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Patran 2008 r1

Interface To MD Nastran

Preference Guide
Volume 2: Thermal Analysis

Main Index
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Main Index
Contents
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Patran Interface to
Nastran Thermal,

1 Overview
Introduction 2
Using this Guide 3

Thermal Material Properties 5


Conductivity 5
Specific Heat and Heat Capacitance 5
Density 5

Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions 7


Temperature Boundary Conditions 7
Normal Heat Flux 7
Directional Heat Flux 8
Nodal Source 8
Volumetric Heat Generation 8
Basic Convection 8
Advection, Forced Convection 8
Radiation to Space 9
Radiation Enclosures 10
Contact Conduction 10

Thermal Analysis 11
Steady-State Analysis 11
Initial Conditions in Steady-State Analysis 12
Transient Analysis 13
Initial Conditions in Transient Analysis 13
Steady-State and Transient Convergence Criteria 14

References 15

2 Getting Started - A Guided Exercise


Introduction 18

Objectives 19

Start Patran 21

Main Index
ii Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Create a Database 22

Create a Rectangular Geometric Surface 25

Mesh the Surface with Elements 26

Modify the Mesh (Reduce the Number of Elements) 27

Specify Material Properties 29

Assign Element Properties 30

Define the Temperature at the Plate’s Bottom Edge 32

Apply Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge 34

Apply Convection to the Plate’s Left Edge 37

Perform a Steady-State Thermal Analysis 40


Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot) 41

3 Building A Model
Introduction 46

Finite Elements 47
Nodes 47
Finite Elements 49
Multi-Point Constraints 50

Coordinate Frames 51

Material Library 52
Materials Form 53
Constitutive Models 55
Solid Properties 56
Fluid Properties 56
Phase Changes 56
Heat Generation1 56

Finite Element Properties 57


Element Properties Form 58
Conductors and Grounded Conductors 60
Capacitors and Grounded Capacitors 60
Beam and Rod Elements with General Section 60
Curved General Section Beam 61
Curved Pipe Section Beam 62

Main Index
CONTENTS iii

Tapered Section Beam 62


Pipe Section Rod 63
Flow Tube 63
2D Shell Elements 64
2D Axisymmetric Solid Elements 65
3D Solid Elements 65

Loads and Boundary Conditions 66


Loads and Boundary Conditions Form 66
Input Data Forms--Basic and Advanced Options 69
Two Application Regions 70
Surface Area 71
Spatial Dependence 71
Temperature Dependence 71
Time Dependence 71
Temp(Thermal) 73
Initial Temperature 75
Applied Heat--Normal Fluxes 76
Applied Heat--Directional Fluxes 77
Transient Analysis 78
Incident Thermal Vector 78
Applied Heat--Nodal Source 79
Applied Heat--Volumetric Generation 80
Applied Heat--Total Heat 80
Convection--To Ambient 81
Convection--Flow Tube To Ambient 82
Convection--Coupled 85
Convection--Coupled Flow Tube 87
Convection--Coupled Advection 90
Convection--Duct Flow 93
Radiation--Ambient Space 96
Radiation--Ambient Nodes 97
Radiation--Enclosures 98
Load Cases 101

4 Running a Thermal Analysis


Introduction 104

Review of the Analysis Form 105


Analysis Form 106

Translation Parameters 109

Main Index
iv Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Numbering Options 111

Solution Types 113


Solution Parameters 114
Radiation Parameters 115
View Factor Parameters 115
Solution Parameters for Transient Analysis 117

Direct Text Input 119

Subcases 121
Subcase Parameters 123
Steady-State Subcase 123
Thermal Contact Table 126
Transient Subcase Parameters 128
Structural Heat Subcase Parameters 130
Output Requests 130
Direct Text Input 133

Subcase Select 135

5 Results Processing and Visualization


Overview 138

Reading Thermal Analysis Results 139


Read Output2 Form 141
Results File Formats 143
Supported OUTPUT2 Results 143
Attach XDB Form 146
Results File Formats 147
Supported MSC.Access Results 147

Results Visualization Options 150


Contour Plots 151
Vector Output Definitions 152
XY Plots 153

6 Read Input File


Review of Read Input File Form 162
Read Input File Form 163
Entity Selection Form 164
Define Offsets Form 166
Selection of Input File 167

Main Index
CONTENTS v

Summary Data Form 168


Reject Card Form 169

Data Translated from the NASTRAN Input File 170

Conflict Resolution 171

7 Example Problems
Overview 174

Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis 175


Objectives 175
Define Time Dependent Functions 177
Create a Transient Load Case 181
Apply Time Varying Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge 182
Apply Transient Volumetric Heat Generation Inside the Plate 185
Select Solution Type 189
Specify the Default Initial Temperature 190
Define Time Steps 190
Select a Transient Load Case 192
Perform a Transient Thermal Analysis 192
Visualize the Transient Results (Contour Plot) 194
Visualize the Transient Results (XY Plot) 195
Modify the XY Plot 197

Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board 200


Problem Description 200
Modeling 201
Create the Surfaces of Printed Circuit Board and Electronic Components
203
Extrude the Surfaces to Create Solids 204
Mesh the Solids 205
Specify Materials 206
Define Element Properties 208
Discussion of Results 213

Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board 214


Problem Description 214
Modeling 214
Discussion of Results 230

Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance 231


Problem Description 231
Modeling 232

Main Index
vi Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Discussion of Results 240

Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow 241


Problem Description 241
Modeling 242
Discussion of Results 260

Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures 261


Problem Description 261
Modeling 261
Discussion of Results 271
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe 273
Problem Description 273
Modeling 274
Discussion of Results 289
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads 290
Problem Description 290
Modeling 291
Discussion of Results 300
Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads 302
Problem Description 302
Modeling 303
Discussion of Results 309

Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate 310


Problem Description 310
Modeling 310
Discussion of Results 328

A Files
Files 332

B Error Messages
Error Messages 334

C Supported Commands
File Management Statements 336

Main Index
CONTENTS vii

Executive Control Statements 337

Case Control Commands 338

Bulk Data Entries 339

Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal 343

Main Index
viii Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Overview
1
J
Introduction 2
J
Using this Guide 3
J
Thermal Material Properties 5
J
Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions 7
J
Thermal Analysis 11
J
References 15

Main Index
2 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Introduction

1.1 Introduction
The Patran MD Nastran Heat Transfer Preference supports the full range of thermal analysis capabilities
available within MD Nastran. These capabilities include:
• conduction in one, two, and three dimensions
• fundamental convection
• one dimensional advection
• radiant exchange with space
• radiant exchange in enclosures
• specified temperatures
• surface and volumetric heat loads
• elements of thermal control systems
• contact conduction

MD Nastran can span the full range of thermal analysis from system-level analysis of global energy
balances to the detailed analysis associated with temperature and thermal stress limit levels. Within the
integrated Patran-MD Nastran environment, you can simulate linear, nonlinear, steady-state, and
transient thermal behavior. You can apply loads and boundary conditions either on the model’s geometry
or on its finite element entities. MD Nastran’s sophisticated solution strategy automatically addresses the
existence and extent of nonlinear behavior and adjusts the solution process accordingly.

Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 3
Using this Guide

1.2 Using this Guide


This guide is written for both new and experienced users of Patran and MD Nastran. It provides:
• practical, “how to” descriptions of thermal modeling, analysis, and results processing and
visualization techniques
• descriptions of the relevant Patran menu forms
• basic engineering concepts and theory associated with MD Nastran's thermal solution
capabilities
The Patran on-line help system provides logical and efficient access to all of this material.
The remainder of Overview (Ch. 1), describes heat transfer basics. It discusses the concepts of thermal
material properties, loads and boundary conditions, steady-state and transient analysis, and convergence
criteria.
Getting Started - A Guided Exercise (Ch. 2), is designed to familiarize users quickly with the basic Patran
menu interfaces to thermal modeling, steady-state analysis, and results processing. Before beginning,
please review the Guided Tour at the top of the Patran on-line help system.
Building A Model (Ch. 3), describes Patran's menu forms for each phase of thermal modeling:

• Meshing the geometric model with finite elements


• Defining material properties
• Specifying element properties
• Applying loads and boundary conditions

Running a Thermal Analysis (Ch. 4), describes how to select steady-state or transient analysis solution
types, define solution and subcase input data, select load cases, and submit the MD Nastran analysis job.
Results Processing and Visualization (Ch. 5), describes how to retrieve MD Nastran thermal analysis
results into the Patran database. This chapter also summarizes the options for sorting and graphically
rendering analysis results as contour or XY plots.
Example Problems (Ch. 7), presents more advanced engineering problems covering the following
applications:
• Transient thermal analysis (using the same flat plate model, plate.db, created in Getting
Started - A Guided Exercise (Ch. 2))
• Free convection on a printed circuit board
• Forced air convection on a printed circuit board
• Thermal contact resistance
• Typical avionics flow
• Radiation enclosures
• Axisymmetric flow in a pipe
• Directional heat loads

Main Index
4 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Using this Guide

• Thermal stress analysis from directional heat loads


• Thermal stress analysis of bi-metallic plate

Files (App. A), describes the files created when using the Patran MD Nastran thermal preference product.

Error Messages (App. B) describes general error and diagnostic messages.

Supported Commands (App. C) describes the MD Nastran input data used “behind the scenes,” including
File Management Statements, Executive Control Statements, Case Control Commands, and Bulk Data
Entries.

Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 5
Thermal Material Properties

1.3 Thermal Material Properties


MD Nastran thermal material properties include thermal conductivity, constant pressure specific heat,
density, dynamic viscosity, internal heat generation, and temperature range and latent heat quantities
associated with phase change phenomena.

Conductivity
Thermal conductivity is an intrinsic property of all materials and in the absence of any other mode of heat
transfer, provides the proportionality constant between the flow of heat through a region and the
temperature gradient maintained across the region (Fourier’s Law). Thermal conductivity is generally a
mild function of temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature for solids and generally increasing
with increasing temperature for liquids and gases. Additionally, within a solid, thermal conductivity can
vary due to material orientation (anisotropy). Preferential paths for heat flow can result. MD Nastran
allows for temperature-dependent and directionally dependent thermal conductivity.

Specific Heat and Heat Capacitance


Specific heat is another intrinsic material property. When multiplied by the volume and density of
material, the quantity of interest is referred to as heat capacitance. Given a closed thermodynamic system,
heat capacitance provides the proportionality constant between heat added or subtracted from the system
and the resultant temperature rise or fall of the system (dq = C * dT). Since heat capacitance only
multiplies the time derivative of temperature in the heat conduction equation, specific heat is usually only
relevant in the solution of transient thermal phenomenon. We will note later that advection introduces a
pseudo-transient flavor even in steady-state analysis and therefore the specific heat and density of the
advecting fluid are needed in these calculations.
Specific heat is also slightly temperature dependent. However, in typical heat transfer problems, the
largest variations in specific heat are generally attributed to materials changing phase.

Density
For the purpose of conserving mass, the density cannot be allowed to vary with temperature. Since grid
points are fixed in space in MD Nastran thermal analysis, if the density were to change with temperature,
Density*Volume would also be changing, thus altering the system mass.

Main Index
6 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Thermal Material Properties

Table 1-1 provides several sets of consistent units which may be used by MD Nastran for the various
material properties.
Table 1-1 Typical Units for Thermal Material Properties
Table 1-2 Thermal Table 1-3 W Table 1-4 Btu/h
Conductivity / r-ft-
o
m F
-
o
C
Table 1-5 Specific Heat Table 1-6 J/ Table 1-7 Btu/l
k bm-
oF
g-
o
C
Table 1-8 Density Table 1-9 k Table 1-10 lbm/ft
3
g/
m
3

Table 1-11 Dynamic Table 1-12 k Table 1-13 lbm/ft


Viscosity g/ -hr
m
-
s
e
c
Table 1-14 Enthalpy Table 1-15 J/ Table 1-16 Btu/l
k bm
g
Table 1-17 Latent Heat Table 1-18 J/ Table 1-19 Btu/l
k bm
g

Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 7
Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions

1.4 Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions


MD Nastran supports a full range of thermal boundary conditions and heat loads, starting with simple
temperature constraints and heat flux boundary conditions, and moving on to more complicated heat
transfer mechanisms associated with contact, convection and radiation. All of the thermal boundary
conditions can be modeled as functions of time.
Thermal boundary conditions can be applied to finite element entities as well as geometric entities and
include the following:

Table 1-20 Typical Units for Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions
o o o
Table 1-21 Temperature Table 1-22 C Table 1-23 F R
o
K
Table 1-24 Normal Heat Flux Table 1-25 W/m Table 1-26 Btu/hr-ft2
2

Table 1-27 Directional Heat Flux Table 1-28 W/m Table 1-29 Btu/hr-ft2
2

Table 1-30 Nodal Source Table 1-31 W Table 1-32 Btu/hr


Table 1-33 Volumetric Generation Table 1-34 W/m Table 1-35 Btu/hr-ft3
3

Table 1-36 Convection Heat Flow Table 1-37 W/m Table 1-38 Btu/hr-ft2
2

Table 1-39 Advection Heat Flow Table 1-40 W Table 1-41 Btu/hr
Table 1-42 Convection Heat Transfer Table 1-43 W/m Table 1-44 Btu/hr-ft2-
Coefficient 2-oC oF

Table 1-45 Radiation to Space Table 1-46 W/m Table 1-47 Btu/hr-ft2
2

Table 1-48 Radiation Enclosure Table 1-49 W/m Table 1-50 Btu/hr-ft2
2

Note: Note: When applying flux type loads or boundary conditions to nodal points, the units will still be those
flux, i.e., loads per unit area. Patran’s input data forms for thermal loads and boundary conditions
require you to specify an associated nodal area.

Temperature Boundary Conditions


Temperature constraints can only be applied to nodal points. Temperature constraints can be defined as
constant, spatially varying, or time varying.

Normal Heat Flux


Normal heat flux is defined using the nodal, element uniform, or element variable loading operations. As
with temperature boundary conditions, heat flux loads can be made to vary with space or time.

Main Index
8 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions

Directional Heat Flux


MD Nastran supports vector heat flux from a distant radiant heat source. This capability allows you to
model phenomena such as diurnal or orbital heating. The required input for this capability includes:
• the magnitude of the flux vector
• the absorptivity of the surface on which the flux is being applied
• the vector components of the flux vector

The absorptivity can be dependent on temperature. The magnitude and components of the heat flux can
be defined as constant, spatial varying, or time varying.

