is
limited for thermal analysis)
Method: Analysis Deck Delete (Ch. 6) in the Patran Interface to MD
Nastran Preference Guide
Monitor (Ch. 5) in the Patran Analysis Manager
User’s Guide
Code: MD Nastran Abort (Ch. 6) in the Patran Analysis Manager
User’s Guide
Type: Thermal
Available Jobs
my_job
Indicates the selected Analysis Code and Analysis
Type, as defined in the Preferences>Analysis (p. 431) in
the Patran Reference Manual.
Job Name
my_job Name of job. Patran will use this name as the base
filename for all resulting MD Nastran files and
Job Description message files.
MD Nastran job created on
01Feb93 at 14:32:43
List of already existing jobs. If you select one of these jobs, the name will appear in the Job Name listbox and
all input data for this job will be retrieved from the database. You can submit an existing job again simply by
selecting it and clicking on Apply. It is often convenient to select an existing job, modify the input data as
desired, and click on Apply to submit the new job.
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Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 107
Review of the Analysis Form
Translation Parameters...
Solution Type...
Direct Text Input... Opens the Direct Text Input form; this form allows you
to enter data directly for the File Management,
Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data
Subcase Create... sections of the NASTRAN input file.
Subcase Select...
Selects one or more subcases for the analysis job.
Analysis Manager...
Apply
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108 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of the Analysis Form
The following table outlines the selections for the Analyze action.
Object Method
Entire Model Full Run
Check Run
Analysis Deck
Model Only
Current Group Full Run
Check Run
Analysis Deck
Model Only
Existing Deck Full Run
The Object indicates which part of the model is to be analyzed. There are three choices for thermal
analysis: Entire Model, Current Group, and Existing Deck.
The Method indicates how far the translation is to be taken.The methods are as follow:
Full Run Is the selected type if an Analysis Deck translation is performed, and the resulting input
file is submitted to MD Nastran for complete analysis.
Check Run Is the selected type if an Analysis Deck translation is performed, and the resulting input
file is submitted to MD Nastran for a check run only.
Analysis Deck Is the selected type if the Model Deck translation is performed, plus all load case,
analysis type and analysis parameter data are translated. A complete input file, ready for
MD Nastran, will be generated.
Model Only Is the selected type if a Bulk Data file is created that contains only the model data
including node, element, coordinate frame, element property, material property, and
loads and boundary conditions data. The translation stops at that point.
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Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 109
Translation Parameters
Defines the type of data output. “Print” specifies output of data to Specifies type of OUTPUT2 commands. “P3
the MD Nastran print file (.f06). “OP2” specifies output of data Built In” signals the use of MD Nastran
to an MD Nastran OUTPUT2 file (.op2). internal OUTPUT2 commands geared toward
“XDB” specifies output of data to an MSC.Access database Patran. These commands are also
(.xdb). appropriate for PATRAN 2. “Alter File”
specifies the use of an external alter file found
Translation Parameters on the Patran file path and following the
“msc_v#_sol#.alt” naming convention.
Data Output See Files (App. A) for more details. “CADAX
Alter” specifies the use of an LMS CADAX
Data Output: OP2 and Print specific alter file that is identical to the “Alter
File” but with an additional “.lms”
OUTPUT2 Requests: extension, e.g.,
P3 Built In “msc_v69_sol53.alt.lms”. “P2 Built
In” specifies use of MD Nastran internal
OUTPUT2 Format: Binary OUTPUT2 commands geared toward
PATRAN 2.
MD Nastran Version: 69
Numbering Options...
OK Defaults Cancel
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110 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Translation Parameters
Data Output
Data Output: OP2 and Print
Tolerances
Division: 1.0e08
Numbering Options...
Brings up a standard file select form which
Bulk Data Include File... allows you to select a file to be included in
the Bulk Data Section of the NASTRAN inpu
file.
OK Defaults Cancel
Writes CELAS2, CDAMP2, and CONROD Bulk Data entries instead of CELAS1, CDAMP1, and CROD entries.
Note: Do not turn ON this option if your model has time varying temperature boundary
conditions or conductor/capacitor elements.
Defines which version of MD Nastran is to be used. The version indicated here serves two purposes: to
create the full name of the ALTER file to be used and to determine which Solution Sequence to be used. Be
sure to specify only whole numbers and letters; e.g., 68 or 69.
Defines which coordinate frame is to be used when generating the grid coordinates. The options are reference
frame, analysis frame, or global. This setting should not affect the analysis. It only changes the method used in the
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Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 111
Translation Parameters
Numbering Options
Patran allows you to define numbering offsets for IDs associated with model entities. To invoke this
feature, you click on the Numbering Options button on the Translation Parameters form.
Numbering Options
Load Cases: 0
Control Sets: 0
Rigid Elements: 0
Specifies the continuation mnemonic
Scalar Points: 0 format used on multiple line Bulk Data
entries.
Encoded Syntax
Recognizes an ID if it directly follows the
first occurrence of the specified syntax.
Syntax Marker: . For example, with this option activated
and the specified syntax set to “.”, the ID
assigned to a material given the name
“Steel_1027.32” would be 32.
OK Defaults Cancel
Recognizes an ID if it tails the name, such as “shell_property_52.” This option is OFF by default.
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112 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Translation Parameters
Note that both the Patran Neutral file reader and the Patran MD Nastran input file reader preserve the IDS
of named entities with a “.” syntax, so that an MD Nastran PSHELL entry of ID 12 will be assigned the
name “PSHELL.12.” This last option allows great continuity between input model data and output model
data. This option is ON by default, and the default Syntax Marker is “.”
Note: “The Encoded IDs” option currently only works for element properties and material
properties.
Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 113
Solution Types
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114 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Solution Types
Solution Parameters
The solution parameter form contains options and subordinate forms for defining parameters that affect
the overall analysis. The Subcase Parameter forms, described below, are used for setting input data that
control the analysis only within a single subcase. You should always review the settings on both forms
before submitting an analysis.
Defines the default initial temperature for all node points which have not been given an initial temperature
by the Initial Temperature object of Loads/BCs.
Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 115
Solution Types
Radiation Parameters
Figure 41
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116 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Solution Types
Figure 42
Defines the view factor sum that the enclosure will be set to if the view factor summation of the
enclosure is greater than 1.0. No scaling is performed if this databox is left blank.
Gaussian Int Order (Self Shading): 4 Defines Gaussian integration order for
calculating net effective view factors in
the presence of self shadowing.
Discretization Level = 4
Defines the error tolerance above which a corrected view factor is calculated
using the semianalytic contour integration method.
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Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 117
Solution Types
Defines diagnostic output request options for the radiation exchange surfaces. The
output will be written to the NASTRAN output (f06) file.
Surface Diagnostics
OK Defaults Cancel
Defines the output device options (Both, Print, Punch, None) for printing or punching view factors onto
RADLST/RADMTX entries. The printed view factors are written to the NASTRAN output (f06) file, while
the punched view factors are written to a punch file, job_name.pch. If the FEM mesh and the
application regions of loads and boundary conditions are not changed in subsequent runs, the lengthy
view factor calculations may be skipped by including the RADLST/RADMTX punch files, which can be
retrieved from the Bulk Data Include File menu in the Translation Parameters form.
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118 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Solution Types
Solution Parameters
Radiation Parameters...
The radiation and view factor input data
View Factor Parameters... forms are identical to those shown
above for steadystate analysis.
OK Defaults Cancel
Defines the default initial temperature for all grid points which
have not been given an initial temperature by the Initial
Temperature Object of Loads/BCs.
Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 119
Direct Text Input
1
The current input file reader provides limited support for thermal analysis.
Main Index
120 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Direct Text Input
Clears the current form. Resets the form back Resets all four forms back to its
Saves the current to the data values it previous value and closes the
setting and data for the had at the last OK. form.
four sections and
closes the form.
Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 121
Subcases
4.6 Subcases
This form appears when you select the Subcase Create button on the Analysis form. The subcase is the
MD Nastran mechanism for associating loads and boundary conditions, output requests, and various
other input data to be used during part of a complete run.
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122 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases
The Patran MD Nastran interface automatically associates default parameters and output requests with
each Patran load case to create a subcase with the same name as the load case. You can access the Subcase
Parameters and Output Requests forms to view or modify these defaults.
Subcase Create
Available Subcases
Default
Convection_Case Displays all the available subcases associated
Radiation_Case with the current Solution Sequence.
100_BTU_Heat_Load
Subcase Options
Subcase Parameters...
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Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 123
Subcases
To set up and perform a chained thermalstructural analysis in one run using SOL 101. The procedure is
to:
1. With Patran Preferences set to MD Nastran, Structural, create and set up your structural LBCs and
load case
1. Change the Patran Preferences to MD Nastran, Thermal, create and set up your thermal LBCs and
load case
1. Set the Solution Type to STRUCTURAL HEAT ANALYSIS
1. Set up two Subcases, one referencing the structural load case and the other referencing the thermal
load case.
1. Select the two Subcases in the order: Thermal, Structural
1. Submit the job
The Nastran run is submitted as a SOL 101 with two Subcases. The first subcase is the heat transfer run
to determine the temperature loading. The temperature results from the first subcase are used along with
any other structural LBCs called out in the second subcase, which is a SOL 101 run. PARAM,
HEATSTAT, YES is written to the input file.
Subcase Parameters
The controls and parameters set on the Subcase Parameters forms apply to a single MD Nastran subcase
within the overall analysis run.
SteadyState Subcase
This subordinate form appears when the Subcase Parameters button is selected on the Subcase Create
form and the solution type is Steady State. This form provides for the definition of the input data that
controls the solution of the nonlinear equations.
Occasionally, when solving a set of nonlinear equations, it may not be possible to obtain a solution
directly with the total heat load applied. Instead, the solution is obtained by applying the loading in
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124 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases
increments, solving the system equations for the current fraction of the total load, and using that solution
as the starting point for the next increment of load. This process continues until the desired total heat load
is applied. It should be mentioned that the number of load increments has no effect on the accuracy of
the solution it is merely a computational technique to aid in obtaining the solution efficiently. In linear
or mildly nonlinear problems, a single increment is usually applied. In highly nonlinear problems, dozens
of increments may be required to obtain a converged solution.
This incremental procedure is only applicable with respect to applied heat loads and specified
temperature boundary conditions. There is no incremental provision for convection or radiation boundary
Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 125
Subcases
conditions. As a result, it is more common with highly nonlinear boundary conditions to exceed the
nonlinear iteration limit. This defaults to 25 currently, but can be increased.
Main Index
126 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases
Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 127
Subcases
The parameters controlling the steadystate solution process are discussed more fully in the table below.
More extensive information can be found in the MD Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide.
Matrix Update Method This option determines the strategy used to determine how often to
update (reform) the nonlinear conductance and radiation matrices.
The three options are Automatic, SemiAutomatic, and Controlled
Iters. The optimum strategy would result in the lowest computational
cost. When the Automatic option is selected, MD Nastran tries to
select the most efficient strategy based on convergence rates. If
Controlled Iters is selected, the matrices are updated after a
prescribed number of iterations (determined by the Number of
Iterations per Update parameter).
Number of Iterations per When the Matrix Update Method is set to Controlled Iters, this is the
Update number of iterations before the matrices are reformed.
Allowable Iterations per This parameter specifies the maximum number of allowed iterations
Increment in a load increment. If this number is exceeded, the load increment
is halved and the iteration process repeated.
Convergence Criteria The convergence criteria provide for the comparison of user
requested maximum levels of error and the error in the solution as
estimated numerically. In this sense, the convergence criteria
determine when the solution is sufficiently accurate to be considered
converged. Any or all of the three convergence criteria listed below
can be selected. When more than one criteria is selected, each one
must be satisfied for convergence to be achieved.
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128 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases
Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 129
Subcases
the actual number of time steps may not be equal to the input value. However, the total time duration will
be close to the product of the input values.
Subcase Parameters
Initial Time Step = 0.01 Initial time increment for the Newmark
method.
Number of Time Steps = 100
This number is used along with the initial time
Transient Nonlinear Iterations step to calculate the total time duration.
Matrix Update Method: Adaptive
Fixed Time Steps Directs MD Nastran to use the initial time step
for all time steps. This disables the automatic
Exit on Failure to Converge time stepping mechanism.
OK Cancel
If this toggle is ON, the run will terminate if the converge criteria are not met for
any time step. If OFF, the run continues to the next time step.
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130 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases
Output Requests
The output requests forms allow you to define what result quantities will be written to the MD Nastran
print file for viewing and the OUTPUT2 file for import into Patran. A reasonable set of default result
quantities are predefined. The simplest way to change these is to use the Basic Output Requests form.
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Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 131
Subcases
More control over output quantities is provided for sophisticated users by changing the Form Type menu
from Basic to Advanced. The Basic form is shown below.
Output Requests
The available output requests depend on the
SUBCASE NAME: active Solution Sequence as indicated by
SOLUTION SEQUENCE: 159 this value.
Output Requests
THERMAL(SORT2,PRINT)=All FEM
FLUX(SORT2,PRINT)=All FEM
OK Defaults Cancel
NOTE: The OK button accepts the output requests and closes the form. The Defaults button deletes all
output requests and replaces them with defaults. The Cancel button closes the form without saving the
output requests.
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132 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases
When the Form Type is set to Advanced, the Output Requests form expands to the form below. The same
result types are available in the Select Result Type listbox, but more options are available to control these.
Use this listbox to select the This listbox is used to select the group of
result type to be created. nodes or elements to which the output
requests relate.
Output Requests
SUBCASE NAME: Select Group(s)/SET
SOLUTION SEQUENCE: 153 All FEM
Form Type: Advanced
Output Requests
THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=All FEM
FLUX(SORT1,PRINT)=All FEM
Create
Intermediate Output Option: No
Delete
OK Defaults Cancel
Creates output requests for highlighted result types. It These options are appropriate for the
also modifies highlighted output requests. The button highlighted result type. They also indicate
label changes to reflect the operation. the options that were selected for a
highlighted output request. See Table 41.
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Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 133
Subcases
Multiple
Select
Options Label Allowed Descriptions
Sorting By Node/Element No Output is presented as tabular listing of
nodes/elements for each load step or time.
By Time/Load No Output is presented as tabular listing of load
Step step/time for each node or element type.
Output Device Print No Requests that the output be written to the
Options NASTRAN output (f06) file.
Punch No Requests that the output be written to the punch file
(job_name.pch).
Both No Requests that the output be written to the
NASTRAN output (f06) file and the punch file
(job_name.pch).
IntermediateO Yes Once per Intermediate outputs are requested for every
utput Options subcase computed load increment. Applicable for steady
state analysis only.
No Once per Intermediate outputs are requested for the last load
subcase of the subcase. Applicable for steadystate analysis
only.
All Once per Intermediate outputs are requested for every
subcase computed and userspecified load increment.
Applicable for steadystate analysis only.
Percent of  Once per An integer ‘n’ that specifies the percentage of
Step Output subcase intermediate outputs to be presented for transient
analysis. Default = 100.
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134 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases
Directly entered entries may potentially conflict with those created by the interface. Writing these
entries to the file can be controlled with this toggle.
Clears the current form. Resets the form back Resets the form back
to the data values it to its previous value
had at the last OK. and closes the form.
Saves the current
setting and data and
closes the form.
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Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 135
Subcase Select
Subcase Select
Subcases Selected:
Default
Displays all subcases that have been
associated with the current jobname.
OK Cancel
Within the current Patran MD Nastran design, only those boundary conditions referred to as loads are
subcase selectable. All heat flux types and temperature boundary specifications are defined as thermal
loads, whereas all occurrences of convection and radiation are defined as boundary conditions and are not
subcase selectable. As a result, the use of multiple subcases in MD Nastran thermal analysis has limited
utility and in general is not recommended.
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136 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcase Select
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Main Index
138 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Overview
5.1 Overview
Before postprocessing of thermal results can occur, the MD Nastran analysis results must be loaded into
the Patran database through the Read Output2 or Attach XDB Action on the Analysis form. You can then
display, sort, or retrieve the results using the following options:
Contour Plots (Fringe Contour Plots can be made for temperatures (isotherms), temperature gradients, and
Plots) heat fluxes. Since temperature gradients and heat fluxes are vector quantities, plotting
their values on the geometry requires selecting the desired result quantity; magnitude,
xcomponent, ycomponent, or zcomponent. Contour plots can be made for any
steadystate solution, and any temporal solution state in a transient analysis.
XY Plots The most common XY plot for heat transfer is the representation of nodal temperature
versus time. On an elemental basis, temperature gradients and heat fluxes may also be
represented as functions of time. In a general sense, the following XY plot types are
available:
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 139
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
Patran
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There are currently two ActionsRead Output2 and Attach XDBfor importing results. Selecting Read
Output2 as the Action on the Analysis form allows the model and⁄or results data to be read into the Patran
database from an NASTRAN OUTPUT2 file. Subordinate forms of the Analysis form will define
translation parameters, which control the data to be translated, and the OUTPUT2 file from which to
translate. The OUTPUT2 data files are created by placing a PARAM,POST,1 entry in the MD Nastran
Bulk Data section.
Selecting Attach XDB as the Action on the Analysis form allows the results data from a MSC.Access
database (an .xdb file) to be accessed. In this case the results are not read directly into the Patran database
but instead remain in the MSC.Access database. Only what is termed as meta data is read into the Patran
database. Meta data consists of the Result Case names, their associated subcases, primary and secondary
result types, global variables, and the file location of the MSC.Access database or .xdb file. The Meta
data is used to translate results when the user attempts to postprocess the model. Subordinate forms of
the Analysis form will define translation parameters, which control the data to be accessed on attachment.
Main Index
140 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
MSC.Access databases are created by placing a PARAM,POST,0 entry in the MD Nastran Bulk Data
section.
Use this option if SOL 600 results are to be attached using T16/19
direct results access.
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 141
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
Main Index
142 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
Defines how far the results translation will proceed. If Translate is selected, a job file containing information for
the results translation control is created and then submitted for translation. If Control File is selected, the
procedure will stop as soon as the control file is generated.
Analysis
Type: Thermal
Job Description
MSC.Nastran job created Defines the tolerances used during model translation.
on 18Apr96 at 13:58:15 The division tolerance is used to prevent division by
zero errors. The numerical tolerance is used when
comparing real values for equality. For Results Entities
and Both Objects, the Translations Parameters form
also specifies which version of the NASTRAN
OUTPUT2 file will be read.
Translation Parameters...
Selects the results file (*.op2) to be read. The form that is
Select Results File... called up lists all files recognized as being MD Nastran results
files. Even if there is only one .op2 file, it must be explicitly
selected.
Begins the translation of NASTRAN OUTPUT2 results into
Apply the Patran database for postprocessing.
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 143
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
Secondary Data
Primary Level Level Type Block Description
Temperatures S OUGV1 Nodal temperatures
Applied Linear Loads S OPG1 Nodal applied linear loads
Heats of Constraint S OQG1 Nodal heats of constraint
Heat Flows Applied Load S OEF1 Heat flows from applied surface loads
Free Conv S OEF1 Heat flows from free convection
Forced Conv S OEF1 Heat flows from forced convection
Radiation S OEF1 Heat flows from radiation
Total S OEF1 Total heat flows into surface elems
Temperature Gradients V OEF1 Conduction element temperature gradients
Heat Fluxes V OEF1 Conduction element heat fluxes
Main Index
144 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
Secondary Data
Primary Level Level Type Block Description
Enthalpies S OUGV1 Nodal enthalpies
Rate of Change of S OUGV1 Rate of change of nodal enthalpies
Enthalpies
Heats of Constraint are the mathematical (nonphysical) heat flow into or out of a nodal point which is
associated with a userspecified temperature. In realworld analysis, we generally do not know the
structural temperatures, but we do know something about the heat loads, convection and radiation
boundaries, etc. We then invoke MD Nastran to calculate the temperatures. However, suppose we have
results of an experiment in which a thermocouple is used to measure the boundary temperature. This
temperature could then be applied as a boundary condition in the finite element model. In the
experimental test, there may well be heat flow into or out of the boundary, but we have not made any
attempt to qualify or quantify the heat flow mechanism because we actually measured the temperature.