Nodal Source
Heat can be applied directly on nodal points (or “grid points” in MD Nastran terminology). Nodal source
heat can be defined as constant, spatially varying in a global sense, or time varying.

Volumetric Heat Generation


Volumetric heat can be applied to one or more conduction elements and can be defined as constant,
spatially varying, or time varying. The Patran MD Nastran interface also includes a heat generation
multiplier for specifying temperature dependence. The multiplier feature is available in the input form
used to specify the material property data.

Basic Convection
Basic convection boundaries can be defined. The approach to basic convection heat transfer in MD
Nastran is to define the basic convection via a heat transfer coefficient and associated ambient
temperature. The film coefficient is user specified and is available from a number of sources, including
Reference 1. (p. 14). The film coefficient can be defined as a function of temperature; the ambient
temperature can be defined as a function of time.

Advection, Forced Convection


Advection, forced convection, is a complicated heat transfer phenomenon that includes aspects of heat
transfer as well as fluid flow. MD Nastran supports 1D fluid flow, which allows for energy transport due
to streamwise advection and diffusion. Heat transfer between the fluid stream and the surroundings may
be accounted for through a forced convection heat transfer coefficient based on locally computed
Reynolds and Prandtl numbers; see Reference 1. (p. 14) and Reference 2. (p. 14) for more information
on the underlying theory of this type of convection.
The input for forced convection includes:
• the mass flow rate of the fluid
• the diameter of the fluid pipe
• the material properties of the fluid

Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 9
Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions

The calculation of the heat transfer coefficient between the fluid and the adjoining wall requires the
specification of a film temperature. By default, this temperature will be internally calculated as the
average of the temperatures of the fluid and the adjoining wall.
Additional forced convection inputs consist of the type of convection relationship used to calculate the
energy transport and the method of calculating the heat transfer coefficient at the tube wall.
There are two choices with respect to the energy transport. The default method includes advection and
streamwise diffusion, and its theoretical basis is the Streamwise-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin method, or
SUPG.
There are also two choices for picking the method for calculating the heat transfer coefficient that applies
between the fluid and the adjacent wall. The default method uses the following equation:

Expr Expp
h = Coef • Re • Pr (1-1)
The second method, chosen by picking the alternate formulation option, uses the following equation:

h =  --- • Coef • Re
k Expr Expp
• Pr (1-2)
 d

h = =the heat transfer coefficient between the fluid and the adjacent wall (internally
calculated)
Coef = =a constant coefficient
Re = =the Reynolds number based on the diameter (internally calculated)
Pr = =the Prandtl number (internally calculated)
Expr = =the Reynolds number convection exponent
Expp = =the Prandtl number convection exponent
k = =the fluid conductivity
d = =the tube diameter

Radiation to Space
Radiation to space is a boundary condition that defines radiant exchange between a surface and
blackbody space. The inputs required for radiation to space are the absorptivity and emissivity of the
surface, the ambient temperature of space, and the radiation view factor between the surface and space
(usually equal to 1.0). The absorptivity and emissivity can both be temperature dependent. The ambient
temperature can vary with time. The exchange relationship is defined to be:

4 4
q = σ • View fac • ( ε e T e – α e T amb ) (1-3)

Main Index
10 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions

q = =the net energy flux in W/m2 (internally calculated)


σ = =the Stefan-Boltzmann constant which has the value
5.668x10-8 W/m2 oK4 [0.1714x10-8 Btu/h ft2 oR4]
Viewfac = =the view factor
εe = = the emissivity

αe = =the absorptivity (usually αe = εe )

Te = =the temperature of the element (internally calculated)


Tamb = =the ambient temperature of space (user specified)

Calculation of radiation exchange requires that the temperatures be defined on an absolute scale (Kelvin
or Rankine). If the temperatures input in a problem involving radiation are either Celsius or Fahrenheit,
an internal conversion can be defined.

Radiation Enclosures
Radiation Enclosure exchange is similar to the Radiation to Space boundary condition; however, this type
of boundary condition takes into account the radiation exchange between discrete surfaces. As a result,
subsequent to building a finite element mesh, the geometric relationship (view factor) between individual
finite element surfaces must be determined. For enclosure radiation the view factors between surfaces are
internally calculated. Also, for enclosure radiation, the absorptivity is taken as being equal to the
emissivity (Kirchhoff’s Identity).
Calculation of the radiation view factors can be the most computationally intensive operation in heat
transfer analysis. MD Nastran has implemented a unique set of algorithms for solving this problem which
provides for both reasonable performance while maintaining an accurate calculation. To help facilitate
this calculation, the Can Shade and Can Be Shaded options have been added for those situations where
the shading is known. These options can help reduce the calculation time for radiation enclosures. Patran
also allows you to define multiple radiation enclosures. The view factors within each Radiation
Enclosure will be independently calculated from the view factors of the other enclosures.
In general, good view factor calculations require a reasonable surface mesh. Since the accuracy of the
view factors tends to decrease as the distance between elements is reduced and becomes on the order of
the element size, a mesh which prevents this sizing issue is recommended and is generally not too
restrictive.

Contact Conduction
If contact bodies are present in the model for a SOL 153, 159 or 600 analysis heat transfer will occur
between the contact bodies based on the properties defined on the contact bodies or via the contact table
accessible from the subcase parameters for. as the bodies get closer the contact changes from radiation to
convection to conduction. See the MSC Nastran Quick Reference Guide for more information.

Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 11
Thermal Analysis

1.5 Thermal Analysis


Thermal problems can be categorized as steady-state or transient, linear or nonlinear. Transient analyses
are characterized by solution evolution over time, and in addition to energy exchange with the
environment, involves thermal energy storage. Steady-state analyses are concerned with state point
solutions to fixed boundary condition problems.
Nonlinearities enter into both steady-state and transient solutions through several areas. The most
common nonlinearity is associated with temperature dependent material properties, in particular thermal
conductivity and specific heat. Other nonlinearities are introduced from application of boundary
conditions principally convection and radiation. All nonlinear analyses necessarily involve solution
iteration, error estimation, and some form of convergence criteria. MD Nastran attempts to do this as
efficiently and trouble free as possible.

Steady-State Analysis
The most general form of the steady-state heat balance equation is as follows:
4
[ K ] { u } + [ ℜ ] { u + T abs } = { P } + { N } (1-4)

[K] = =the heat conduction matrix


[ℜ] = =the radiation exchange matrix
{u} = =the vector of unknown temperatures
Tabs = =the temperature offset from absolute required for radiation
calculations (absolute temperature)
{P} = =the vector of constant applied heat flows
{N} = =the vector of temperature dependent heat flows

This equation is inherently nonlinear due to the presence of the fourth power law radiation term. In
addition to the radiation term, many other nonlinearities may be introduced into this equation through the
coefficient matrices and boundary condition terms. Specifically, nonlinearities are introduced by
specifying the material properties and boundary conditions as temperature dependent as discussed in the
Thermal Material Properties, 5 and Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions, 7.

MD Nastran applies a Newton-Raphson iteration scheme for the solution of these nonlinear equations.
This process leads to the following form of the heat balance equation:
i i i
[ KT ] { ∆ u } = { R } (1-5)

Main Index
12 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Thermal Analysis

[ KT ]
i = =the tangential conductance matrix

i
i i i i 3 δN 
= { ∆ u } ≅ [ K ] + 4 [ R ] { u + T a b s } –  ------- 
 δu 

{R}
i = =the residual vector

{P}i + {N}i - [K]i {u}i - [R]i {ui + Tabs}4

At each iteration, the left-hand side matrix and the right-hand side vector are computed based on the
i i
temperature from the previous iteration (u ) . By solving for the unknown vector (∆u ) , the new
i+1
temperatures (u ) can be determined:
i i+1 i
{∆u} = {u –u} (1-6)
or
i+1 i
{u} = {∆u} + {u} (1-7)
Because of the expense of performing matrix decompositions, MD Nastran recalculates the residual
vector at each iteration, but only recalculates the tangent matrix when convergence is illusive or if it will
lead to improvement in the iteration efficiency. MD Nastran will attempt to achieve an optimum
converged solution by balancing various solution aspects such as: load bisection, residual updates,
tangent matrix updates, line searches, and BFGS updates. Further description of the methods employed
can be found in Reference 2. (p. 14).
For steady-state analysis, the defaults for controlling the nonlinear solution should be sufficient for most
problems. For those problems where additional control is required, the convergence tolerances for
Temperature, Load, and Work can be overridden. See Steady-State and Transient Convergence Criteria,
14 for more information.

Initial Conditions in Steady-State Analysis


Since the nonlinear equations are solved by an iterative scheme, careful consideration of the initial
conditions can have a significant effect on how quickly a problem will converge, or if it will converge at
all. The initial conditions provide the starting point temperatures for the iterative solution method.
Clearly, if we were able to exactly guess the solution to our problem, the process would converge on the
first iteration, as it must for linear analysis. Although this is highly unlikely, a good initial guess can speed
up the convergence process significantly. For highly nonlinear problems, good initial temperature
estimates may be required in order to achieve convergence. See Initial Conditions in Transient Analysis,
13 for more information.

Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 13
Thermal Analysis

Transient Analysis
The most general form of the transient heat balance equation is:
4
[ B ] { u· } + [ K ] { u } + [ ℜ ] { u + T abs } = { P } + { N } (1-8)

where, in addition to the terms already defined in the steady-state equation, we have:
[B] = the heat capacity matrix. (1-9)

du
u· = ------ (1-10)
dt

Because of its transient behavior, this equation must be integrated over time. The numerical method
implemented for performing the time integration is Newmark’s method. As in the steady-state case, this
equation also can be extensively nonlinear due to radiation and temperature-dependent material
properties and boundary conditions. As a result, nonlinear iterations are also required for the solution of
this equation. The iteration is performed within each time step until a converged solution for that time
step is achieved (see Reference 2. (p. 14) for more details).
Transient analysis requires specifying the total solution time. Solution time is defined by the initial time
step size and total number of time steps requested. The total solution time is determined from their
product. Because MD Nastran employs an automatic time stepping scheme (i.e., the time step is varied
by the solver as the solution progresses), the actual number of time steps used may ultimately be quite
different from the input request. In any event, the total amount of solution time will be approximately
equal to the initially calculated product within some small tolerance of the last time step size. The
advantage of using the adaptive time step algorithm is the potential for significantly reduced run times.
To avoid inaccurate results or unstable solutions, the proper choice of the initial time step is required. A
responsible initial time step is dependent on a number of factors, including the spatial size of the element
mesh and the thermal diffusivity of the material. The selection criteria is:

1 ρ ⋅ Cp
∆ t 0 ≅ ------ ⋅ ∆ x 2 ⋅ -------------- (1-11)
10 k

∆ t0 = =the initial time step

∆x = =the mesh size


ρ = =the density
Cp = =the specific heat
k = =the conductivity

Initial Conditions in Transient Analysis


Initial conditions define the temperature starting point for a transient analysis. Every node in the problem
must have an initial temperature explicitly defined. Any node that does not have an initial temperature

Main Index
14 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Thermal Analysis

defined will automatically have a temperature of 0.0 assigned to it. This default temperature can be
changed in the Solution Parameters form for the given application, either steady-state or transient
analysis.
Caution must be exercised when specifying initial conditions relative to any specified temperatures
defined via a boundary condition. The initial condition temperature for these nodal points must match the
(Implicit and Explicit) boundary condition temperature at time equal to zero. Failure to match these
temperatures will cause an initial jump in the solution that can make convergence difficult to achieve.
Fortunately, the default analysis setup will automatically enforce these temperatures to be equal at the
start of the problem.

Steady-State and Transient Convergence Criteria


As discussed previously, the solution of the nonlinear equations requires an iteration scheme. Efficient
iteration schemes are highly dependent on convergence criteria and error estimation. Convergence
criteria provide a means of measuring solution error relative to some predetermined acceptable level. For
each iteration performed during the solution process, error levels are calculated and compared with preset
tolerances. Three convergence criteria are available within MD Nastran that measure error based on
temperature, load, and work. These criteria apply to steady-state and transient solutions alike.
Four recommendations regarding nonlinear convergence can be made:
1. For most problems, use the default criteria selection with their default tolerance values.
1. If the analysis is transient and involves any time-varying temperature boundary conditions, you
must use the temperature convergence criteria.
1. Convergence may be enhanced by increasing the numerical tolerance levels from their default
values.
1. For highly nonlinear transient problems, the maximum number of iterations per time step may be
increased.
The defaults for controlling the nonlinear solution should be sufficient for most problems. However, for
those problems requiring additional control, the convergence tolerances for Temperature, Load, and
Work can be overridden. (In the solution of heat transfer problems, a convergence criteria based on
WORK is realistically just a mathematical construct representing an extension of the equations used in
the comparable structural solver.)

Main Index
Chapter 1: Overview 15
References

1.6 References
1. Holman, J. P., Heat Transfer, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1986.
2. Chainyk, Mike, MSC/NASTRAN Thermal Analysis User’s Guide, Version 68, The MacNeal-
Schwendler Corporation, 1994.
3. Peterson, Ken (ed.), MSC/NASTRAN Encyclopedia, Online Documentation CD-ROM, The
MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation, 1995.

Main Index
16 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
References

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Getting Started - A Guided Exercise


2
J
Introduction 18
J
Objectives 19
J
Start Patran 21
J
Create a Database 22
J
Create a Rectangular Geometric Surface 25
J
Mesh the Surface with Elements 26
J
Modify the Mesh (Reduce the Number of Elements) 27
J
Specify Material Properties 29
J
Assign Element Properties 30
J
Define the Temperature at the Plate’s Bottom Edge 32
J
Apply Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge 34
J
Apply Convection to the Plate’s Left Edge 37
J
Perform a Steady-State Thermal Analysis 40
J
Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot) 41

Main Index
18 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Introduction

2.1 Introduction
This guided exercise shows you in step-by-step fashion the basics of MD Nastran thermal modeling,
analysis, and results visualization using Patran. By intention, the geometry is simple, as are the applied
loads and boundary conditions. We will create the geometry for a rectangular metal plate, mesh it with
quadrilateral elements, specify material and element properties, apply thermal loads and boundary
conditions, run a steady-state thermal analysis to determine temperature distributions, and visualize the
results using Patran’s postprocessor.
Before attempting this exercise, please complete the guided tour provided at the top of the Patran on-line
help system. It gives you an overview of the Patran user interface, including the layout of the main form,
the various application selections, the use of menus and forms, mouse picking, and basic modeling
operations. Although the menu options for thermal analysis differ from those for structural analysis,
Patran has a common look-and-feel across both disciplines.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 19
Objectives

2.2 Objectives
The objectives in this exercise are to:
• Create a new database defined for MD Nastran thermal analysis.
• Define geometry for a rectangular plate.
• Mesh the structure with quadrilateral elements.
• Modify the mesh.