When the MD Nastran thermal analysis is performed, the heat of constraint output represents the heat
flow that must occur at the physical boundary to support or maintain the measured temperature.
In addition to standard results quantities, several Global Variables can be created. This table outlines
Global Variables that may be created. Global Variables are results quantities where one value is
representative of the entire model:
When reading model data from an NASTRAN OUTPUT2 file by selecting the Model Data Object, all
the data that will be created in the Patran database and the location in the OUTPUT2 file from where it
is derived are described in the following table:
Nodal Coordinates
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 145
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
Transformation Matrix
Origin
Nodal Connectivity
Main Index
146 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
Attach XDB When the Object selected is Result Entities, the model
Action: data must already exist in the Patran database. Only
metadata or catalog information such as Result
Object: Result Entities Cases/Types, Global Variables, and file connection is
read into the Patran database. The results data
Method: Local remains in the XDB file. The Model Data Object only
imports Nodes, Elements, and Coordinate Systems.
The Both selection will first read the model data, then
the result entities. If Model Data or Both are selected,
Code: MD Nastran you must ensure that there will not be any ID conflicts
with existing model entities.
Type: Thermal
Study:
Available Jobs
my_job
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 147
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
Secondary
Primary Level Level Type Object Description
Temperatures S THERR Nodal temperatures
Applied Linear Loads S HTFLR Nodal applied linear loads
Heats of Constraint S HTFFR Nodal heats of constraint
Main Index
148 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
Secondary
Primary Level Level Type Object Description
Heat Flows Applied Load S QHBDY Heat flows from applied surface
loads
Free Conv S QHBDY Heat flows from free
convection
Forced Conv S QHBDY Heat flows from forced
convection
Radiation S QHBDY Heat flows from radiation
Total S QHBDY Total heat flows into surface
elems
Temperature Gradients V QBARR, Conduction element
QBEMR,QCON temperature gradients
R,
QHEXR,QPENR,
QQD4R,
QQD8R,
QRODR,
QTETR,
QTUBR, QTX6R
Heat Fluxes V QBARR, Conduction element heat fluxes
QBEMR,
QCONR,
QHEXR,QPENR,
QQD4R,
QQD8R,
QRODR,
QTETR,
QTUBR, QTX6R
Enthalpies S ENTHR Nodal enthalpies
Rate of Change of S ENRCR Rate of change of nodal
Enthalpies enthalpies
Heats of Constraint are the mathematical (nonphysical) heat flow into or out of a nodal point which is
associated with a userspecified temperature. In realworld analysis, we generally do not know the
structural temperatures, but we do know something about the heat loads, convection and radiation
boundaries, etc. We then invoke MD Nastran to calculate the temperatures. However, suppose we have
results of an experiment in which a thermocouple is used to measure the boundary temperature. This
temperature could then be applied as a boundary condition in the finite element model. In the
experimental test, there may well be heat flow into or out of the boundary, but we have not made any
attempt to qualify or quantify the heat flow mechanism because we actually measured the temperature.
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 149
Reading Thermal Analysis Results
When the MD Nastran thermal analysis is performed, the heat of constraint output represents the heat
flow that must occur at the physical boundary to support or maintain the measured temperature.
Main Index
150 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options
Patran
© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY
The following pages describe how to process basic thermal results. For more information on
postprocessing results, see Postprocessing Results and XY Plotting.
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 151
Results Visualization Options
Contour Plots
Thermal contours can be plotted using the Quick Plot object (default) selected from the Results
application. If advanced features or XY plots are desired, the Fringe or Graph object must be used.
Results
Action: Create
Selects the desired result case. This will fill out the Select
Fringe Result listbox below. If this listbox is empty, no
Select Result Cases results exist in the database. Results can be imported from
the Analysis application or with Import in the FIle pulldown
Default, PW Linear : 100. % of Loa menu.
Animate
Main Index
152 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options
The sign convention for heat flow is as follows. Positive heat flow takes place as energy is transferred
from a region of high relative temperature to a region of low relative temperature. Similarly, heat flux
into the surface of a body is a positive quantity.
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 153
Results Visualization Options
For example,
T=100. K = Constant
L=10. T=0.
T=100.
y 1 2
T=60.
T=40.
x
T=0.
dT T2 – T1 40. – 60.
 =  =  = – 2. (Negative Gradient)
dx 1 – 2 X2 – X1 6. – 4.
dT
qx = – k  = 2⋅k (Positive Flux)
1–2
dx1 – 2
XY Plots
In transient thermal analysis, XY plotting is frequently applied to track the temperaturetime history of
grid points. You select this capability from the Results application using the Graph object. You can also
Main Index
154 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options
use the Fringe object and the Report object for advanced features of contour plots and text report
generation.
Toggles the form to select the result case(s) from the first list box. This is the default form for the Graph
object.
Results Display
Results
Action: Create
Object: Graph
Method: Y vs X
none none none none Turns the Abbreviate Subcases toggle OFF
if more than one subcase exists for a Result
Case.
Select Result Case(s)
transient, Time=60.
transient, Time=140.
transient, Time=220. Selects result cases for results postprocessing.
transient, Time=380. NOTE: If nothing appears in this listbox, then the
transient, Time=540. results are not successfully loaded into the database.
transient, Time=700. Go back to the Analysis menu or pull down File
transient, Time=860. Import to read in analysis results.
transient, Time=1020.
Y: Result
Selects the Yaxis value.
Select Y Result
Boundary Heat Flux, Radiation
Boundary Heat Flux, Total Lists result types for each selected load case. This
Heat Fluxes, listbox is used to select a result for postprocessing.
Temperature Gradients,
Temperatures,
,
Apply Reset
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 155
Results Visualization Options
The Target Entities form shown below is used to select target entities.
Results
Action: Create
Object: Graph Toggles the form to select the entities for which
you wish to create an XY plot.
Method: Y vs X
Target Entity:
Nodes Selects entity type.
Select Nodes
Apply Reset
Main Index
156 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options
Results
Action: Create
Y: Result
Select Y Result
Boundary Heat Flux, Radiation
Boundary Heat Flux, Total
Heat Fluxes,
Temperature Gradients,
Temperatures, STEP 3: Choose Temperatures from the Select Y Result
, listbox.
Position...((NONLAYERED))
X: Global Variable
Variable: Time
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 157
Results Visualization Options
Results
Action: Create
Object: Graph
Method: Y vs X
Target Entity:
Nodes STEP 5: Select Nodes as the target entity.
Select Nodes
Apply Reset
Main Index
158 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options
Delete an XY Window
Patran
try © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XYPlot
Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 159
Results Visualization Options
XY Plot
Object: XYWindow
Main Index
160 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options
Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Main Index
162 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of Read Input File Form
Patran
File Group Viewport Viewing Display Preferences Tools Help
© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY
Read Input File as the selected Action on the Analysis form allows much of the model data from a
NASTRAN input file to be translated into the Patran database. A subordinate File Selection form allows
the user to specify the NASTRAN input file to translate. This form is described on the following pages.
Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File 163
Review of Read Input File Form
Analysis
Method: Translate
Code: MD Nastran
Indicates the selected Analysis Code and Analysis
Type: Type, as defined in the Preferences>Analysis
Structural (p. 431) in the Patran Reference Manual.
Available Jobs
Job Name
simple Name assigned to current translation job. This job
name will be used as the base file name for the
message file.
Job Description
MSC.NASTRAN job
created on 30Jan93
at 16:05:33
Activates a subordinate Entity Selection form
which allows the user to specify the specific
entry types to be read. Also defines ID offset
Entity Selection... values to be used during import.
Main Index
164 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of Read Input File Form
Entity Selection
Entity Packets
Nodes
Elements
Material Properties Highlighted entity types will be imported.
Element Properties
Coordinate Frames
Load Sets
Subcases
MPC Data
Select None
Select All
Define Offsets...
Reset
OK Cancel
Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File 165
Review of Read Input File Form
The following table shows the relation between the entity types listed above and the actual MD Nastran
entry types effected. If an entity type is filtered out, it is treated as if those entries did not exist in the
original input file.
It should be noted that since the GRID entry is controlled with the Nodes filter, the grid.ps load set with
the permanent single point constraint data will also be controlled by the Nodes filter.
Main Index
166 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of Read Input File Form
If selected, the value in the Maximum column will be Minimum and Maximum IDs currently
used as the offset for the selected rows. found in the Patran database.
Define Label Offsets for Selected Entities: All offset data boxes
can be selected at once
Entity Existing ID Range in Db New ID by selecting this
column header.
Minimum Maximum Offset
Nodes 1 200
Elements 1 200
Material Properties
Element Properties
ID offset value to be
Coordinate Frames used during import.
The new ID value will
Distributed Load Set IDs be the ID found in the
Node Force Load Set IDs NASTRAN input file
plus this offset value.
Node Displacement Set IDs
Bar element Init Displacement
Reset
OK Cancel
All references made in the input file will also be offset. If a node references a particular CID as its
analysis frame, then the reference will be offset as well. If the coordinate frame is defined in the same
input file, the proper references should be maintained. The preference will be properly maintained. If the
coordinate frame existed in the file prior to the import, then it needs to be the offset CID. If a coordinate
frame with that CID is not found in the database, an error message will be issued.
Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File 167
Review of Read Input File Form
To determine which offset effects a particular MD Nastran entry type, refer to the table in the previous
section.
For Patran entities identified by integer IDs (nodes, elements, coordinate frames, and MPCs), the offset
value is simply added to the MD Nastran ID to generate the Patran ID.
For Patran entities identified by text names (materials, element properties, load sets, and load cases), the
offset value is first added to the MD Nastran ID. The new integer value is then used to generate the Patran
name per the naming conventions described in later sections.