• Define the plate’s material as aluminum. Specify a thermal conductivity of 204 W/m-oC, specific
heat of 896 J/kg-oC, and a density of 2707 kg/m3.
• Define the plate’s thickness to be 0.1 m.
• Clean up the display.

• Apply a temperature of 50 oC to the bottom edge of the plate.

• Apply heat flux of 5000 W/m2 to the right edge of the plate.
• Apply to the left edge of the surface a convection boundary condition with heat transfer
coefficient of 10.0 W/m2-oC and ambient temperature of 20 oC.
• Perform a steady-state thermal analysis using MD Nastran within the Patran system.

Main Index
20 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Objectives

• Visualize the temperature distribution as a contour plot.

1m
Aluminum Plate

K = 204 W/m-oC

Cp = 896 J/kg-oC

ρ = 2707 kg/m3

h = 10.0 W/m2-oC
3m q = 5000.0 W/m2
Tamb = 20.0 oC

Thickness = 0.1 m

T = 50 oC

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 21
Start Patran

2.3 Start Patran


To begin the Patran modeling session from your workstation’s XTERM window, enter the command
patran
or
patran &
(if you want to run the application in the background).

Main Index
22 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Create a Database

2.4 Create a Database


From Patran’s main form, pull down the File menu and select New.

Patran
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Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 23
Create a Database

A form will appear called New Database.

New Database
Template Database Name
/patran/patran3/template.db

New Database Name Change Template ... NOTE: If only the MD Nastran
Preference is accessed by the
model, the
Modify Preferences... mscnastran_template.db
can be used as template database
to save disk space.
Filter
/tmp/*.db
Apply Filter Cancel
Directories Database List
/tmp/. mdl.db
/tmp/..

New Database Name STEP 1: Position the cursor


inside the New Database Name
plate databox. Type in the word
plate.
OK Filter Cancel

STEP 2: Click on OK.

Main Index
24 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Create a Database

The New Model Preferences form will appear, which will display MD Nastran as the default analysis
solver.

New Model Preferences


Model Preferences For:
plate.db

Tolerance
u Based on Model
uu Default

Approximate Maximum
Model Dimension:
10.0

Analysis Code:
MD Nastran

Analysis Type:
Thermal STEP 3: Toggle the Analysis Type
setting to Thermal.

OK Reset

STEP 4: Click on OK.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 25
Create a Rectangular Geometric Surface

2.5 Create a Rectangular Geometric Surface


Click on the Geometry application. The Geometry form will appear.

Geometry

Action: Create
Object: Surface STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action:Create
Object:Surface
Method: XYZ Method:XYZ

Surface ID List

Surface Type

PATRAN 2 Convention STEP 2: Under Vector Coordinate List, we can enter


the desired XYZ dimensions for our surface. Type
<1 3 0> in the databox.
Note: you must use angle brackets to define
vectors. You must use square brackets to define
Refer. Coordinate Frame coordinates. Make sure to provide a space between
each number.
Coord 0

Vector Coordinates List


STEP 3: Make sure that the Origin Coordinate List is
<1 3 0> [0 0 0], which is the default.

Auto Execute

Origin Coordinates List

[0 0 0]

-Apply-
Y
Z X

STEP 4: Click on Apply.

Main Index
26 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Mesh the Surface with Elements

2.6 Mesh the Surface with Elements


Click on the Finite Elements application. The Finite Elements form will appear.

Finite Elements
Action: Create
Object: Mesh STEP 1: Toggle the Object setting to Mesh.
Type: Surface

Output Ids
The Global Edge Length is 0.1, which is the default setting. We
Node Id List will leave this value as is for now. (We will change it later, after
1 we mesh the surface.) The global edge length specifies the
physical length of each element. If you are making 10 elements
to comprise 1 unit (for example, 1 m) in length, you would
Element Id List specify an edge length of 0.1 to create 300 elements.
1

Global Edge Length


0.1

Element Topology
Quad4
Quad5
STEP 2: Click inside the databox under the heading Surface
Quad8 List. You can now use the mouse to click on the actual surface
you want to mesh. Click anywhere on the surface we have
made.
Mesher
u IsoMesh uu Paver

IsoMesh Parameters...

Node Coordinate Frames...

Surface List
Surface 1

Y
Z X
-Apply-

STEP 3: Click on Apply. A mesh of 300 quadrilateral elements will be generated on the surface with elements
automatically numbered.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 27
Modify the Mesh (Reduce the Number of Elements)

2.7 Modify the Mesh (Reduce the Number of Elements)


At this point, we will invoke Patran's undo feature so that we can make a coarser mesh. The mesh we
have just created (300 elements) is excessive for our example.

Table 2-1 STEP 1: Click on the erasure icon at the top right corner of the Patran main form. The word undo will
appear, and Patran will automatically delete the created mesh (the last specified action).

STEP 2: Click on the paintbrush icon. The words Refresh Graphics will appear, and the geometric
surface will be regenerated exactly as it appeared before we applied the mesh.

Main Index
28 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Modify the Mesh (Reduce the Number of Elements)

Output IDs

Node ID List
1

Element ID List
1 STEP 3: Note that the Finite Elements form is still
visible. Change the Global Edge Length from 0.1 to 0.2.
This will create elements of 0.2 units (meters) in length,
Global Edge Length which will result in a coarser mesh of 75 quadrilateral
elements. Click on Apply.
0.2

The resulting mesh (75


elements) is now more
to our liking.

Y
Z X

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 29
Specify Material Properties

2.8 Specify Material Properties


Our material for this exercise will be aluminum. Click on the Materials application. The Materials form
will appear with certain default options.

Materials
Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

* Filter STEP 1: Type in alum under Material Name.


Existing Materials

Input Options

Constitutive Model: Solid properties

Property Name Value


Material Name
Thermal Conductivity = 204
alum
Description
Specific Heat = 896

Date: 22-May-96 Time:16:13:13 Density = 2707

Code: MD Nastran Temperature Dependent Fields:


Type: Thermal

Input Properties ...

Change Material Status ...

Current Constitutive Models:

-Apply- Clear Cancel

STEP 2: Click on Input


Properties. STEP 3: The Input Options form will appear.
STEP 4: Click on Apply. Edit the form to specify a thermal conductivity
of 204, specific heat of 896, and a density of
2707.

Main Index
30 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Assign Element Properties

2.9 Assign Element Properties


Our next task is to specify a thickness of 0.1 to our aluminum elements. Click on the Properties
application. The Element Properties form will appear.

Element Properties
STEP 1: Click inside the Property Set Name databox. Type in the name
Action: Create plate.
Dimension: 2D
Type: Shell
STEP 2: Click on Input Properties.
Existing Property Sets
STEP 3: The Input Properties form appears. The
word alum will appear within the Material Property
Sets listbox. Click on this word. The Material
Name databox will now appear as m:alum.
Property Set Name
plate
STEP 4: Type in 0.1 in the Thickness databox.

Input Properties
Stan. Homogeneous Plate(CQUAD4)
Property Name Value Value Type
Input Properties ...

Application Region Material Name m:alum Mat Prop Name

Select Members [Material Orientation] CID


Surface 1
Thickness 0.1 Real Scalar

Add Remove
Application Region
Surface 1

-Apply- Material Property Sets


alum

STEP 5: Click on OK. OK

STEP 6: From the Element Properties form, click on the Select Members databox. Patran will display two
icons to the left of the Element Properties form. The first icon represents surface or face; the second
represents 2D element. The two options allow you to apply properties either on the geometric entity (in
this case, the surface) or on the finite elements.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 31
Assign Element Properties

STEP 7: We will apply properties directly on the geometry. Pick the top icon; it will
turn black when you pick it.

Application Region
Select Members
Surface 1 STEP 8: Now click anywhere on
the geometric surface. The
surface will be highlighted in red.
The Select Members databox will
Add Remove now appear as Surface 1.
Application Region

STEP 9: Click on Add at the Surface 1


bottom of the Element
Properties form.

-Apply- STEP 10: Click on Apply.

Main Index
32 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Define the Temperature at the Plate’s Bottom Edge

2.10 Define the Temperature at the Plate’s Bottom Edge


Click on the Loads/BCs application. The Loads/Boundary Conditions form will appear.

Action: Create
STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action:Create
Object: Temp (Thermal) Object:Temp (Thermal)
Type:Nodal
Type: Nodal

Analysis Type: Thermal

Current Load Case:

Default...

Type: Static

Existing Sets

STEP 2: Type in a New Set Input Data


Name in the databox. We will
call it tempbc. Boundary Temperature
New Set Name 50

tempbc Spatial Fields

STEP 3: Click on Input


Data. The Input Data form
will appear.
Reset
Input Data... OK Cancel
. STEP 4: Click in the
Boundary Temperature
Select Application Region.. databox and type in 50. STEP 5: Click on OK.

-Apply- STEP 6: Click on the Select Application Region. The


Select Application Region form will appear.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 33
Define the Temperature at the Plate’s Bottom Edge

STEP 7: Under Geometry Filter, the default setting is


Geometry. To the left, five options are given,
represented as icons: Geometric entity, Point or Vertex,
Curve or Edge, Surface or Face, Solid.

Select Application Region


STEP 8: Click on Curve or
Geometry Filter Edge. This icon will become
black, indicating that it has
u Geometry been selected.
uu
FEM

Application Region
Select Geometry Entities
Surface 1.4 STEP 9: With your mouse, position the cursor on the bottom
edge of the surface. Click on the edge. You will see Surface 1.4
appear in the Select Geometry Entities databox. This means we
have selected Edge number 4 in Surface number 1.
Add Remove
Application Region

STEP 10: Click on Add.

OK

STEP 11: Click on OK. You must also click on Apply located on the
Loads/Boundary Conditions form.

Note: A label on the bottom of your model will appear showing a boundary condition of
50 oC applied to the desired edge of the surface.

Main Index
34 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Apply Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge

2.11 Apply Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge


We will now apply heat flux to the model using the Loads/Boundary Conditions form.

Load/Boundary Conditions

Action: Create

Object: Applied Heat


STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Type: Element Uniform Object:Applied Heat
Type:Element Uniform
Option:Normal Fluxes
Option: Normal Fluxes

Analysis Type: Thermal


Current Load Case:

Default...

Type: Static

Existing Sets

New Set Name


flux STEP 2: Click inside the New Set Name databox. Type in
the name flux.

Target Element Type: 2D

STEP 3: Because the problem is a 2D one, we need to


toggle the Target Element Type setting to 2D. Even though
we are applying heat flux along an edge, which we normally
Input Data... think of as 1D, our finite element problem is 2D; i.e., we are
. modeling heat conduction in two dimensions.
Select Application Region..

-Apply-
STEP 4: Click on the Input Data button. The Input Data form
will appear.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 35
Apply Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge

Input Data

Form Type: Basic

Surface Option: Edge


STEP 5: Toggle the Surface Option setting
from Top to Edge.
Edge Heat Flux
5000
STEP 6: Click inside the databox under
Edge Heat Flux. Type in 5000.

Spatial Fields

Reset

OK Cancel

STEP 7: Click on OK.

Next, click on Select Application Region located on the Loads/Boundary Conditions form.

Main Index
36 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Apply Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge

STEP 8: Two icon choices will appear, Surface and Edge. Click on
the bottom icon, Edge.

Select Application Region

Geometry Filter
u Geometry
uu
FEM

Application Region STEP 9: Position the cursor over the


right edge of the surface and click on
Select Surfaces or Edges this edge with the mouse. Patran will
Surface 1.3 insert Surface 1.3 in the databox
under the heading Select Surfaces or
Edges.

Add Remove
Application Region
STEP 10:
Click on Add.

OK STEP 11: Click on OK. Be sure to click


on Apply located on the
Loads/Boundary Conditions form.

5000. A yellow flag will


appear on the
right edge of your
surface indicating
that a heat flux of
5000 W/m2 has
been applied
along the right
edge.

Y
Z X 50.00 50.005000.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 37
Apply Convection to the Plate’s Left Edge

2.12 Apply Convection to the Plate’s Left Edge


We will now apply a convection boundary condition to the left edge of the plate--again, using the
Loads/Boundary Conditions form.

Load/Boundary Conditions

Action: Create

Object: Convection STEP 1: Change the settings to:


Object:Convection
Type: Element Uniform Type:Element Uniform
Option:To Ambient

Option: To Ambient

Analysis Type: Thermal


Current Load Case:

Default...

Type: Static

Existing Sets

New Set Name


conv STEP 2: Click inside the New Set Name databox and type
in conv.

Target Element Type: 2D STEP 3: Toggle the Target Element Type setting to 2D.

Input Data... STEP 4: Click on the Input Data button. The Input
. Data form will appear.
Select Application Region..

-Apply-

Main Index
38 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Apply Convection to the Plate’s Left Edge

STEP 5: Change the Surface Option setting to Edge.

Input Data
STEP 6: Click inside the Edge Surface Option: Edge Form Type: Basic
Convection Coef databox and
type in 10. Edge Convection Coef * Temperature Function
10
Ambient Temperature
STEP 7: Type in an 20
Ambient Temperature of
20.

Spatial Fields Temperature Dependent Fields

STEP 8: Click on OK. OK Reset Cancel

Next, click on Select Application Region located on the Loads/Boundary Conditions form.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 39
Apply Convection to the Plate’s Left Edge

STEP 9: Two icon choices will appear, Surface and Edge. Click on the bottom icon,
Edge.

Select Application Region

Geometry Filter
u Geometry

uu
FEM

Application Region STEP 10: Position the cursor over the


left edge of the surface and click on
Select Surfaces or Edges this edge with the mouse. Patran will
insert Surface 1.1 in the databox
Surface 1.1 under Select Surfaces or Edges.

Add Remove
STEP 11:
Click on Add. Application Region

STEP 12: Click on OK. Be sure to


click on Apply located on the
Loads/Boundary Conditions form.
OK

10.00 5000.