Select File
Filter
/bahamas/users/sprack/pf/main/*.bdf
Directories Files
/bahamas/users/sprack/pf/main/. ids.bdf
/bahamas/users/sprack/pf/main/.. ids_1.bdf
/bahamas/users/sprack/pf/main/clip north.bdf
/bahamas/users/sprack/pf/main/north.bdf
OK Filter Cancel
Main Index
168 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of Read Input File Form
Reject Entries...
OK
Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File 169
Review of Read Input File Form
OK
Only card types not supported by Patran are sent to the reject card blocks. (This includes comments.)
Entries which are otherwise recognized, but can not be imported due to syntax or invalid data errors are
not sent to the reject blocks.
Main Index
170 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Data Translated from the NASTRAN Input File
Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File 171
Conflict Resolution
Main Index
172 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Conflict Resolution
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example Problems
7
J Overview 174
J Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis 175
J Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board 200
J Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board 214
J Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance 231
J Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow 241
J Example 6  Radiation Enclosures 261
J Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe 273
J Example 8  Directional Heat Loads 290
J Example 9  Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads 302
J Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate 310
Main Index
174 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Overview
7.1 Overview
This chapter provides ten examples that illustrate popular capabilities in Patran’s interface to the MD
Nastran thermal solver. The first example, which describes transient thermal analysis, is an extension of
the steady state modeling exercise given in Getting Started  A Guided Exercise (Ch. 2). This example
contains stepbystep descriptions of the menu picks involved in the modeling process.
Examples 2 through 10 are in easy to follow tutorial format. The actual menu structures are not shown
since the expectation is for the user to follow along interactively with the Patran modeling system.
The session files of the example problems described in this chapter are delivered with the software. To
run an example problem:
1. Start Patran by entering the command p3.
1. From Patran’s main form, pull down the File menu and select Session  Play. A Play Session
File form will appear.
1. Select nastherm_exn.ses from the Session File List listbox.
1. Click on Apply.
Patran will execute the modeling process and show you how to build the model.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 175
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Main Index
176 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
0.4 m
1m
Aluminum Plate
k = 204 W/moC
Cp = 896 J/kgoC
ρ = 2707 kg/m3
h = 10.0 W/m2oC
3m q = qflux(t) W/m2
Tamb = 20.0 Co
T0 = 50 oC
T = 50 oC
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 177
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
File
Session Filter
Print... /tmp/*.db
Apply Filter Cancel
Report...
Directories Database List
Quit Ctrl Q
/tmp/. plate.db
/tmp/..
OK Filter Cancel
Main Index
178 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Fields
Action: Create
Object: Non Spatial STEP 1: Toggle the Object setting to Non Spatial.
Method: Tabular Input
Existing Fields
Field Name
flux_time STEP 2: Click inside the Field Name databox and type in
flux_time.
Table Definition
Active Independent Variables
Time (t)
Frequency (f)
Input Data ... STEP 3: Click on the Input Data button.
[Options...]
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 179
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Time(t) Value
1 0.00000E+00 1.00000E+00
2 1.00000E+01 1.25000E+00
3 3.00000E+01 1.75000E+00
4 5.00000E+01 2.00000E+00
5 1.00000E+02 2.00000E+00
6
7
8
OK
Main Index
180 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Fields
Action: Create
Object: Non Spatial
Method: Tabular Input
Existing Fields
Field Name
qvol_time STEP 6: Click inside the Field Name
databox and type in qvol_time.
Table Definition
STEP 7: Click on the Input Data button. Fill in the
Active Independent Variables table with the following values using the
RETURN or ENTER key.
Time (t) Time Value
Frequency (f) 0 10000
Input Data ... 10 12000
[Options...] 30 13000
50 14000
100 14000
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 181
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Load Cases
Action: Create
* Filter
Prioritize Load/BCs
Main Index
182 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Load/BoundaryConditions
Action: Create
transient...
Existing Sets
flux
Input Data...
STEP 4: Click on the Input Data button. The Input Data form will
. appear.
Select Application Region..
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 183
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Input Data
Form Type: Basic
Surface Option: Edge
STEP 5: Toggle the Surface
Option setting from Top to Edge. Edge Heat Flux * Time Function
5000 f:flux_time
OK Reset Cancel
Main Index
184 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Next, click on Select Application Region located on the Loads and Boundary Conditions form.
STEP 9: Two icon choices will appear, Surface and Edge. Click on the
bottom icon, Edge.
Application Region
Select Surfaces or Edges STEP 10: Position the
cursor over the right
Surface 1.3 edge of the surface and
click on this edge with
the mouse. Patran will
insert Surface 1.3 in the
Add Remove databox under the
heading Select Surfaces
Application Region or Edges.
Note: A yellow marker will appear on the surface’s right edge indicating that a heat flux load has been
applied along the right edge.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 185
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Main Index
186 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Load/BoundaryConditions
Action: Create
transient...
Existing Sets
Target Element Type: 2D STEP 3: Toggle the Target Element Type setting to 2D.
Input Data... STEP 4: Click on the Input Data button. The Input Data form will
. appear.
Select Application Region..
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 187
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Input Data
Form Type: Basic
Volumetric Heat Generation * Time Function
f:qvol_time
OK Reset Cancel
Main Index
188 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Next, click on Select Application Region located on the Loads and Boundary Conditions form. We want
to apply an internal heat generation inside a section of the plate from x=0.0 m to x=0.4 m. This
application region will be selected by graphical cursor using the FEM geometry filter.
Select Application
Load/Boundary Region
Conditions
Geometry Filter STEP 7: Click on FEM under the Geometry
Action: Create Filter. Use the mouse cursor to drag a
uu Geometry rectangle covering the elements located
Object: Temp (Thermal) between x=0.0 m and x=0.4 m. Release the
u mouse cursor. The first two columns of the
FEM
Type: Nodal elements will turn red indicating the selection.
Also, a list of elements will appear in the
Select 2D Elements databox.
Application Region
Analysis Type: Thermal
Select Load
Current 2D Elements
Case:
56 57 61 Default...
62 66 67 71 72
Type: Static
STEP 8: Click Add Remove
on Add. Existing Sets
Application Region
Note: A square yellow marker will appear on the center of the selected element indicating that a volumetric
heating has been applied on this element.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 189
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Analysis
STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action: Analyze Action:Analyze
Object:Entire Model
Object: Entire Model Method:Full Run
Code: MD Nastran
Type: Thermal
Available Jobs
plate
Job Name
plate_tran STEP 2: Click inside the Job Name databox and change the j
name to plate_tran.
Job Description
STEP 3: Click on Solution Type. The Solution Type form will
MSC.Nastran job created appear.
on 18Apr96 at 13:58:15
Solution Type
Translation Parameters...
MD Nastran
Solution Type
Solution Type...
Solution Type:
Direct Text Input... uu STEADY STATE ANALYSIS STEP 4: Click
u TRANSIENT ANALYSIS on the
Subcase Create... TRANSIENT
ANALYSIS.
Subcase Select...
STEP 5: Click on
Solution
Parameters to
specify the
default initial
temperature.
Main Index
190 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Solution Parameters
Transient Solution Parameters
Print Out Singularities
Default Init Temperature = 50.0 STEP 1: Click inside the Default Init Temperature
databox and change the value to 50.0.
Radiation Parameters...
OK Defaults Cancel
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 191
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
OK Cancel
Main Index
192 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Subcase Select
Subcases For Solution Sequence: 159
Default
transient STEP 1: Click on transient within the
Subcases for Solution Sequence: 159
listbox. The word transient will appear
inside the Subcases Selected listbox.
Subcases Selected:
Default STEP 2: Click on Default in the Subcases
transient Selected listbox to remove the load case
Default.
OK Cancel
Click on OK.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 193
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Analysis
Code: MD Nastran
Type: Thermal
Available Jobs
plate
plate_tran
Job Name
plate_tran STEP 2: Make sure that the Job Name setting is
plate_tran.
Job Description
Translation Parameters...
Select Results File... STEP 3: Click on the Select Results File button and
double click on the file called plate_tran.op2.
Note: The heartbeat will change to the color blue, indicating that reading process is underway. When the heartbeat
turns green again, the results are ready for postprocess.
Main Index
194 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Results Display
Results
Action: Create
Quantity: Magnitude
Animate
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 195
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Results
Action: Create
Method: Y vs X
none none none none STEP 4: Press the Target Entities icon to toggle
the form to select target entities.
Y: Result
Select Y Result
Boundary Heat Flux, Radiation
Boundary Heat Flux, Total
Heat Fluxes,
Temperature Gradients,
Temperatures,
,
STEP 3: Within the Select Y Result listbox, highlight
Temperatures.
Position...((NONLAYERED))
X: Global Variable
Variable: Time
Main Index
196 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Results
Action: Create
Object: Graph
Method: Y vs X
Target Entity:
Nodes STEP 5: Select Nodes as the target entity.
Select Nodes
Node 49:54 STEP 6: Click inside the Select Nodes databox. Use
the mouse cursor to drag a rectangle covering
nodes 49 to 54. A list of nodes, Node 49:54, will
appear in the Node IDs databox.
Apply Reset
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 197
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
XY Plot
Action: Modify
STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Object: Axis Action:Modify
Object:Axis
Active Axis
uu X u Y STEP 2: Toggle the Active Axis setting to Y.
Options...
Title...
Tick Marks...
Grid Lines...
Main Index
198 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Axis Scale
Scale
u Linear
uu Logarithmic
Assignment Method
uu Automatic
uu Manual
uu SemiAutomatic
u Range STEP 4: Toggle the Assignment Method to Range.
Reset
Apply Cancel
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 199
Example 1  Transient Thermal Analysis
Next, you must click on Grid Lines located on the XY Plot form. The Grid Lines form will appear.