A green label will


appear confirming
that you have applied
a convection
coefficient of 10.0
W/m2-oC at this
location of your
model.
Y
Z X 10.00 50.00
Select50.00
Menu5000.

Main Index
40 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Perform a Steady-State Thermal Analysis

2.13 Perform a Steady-State Thermal Analysis


We are now ready to submit the model for MD Nastran steady-state thermal analysis. Click on the
Analysis application located on the Patran main form. The Analysis form will appear.

Analysis
Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action:Analyze
Method: Full Run Object:Entire Model
Method:Full Run
Note: The Full Run Method will run the job in the
Code: MD Nastran background. If Method is changed to Analysis
Deck, Patran will translate the MD Nastran input file
Type: Thermal but will not run the job.

Available Jobs
plate

Job Name
STEP 2: Make sure that the Job Name setting is plate.
plate

Job Description

MD Nastran job created


on 18-Apr-96 at 13:58:15

Translation Parameters...
Note: In the background, Patran will submit the needed
input data information to the MD Nastran solver. The
Solution Type... heartbeat icon at the top right of Patran main form will
turn blue, indicating that Patran’s forward translator and
MD Nastran are active in the background. (In your
Direct Text Input... XTERM windows, from which you launched Patran, you
can similarly note a message indicating that MD
Nastran has been executed.) When the analysis is
Subcase Create... completed, you are ready to visualize the results.

Subcase Select...

Apply STEP 3: Click on Apply.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 41
Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot)

2.14 Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot)


MD Nastran has now finished its processing, and the thermal results are ready to be displayed. To
visualize the results in Patran, you must first access the OUTPUT2 results data created by MD Nastran.

Analysis
Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action:Read Output2
Method: Translate Object:Result Entities
Method:Translate

Code: MD Nastran

Type: Thermal

Available Jobs
plate

Job Name
STEP 2: Make sure that the Job Name setting is
plate plate.

Job Description

MD Nastran job created


on 18-Apr-96 at 13:58:15

Translation Parameters...
STEP 3: Click on the Select Results File button. A
new form will appear called Select File that lists all
Select Results File... the available output2 files. (Note that these files all
have the extension .op2).

STEP 4: Double click on the file called plate.op2.

STEP 5: Click on Apply. The heartbeat will change


Apply to the color blue, indicating that postprocessing is
underway.

Main Index
42 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot)

When the heartbeat becomes green again, click on the Results application selection located on the Patran
main form. The Results Display form will appear.

Results

Action: Create

Object: Quick Plot

Select Result Cases


Default,
Default, PW
PW Linear:100.
Linear : 100.%%ofofLoLoa STEP 1: In the Results form, make sure the Default, PW
Linear : 100. % of Load selection is highlighted in the Select
Result Cases listbox.

Select Fringe Result


Heat Fluxes,
Temperature Gradients,
Temperatures, STEP 2: Within the Select Fringe Result listbox, highlight
Temperatures.

Quantity: Magnitude

Select Deformation Result

Animate
STEP 3: Click on Apply.
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started - A Guided Exercise 43
Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot)

A contour plot displaying temperature distributions will appear as follows:

Select the Save and Close operations from the File menu to save your plate.db file. We will perform
a transient thermal analysis on this model in Example Problems (Ch. 7).
You have now learned the basics of steady-state thermal analysis using Patran and MD Nastran. Example
1 - Transient Thermal Analysis (Ch. 7) builds on this example. The remaining examples in Example
Problems (Ch. 7) describe more advanced applications.

Main Index
44 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Visualize the Thermal Results (Contour Plot)

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Building A Model
3
J
Introduction 46
J
Finite Elements 47
J
Coordinate Frames 51
J
Material Library 52
J
Finite Element Properties 57
J
Loads and Boundary Conditions 66
J
Load Cases 101

Main Index
46 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Introduction

3.1 Introduction
Building a model for heat transfer analysis can be divided into several steps:

Import or create the You can either import the geometry for your model from a CAD definition or
geometry create it within Patran. For a complete description of this process, see Patran
Reference Manual, Part 2: Geometry Modeling.
Define the finite element The objective of this step is to subdivide the geometry into nodes and elements.
mesh Temperatures are calculated at the nodal points in the analysis. Heat conduction
takes place within the elements. This step is described briefly in Finite Elements,
47. For more complete information, see Patran Reference Manual, Part 3:
Finite Element Modeling.
Define material properties In a steady-state conduction analysis, the thermal conductivity of one or more
materials must be defined. In a transient analysis, the specific heat and density of
the materials must also be defined. Sophisticated analyses may also require latent
heat or fluid viscosity to be defined. This step is described in Material Library, 52.
Define element properties The elements that define the heat conduction paths in the body can be
characterized geometrically as 1D, 2D, 3D, or axisymmetric. All elements have
associated material properties. In addition, one-dimensional elements must have
their cross-sectional properties defined, and shell elements must have their
thickness defined. This step is described in Finite Element Properties, 57.
Define loads and boundary Defining loads and boundary conditions is often the most difficult step in building
conditions a model for thermal analysis. In a steady-state analysis, fixed temperatures can be
specified at any nodal points in the model. This applies to structural nodal points
as well as ambient nodal points. In a transient analysis, temperatures specified on
nodal points may be fixed or time varying.

In addition to specifying temperatures, you can apply numerous other boundary


conditions, including several forms of convection and radiation. Applied surface
or volumetric heat flux or heat flow are described as thermal loads. Initial
temperatures are specified for two primary reasons. In a transient analysis, the full
mathematical description of the Fourier problem requires the statement of the
initial condition, for heat transfer the beginning temperature. In a nonlinear
steady-state analysis, the MD Nastran solver necessarily employs an iterative
scheme in solving the system equations, and it requires a starting temperature to
initialize the process. For more information, see Loads and Boundary Conditions,
66.

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 47
Finite Elements

3.2 Finite Elements


The Finite Elements Application in Patran provides options for creation of nodes, elements, and multi-
point constraints in the thermal finite element model.

Patran

File Group Viewport Viewing Display Preferences Tools Help

© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY

$# Session file patran.ses.01 started recording at 25


$# Recorded by Patran 03:36:58 PM
$# FLEXlm Initialization complete. Acquiring license(s)...
hp, 2

For more information on how to create finite element meshes, see Mesh Seed and Mesh Forms (p. 25)
in the Reference Manual - Part III. For information on the concepts of multi-point constraints, see the
Patran Thermal User’s Guide, Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis.

Nodes
Nodes in Patran will translate into unique GRID Bulk Data entries in MD Nastran. Nodes can be created
either directly using the Node object, or indirectly using the Mesh object. Each node has associated
Reference (CP) and Analysis (CD) coordinate frames. The ID is taken directly from the assigned node
ID. The X1, X2, and X3 fields (Node Location List) are defined in the specified CP coordinate frame. If

Main Index
48 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Elements

no reference frame is assigned, the global system is used. The PS and SEID fields on the translated GRID
entry are left blank.

Finite Elements
Action: Create

Object: Node

Method: Edit

Node ID List
1

Analysis Coordinate Frame

Coord 0
The analysis frame (CD of the GRID) is the ID of the
which the loads and boundary conditions are define
Refer. Coordinate Frame reference coordinate system for any output in vecto
temperature gradients and heat fluxes.
The coordinate system in which the node location is
Coord 0 GRID) can be the reference coordinate frame, the a
frame, or a global reference (blank), depending on
forward translation parameter “Node Coordinates.”

Associate with Geometry

Auto Execute

Node Location List

(0 0 0)

-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 49
Finite Elements

Finite Elements
The Finite Elements application in Patran assigns element connectivity, such as Quad/4 (CQUAD4), for
standard finite elements. The type of MD Nastran element to be created is not determined until the
element properties are assigned. See the Element Properties Form, 58 for details concerning the MD
Nastran element types. Elements can be created either explicitly using the Element object or implicitly
using the Mesh object.

Finite Elements
Action: Create

Object: Mesh

Type: Surface

Output IDs

Node ID List
1

Element ID List Elements not referenced by an element property


1 region that is recognized by the Patran MD Nastran
forward translator will not be translated.
Global Edge Length
0.1

Element Topology
Quad4
Quad5
Quad8

Mesher
u IsoMesh uu Paver

IsoMesh Parameters...

Node Coordinate Frames...

Surface List

-Apply-

Main Index
50 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Elements

Multi-Point Constraints
Multi-point constraints (MPCs) can also be created from the Finite Elements menu. These are special
element types that define a rigorous algebraic relationship between several specified nodes. The forms
for creating MPCs are found by selecting MPC as the Object on the Finite Elements form.
For MD Nastran thermal analysis, the MPC object is used to implement temperature coupling.

Finite Elements

Action: Create

Object: MPC

Method: Explicit (Thermal)

Analysis Preferences:
Code: MD Nastran
Type: Thermal
Creates an explicit MPC between a dependent
grid point and one or more independent grid
MPC ID points. This constraint is used to specify a grid
point temperature to be a weighted combination
2 of any number of other grid point temperatures.
The dependent term consists of a node ID, while
an independent term consists of a coefficient and
a node ID. An unlimited number of independent
terms can be specified, while only one dependent
term can be specified;
A1T1+A2T2+ ...AnTn = 0
Define Terms... where T1 must be defined to be the dependent
node temperature.
-Apply-

Note:
1. Patran automatically sets the A1 field on
the MPC entry to -1.0.
2. When specifying initial temperature condi-
tions, the nodal temperatures associated
with the node points in an MPC must
identically satisfy the MPC constraint
equation.

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 51
Coordinate Frames

3.3 Coordinate Frames


Coordinate frames will generate a unique CORD2R, CORD2C, or CORD2S Bulk Data entry, depending
on the specified coordinate frame type. The CID field is defined by the Coord ID assigned in Patran. The
RID field may or may not be defined, depending on the coordinate frame construction method used in
Patran. The A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, and C3 fields are derived from the coordinate frame
definition in Patran.
Only Coordinate Frames that are referenced by nodes, element properties, or loads and boundary
conditions can be translated. For more information on creating coordinate frames, see Creating
Coordinate Frames (p. 393) in the Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2.

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Main Index
52 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Material Library

3.4 Material Library


The Materials form will appear when you select Materials from the main form. The selections made on
the Materials menu will determine which material form appears, and ultimately, which MD Nastran
material will be created.
The following pages give an introduction to the Materials form and details of all the material property
definitions supported by the Patran MD Nastran Thermal Application Preference.
Only material records that are referenced by an element property region will be translated. References to
externally defined materials will result in special comments in the MD Nastran input file, e.g., materials
that property values are not defined in Patran.
The Patran MD Nastran forward translator will perform material type conversions when needed. This
translation applies to both constant material properties and temperature-dependent material properties.

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Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 53
Material Library

Materials Form
This form appears when you select Materials from the main menu. The Materials form provides options
for specifying MD Nastran material data.

Materials

Action: Create

Object: Isotropic Defines the basic material directionality and can


be set to Isotropic, 2D Orthotropic, 3D
Manual Input Orthotropic, 2D Anisotropic, or 3D Anisotropic.
Method:

* Filter

Existing Materials

Lists the existing materials with the specified directionality.

Material Names
Defines the material name. A unique material ID will be
assigned during translation.

Description
DATE: 01-Apr-92
Time: 17:08:02 Describes the material that is being created.

Code: MD Nastran Indicates the active analysis code and analysis type.
These selections are made on the
Type: Preferences>Analysis (p. 431) in the Patran Reference
Thermal Manual.

Input Properties... Generates a form that is used to define the material


properties.
Change Material Status...
Generates a form that is used to indicate the active
portions of the material model. By default, all portions of a
created material model are active.

Main Index
54 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Material Library

The following table outlines the material properties for MD Nastran thermal analysis.

MD Nastran Temp
Object Constitutive Model Bulk Data Input Data Dep
Isotropic Solid properties MAT4, MATT4 Thermal Conductivity yes

Specific Heat yes

Density no
Fluid properties MAT4, MATT4 Thermal Conductivity yes

Specific Heat yes

Density no

Dynamic Viscosity yes


Phase changes MAT4 Reference Enthalpy no

Phase Change Temperature no

Phase Change Temp. Range no

Latent Heat no
Heat generation MAT4, MATT4 Heat Generation Multiplier yes
2D Orthotropic Solid properties MAT5, MATT5 Thermal Conductivity Kx/Kr yes

Thermal Conductivity Ky/Kz yes

Specific Heat yes

Density no
Heat generation MAT5, MATT5 Heat Generation Multiplier yes
3D Orthotropic Solid properties MAT5, MATT5 Thermal Conductivity Kx yes

Thermal Conductivity Ky yes

Thermal Conductivity Kz yes

Specific Heat yes

Density no
Heat generation MAT5, MATT5 Heat Generation Multiplier yes

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 55
Material Library

MD Nastran Temp
Object Constitutive Model Bulk Data Input Data Dep
2D Anisotropic Solid properties MAT5, MATT5 Thermal Conductivity Kxx yes

Thermal Conductivity Kxy yes

Thermal Conductivity Kyy yes

Specific Heat yes

Density no
Heat generation MAT5, MATT5 Heat Generation Multiplier yes
3D Anisotropic Solid properties MAT5, MATT5 Thermal Conductivity Kxx yes

Thermal Conductivity Kxy yes

Thermal Conductivity Kxz yes

Thermal Conductivity Kyy yes

Thermal Conductivity Kyz yes

Thermal Conductivity Kzz yes

Specific Heat yes

Density no
Heat generation MAT5, MATT5 Heat Generation Multiplier yes

Constitutive Models
The material properties for isotropic materials are divided into different categories called constitutive
models, as follows:

Solid Properties, 56
Fluid Properties, 56
Phase Changes, 56
Heat Generation1, 56

For a single material, you only need to define the constitutive models and properties necessary for the
particular analysis. For example, in a steady-state analysis of a simple solid, you need only define the
thermal conductivity. The phase changes and heat generation constitutive models need to be defined only
when these effects are present in the analysis.

Main Index
56 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Material Library

Solid Properties
Thermal conductivities may be defined for isotropic, orthotropic, and anisotropic materials. When the 2D
orthotropic material is used in an axisymmetric analysis, the conductivity Kr applies to the radial
direction and the conductivity Kz is along the axis of symmetry. The conductivities may be defined as
functions of temperature by creating temperature-dependent functions in the Fields application and then
referencing these functions on the Materials form.
Density and specific heat define the heat capacity of the body and are needed only in transient analysis.