Grid Lines
Display
Secondary
Options
u Primary
uu Secondary
uu Both
1 50
1
Line Thickness
Reset
Apply Cancel
Main Index
200 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
9.0 in
1.0 in
1.0 in
1.0 in 6.0 in
1.0 in
4.0 in
1.5 in
1.0 in
2.0 in
1.0 in 1.0 in
X
4.0 in
5.5 in
q = 5.0 W/in2
Kpcb = 0.066 W/inoC
h = 0.02 W/in2oC
Tamb = 20.0 oC
Problem Description
Figure 72 depicts a printed circuit board (PCB) assembly which has three significant chip devices
mounted on it. Each chip is generating heat at a rate that is consistent with the application of a heat flux
of 5.0 W/in2 over each device surface area. Heat is dissipated by thermal conduction within the chips and
underlying board. Free convection to the ambient environment provides the ultimate heat sink. The
ambient temperature for convection is assumed to be 20.0 oC, and a heat transfer coefficient of 0.02
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 201
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
W/in2oC is used to apply convection to the entire assembly surface. We will analyze the printed circuit
board to determine the device temperatures so that they can be compared to manufacturer allowables.
Modeling
This example demonstrates the modeling of a printed circuit board with multiple components. We will
create surfaces for PCB and electronic devices, extrude the surfaces to generate 3D solids, specify
properties, apply thermal loads and boundary conditions, and then perform a steadystate analysis.
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202 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 203
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Chip 1
Surface ID List 2
Vector Coordinates List < 1 1.5 0 >
Origin Coordinates List [110]
Apply
Chip 2
Surface ID List 3
Vector Coordinates List <110>
Origin Coordinates List [440]
Apply
Chip 3
Surface ID List 4
Vector Coordinates List <110>
Origin Coordinates List [ 5.5 2 0 ]
Apply
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204 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Chips 1, 2, 3
Solid ID List 2
Translation Vector <0 0 0.25>
Surface List Surface 2:4
You can use the Auto Execute instead of
Apply clicking on Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 205
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
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206 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Specify Materials
For this model we will assume that the PCB and chips are manufactured from isotropic materials having constant
conductivities:
PCB
◆ Materials
Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input
Chips 1, 2, 3
◆ Materials
Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 207
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
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208 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
PCB
◆ Properties
Action: Create
Dimension: 3D
Type: Solid
Chips 1, 2, 3
Property Set Name chip
Input Properties...
Material Name m:chip Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Select Members Solid 2:4
Add
Apply
To verify that the correct material properties have been defined and assigned to the correct model locations, change th
option to Show and create a scalar plot of the model’s materials.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 209
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
The duplicate nodes located at the PCB and chip interfaces must be merged. Merging establishes and simulates
the physical connection between the PCB and chip components. In Patran equivalencing the model performs node
merging.
◆ Finite Elements
Action: Equivalence
Object: All
Method: Tolerance Cube
To check the equivalence process you should verify the element boundaries. If the model has been equivalenced
properly you should see a wireframe rendering of your model where only the free edges are components of the
wireframe image. Display the view to ensure that the model has no cracks between elements.
◆ Finite Elements
Action: Verify
Object: Element
Test: Boundaries
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210 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
A heat flux will now be applied to the exposed plan form face of the chips.
◆ Load/Boundary Conditions
Action: Create
Object: Applied Heat
Type: Element Uniform
Add
OK
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 211
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Add
OK
Apply
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Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 213
Example 2  Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board
◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot
Table 720 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
Apply
Discussion of Results
The heat generated by the electronic devices is conducted to the printed circuit board, and then spread on the epoxy glas
PCB. The cooling mechanism is provided by a free convection heat exchange between the backside of the PCB and th
ambient fluid that is maintained at 20 oC. As a result, the largest electronic device has the highest temperature. Becaus
of their identical size, the other two electronic chips possess nearly the same temperature distribution.
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214 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
X
. h = h(T) W/in2oC Air
m= 8.33E3 lbm/sec
Problem Description
This is an extension of the previous analysis (Example 2). The geometry is unchanged; however, the
applied heat flux is increased to 20.0 W/in2. In place of free convection to an ambient environment, an
advective flow will traverse the surface. The coolant stream travels in the Xdirection with the inlet
located at X=0 and the outlet positioned at X=L=9.0 inches. The mass flow rate is constant at any X
location with a value of 0.5 lbm/min (8.33E03 lbm/sec). The inlet temperature is set at 20 oC.
Associated with the advection flow which transports energy streamwise, is the heat transfer that takes
place between the fluid stream and the PCB. In this problem, energy passes from the PCB into the fluid
stream. The convection behavior for this transport is specified with a temperature dependent heat transfer
coefficient. In the absence of any film node specification, the look up temperature for this heat transfer
coefficient defaults to the average temperature between the PCB surface element and its ambient points,
in this case, the nodal points in the advected fluid stream.
Modeling
We will model the previous PCB thermal analysis with forced air convection over the flat plate, using the
Coupled Advection feature. The air temperature rises in the X direction as the fluid stream traverses the
circuit board. The temperature dependency of the convection coefficient will be defined using a
temperature dependent field.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 215
Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
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Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 217
Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
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Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Specify Materials
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 219
Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
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Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 221
Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
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222 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Preferably, the mesh size should be the same on the air stream as on the PCB.
Note: The identical mesh size is not required, but may provide the most accurate model. The Closest Approach metho
select the nearest neighboring structure and fluid nodes.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 223
Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
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Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 225
Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Action: Create
Object: Convection
Type: Element Uniform
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Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 227
Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
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Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 229
Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
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Example 3  Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board
Discussion of Results
With the advection flow attached to the printed circuit board’s back surface, the resulting temperature pr
significantly different behavior than in the prior example where free convection provided the heat transfe
the printed circuit board and a surrounding fluid maintained at a constant temperature (20 oC). In this exam
receives energy as it moves downstream along the PCB. Since the inlet flow is maintained at 20 oC, the ed
coincides with X=0 is the coolest and the trailing edge (X=L) is necessarily warmer. Similarly, the most
streamwise sense has the highest peak temperature.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 231
Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance
2.0 in
2.0 in
5.0 in
Kpwb = 0.6 W/inoC
2.0 in
X
2.0 in
Z q = 10.0 W/in2
0.5 in
X
T = 20.0 oC
Problem Description
The dimension of the chip is 2 x 2 inches with a thickness of 0.25 inches. The printed wiring board is 5
x 5 inches with a thickness of 0.5 inches.
Thermal conductivity properties for the chip and wiring board are, respectively, 1.34 and 0.6 W/inoC.
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232 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance
A heat flux of 10 W/in2 is imposed on the top of the chip component. A thermal conductance value of
1.2 W/in2oC is applied between the chip and the printed wiring board. The bottom of the printed wiring
board is held at a constant temperature of 20 oC.
Modeling
In this example we will model the contact resistance between two solidsin this case, the contact between
an electronic component and a printed wiring board (PWB)to determine the maximum temperature at
the top of the chip and the temperature drop to the bottom of the wiring board.
Solid ID List 2
Vector Coordinates List < 2 2 .25 >
Origin Coordinates List [221]
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 233
Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance
Main Index
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Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance
Specify Materials
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 235
Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance
Main Index
236 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance
Contact resistance is modeled in Patran using the ConvectionCoupled menu operation (select the bottom
chip surface and the top of the printed wiring board
to specify the thermal conductance between the two surfaces). This technique enables you to apply a connection throu
convection between two solid geometric faces without connecting the structures with finite elements. One advantage o
method is that mesh sizes between the two regions need not be congruent. Patran will automatically find the ambient
closest to the thermal contact area. (The same technique can be used to model thermal contacts directly from 2D to 1D ge
entities, or even from solid faces to nodal ambient points.) However, this convenience is not intended as a replacemen
responsible modeling practices.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 237
Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance
Add
OK
Apply
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238 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance
Add
OK
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 239
Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance
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240 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 4  Thermal Contact Resistance
◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot
Table 778 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
Apply
Discussion of Results
Due to the simple geometry, a hand calculation can be performed to provide an estimate of the maximum
temperature at the chip surface:
Layer Resistance ≅ Thickness / ( K * A cross section)
For a total heat load of 40 W, the maximum temperature can be estimated as:
Q = ∆T / Total Resistance
Then, Tmax = 20.0 + 40.0 * (Total Resistance)
or 31.53 oC < Tmax < 38.53 oC
The finite element calculation determined the maximum temperature as 36.51 oC, which is rational
considering the hand calculation and the approximation inherent in that solution.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 241
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Z X
q = 20 W/in2
0.5 in
10.0 in
5.0 in
Aluminum Plate
K = 4.0 W/inoC
Tin = 20.0 oC
. 0.8 in
Air
m= 8.333E3 * 5 lbm/sec
K = 6.66E4 W/inoC
DH = 0.5333 in Cp = 456.2 J/lbmoC
0.5 in 0.4 in
ρ = 5.01E5 lbm/in3
h = 0.3 W/in2oC
1.0 in
µ = 1.03E6 lbm/insec
Problem Description
Forced air convection is a very efficient method of removing heat in a limited space. In electronic
packaging, forced air convection is used to remove heat in a compact heat exchanger. Modeling this
problem within the Patran MD Nastran system requires building a structural model and a fluid model,
and connecting them in an appropriate fashion. Patran can associate the structure nodes with the fluid
nodes using a technique called the Closest Approach method. This method allows the analyst an option
to specify noncoincident mesh sizes on the structure and the fluid nodes. However, it is recommended
that you use an identical mesh size for a regular isoparametric rectangular mesh, as demonstrated in this
example.
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242 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Modeling
The compact heat exchanger dimensions are 0.5 inch high, 5.0 inches wide, and 10 inches long. The heat
exchanger has a total of five rectangular ducts. Each duct has a dimension of 0.8 inch in width and 0.4
inch in height. The inlet temperature of the fluid is at 20 oC. The power density is applied to one side of
the heatsink at 20 W/in2. The mass flow rate per channel is 0.5 lbm/min (0.008333 lbm/sec). The fluid
properties of the air are evaluated at 25 oC.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 243
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
244 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 245
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
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Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
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Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 249
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
250 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 251
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
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Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 253
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
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254 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 255
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
256 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 257
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
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258 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 259
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot
Table 7111 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
Change
the view
to Iso1
View
Apply
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260 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5  Typical Avionics Flow
Discussion of Results
The heat flux is imposed on the top of the plate with power density of 20 W/in2. The heat is then spread
throughout the aluminum heat sink, and is carried away by the forced air convection inside the channels.