Fluid Properties
The dynamic viscosity is used in the calculation of the Reynolds (Re) and Prandtl (Pr) number in forced
convection/advection applications and applies only to the Flow Tube element. The fluid specific heat,
thermal conductivity, and density are also required for the formulation of the advective Streamwise
Upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) elements. This is the case even for steady-state analysis.

DVρ Cp µ
Recall Re = ------------ and Pr = ----------- (3-1)
µ K

Phase Changes1
To model a phase change, you need to specify the latent heat and a finite temperature range over which
the phase change is to occur. You also need to specify the lower boundary of the transition temperature
as well as the reference enthalpy. The reference enthalpy is defined as the enthalpy corresponding to a
zero temperature if the heat capacity Cp is a constant. If the heat capacity is temperature dependent, then
the enthalpy must be defined at the lowest temperature value in the tabular field.
For pure materials, the temperature range over which the phase change takes place can be quite small,
whereas for solutions or alloys the range can be quite large. Numerically, the wider the range the better.
It is not recommended to make this range less than a few degrees.

Heat Generation1
The heat generation multiplier allows the definition of a temperature-dependent rate of volumetric heat
generation to be defined. Usually a temperature-dependent function will be defined in Fields and selected
on the Materials form. The value defined by this field will multiply the rate of heat generation defined on
the Applied Heat, Volumetric Generation LBC. If the heat generation is not temperature dependent, only
the Volumetric Generation LBC needs to be defined.

1
If you define this constitutive model, you must also define a constitutive model for Solid Properties.

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 57
Finite Element Properties

3.5 Finite Element Properties


The Element Properties form appears when you select Properties from the main form. There are several
option menus available when creating element properties. The selections made on the Element Properties
menu will determine which element property form appears, and ultimately, which MD Nastran element
will be created.
The following pages give an introduction to the Element Properties form and details of all the element
property definitions supported by the Patran MD Nastran Thermal Application Preference.

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Main Index
58 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Element Properties

Element Properties Form


This form appears when you select Element Properties from the main menu. There are four option menus
on this form. Each will determine which MD Nastran element type will be created and which property
forms will appear. The individual property forms are documented later in this section. For a full
description of this form, see Element Properties Forms (p. 67) in the Patran Reference Manual.

Element Properties
Use this option menu to define the element’s dimension. Th
options are:
Action: Create 0D (point elements)
1D (bar elements)
Dimension: 1D 2D (tri and quad elements)
3D (tet, wedge, and hex elements)
Type: Beam

Existing Property Sets

This option menu depends on the selection made in the


Dimension option menu. Use this menu to define the genera
type of element, such as:
Shell versus Axisym Solid

Property Set Name

Option (s):
General Section This option is only presented for 1D Beam and Rod
elements.

Input Properties...

Application Region

Select Members

Add Remove

Application Region

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 59
Finite Element Properties

The available element types are described briefly in the table below.

Dimension Type Option Elem Type Input Data


0D • Grounded CELAS1 Thermal Conductance
Conductor
• Grounded CDAMP1 Thermal Capacitance
Capacitor
1D • Beam • General CBAR Material Name
Section
Area
• Curved w/ CBEND Material Name
General
Section Center of Curvature

Area
• Curved w/ CBEND Material Name
Pipe
Section Center of Curvature

Mean Pipe Radius

Pipe Thickness
• Tapered CBEAM Material Name
Section
Cross Sect. Areas
• Rod • General CROD Material Name
Section
Area
• Pipe CTUBE Material Name
Section
Outer Diameter @ Node

[Outer Diam. @ Node 2]

Pipe Thickness
• Conductor CELAS1 Thermal Conductance
• Capacitor CDAMP1 Thermal Capacitance
• Flow Tube CHBDYP Material Name

Hydraulic Diam. at Node 1

[Hydraulic Diam. at Node 2]

Main Index
60 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Element Properties

Dimension Type Option Elem Type Input Data


2D • Shell CQUAD4,8 Material Name

CTRIA3,6 [Material Orientation]

Thickness
• Axisym CTRIAX6 [Material Orientation]
Solid
Material Name
3D • Solid CHEXA Material Name

CPENTA

CTETRA

Conductors and Grounded Conductors


These elements provide a simple conductance link between either two nodes in the model or a node and
a zero temperature heat sink. The only property to be defined is the thermal conductance of the link. This
value can either be real or a reference to an existing field definition.

Capacitors and Grounded Capacitors


These elements provide a simple thermal capacitance link between either two nodes in the model or a
node and a zero temperature heat sink. The only property to be defined is the thermal capacitance of the
link. This value can either be real or a reference to an existing field definition.

Beam and Rod Elements with General Section


These elements provide a simple conductance and capacitance link between two nodes in the model. Heat
is conducted only along the length of the element; no heat is transferred across the cross section. The
referenced material and cross-sectional area must be defined. Cross-sectional area can be defined either
as a real value or as a reference to an existing field definition.

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 61
Finite Element Properties

Curved General Section Beam


Figure 3-1

Input Properties
Curved General Sec. Beam (CBEND)
Defines the material for the
Property Name Value Value Type element.

Material Name Mat Prop Name

Center of Curvature Vector

Area Real Scalar The center of curvature of the pipe


bend can be defined as a vector
from the first node to the center or
by selecting an existing node
located at the center.

Material Property Sets Defines the cross-sectional


area of the element. This
m value can be either a real
value or a reference to an
existing field definition.

OK

Main Index
62 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Element Properties

Curved Pipe Section Beam


Figure 3-2

Input Properties
Curved Pipe Section Beam (CBEND) Defines the material for the
element.
Property Name Value Value Type

Material Name Mat Prop Name The center of curvature of the pipe
bend can be defined as a vector
from the first node to the center or
Center of Curvature Vector by selecting an existing node
located at the center.
Mean Pipe Radius Real Scalar

Pipe Thickness Real Scalar


The distance from the centroid of
the pipe cross section of the mid-
wall of the pipe. This value can
either be a real value or a
reference to an existing field
definition.

Material Property Sets


m
Wall thickness of the pipe. This
value can either be a real value
or a reference to an existing field
definition.

OK

Tapered Section Beam


The Tapered Section beam allows different cross-sectional areas at each end of the beam. Both areas are
entered in the Cross Sect. Areas databox separated by either spaces or a comma. If only one area is
defined, the cross-sectional area is assumed to be constant at that value.

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 63
Finite Element Properties

Pipe Section Rod


Figure 3-3

Defines the tube OD at each end of the element. These values can either be real values or references to
existing field definitions. The Outer Diameter at Node 1 property is required. The Outer Diameter at Node 2
Property is optional.

Input Properties

Pipe Section Rod (CTUBE)


Defines the material to be
Property Name Value Value Type used. When entering data
here, a list of all materials
currently in the database is
displayed. You can either pick
Material Name Mat Prop Name one from the list with the
mouse, or type the name in.
Outer Diameter @ Node Real Scalar

[Outer Diam. @ Node 2] Real Scalar

Pipe Thickness Real Scalar

Specifies the wall thickness of


the pipe. This value can be
either real or a reference to an
existing field definition.

OK

Flow Tube
This element defines heat transfer based on 1D fluid flow. A material with the Fluid constitutive model
defined must be selected. In addition, the diameters of tube at each end must be defined; if only the
diameter at node 1 is defined, the tube diameter is assumed to be constant at that value. The value for the

Main Index
64 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Finite Element Properties

diameter may either be real or a reference to an existing field definition. The Flow Tube elements can
be referenced in the Loads/BCs application to support several types of forced convection and advection
conditions.

2D Shell Elements
These elements provide for conduction and heat capacitance within a planar area. Heat is not transferred
through the thickness of the shell.

Defines the material to be used. A


list of all materials currently in the
database is displayed when data is
entered. You can either select one
Input Properties from the list using the mouse or
type in the name.
Stan. Homogeneous Plate (CQUAD4)

Property Name Value Value Type


Defines the basic orientation for
Material Name Mat Prop Name any non-isotropic material within
the element. There are three ways
to assign this definition: (1)
[Material Orientation] CID reference a coordinate system,
which is then projected onto the
element, (2) define a vector that
Thickness Real Scalar will be projected onto the element,
or (3) define a constant angle
offset from the default element
coordinate system. This scalar
value can either be a constant
value in degrees, a vector, or a
reference to an existing coordinate
system. This property is optional.

Defines the thickness, which will


be uniform over each element.
This value can either be real or
a reference to an existing field
definition.

OK

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 65
Finite Element Properties

2D Axisymmetric Solid Elements


These elements are used to model heat conduction in a body that is symmetric about a particular
coordinate axis. When defining the model with Patran, this axis must be the global z-axis and the radial
axis must be the global x-axis (i.e., the elements must lie in the x-z plane). The only element property
required is the material. An optional material orientation allows you to define the orientation for any non-
isotropic material within the element.
You can specify temperature boundary conditions, initial temperatures, and nodal and volumetric heat
loads on the element’s boundaries or interior. You can specify exchange type boundary conditions
(convection and radiation) on the boundaries of the geometry.
With Version 68 of MD Nastran, if convection or radiation boundary conditions are applied to 6-node
triangular axisymmetric elements, the heat flux results associated with these elements cannot be
postprocessed in Patran. To postprocess boundary heat fluxes, the 3-node triangular axisymmetric
elements must be used instead.

3D Solid Elements
These elements provide for conduction and heat capacitance within a volume. A material property must
be selected to define the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat.

Main Index
66 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions

3.6 Loads and Boundary Conditions


The Loads and Boundary Conditions form will appear when you select Loads/BCs from the main form.
When you create a loads and/or boundary condition, there are several option menus. The selections made
on the Loads and Boundary Conditions menu will determine which loads and/or boundary conditions
form appears, and ultimately, which MD Nastran loads and/or boundary conditions will be created.
The following pages give an introduction to the Loads and Boundary Conditions form and details of all
the loads and boundary conditions supported by the Patran MD Nastran Thermal Application Preference.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions Form


This form appears when you select Loads/BCs from the main menu. The Loads/Boundary Conditions
form provides options to create the various MD Nastran loads and/or boundary conditions. For a

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 67
Loads and Boundary Conditions

definition of full functionality, see Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 27) in the Patran Reference
Manual.

Load/Boundary Conditions
Indicates the category of heat loads or boundary condition.
Action: Create The choices are Temp (Thermal) for prescribing temperatures,
Initial Temperature, Boundary Temperature, Applied Heat,
Object: Convection Convection, Radiation, and Contact.

Type: Element Uniform The Type options are Nodal, Element Uniform, and Element
Variable. Nodal is applied explicitly to nodes. Element Uniform
defines a constant value to be applied over an entire element,
element face, or element edge. Element Variable defines a
Option: Coupled value that varies across an entire element, element face, or
element edge.
Analysis Type: Thermal

Current Load Case: Indicates the specific type for each general category of
loads/boundary condition. The choices for each Object are
Default... shown on page 68.

Type: Static
Loads or boundary conditions defined here are associated
with the Current Load Case. By default, this is a static
Existing Sets (steady-state) load case called Default. To create heat loads
or boundary conditions for a transient analysis, you must
create a Time-Dependent load case in the Load Cases
application.

New Set Name

Target Element Type: 2D

Region 2: Nodal Generates either a Static or Transient Input Data form,


depending on the current Load Case Type selected.
Input Data... The Application Region is the piece of geometry or set of
nodes or elements to which the loads or boundary condition is
Select Application Region... applied. Most Loads/BCs have a single region. However,
options are provided for advanced users to define complex
convection or radiation exchange between two application
regions.
-Apply-

Main Index
68 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions

The following table outlines the options for creating MD Nastran thermal loads and boundary conditions:

Target Element
Object Option Type Type Region 2
• Temp Nodal -- --
(Thermal)
• Initial Nodal -- --
Temperature
• Applied Heat • Normal Fluxes Nodal -- --
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D --

Element Variable
• Directional Fluxes Nodal -- --
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D --
• Nodal Source Nodal -- --
• Volumetric Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D --
Generation
• Total Heat Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D
• Convection • To Ambient Nodal -- --
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D --
• Flow Tube To Element Uniform 1D --
Ambient
• Coupled Nodal -- Nodal
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D Nodal, 1D, 2D,
3D
• Coupled Flow Tube Element Uniform 1D Nodal, 1D, 2D,
3D
• Coupled Advection Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D 1D
• Duct Flow Element Uniform 1D 2D, 3D
• Radiation • Ambient Space Nodal -- --
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D --
• Ambient Nodes Nodal -- Nodal
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D Nodal 1D, 2D, 3D
• Enclosures Nodal -- --
Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D --
• Contact • Deformable Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D
• Rigid Body

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 69
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Input Data Forms--Basic and Advanced Options


Many of the input data forms have a Basic format and an Advanced format. The default is the Basic
format, but you can change the format to Advanced using the option menu at the top of the form.
Many of the advanced forms contain a databox called Control Node ID. If an existing node is selected in
this databox, the temperature at this node during the analysis is used as an implicit load multiplier,
depending on the exact application.
Another advanced option is the Film Node ID that appears on forms for defining convection boundary
conditions. This option allows an existing node to be selected. The temperature of this node during the
analysis is used to define the temperature of the fluid used in determining the temperature-dependent
fluid material properties involved in the calculation of the convection heat transfer coefficient.

Main Index
70 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Two Application Regions


Two application regions provide advanced options for convection and radiation boundary conditions with
complex exchange mechanisms. Application Region 1 defines a convecting or radiating surface, while
Application Region 2 specifies a set of nodes to which the heat is transferred.

Select Application Region


Geometry Filter
u Geometry
Defines the coupling methods of two application regions.
uu FEM The Patran MD Nastran Thermal Application Preference
ignores this option and always applies a closest
approach algorithm to associate the companion region
with Application Region 1.
Order: Selection
Application Region

Select Geometry Entities Selects geometry or finite element entities by graphical


picks or text input to the databox.

Adds geometry or finite element entities to the


Add Remove activated Application Region.
Application Region
Removes geometry or finite element entities from the
Surface 1 activated Application Region.

Active List Activates the selection of Application Region 1.


Companion Region

Surface 2.4

Active List Activates the selection of Application Region 2.

OK
Note: When applying any of the convection or radiation forms involving two
application regions, both regions must use the same geometry filter.