The inlet temperature is at 20 oC. There will be a temperature rise in the fluid due to the imposed surface
heat flux. The maximum temperature, 101.2 oC, occurs near the exhaust of the module. The exit air
temperature is at 71.82 oC.
We can check the energy balance on the fluid as follows:
Total heat = 20*5*10=1000 W
∆T = 1000/(0.04167*456.2) = 52.6 oC
We can see the exit temperature (71.82oC) calculated by MD Nastran is very close to the hand calculation
of 72.6 oC.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 261
Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
I II III
Cavity 1 Cavity 2
Aluminum Plate
k = 204 W/moK
ε = 1.0 1 1/2 m
3m
Thickness = 0.001 m
q=2000 W/m2
2m
Y
X 1m
Z 2m 3m
Problem Description
Three plates are in radiative equilibrium with a zerodegree ambient environment. Each plate measures
2 m by 3 m, and are arranged as shown in the figure above. The center plate (II) has a heat flux applied
to it with a magnitude of 2000 W/m2 in the central region, as illustrated.
The emissivity of all surfaces is chosen as 1.0, representing perfect blackbodies. The plate thicknesses
are all 0.001 m, and the material is aluminum. Temperature distribution for each plate will be determined.
Modeling
Each plate is meshed with sixteen QUAD8 elements. Two radiation cavities are defined. Cavity 1
includes all the elements on Plates I and II that view each other. These elements also communicate with
zerodegree space. The second cavity is comprised of the elements on Plates II and III, which see each
other, and they also communicate with zerodegree space. By defining two separate cavities, we have
eliminated any of the shadowing calculations that would be required on a singlecavity model. The non
cavity sides of Plates I and III are treated as adiabatic surfaces (i.e., perfectly insulated). The normal heat
flux is applied to one side of the centermost four elements of Plate II, for a total heat load of 3000 W.
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Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 263
Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
◆Number of Elements
Number= 4
Curve List Surface 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2
Apply
◆IsoMesh
Surface List Surface 1:3
Apply
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Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
Specify Materials
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 265
Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
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266 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
In this example, we are going to define two cavities for radiation exchange. In so doing, we explicitly
eliminate the need for any shadowing calculations when performing the view factor calculations.
This will save a lot of time in attaining a temperature solution within MD Nastran. Basically, to
identify the TOP and BOTTOM surfaces appropriately, each independent surface within an
enclosure will have a distinct SET NAME. Consistent use of the ENCLOSURE ID with each SET
NAME ensures that the elements are included in the appropriate enclosure
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 267
Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
Main Index
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Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 269
Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
Main Index
270 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
Since radiation heat transfer, by definition, makes our problem highly nonlinear, we need to
consider the Default Initial Temperature setting if we hope to achieve a converged solution with
the MD Nastran thermal solver.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 271
Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
◆ Analysis
Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate
◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot
Table 7122 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
Apply
Discussion of Results
The center plate has the highest and the lowest temperature for the problem. Since the heat flux is applied
to this plate, we expect the maximum temperature to occur here.
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272 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 6  Radiation Enclosures
But what about the minimum temperature? Recall that our model includes a good deal of radiation
exchange with a space environment. The outer plates (I and III) are insulated on their noncavity sides.
Therefore, only the cavityfacing side can “see” the space environment. The center plate with the heat
flux load, however, can view space from both sides, allowing it to be twice as effective in loosing energy
to space. This accounts for the minimum temperature condition on the edges of the plate. Additionally,
plate I has a higher temperature than Plate III due to its relative location being closer to the center plate
than Plate III.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 273
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
h = 3.0 Btu/hrft2oF
5.0 ft
Tamb = 100 oF
X
1.5 ft
3.5 ft
3.9167 ft
4.75 ft
Problem Description
In this example we will analyze an axisymmetric structure for its temperature distribution. We will use
the MD Nastran CTRIAX6 axisymmetric element (in its 3 node configuration) as the heat conduction
element.
The basic geometry is detailed in the figure above. A section of pipe consisting of composite materials
is divided into two different material regions. Region A is from radius 1.5 feet to 3.5 feet. Region B is
from radius 3.5 feet to 4.75 feet. The overall pipe section is 5.0 feet long with an inside diameter of 3 feet
and an outside diameter of 9.5 feet.
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274 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Oil flows through the interior with an inlet temperature of 100 oF and a mass flow rate of 2.88E6 lbm/hr.
The forced convection heat transfer coefficient between the oil and wall is calculated by MD Nastran
using the following relationship:
Thermal conductivity properties for Region A and Region B are 0.2 and 0.5 Btu/hrftoF.
Volumetric internal heat generation occurs in the subregion of Region B (Specifically from radius 3.5 feet
to 3.9167 feet), and varies based on Z location. The heat generation is 1200 * (1Z/5) Btu/hrft3, where
Z is given in units of feet. Free convection to an ambient temperature of 100 oF is applied to the exterior
surface of the structure through a heat transfer coefficient of 3.0 Btu/hrft2oF.
Modeling
We will apply a special modeling technique, FIELDS, to input the volumetric heating rate as a function
of Z. Coupled Flow Tube is used to tie the structure to the fluid elements.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 275
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Main Index
276 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Apply
Surface ID List 1
Vector Coordinates List <205>
Origin Coordinates List [ 1.5 0 0 ]
Apply
Surface ID List 2
Vector Coordinates List < .4167 0 5 >
Origin Coordinates List [ 3.5 0 0 ]
Apply
Surface ID List 3
Vector Coordinates List < .8333 0 5 >
Origin Coordinates List [ 3.9167 0 0 ]
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 277
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Main Index
278 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Number = 10
L2/L1 = 2.0
Curve List Curve 1 Surface 1.4 3.2
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 279
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Main Index
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Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 281
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Main Index
282 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 283
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Main Index
284 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Option: To Ambient
New Set Name conv
Target Element Type 2D
Input Data...
Surface Option edge
Edge Convection Coef 3.0
Ambient Temperature 100
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select the Edge icon
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 285
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
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Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 287
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Apply a fluidstructure coupling between the oil and the inner wall of the pipe.
Add
OK
Apply
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288 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 289
Example 7  Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe
◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot
Table 7139 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
Apply
Discussion of Results
The maximum temperature occurs near the internal heat generation region with a temperature of 842.3oF.
The fluid temperature remains constant at 100 oF because of the massive flow rate at 2.88E6 lbm/hr.
Main Index
290 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
6.0 in
Aluminum Cylinder
Y k = 3.96 W/inoC
α = ε = 0.8
Thickness = 0.0625 in
Z X
Problem Description
In this example we will apply a directional heat load on cylinder. We will orient the surface normal from
the surface such that the normal vector (Right hand rule) will point away from the surface. This allows
the incoming directional heat flux to see the normals, and project the correct energy by forming a dot
product with this vector. A typical application of this directional heat load process is in an orbital heating
environment.
The dimension of the cylinder is 1.5 inch in diameter with a length of 6 inches. The material is aluminum
with a thermal conductivity of 3.96 W/inoC. The absorptivity and emissivity of the cylinder surface are
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 291
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
0.8. The directional heat load is 30 W/in2. The exterior surface of the cylinder looses heat by radiation to
space. The radiation view factor is 1.0 and the ambient temperature is 20 oC.
Modeling
We will first calculate the temperature distribution based on the above boundary conditions.
Subsequently in Example 9, we will create a spatial FEM field that defines the temperature load for a
thermal stress analysis.
Main Index
292 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
Point ID List 1
Refer Coordinate Frame Coord 0
Point Coordinates List [ 0.75 0 0 ]
Apply
Curve ID List 1
Total Angle 360.0
If the Auto Execute is ON, you do not need to
Auto Execute click on Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 293
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
The surface normal direction is important in this problem, because the incoming heat flux vector will
form a dot product with the normal vector for the surface generating the correct projected surface area
for application of the heat load. Therefore, when we created the cylinder using geometry, we should
verify that the normal vector points outward. This is accomplished by using:
Apply
Select Surface 1 to make sure that the normal vector indicated by the red arrow points outward from the cylinder. If
the normal vector is pointing inward, then you can reverse the surface normal by using the following command:
Main Index
294 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
Apply
Change the view to Iso1
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 295
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
Main Index
296 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 297
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
Main Index
298 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 299
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
Main Index
300 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot
Table 7153 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
Apply
Discussion of Results
Example 8 demonstrates an aluminum cylinder in radiative equilibrium. The heat source is directional
(light source oriented), and the radiation boundary condition is equal for all directions. The cylinder’s
maximum temperature (~473 oC) is attained on the side subject to the solar heat load. The minimum
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 301
Example 8  Directional Heat Loads
temperature (~424 oC) occurs in the shadow region. The high conductivity of the cylinder helps to
equilibrate the temperatures. If the conductivity were very low, the maximum temperature would
approach 740 oC with the minimum approximately 20 oC.
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302 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 9  Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads
6.0 in
E = 1.0E7 lb/in2
ν = 0.34
α = 1.3E5 in/inoC
Y
Thickness = 0.0625 in
Z X
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to apply the thermal results of Example 8 to perform a stress analysis.
We will create the temperature loading for the stress run by using the CreateSpatialFEM command
under the Fields Application. You can also use the include punch file option to get the thermal load.
The diameter of the cylinder is 1.5 inch with a length of 6 inches. The material is aluminum. The heat
transfer problem solved in Example 8 resulted in a temperature solution which we would now like to
apply to a thermal stress analysis.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 303
Example 9  Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads
Modeling
We will first apply the CreateSpatialFEM command to define the temperature load for a thermal stress
analysis. Initially, the structure is stressfree at a temperature of 0 oC. The cylinder is clamped on both
ends for the thermal stress calculation.
Main Index
304 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 9  Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 305
Example 9  Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads
Main Index
306 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 9  Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 307
Example 9  Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads
Main Index
308 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 9  Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads
◆ Analysis
Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 309
Example 9  Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads
◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot
Discussion of Results
For output we plot the von Mises stress for the fixed end cylinder undergoing the directional thermal load.