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 71
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Surface Area
The total amount of heat radiated or convected from a surface or input from a heat source depends on the
area of the surface. For nodal loads and boundary conditions, the nodal area must be defined explicitly.
For faces of 2D or 3D elements, the area is calculated from the relative locations of the nodal points. For
the edge of a shell element, the area is calculated from the nodal points location and the shell thickness.
For general or tapered beam elements, the rod element, or the curved beam with general section, the area
is calculated as:

( 4. • π • cross_sectional_area ) • beam_length

For the rod or curved beam with pipe section, the area is calculated as:

2 • π • radius • beam_length

For directional flux or radiation enclosure on 1D elements, the Patran MD Nastran forward translator will
automatically calculate the projected area based on the normal vector specified for the given elements.

Spatial Dependence
Many of the quantities defined on the Loads/BCs forms are allowed to vary as a function of the model’s
spatial coordinates. This variation is described by first defining a spatial field using the Fields application
and then selecting this field from the Spatial Fields listbox on the Loads/BCs Input Data form. Creation
of spatial fields is described in more detail in Fields Forms (p. 210) in the Patran Reference Manual.

Temperature Dependence
Many of the quantities defined on the Loads/BCs forms are also allowed to vary as a function of
temperature. An example is Convection Coefficient. The convection coefficient can take on different
values depending on the surface or fluid temperatures at each point in the model. All quantities that are
allowed to vary as a function of temperature have a second databox on the Loads/BCs Input Data form
with the *Temperature Function label above it. This indicates that the temperature function multiplies
the value in the databox to its immediate left (this value may be a constant or may come from a spatial
field). Functions of temperature are described by defining a temperature-dependent field in the Fields
application. To create this Field, you must set the Object to Material Property. You may then select the
created field from the Temperature Dependent Fields listbox on the Loads/BCs Input Data form.
For convenience, if you have specified a temperature-dependent function but do not specify any value in
the far left column, Patran will assign a default value of 1.0 to that databox.

Time Dependence
When the Current Load Case is Time Dependent (set from the Load Cases application), a time-dependent
field listbox appears on the far right column of the Loads/BCs Input Data form. This column contains
databoxes that allow the time dependence of the quantities in the far left column of the Input Data form
to be defined. Just as for spatial and temperature dependencies, you must first create a time dependence
in the Fields application. To create the field in the Fields application, you must set the Object to Non

Main Index
72 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Spatial and the Method to Tabular Input. You must also define a set of time-load multiplier pairs. This
field can then be selected from the Time Dependent Fields listbox on the Loads/BCs Input Data form.
For convenience, if you have specified a time-dependent function but do not specify any value in the far
left column, Patran will assign a default value of 1.0 to that databox.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Temp(Thermal)
Forms associated with the Temp(Thermal) Object allow you to define nodal temperatures that remain
constrained during the analysis. The Temp(Thermal) Input Data forms for steady-state (Static) and
transient (Time Dependent) load cases are shown below.

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Input Data

Boundary Temperature In a steady-state analysis, you may input a constant


value or select a previously created Spatial Field that
defines the temperature as a function of location in the
model.

Spatial Fields
spatial_fld1
spatial_fld2

In a transient analysis, in addition to the


Reset constant value or Spatial Field, you may
also select a previously created Time
Dependent Field that describes how the
OK Cancel temperature changes as an explicit function
of time.

Input Data

Boundary Temperature *Time Function

Spatial Fields Time Dependent Fields


spatial_fld1 time_fld1
spatial_fld2 time_fld2

OK Reset Cancel

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 75
Loads and Boundary Conditions

The input option is described in the table below.

Input Data Dependence Description


Boundary Temperature spatial, time Defines temperature boundary conditions.

Initial Temperature
Initial temperature is required in a time-dependent analysis. In a nonlinear steady-state analysis, initial
temperatures are input as an initial guess to improve the convergence rate and often to provide
initialization for the nonlinear iterative solution scheme.
As a user convenience, if most of the initial nodal temperatures are to be the same, you can define this
temperature using the Default Init Temperature databox in the Solution Parameters form invoked from
the Analysis application. Any initial temperatures defined using this Initial Temperature option in
Loads/BCs will take precedence over the default value defined in the Analysis application. The Input
Data form for Initial Temperature is very similar to the form for steady-state temperature shown above.
The input option is described in the table below.

Input Data Dependence Description


Initial Temperature spatial Defines initial condition temperatures for transient
analysis. May also be used to define an initial guess in a
nonlinear steady-state analysis.

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Applied Heat--Normal Fluxes


This option applies a heat flux either to nodes or elements on the surface of a body.

Input Data

Form Type: Advanced If the Form Type is toggled from Basic to Advanced
Node ID databox appears.
Surface Option: Top

Top Surf Heat Flux For 2D elements, the heat flux can be applied to the
bottom, or edge of the surface.

Control Node ID

Spatial Fields

Reset

OK Cancel

The following table describes the options for defining a heat flux.

Input Data Dependence Description


Heat Flux spatial, time Defines a heat flux.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, time When the Target Element Type on the main form is set to 2D, this
Edge] Heat Flux databox appears to define a heat flux applied on the top, bottom, or
edge of a boundary surface.
Nodal Area -- Appears only when the LBC type is Nodal. Defines the area of a
boundary surface associated with the node.
Control Node ID -- An advanced option that defines a control node. See Input Data
Forms--Basic and Advanced Options, 69.

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 77
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Applied Heat--Directional Fluxes


This option applies a thermal vector flux from a distant source onto the surface of a body.

Steady-StateAnalysis
Figure 3-4

Input Data

Form Type: Basic


Absorptivity * Temperature Function

Heat Flux

Incident Thermal Vector When the load type is Nodal


or the target element type is
< > 1D, you must specify a
vector defining the “surface
Normal Vector normal.”
< >
Nodal Area

When the load type is


Nodal, you must specify the
Spatial Fields Temperature Dependent Fields area associated with the
node.

OK Reset Cancel

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Transient Analysis
For a time-dependent load case, the Input Data form with the Form Type changed from Basic to
Advanced and the Thermal Vec Type changed to Transient is shown below.

Input Data

Surface Option: Top Form Type: Advanced Thermal Vec Type: Transient
Top Surf Absorptivity * Temperature Function

Top Surf Heat Flux * Time Function

Incident Thermal Vector DirCos e1(t) of Thermal Vec


< >
DirCos e2(t) of Thermal Vec
Control Node ID

DirCos e3(t) of Thermal Vec

Spatial Fields Temperature Dependent Fields Time Dependent Fields


temp_fld1 time_fld1
temp_fld2 time_fld2

OK Reset Cancel

Incident Thermal Vector


The incident thermal vector defines the direction from the surface to the heat source. In steady-state
analysis, you may use any of the standard Patran vector tools to define this vector. In a transient analysis,
two options are available and controlled with the Thermal Vec Type menu:
1. If only the magnitude of the heat flux changes as a function of time in the analysis, you may
choose Thermal Vec Type Constant and select a previously defined field in the * Time
Function databox to describe this change.
2. If the direction of the vector also changes as a function of time, the Thermal Vec Type menu must
be set to Transient. The form changes to display three databoxes titled DirCos ei(t) of Thermal
Vec. Separate time-dependent fields can be selected for these three boxes to define the change of
direction as a function of time.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

The following table describes the options for the forms shown on page 77 through page 78.

Input Data Dependence Description


Absorptivity spatial, temp Defines the absorptivity of the surface.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, temp When the target element type is 2D, a toggle and databox appear
Edge] Absorptivity to define the absorptivity of the top, bottom, or edge of a boundary
surface.
Heat Flux spatial, time Defines the heat flux quantity.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, time When the target element type is 2D, a toggle and databox appear
Edge] Heat Flux to define a heat flux applied on the top, bottom, or edge of a
boundary surface.
Incident Thermal Vector -- Defines the fixed direction incident thermal vector.
DirCos e1(t) of Thermal Vec time Defines the time function of the direction cosine e1 of the incident
thermal vector.
DirCos e2(t) of Thermal Vec time Defines the time function of the direction cosine e2 of the incident
thermal vector.
DirCos e3(t) of Thermal Vec time Defines the time function of the direction cosine e3 of the incident
thermal vector.
Normal Vector spatial When the load type is Nodal or the target element type is 1D, a
vector defining the “surface normal” must be entered.
Nodal Area -- When the load type is Nodal, the area associated with the node
must be entered.
Control Node ID -- An advanced option that defines a control node. See Input Data
Forms--Basic and Advanced Options, 69.

Applied Heat--Nodal Source


This option applies a heat flow directly to one or more nodes in the model.

Input Data Dependence Description


Nodal Source spatial, time Defines the heat applied to the nodes.

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Applied Heat--Volumetric Generation


This option defines a rate of heat generation within the volume of a conduction solid. This heat generation
rate can be made a function of temperature by assigning a temperature field to the Heat Generation
Multiplier option of the material associated with this solid.

Input Data Dependence Description


Volumetric Heat Generation spatial, time Defines the volumetric heat generation in conduction elements.
Control Node ID -- An advanced option that defines a control node. See Input Data
Forms--Basic and Advanced Options, 69.

Applied Heat--Total Heat


This option defines a rate of heat generation within the volume of a conduction solid. This heat generation
rate can be made a function of temperature by assigning a temperature field to the Heat Generation
Multiplier option of the material associated with this solid.

Input Data Dependence Description


Total Heat spatial, time Defines the total heat (power) applied to a surface or element
face. The total heat value given is divided by the total area of the
application region (for surface entities). If the application
region is geometry, then the value displayed graphically on the
geometry is the actual given value. If the application region is
FEM (or Geometry, but displayed on the associated FEM) then
the value displayed is the given value divided by the total area
of the application region. This is the value that will be written
to the MD Nastran QBDY3 entry.
Control Node ID -- An advanced option that defines a control node. See Input Data
Forms--Basic and Advanced Options, 69.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Convection--To Ambient
This option allows for the definition of the most basic form of convection boundary condition. Heat is
exchanged between the surface of the body and a surrounding media, the temperature of which is known.
The form for a steady-state load case and 2D element type are shown below.

Input Data

Surface Option: Top Form Type: Advanced


Top Surf Convection Coef * Temperature Function

Ambient Temperature

Reference Temperature Option


u Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2
Formula Type Option uu Surface Temp (Ts)
uu Ambient Temp (Ta)
u q=h(Ts-Ta)**EXPF*(Ts-Ta)
uu Film Temperature
uu q=h(Ts**EXPF-Ta**EXPF)

Convection Exponent (EXPF)

Spatial Fields Temperature Dependent Fields

OK Reset Cancel

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

The options for this convection boundary condition are shown in the table below.

Input Data Dependence Description


Convection Coefficient spatial, temp, time Defines free convection heat transfer coefficient.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, temp, time When the target element type is 2D, a toggle and databox
Edge] Convection Coeff appear to define the free convection heat transfer coefficient of
the top, bottom, or edge of a boundary surface.
Ambient Temperature time Defines ambient temperature.
Nodal Area -- When the LBC type is Nodal, this databox appears to define
the area of the boundary surface.
Formula Type Option -- An advanced option for defining a customized form of the free
convection formula:

q = h (Ts-Ta)(expf+1) or q = h (Tsexpf - Taexpf)

By default, the first form is chosen with EXPF equal 0.0.


Convection Exponent -- An advanced option for defining EXPF in the above equation.
Reference Temperature -- An advanced option for defining the temperature used in
Option calculating the convection coefficient. The options are:
average of surface and ambient temperatures, surface
temperature, ambient temperature, or temperature at a user-
defined node. By default, this reference temperature is taken as
the average of surface and ambient temperatures.
Film Node ID -- An advanced option for selecting an existing node for fluid
film temperature.

With MSC.Nastran Version 68, the Patran MD Nastran Forward Translator will average the values for
Surface Temp (Ts) and Ambient Temp (Ta) to acquire the Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2. Average Temp will
be used as the temperature at which the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will be
determined.

Convection--Flow Tube To Ambient


Two basic heat transport mechanisms take place when the Flow Tube element is used. The first involves
the transport of heat in the streamwise direction from the upstream fluid elements to the downstream fluid
elements. We refer to this as heat transport due to advection. The second heat transfer mechanism
involves heat transport into or out of the working fluid along the fluid tube boundary. We refer to this as
heat transfer due to forced convection.
The transport of heat energy by advection is a function of the mass flow rate (mdot) and the specific heat
of the fluid. In the typical case we can ignore the small amount of heat transfer resulting from conduction
in the fluid1; energy is then transported at the rate: mdot * Cp * T. The heat transfer at the stream tube
1
MD Nastran does not ignore the component of heat transfer in the fluid due to conduction.

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 83
Loads and Boundary Conditions

boundary, then, must be equal to (mdot * Cp * T)in - (mdot * Cp * T)out, where in and out refer to the
inlet and exit states of the fluid stream. Typically, the inlet temperature is specified and the exit
temperature is determined as part of the solution.
The forced convection part of the problem allows the fluid stream tube to communicate with the
surrounding environment. You can determine the heat transfer coefficient for a particular problem
externally, or use the generalized correlations available through the preference and MD Nastran heat
transfer solver. The particular application has a lot to do with the viability of either approach.
A practical example of the use of Flow Tube to Ambient is the situation of analyzing a flow tube in a free
stream of large mass flow and essentially constant temperature. A flow tube in an automobile radiator is
a good example where the flow tube models the flow stream in the tubing (engine coolant) and the
ambient environment is that of the air rushing across the tubes at the local air temperature.

Physical Model

Flow Flow
in out

Ambient Flow Stream


At Temperature T∞ = Constant

Finite Element Representation

Forced convection resistance


1
Res = -------
T∞ hA
.
m cp

Tin Tout

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

The Input Data form for a transient load case is shown below.

Input Data
Form Type: Advanced
Mass Flow Rate * Time Function

Ambient Temperature * Time Function

Heat Transfer Coefficient Reference Temperature Option


uu Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2
Formula Type Option uu Surface Temp (Ts)
u uu Ambient Temp (Ta)
h=coef*Re**Expr*Pr**Expp
uu h=k/d*coef*Re**Expr*Pr**
u Film Temperature

Reynolds Exponent Film Node ID

Prandtl Exponent, Heat In


Time Dependent Fields
time_fld1
Prandtl Exponent, Heat Out time_fld2

OK Reset Cancel

The following table describes the options for defining this convection boundary condition.