Peak stresses occur near the fixed end points (recall the points are fixed in X, Y, and Z directions).
Thermal expansion causes growth in the axial and radial directions with a circumferential variation due
to the directional nature of the thermal load. Near the cylinder midplane, in an axial sense, we find the
maximum stress at the location which is normal to the directional load vector. The minimum is on the
opposite side of the cylinder in the shadow.
Main Index
310 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
T = 70.0 oC
Problem Description
In this example we will perform the thermal stress analysis of a bimetallic strip. We will build the entire
model from geometric construction so that we can apply loads directly on the geometry. The dimension
of the bimetallic strip is one inch by one inch. The thickness for the solder type material is 0.05 inch,
and the thickness of the Ge material is 0.025 inch. Thus the assembly thickness is 0.075 inch.
The top surface temperature boundary condition is 30 oC, and the bottom surface temperature boundary
condition is 70 oC. We will determine the temperature distribution by running a steadystate thermal
analysis.
Modeling
Prior to the development of the Patran MD Nastran Heat Transfer interface, one would request:
TEMP(PUNCH)=all
in the MD Nastran Case Control section of the thermal run. The temperature load is then created and
saved inside the punch file. In the subsequent thermal stress analysis one can access this file by defining
TEMP(LOAD)=1
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 311
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
312 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 313
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Number = 4
Curve List Solid 1.1.1 1.2.1 1.2.3 1.1.3 Click on the four (4) corners of Solid
1. Hold the shift key down while you
click
Apply
Number = 2
Curve List Solid 2.1.1 2.2.1 2.2.3 2.1.3 Click on the four (4) corners of Solid
2. Hold the shift key down while you
click
Apply
Main Index
314 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Material Name Ge
Input Properties...
Constitutive Model Solid properties
Thermal Conductivity 1.524
Apply
Material Name Solder
Constitutive Model Solid properties
Thermal Conductivity 1.27
Apply
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 315
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
316 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 317
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
318 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
◆ Analysis
Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 319
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot
Apply
◆Fields
Action: Create
Object: Spatial
Method: FEM
Main Index
320 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 321
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
322 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 323
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
324 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 325
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
326 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Apply Constraints
Apply constraints on the four corner points of the top surface.
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 327
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
328 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot
Discussion of Results
The reference or zero stress state for the assembly is initialized at 30 oC. The thermal coefficient of
expansion for the solder is approximately four times that of Ge. When the temperature gradient
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 329
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
associated with the temperature boundary conditions is applied, the solder layer wants to grow
significantly more than the Ge layer due not only to the higher coefficient of thermal expansion, but also
because of the higher temperature relative to TREF. The Ge layer ends up with a more complex stress
pattern due to its four corner points being constrained, the distribution of temperature through the layer,
and the growth enforced by the solder layer. The free surface of the solder layer exhibits the low stress
levels.
Main Index
330 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10  Thermal Stress Analysis of a BiMetallic Plate
Main Index
Files
A
J
Files 332
Main Index
332
Files
1.1 Files
The Patran MD Nastran Preference uses or creates several files.The following table outlines each file and
its uses. In the file name definition, jobname will be replaced with the jobname assigned by the user.
Description
*.db This is the Patran database. During an analyze pass, model data is read from this
database and, during a Read Results pass, model and/or results data is written into
it. This file typically resides in the current directory.
jobname.jbr These are small files used to pass certain information between Patran and the
independent translation programs during translation. There should never be a need
to directly alter these files. These files typically reside in the current directory.
jobname.bdf This is the MD Nastran input file created by the interface. This file typically resides
in the current directory.
msc_v#_sol#.alt These are a series of MD Nastran alters that are read during forward translation.
These alters instruct MD Nastran to write information to the OUTPUT2 file that
the results translation will be looking for. The forward translator searches the
Patran file path for these files, but they typically reside in the
<installation_directory>/alters directory. If these files do not meet specific needs,
edit them accordingly. However, the naming convention of msc_v# <version
#>_sol#<solution #>.alt must be preserved. Either place the edited file back into
the <installation_directory>/alters directory or in any directory on the Patran file
path, which takes precedence over the <installation_directory>/alters directory. If
these files are not used, remove them from the Patran file path, rename them, or
delete them altogether.
jobname.op2 This is the NASTRAN OUTPUT2 file, which is read by the Read Results pass.
This file typically resides in the current directory.
jobname.flat This file may be generated during a Read Results pass. If the results translation
cannot write data directly into the specified Patran database, it will create this
jobname.flat file. This file typically resides in the current directory.
jobname.msg.xx These message files contain any diagnostic output from the translation, either
forward or reverse. This file typically resides in the current directory.
MscNastranExecute This is a UNIX script file, which is called on to submit MD Nastran after
translation is complete. This file might need customizing with site specific data,
such as, host machine name and MD Nastran executable commands. This file
contains many comments and should be easy to edit. Patran searches its file path to
find this file, but it typically resides in the <installation_directory>/bin/exe
directory. Either use the general copy in <installation_directory>/bin/exe, or place
a local copy in a directory on the file path, which takes precedence over the
<installation_directory>/bin/exe directory.
Main Index
Error Messages
B
J
Error Messages 334
Main Index
334
Error Messages
Description
Unable to open a new message file " ". Translation If the translation tries to open a message file and cannot, it
messages will be written to standard output. will write messages to Standard Output. On most systems,
the translator automatically writes dmessages to standard
output and never tries to create a separate message file.
Unable to open the specified OUTPUT2 file " ". The OUTPUT2 file was not found. Check the OUTPUT2
file specification in the translation control file.
The specified OUTPUT2 file " " is not in The OUTPUT2 file is not in standard binary format. Check
standard binary format and cannot be translated. the OUTPUT2 file specification in the translation control
file.
Group " " does not exist in the database. Model The name of a nonexistent group was specified in the
data will not be translated. translator control file. No model data will be translated
from the OUTPUT2 file.
Needed file specification missing! The full name of The translation control file must be specified as the first
the job file must be specified as the first command online argument to the translator.
line argument to this program.
Unable to open the specified database " ". If the translator cannot communicate directly to the
Writing the OUTPUT2 information to the PCL specified database. It will write the results and/or model
command file " ". data to a PCL session file.
Unable to open either the specified database " ", The naspat3 translator is unable to open any output file.
or a PCL command file, " ". Check file specification and directory protection.
Unable to open the NASTRAN input file " ". The translator was unable to open a file to where the input
file information will be written.
Unable to open the specified database, " ". The forward Patran MD Nastran translator was unable to
open the specified Patran database.
Alter file of the name " " could not be found. No The OUTPUT2 DMAP alter file, for this type of analysis,
OUPUT2 alter will be written to the NASTRAN could not be found. Correct the search path to include the
input file. necessary directory if you want the alter files to be written
to the input file.
No property regions are defined in the database. Elements referenced by an element property region in the
No elements or element properties can be Patran database will not get translated by the forward
translated. Patran MD Nastran translator. If no element regions are
defined, no elements will be translated.
Main Index
Supported Commands
C
J
File Management Statements 336
J
Executive Control Statements 337
J
Case Control Commands 338
J
Bulk Data Entries 339
Main Index
336
File Management Statements
Description
ASSIGN An ASSIGN command is used to assign a particular name (job name + user specified MD
Nastran results suffix) to the NASTRAN OUTPUT2 file to be created during the analysis.
Main Index
337
Executive Control Statements
Description
SOL Specifies the solution sequence or main subDMAP to be executed. (p. 113)
TIME Sets the maximum CPU and I/O time.(p. 114), (p. 117)
Main Index
338
Case Control Commands
Description
DLOAD Selects a dynamic load or an acoustic source to be applied in a transient or frequency
response problem. (p. 66)
ECHO Controls echo (i.e., printout) of the Bulk Data. (p. 114), (p. 117)
ENTHALPY Requests form of enthalpy vector output in transient heat transfer analysis (SOL 159).
(p. 130)
FLUX Requests the form and type of gradient and flux output in heat transfer analysis. (p. 130)
HDOT Requests form of rate of change of enthalpy vector output in transient heat transfer analysis
(SOL 159). (p. 130)
IC Selects the initial conditions for direct transient analysis (SOLs 27, 69, 99, 109, 129, and
159). (p. 75)
LOAD Selects an external static load set. (p. 66)
MAXLINES Sets the maximum number of output lines. (p. 114), (p. 117)
MPC Selects a multipoint constraint set. (p. 50)
NLPARM Selects the parameters used for nonlinear static analysis. (p. 123), (p. 133)
OLOAD Requests the form and type of applied load vector output. (p. 130)
SPC Selects a singlepoint constraint set to be applied. (p. 73)
SPCFORCES Requests the form and type of singlepoint force of constraint vector output. (p. 130)
SUBCASE Delimits and identifies a subcase. (p. 121), (p. 135)
SUBTITLE Defines a subtitle that will appear on the second heading line of each page of printer output.
(p. 121)
TEMPERATURE Selects the temperature set to be used in either material property calculations or thermal
loading in heat transfer and structural analysis. (p. 75)
THERMAL Requests the form and type of temperature output. (p. 130)
TITLE Defines a character string that will appear on the first heading line of each page of MD
Nastran printer output. (p. 106)
TSTEPNL Selects integration and output time steps for nonlinear transient problems. (p. 128), (p. 133)
Main Index
339
Bulk Data Entries
Description
CBAR Defines a simple beam element. (p. 60)
CBEAM Defines a beam element. (p. 62)
CBEND Defines a curved beam, curved pipe, or elbow element. (p. 61) (p. 62)
CDAMP1 Defines a scalar damper element. (p. 60)
CELAS1 Defines a scalar spring element. (p. 60)
CHBDYG Defines a boundary condition surface element without reference to a property entry. (p. 71)
CHBDYP Defines a boundary condition surface element with reference to a PHBDY entry. (p. 63),
(p. 71)
CHEXA Defines the connections of the sixsided solid element with eight to twenty grid points.
(p. 65)
CONROD Defines a rod element without reference to a property entry.(p. 110)
CONV Specifies a free convection boundary condition for heat transfer analysis through
connection to a surface element (CHBDYi entry). (p. 81), (p. 85), (p. 90)
CONVM Specifies a forced convection boundary condition for heat transfer analysis through
connection to a surface element (CHBDYi entry). (p. 82), (p. 87), (p. 90)
CORD2C Defines a cylindrical coordinate system using the coordinates of three points. (p. 51)
CORD2R Defines a rectangular coordinate system using the coordinates of three points. (p. 51)
CORD2S Defines a spherical coordinate system using the coordinates of three points. (p. 51)
CPENTA Defines the connections of a fivesided solid element with six to fifteen grid points. (p. 65)
CQUAD4 Defines an isoparametric membranebending or plane strain quadrilateral plate element.
(p. 64)
CQUAD8 Defines a curved quadrilateral shell or plane strain element with eight grid points. (p. 64)
CROD Defines a tensioncompressiontorsion element. (p. 60)
CTETRA Defines the connections of the foursided solid element with four to ten grid points. (p. 65)
CTRIA3 Defines an isoparametric membranebending or plane strain triangular plate element.
(p. 64)
CTRIA6 Defines a curved triangular shell element or plane strain with six grid points. (p. 64)
CTRIAX6 Defines an isoparametric and axisymmetric triangular cross section ring element with
midside grid points. (p. 65)
CTUBE Defines a tensioncompressiontorsion tube element. (p. 63)
DLOAD Defines a dynamic loading condition for frequency response or transient response
problems as a linear combination of load sets defined via RLOAD1 or RLOAD2 entries for
frequency response or TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entries for transient response. (p. 66)
Main Index
340
Bulk Data Entries
Description
INCLUDE Inserts an external file into the input file. The INCLUDE statement may appear anywhere
within the input data file. (p. 109)
MAT4 Defines the constant or temperature dependent thermal material properties for conductivity,
heat capacity, density, dynamic viscosity, heat generation, reference enthalpy and latent
heat associated with a single phase change. (p. 53)
MAT5 Defines the thermal material properties for anisotropic materials. (p. 53)
MATT4 Specifies table references for temperaturedependent MAT4 material properties. (p. 53)
MATT5 Specifies temperaturedependent material properties on MAT5 entry fields via TABLEMi
entries. (p. 53)
MPC Defines a multipoint constraint equation of the form. (p. 50)
NLPARM Defines a set of parameters for nonlinear static analysis iteration strategy. (p. 123), (p. 133)
PARAM,AUT AUTOSPC specifies the action to take when singularities exist in the stiffness matrix
OSPC [Kgg]. AUTOSPC = YES means that singularities will be constrained automatically.
AUTOSPC = NO means that singularities will not be constrained. (p. 114)
PARAM,PRG Controls the printout of singularities. See AUTOSPC. Default = YES. (p. 117)
PST
PARAM,SIG The radiant heat flux is proportional to SIGMA*(Tgrid + TABS)4, where SIGMA is the
MA StefanBoltzmann constant. Default = 0.0. (p. 115)
PARAM,TAB TABS is used to convert units of the temperature input (oF or oC) to the absolute
S temperature (°R or °K). Default = 0.0. (p. 115)
PBAR Defines the properties of a simple beam element (CBAR entry). (p. 60)
PBEAM Defines the properties of a beam element (CBEAM entry). This element may be used to
model tapered beams. (p. 62)
PBEND Defines the properties of a curved beam, curved pipe, or elbow element (CBEND entry).
(p. 61) (p. 62)
PCONV Specifies the free convection boundary condition properties of a boundary condition
surface element used for heat transfer analysis. (p. 81), (p. 85), (p. 90)
PCONVM Specifies the forced convection boundary condition properties of a boundary condition
surface element used for heat transfer analysis. (p. 82), (p. 87), (p. 90)
PDAMP Specifies the damping value of a scalar damper element using defined CDAMP1 or
CDAMP3 entries. (p. 60)
PELAS Specifies the stiffness, damping coefficient, and stress coefficient of a scalar elastic
(spring) element (CELAS1 or CELAS3 entry). (p. 60)
PHBDY Referenced by CHBDYP entries to give auxiliary geometric information for boundary
condition surface elements. (p. 63), (p. 71)
PROD Defines the properties of a rod element (CROD entry). (p. 60)
Main Index
341
Bulk Data Entries
Description
PSHELL Defines the membrane, bending, transverse shear, and coupling properties of thin shell
elements. (p. 64)
PSOLID Defines the properties of solid elements (CHEXA, CPENTA, and CTETRA entries).
(p. 65)
PTUBE Defines the properties of a thinwalled cylindrical tube element (CTUBE entry). (p. 63)
QBDY2 Defines grid point heat flux into CHBDYi elements. (p. 76)
QBDY3 Defines a uniform heat flux load for a boundary surface. (p. 76)
QHBDY Defines a uniform heat flux load into a set of grid points. (p. 79)
QVECT Defines thermal vector flux from a distant source into a face of one or more CHBDYi
boundary condition surface elements. (p. 77)
QVOL Defines a rate of volumetric heat addition in a conduction element. (p. 56), (p. 80)
RADBC Specifies a CHBDYi element face for application of radiation boundary conditions. (p. 96),
(p. 97)
RADCAV Identifies the characteristics of each radiant enclosure. (p. 98), (p. 115), (p. 115)
RADM Defines the radiation properties of a boundary element for heat transfer analysis. (p. 77),
(p. 96), (p. 97), (p. 98)
RADMT Specifies table references for temperature dependent RADM entry radiation boundary
properties. (p. 71), (p. 77), (p. 96), (p. 97), (p. 98)
RADSET Specifies which radiation cavities are to be included for radiation enclosure analysis.
(p. 98)
SLOAD Defines concentrated static loads on scalar or grid points. (p. 79)
SPC Defines a set of single point constraints and enforced displacements. (p. 73)
SPOINT Defines scalar points. (p. 81), (p. 82), (p. 96)
TABLED1 Defines a tabular function for use in generating frequencydependent and timedependent
dynamic loads. (p. 71)
TABLEM1 Defines a tabular function for use in generating temperaturedependent material properties.
(p. 53), (p. 71)
TEMP Defines temperature at grid points for determination of thermal loading, temperature
dependent material properties, or stress recovery. (p. 75)
TEMPBC Defines the temperature boundary conditions for heat transfer analysis. Applies to steady
state and transient conditions. (p. 73)
TEMPD Defines a temperature value for all grid points of the structural model which have not been
given a temperature on a TEMP entry. (p. 114), (p. 117)
TLOAD1 Defines a timedependent dynamic load or enforced motion of the form. (p. 66), (p. 71)
TSTEPNL Defines parametric controls and data for nonlinear transient structural or heat transfer
analysis. TSTEPNL is intended for SOLs 129, 159, and 99. (p. 128), (p. 133)
Main Index
342
Bulk Data Entries
Description
VIEW Defines radiation cavity and shadowing for radiation view factor calculations. (p. 98)
VIEW3D Defines parameters to control and/or request the Gaussian Integration method of view
factor calculation for a specified cavity. (p. 115)
Main Index
MSC.Fatigue Quick Start Guide
Index
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
D G
database (Patran), 22, 138, 143 GEOM1, 144
delete XY window, 158 GEOM2, 145
direct text input, 119, 133 geometry creation, 25
geometry import, 46
E grid points, 48
elements, 145
enthalpies, 144, 148 H
error messages, 334 heat flows, 143, 148
executive control, 119, 337 heat flux, 8, 143, 148, 152
heat generation, 7, 8, 56
F heat transfer coefficient, 7, 8, 9, 82, 83, 84, 86,
file management statements, 119, 336 89, 90, 92, 93, 94
files, 332 heats of constraint, 143, 147
film coefficient(see also heat transfer
coefficient), 8
Main Index
344 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
I P
INCLUDE files, 110 Prandtl number, 8, 9, 56, 85, 90, 95
input file, 162
input file reader, 112, 119 R
radiation
K ambient nodes, 68, 97
Kirchhoff’s Identity, 10 ambient space, 68, 96
enclosures, 68, 98
L rate of change of enthalpies, 144, 148
load cases, 101, 104 read input file, 162
load tolerance, 14, 125, 127, 129 results, 141
results postprocessing, 41, 150
Reynolds number, 8, 9, 56, 85, 88, 90, 95
M
material properties, 5, 29, 46, 52
absorptivity, 9, 10, 77, 78, 79, 96, 97 S
anisotropic, 55, 56 steadystate analysis (SOL 153), 11, 40, 113
conductivity, 5, 56 initial conditions, 12
consistent units, 6 NewtonRaphson iteration, 11
density, 5, 56 radiation parameters, 114, 115
dynamic viscosity, 6, 56 solution parameters, 114, 127
emissivity, 9, 10, 96, 97, 98 subcase parameters, 123, 125, 127
enthalpy, 6, 56 view factor parameters, 114, 116
heat capacitance, 5, 56 StefanBoltzmann constant, 10, 115
isotropic, 54, 55, 56 subcase, 104, 107, 121, 123, 135
latent heat, 6, 56 SUPG, 9, 56
orthotropic, 54, 56
specific heat, 5, 56 T
MSC.Nastran version, 110 temperature gradients, 143, 148, 152
Patran Analysis Manager, 107 temperature tolerance, 14, 124, 127, 129
multipoint constraints, 47, 50 thermal analysis
loads and boundary conditions, 7
N steadystate analysis, 11
node points, 47 transient analysis, 13
nodes, 47, 110, 144 units, 6, 7
numbering options, 110, 111
O
OEF1, 143
OPG1, 143
OQG1, 143
OUGV1, 143
output requests, 130, 132, 133, 143, 144, 147
OUTPUT2, 41, 109, 138, 139, 141, 143, 144
Main Index
INDEX 345
U
undo feature, 27
V
view factors, 10, 97, 115, 117
Main Index
346 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Main Index
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