Input Data Dependence Description


Mass Flow Rate time Defines mass flow rate within the flow tube element.
Ambient Temperature time Defines ambient temperature.
Heat Transfer Coefficient -- Defines the constant coefficient used for forced convection. A
default value 1.e-20 will be defined if this data is not specified.

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 85
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Input Data Dependence Description


Formula Type Option -- An advanced option to define forced convection formula type:

h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp or

h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp*k/d

By default, the first form is chosen with EXPR and EXPP equal
to 0.0.
Reynolds Exponent -- An advanced option to define the Reynolds number convection
exponent EXPR.
Prandtl Exponent, Heat In -- An advanced option to define the Prandtl number convection
exponent EXPPI for heat transfer into the working fluid.
Prandtl Exponent, Heat Out -- An advanced option to define the Prandtl number convection
exponent EXPPO for heat transfer out of the working fluid.
Reference Temperature -- An advanced option for defining the temperature used in
Option calculating material properties for the fluid. The options are:
average of surface and ambient temperatures, surface
temperature, ambient temperature, or temperature at a user-
defined node. By default, this reference temperature is taken as
the average of surface and ambient temperatures.
Film Node ID -- An advanced option for selecting an existing node for fluid film
temperature.

With MSC.Nastran Version 68, the Patran MD Nastran Forward Translator will average the values for
Surface Temp (Ts) and Ambient Temp (Ta) to acquire the Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2. Average Temp will
be used as the temperature at which the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will be
determined.

Convection--Coupled
This advanced option for applying a convection boundary condition allows for the explicit definition of
the convecting surface (Application Region 1) and a set of nodes (Application Region 2) between which
heat is exchanged by convection. Mathematically, the exchange mechanism is similar to that for
Convection to Ambient, except here Application Region 2 may be something other than basic ambient
fluid points and their temperatures need not be specified in the description of the problem. The
temperatures in Application Region 2 may be part of the solution. In addition, there does not need to be

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

a one-to-one correspondence between nodal points in Region 1 and those in Region 2. The Input Data
form for a steady-state load case is shown below.

Input Data

Form Type: Advanced


Convection Coefficient * Temperature Function

Reference Temperature Option


u Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2
Formula Type Option uu Surface Temp (Ts)
u q=h(Ts-Ta)**EXPF*(Ts-Ta) uu Ambient Temp (Ta)
uu q=h(Ts**EXPF-Ta**EXPF) uu Film Temperature
Application Region 2
Convection Exponent (EXPF)

Spatial Fields Temperature Dependent Fields

OK Reset Cancel

Application Region 1

The input options for coupled convection are shown in the table below.

Input Data Dependence Description


Convection Coefficient spatial, temp, time Defines free convection heat transfer coefficient.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, temp, time When the target element type is 2D, a toggle and databox
Edge] Convection Coeff appear to define the free convection heat transfer coefficient
of the top, bottom, or edge of a boundary surface.
Nodal Area -- When the LBC type is Nodal, this databox appears to define
the area of the boundary surface.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Input Data Dependence Description


Formula Type Option -- An advanced option for defining a customized form of the
free convection formula:

q = h (Ts-Ta)(expf+1) or q = h (Tsexpf - Taexpf)

By default, the first form is chosen with EXPF equal 0.0.


Convection Exponent -- An advanced option for defining EXPF in the above
equation.
Reference Temperature -- An advanced option for defining the temperature used in
Option calculating the convection coefficient. The options are:
average of surface and ambient temperatures, surface
temperature, ambient temperature, or temperature at a user-
defined node. By default, this reference temperature is taken
as the average of surface and ambient temperatures.
Film Node ID -- An advanced option for selecting an existing node for fluid
film temperature.

With MSC.Nastran Version 68, the Patran MD Nastran Forward Translator will average the values for
Surface Temp (Ts) and Ambient Temp (Ta) to acquire the Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2. Average Temp will
be used as the temperature at which the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will be
determined.

Convection--Coupled Flow Tube


This is an advanced extension of the Convection, Flow Tube to Ambient boundary condition. In this
application, the advection flow tube is attached to nodal points associated with a structure as opposed to
simply an ambient environment. The flow tube in this application transports energy downstream in the
mdot * Cp * T sense. Flow tube relations related to forced convection heat transfer at the tube boundaries
are associated with this model. In this case, the convection area is the area associated with the flow tube
perimeter, and it is the user’s responsibility to coordinate this area with that of the attached structure. It
is important to realize that if the flow tube relationships are used (as opposed to a user-supplied h), the

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88 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions

tube input diameters are used in the calculation of the Reynolds number and subsequently in calculating
the heat transfer coefficient.

Application
Region 1
(Flow Tube)
mdot

1
Res = -------
hA
Convection Resistance

Application
Region 2
(Structure)

When this capability is applied, there must be general correspondence (one flow tube element for every
structural element grid point pair) between the flow tube node points in Application Region 1 and the

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 89
Loads and Boundary Conditions

structural node points in Application Region 2. The Input Data form for a steady-state load case is shown
below.

Input Data
Form Type: Advanced
Mass Flow Rate

Heat Transfer Coefficient Reference Temperature Option


u Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2
Formula Type Option uu Surface Temp (Ts)
u uu Ambient Temp (Ta)
h=coef*Re**Expr*Pr**Expp
uu uu Film Temperature
h=k/d*coef*Re**Expr*Pr**

Reynolds Exponent

Prandtl Exponent, Heat In

Prandtl Exponent, Heat Out

OK Reset Cancel

The input options for coupled flow tube convection are described in the table below.

Input Data Dependence Description


Mass Flow Rate time Defines mass flow rate in the Flow Tube element.
Heat Transfer Coefficient -- Defines the constant coefficient used for forced convection.
A default value 1.e-20 will be defined if this data is not
specified.

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Input Data Dependence Description


Formula Type Option -- An advanced option to define forced convection formula
type:

h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp or h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp*k/d

By default, the first form is chosen with EXPR and EXPP


equal to 0.0.
Reynolds Exponent -- An advanced option for defining the Reynolds number
convection exponent EXPR in the above equation.
Prandtl Exponent, Heat In -- An advanced option for defining the Prandtl number
convection exponent EXPPI for heat transfer into the
working fluid.
Prandtl Exponent, Heat Out -- An advanced option for defining the Prandtl number
convection exponent EXPPO for heat transfer out of the
working fluid.
Reference Temperature -- An advanced option for defining the temperature used in
Option calculating material properties for the fluid. The options are:
average of surface and ambient temperatures, surface
temperature, ambient temperature, or temperature at a user-
defined node. By default, this reference temperature is taken
as the average of surface and ambient temperatures.
Film Node ID -- An advanced option for selecting an existing node for fluid
film temperature.

With MSC.Nastran Version 68, the Patran MD Nastran Forward Translator will average the values for
Surface Temp (Ts) and Ambient Temp (Ta) to acquire the Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2. Average Temp will
be used as the temperature at which the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will be
determined.

Convection--Coupled Advection
This advanced option enables the connection between an advection stream and a structural surface. For
this capability, the forced convection tube relationships are essentially turned off by setting the constant
coefficient for forced convection to 1.E-20. The convection connection between the flow stream and the
surface is determined from basic convection; Q = h * A * (T1 - T2). Here the internally calculated area
A is the area associated with the structural surface elements. The user must specify the value of the heat
transfer coefficient, h. In steady-state analysis, the flow tube diameters are of little consequence for this
capability since no Reynolds Numbers or heat transfer coefficients are determined internally. In transient
analysis, the fluid speed needs to be produced by the correct choice of fluid properties and tube diameter.
There need not be any particular correspondence between the nodes on the flow tube and those on the

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 91
Loads and Boundary Conditions

surface elements; Patran uses a closest approach algorithm to associate the surface elements with the
stream tube elements. The Input Data form for a steady-state load case is shown below.

Input Data
Form Type: Advanced
Convection Coefficient * Temperature Function

Mass Flow Rate

Reference Temperature Option


u Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2
Formula Type Option uu Surface Temp (Ts)
u uu Ambient Temp (Ta)
q=h(Ts-Ta)**EXPF*(Ts-Ta)
uu q=h(Ts**EXPF-Ta**EXPF) uu Film Temperature

Convection Exponent (EXPF)

Spatial Fields Temperature Dependent Fields

OK Reset Cancel

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92 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions

T = 0.0 Res → ∞

Flow
Tube

1
Res = -------
hA

In MD Nastran terms, the flow tube ambient points are brought together and set to 0.0 degrees
temperature. The forced convection resistance is set to a large number (negligible heat transfer
coefficient). The connection between the fluid and structure is affected through basic convection with a
user-specified heat transfer coefficient. The input options are described in the table below.

Input Data Dependence Description


Convection Coefficient spatial, temp, time Defines free convection heat transfer coefficient.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, temp, time When the target element type is 2D, a toggle and databox
Edge] Convection Coeff appear to define the free convection heat transfer coefficient
of the top, bottom, or edge of a boundary surface.
Mass Flow Rate time Defines the mass flow rate of the flow tube elements.
Nodal Area -- When the LBC type is Nodal, this databox appears to define
the area of the boundary surface.

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 93
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Input Data Dependence Description


Formula Type Option -- An advanced option for defining a customized form of the
free convection formula:

q = h (Ts-Ta)(expf+1) or q = h (Tsexpf - Taexpf)

By default, the first form is chosen with EXPF equal 0.0.


Convection Exponent -- An advanced option for defining EXPF in the above equation.
Reference Temperature -- An advanced option for defining the temperature used in
Option calculating the convection coefficient. The options are:
average of surface and ambient temperatures, surface
temperature, ambient temperature, or temperature at a user-
defined node. By default, this reference temperature is taken
as the average of surface and ambient temperatures.
Film Node ID -- An advanced option for selecting an existing node for fluid
film temperature.

With MSC.Nastran Version 68, the Patran MD Nastran Forward Translator will average the values for
Surface Temp (Ts) and Ambient Temp (Ta) to acquire the Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2. Average Temp will
be used as the temperature at which the temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will be
determined.

Convection--Duct Flow
This feature enables the user to associate a 1D fluid stream with a surface or duct composed of 2D or 3D
(shell or solid) elements. When specifying the duct flow attributes, the target element type is 1D and the
region-2 specification will be 2D or 3D. It would be good modeling practice to provide flow stream
element discretization level of approximately the same level as the adjoining structure with respect to the
streamwise direction. Fluid connections can only be made between the flow tube and 3 noded triangular
elemental surfaces or 4 noded quadrilateral elemental surfaces.
The structural surface may represent a physically more complex geometry composed of surface fins. The
increased area associated with extended surfaces can be accounted for in duct flow by using the Extended
Surface Multiplier on the Input Data menu. The actual convection surface area will equal the area
calculated by the code from the elemental areas times this surface multiplier. On this same menu, mass
flow rate refers to the duct mass flow rate (total flow).
The proper treatment of the heat transfer coefficient relationship depends on the input for the flow tube
diameters, defined in this application as the hydraulic diameters (DH). The flow tube hydraulic diameter
is the dimension used in internally calculating the Reynolds Number. It will also automatically be used
as the diameter in the Input Data, Formula Type Option equation for the heat transfer coefficient. With
this formulation, the advection flow heat transfer coefficient is based on the gross dimensions of the
structure and is input to the code through the input of hydraulic diameter. It is the user’s responsibility to
determine an appropriate DH. The mass flow rate and fluid material properties represent the actual

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94 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions

total/real flow characteristics for the duct. The actual elemental surface area flow attachment is accounted
for internally through the triangle and quadrilateral surface element area calculations and may be
enhanced by the extended surface multiplier to represent a finned surface.

Input Data
Mass Flow Rate * Time Function

Heat Transfer Coefficient Reference Temperature Option


Average Temp (Ts+Ta)/2
Extended Surface Multiplier Surface Temp (Ts)
Ambient Temp (Ta)
Formula Type Option Film Temperature

h=coef*Re**Expr*Pr**Expp
Film Node ID
h=k/d*coef*Re**Expr*Pr**

Reynolds Exponent

Prandtl Exponent, Heat In Time Dependent Fields

Prandtl Exponent, Heat Out

OK Reset Cancel

Input Data Dependence Description


Mass Flow Rate time Defines mass flow rate in the Flow Tube element.
Heat Transfer Coefficient -- Defines the constant coefficient used for forced convection.
A default value 1.e-20 will be defined if this data is not
specified.
Extended Surface Multiplier -- Defines extended area factor for surface fins.

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 95
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Input Data Dependence Description


Formula Type Option -- An advanced option to define forced convection formula
type:

h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp or h=coef*Reexpr*Prexpp*k/d

By default, the first form is chosen with EXPR and EXPP


equal to 0.0.
Reynolds Exponent -- An advanced option for defining the Reynolds number
convection exponent EXPR in the above equation.
Prandtl Exponent, Heat In -- An advanced option for defining the Prandtl number
convection exponent EXPPI for heat transfer into the
working fluid.
Prandtl Exponent, Heat Out -- An advanced option for defining the Prandtl number
convection exponent EXPPO for heat transfer out of the
working fluid.
Reference Temperature -- An advanced option for defining the temperature used in
Option calculating material properties for the fluid. The options are:
average of surface and ambient temperatures, surface
temperature, ambient temperature, or temperature at a user-
defined node. By default, this reference temperature is taken
as the average of surface and ambient temperatures.
Film Node ID -- An advanced option for selecting an existing node for fluid
film temperature.

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Radiation--Ambient Space
This option defines a boundary condition for a surface exchanging radiant energy with an ambient
temperature in space. The Input Data form for 3D element types is shown below.

Input Data

Emissivity * Temperature Function

Absorptivity * Temperature Function

Ambient Temperature

View Factor

Spatial Fields Temperature Dependent Fields

OK Reset Cancel

Input Data Dependence Description


Emissivity spatial, temp Defines surface emissivity.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, temp When the target element type is 2D, a toggle and databox
Edge] Emissivity appear to define the emissivity of the top, bottom, or edge of a
boundary surface.
Absorptivity spatial, temp Defines surface absorptivity.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, temp When the target element type is 2D, a toggle and databox
Edge] Absorptivity appear to define the absorptivity of the top, bottom, or edge of
a boundary surface.
Ambient Temperature time Defines ambient temperature.

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 97
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Input Data Dependence Description


View Factor spatial, time Defines radiation view factor between the surface and the
ambient space. The default value is 1.0.
Nodal Area -- When the LBC type is Nodal, this databox appears to define
the area of the boundary surface.

Radiation--Ambient Nodes
This is an advanced option for applying a radiation boundary condition to a surface. You select both the
surface (Application Region 1) and a set of nodes that define the temperature to which the surface is
exchanging heat by radiation (Application Region 2).

Input Data Dependence Description


Emissivity spatial, temp Defines surface emissivity.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, temp When the target element type is 2D, a toggle and databox
Edge] Emissivity appear to define the emissivity of the top, bottom, or edge of a
boundary surface.
Absorptivity spatial, temp Defines surface absorptivity.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, temp When the target element type is 2D, a toggle and databox
Edge] Absorptivity appear to define the absorptivity of the top, bottom, or edge of
a boundary surface.
View Factor spatial, time Defines radiation view factor between the surface and the
ambient nodes. The default value is 1.0.
Nodal Area -- When the LBC type is Nodal, this databox appears to define the
area of the boundary surface.

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98 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Radiation--Enclosures
This option defines a radiation boundary among a set of surfaces making up a cavity or enclosure. Each
surface is defined independently using the form below. The surfaces are grouped to form an enclosure by
specifying the same Enclosure ID (integer) on all surfaces making up the enclosure.

Input Data

Enclosure ID
Emissivity * Temperature Function

Surface Can Shade Third Body Shading


Surface Can Be Shaded Complete Enclosure
Normal Vector
< >
Nodal Area

Spatial Fields Temperature Dependent Fields

OK Reset Cancel

Input Data Dependence Description


Enclosure ID -- Defines the ID number of the radiation enclosure.
Emissivity spatial, temp Defines surface emissivity.
[Top Surf, Bottom Surf, spatial, temp When the target element type is 2D, a toggle and databox appear
Edge] Emissivity to define the emissivity of the top, bottom, or edge of a boundary
surface.
Surface Can Shade -- Specifies if the face can shade other faces in the enclosure
(default=yes).
Surface Can Be Shaded -- Specifies if the face can be shaded by other faces in the enclosure
(default=yes).
Normal Vector spatial When the load type is Nodal or the target element type is 1D, a
vector defining the “surface normal” must be entered.

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 99
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Input Data Dependence Description


Nodal Area -- When the LBC type is Nodal, this databox appears to define the
area of the boundary surface.
Third Body Shading -- Controls third body shading calculation (default=yes). When set
at “no,” third body shadowing calculations will be ignored.
Complete Enclosure -- In an enclosure that is not fully closed, energy may be radiated to
entities outside the enclosure. Toggling this option from “no”
(default) to “yes” specifies that all energy not exchanged among
the surfaces of the enclosure will be radiated to a user-defined
ambient temperature. When creating an enclosure it is sometimes
not feasible to model everything that will be generating or
receiving heat from a model. The user models everything that is
of interest, and then simply wants to close the remainder of the his
model with a single ambient element that will allow his view
factors to sum to 1.0. This is done with a RADCAV card and can
be accomplished by selecting the complete enclosure toggle. The
ambient temperature of the open space is then entered, and now
the analysis is able to complete with a total view factor of 1.0.
Ambient Temperature -- This databox appears when the Complete Enclosure option is
toggled to “yes” and is used to define the external temperature to
which energy is exchanged with the enclosure.

Cavity 1 Cavity 2

Figure 3-5 Multiple Cavity Example

Main Index
100 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Can Be
Can Be Can Shade, but
Shaded, but
Shaded, but cannot be shaded
cannot shade
cannot shade
(Third Body Shadowing)

Figure 3-6 Single Cavity Example

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model 101
Load Cases

3.7 Load Cases


Load cases in Patran enable you to group a series of load sets into one load environment for your model.
Load cases are selected when defining an analysis job. The usage within MD Nastran is similar. Patran
uses the selected load cases to create the necessary SUBCASE commands in the Case Control Section of
the NASTRAN input file.
For information on how to define multiple static and/or transient load cases, see Load Cases Application
(Ch. 5) in the Patran Reference Manual.

Patran
File Group Viewport Viewing Display Preferences Tools Help

© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY

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Main Index
102 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Load Cases

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Running a Thermal Analysis


4
J
Introduction 104
J
Review of the Analysis Form 105
J
Translation Parameters 109
J
Solution Types 113
J
Direct Text Input 119
J
Subcases 121
J
Subcase Select 135

Main Index
104 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Introduction

4.1 Introduction
To run a thermal analysis, you use the procedure described below.

Select the solution type The solution type can be either steady-state or transient analysis.
Define the solution related input data The purpose of this step is to change the default settings of job-related
input data, such as Maximum Run Time, Default Initial Temperature,
Radiation Parameters, and options for view factor calculations.
Define the subcase data Similar to the previous step, the defaults for nonlinear iteration
controls, time increments, and output requests can be altered in the
Subcase Create section of the Analysis menu form.
Select load cases This step selects load case(s) for an analysis job.
Submit the job When a job is ready for analysis, the MD Nastran solver can be
retrieved by clicking on the Apply button on the main Analysis form.
You can modify the default settings of translation parameters, or you
can insert additional data entries using the Direct Text Input form
before submitting your analysis job.
Read the analysis results The analysis results must be read into the Patran database by invoking
the Read Output2 Action on the Analysis form. The results can then be
processed by selecting the Results toggle on the Patran application
selections.

To submit a single load case, steady-state analysis job to MD Nastran, you need only click on the Apply
button on the main Analysis form. Patran will automatically control the appropriate default settings and
other related selections.
In the Patran MD Nastran Interface, a subcase can be thought of as a Patran load case with some
additional parameters (e.g., Output Requests) associated with it. This association is further strengthened
since the default subcases are created for each load case and have the same name as their associated load
case. In this document, the terms “load case” and “subcase” are used interchangeably. When a specific
form is referenced, Load case and Subcase are capitalized.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 105
Review of the Analysis Form

4.2 Review of the Analysis Form


The Analysis form appears when you select Analysis from the main form. To run an analysis, or to create
an NASTRAN input file, select Analyze as the Action on the Analysis form. Other forms brought up by
the Analysis form are used to define translation parameters, solution types, solution parameters, output
requests, and load cases. These forms are described on the following pages. For further information, see
The Analysis Form (p. 8) in the MSC.Patran Reference Manual.

Patran

File Group Viewport Viewing Display Preferences Tools Help

© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY

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Main Index
106 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of the Analysis Form

Analysis Form
This form appears when you select Analysis from the main menu. When preparing for an analysis run,
select Analyze as the Action.

Analysis
Actions can be set to:
Analyze
Action: Analyze Read Output2 (p. 125)
Read Input File (p. 545) in the Patran Interface
Object: Entire Model to MD Nastran Preference Guide (support is
limited for thermal analysis)
Method: Analysis Deck Delete (Ch. 6) in the Patran Interface to MD
Nastran Preference Guide
Monitor (Ch. 5) in the Patran Analysis Manager
User’s Guide
Code: MD Nastran Abort (Ch. 6) in the Patran Analysis Manager
User’s Guide
Type: Thermal

Available Jobs
my_job
Indicates the selected Analysis Code and Analysis
Type, as defined in the Preferences>Analysis (p. 431) in
the Patran Reference Manual.

Job Name
my_job Name of job. Patran will use this name as the base
filename for all resulting MD Nastran files and
Job Description message files.
MD Nastran job created on
01-Feb-93 at 14:32:43

List of already existing jobs. If you select one of these jobs, the name will appear in the Job Name listbox and
all input data for this job will be retrieved from the database. You can submit an existing job again simply by
selecting it and clicking on Apply. It is often convenient to select an existing job, modify the input data as
desired, and click on Apply to submit the new job.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 107
Review of the Analysis Form

Patran uses this text to generate the TITLE statement in the


Job Description MD Nastran Executive Control Section.
MD Nastran job created on
01-Feb-93 at 14:32:43

Translation Parameters...

Solution Type...

Direct Text Input... Opens the Direct Text Input form; this form allows you
to enter data directly for the File Management,
Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data
Subcase Create... sections of the NASTRAN input file.

Subcase Select...
Selects one or more subcases for the analysis job.
Analysis Manager...

Opens the Patran Analysis Manager form.

Apply

Opens a form that allows you to choose either steady-


state analysis or transient analysis and to specify
settings for controlling the overall analysis job.

Main Index
108 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of the Analysis Form

The following table outlines the selections for the Analyze action.

Object Method
Entire Model Full Run
Check Run
Analysis Deck
Model Only
Current Group Full Run
Check Run
Analysis Deck
Model Only
Existing Deck Full Run

The Object indicates which part of the model is to be analyzed. There are three choices for thermal
analysis: Entire Model, Current Group, and Existing Deck.

Entire Model Indicates that the whole model is to be analyzed.


Current Group Indicates that only part of the model is to be analyzed. To do this, you create a group of
that part, confirm that it is the current group, then select Current Group as the Object.
For more information, see The Group Menu (p. 262) in the Patran Reference Manual.
Existing Deck Means that you wish simply to submit an existing input file to MD Nastran. To form the
input filename, Patran appends the suffix “.bdf” to the jobname appearing in the Job
Name listbox. This file must reside in the current directory.

The Method indicates how far the translation is to be taken.The methods are as follow:

Full Run Is the selected type if an Analysis Deck translation is performed, and the resulting input
file is submitted to MD Nastran for complete analysis.
Check Run Is the selected type if an Analysis Deck translation is performed, and the resulting input
file is submitted to MD Nastran for a check run only.
Analysis Deck Is the selected type if the Model Deck translation is performed, plus all load case,
analysis type and analysis parameter data are translated. A complete input file, ready for
MD Nastran, will be generated.
Model Only Is the selected type if a Bulk Data file is created that contains only the model data
including node, element, coordinate frame, element property, material property, and
loads and boundary conditions data. The translation stops at that point.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 109
Translation Parameters

4.3 Translation Parameters


This subordinate form appears when you click on the Translation Parameters button on the Analysis
form.

Defines the type of data output. “Print” specifies output of data to Specifies type of OUTPUT2 commands. “P3
the MD Nastran print file (.f06). “OP2” specifies output of data Built In” signals the use of MD Nastran
to an MD Nastran OUTPUT2 file (.op2). internal OUTPUT2 commands geared toward
“XDB” specifies output of data to an MSC.Access database Patran. These commands are also
(.xdb). appropriate for PATRAN 2. “Alter File”
specifies the use of an external alter file found
Translation Parameters on the Patran file path and following the
“msc_v#_sol#.alt” naming convention.
Data Output See Files (App. A) for more details. “CADA-X
Alter” specifies the use of an LMS CADA-X
Data Output: OP2 and Print specific alter file that is identical to the “Alter
File” but with an additional “.lms”
OUTPUT2 Requests: extension, e.g.,
P3 Built In “msc_v69_sol53.alt.lms”. “P2 Built
In” specifies use of MD Nastran internal
OUTPUT2 Format: Binary OUTPUT2 commands geared toward
PATRAN 2.

Tolerances Specifies format of the MD Nastran OUTPUT2


(*.op2) files. Use “Text” format when the
Division: 1.0e-08 resulting OUTPUT2 file must be transported
between heterogeneous computer platforms.
Numerical: 1.0e-04 Defines various tolerances used during
translation.
Writing: 1.0e-20 Division is used to prevent division-by-zero
errors.
Numerical is used to determine if two real
Bulk Data Format values are equal.
Writing is used to determine if a value is
Card Format: either approximately zero when generating a Bulk
Data entry field.
Minimum Signif. Digits: 4

Node Coordinates: reference frame

MD Nastran Version: 69

Write Properties on Element Entries

Numbering Options...

Bulk Data Include File...

OK Defaults Cancel

Main Index
110 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Translation Parameters

Data Output
Data Output: OP2 and Print

OUTPUT2 Requests: P3 Built In

OUTPUT2 Format: Binary

Tolerances
Division: 1.0e-08

Defines what type of fields are to be used in


Numerical: 1.0e-04
the Bulk Data entry. Entry format can be se
to small, large, or either. If either is selected
Writing: 1.0e-20 the Minimum Significant Digits value is use
to determine whether the values on a
particular Bulk Data entry can be placed in
Bulk Data Format small fields or whether large fields are
required. The small-field format consists of
either Bulk Data entry fields 8 columns wide; the
Card Format: large field format is 16 columns wide.

Minimum Signif. Digits: 4

Node Coordinates: reference frame

MD Nastran Version: 69 Brings up a subordinate form, Numbering


Options, 111, which defines automatic
Write Properties on Element Entries numbering offsets and possible syntaxes fo
encoded IDs.

Numbering Options...
Brings up a standard file select form which
Bulk Data Include File... allows you to select a file to be included in
the Bulk Data Section of the NASTRAN inpu
file.
OK Defaults Cancel

Writes CELAS2, CDAMP2, and CONROD Bulk Data entries instead of CELAS1, CDAMP1, and CROD entries.
Note: Do not turn ON this option if your model has time varying temperature boundary
conditions or conductor/capacitor elements.

Defines which version of MD Nastran is to be used. The version indicated here serves two purposes: to
create the full name of the ALTER file to be used and to determine which Solution Sequence to be used. Be
sure to specify only whole numbers and letters; e.g., 68 or 69.

Defines which coordinate frame is to be used when generating the grid coordinates. The options are reference
frame, analysis frame, or global. This setting should not affect the analysis. It only changes the method used in the

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 111
Translation Parameters

Numbering Options
Patran allows you to define numbering offsets for IDs associated with model entities. To invoke this
feature, you click on the Numbering Options button on the Translation Parameters form.
Numbering Options

Automatic Numbering Offsets: Indicates offsets for all IDs to be


automatically assigned during
Element Properties: 0 translation. For example, if you type
100 into the Element Properties Offset
box, the numbering of element
Material Properties: 0 properties in the resulting NASTRAN
input file will begin at 101.
Data Tables: 0
s:
Load Sets: 0

Load Cases: 0

Control Sets: 0

Rigid Elements: 0
Specifies the continuation mnemonic
Scalar Points: 0 format used on multiple line Bulk Data
entries.

Begin. Contin. Marker: + A Activates recognition of IDs encoded into


the name of any named entry, such as a
material.
IDs Encoded in Names:
Recognizes and uses an ID if, and only
Number Only if, the name of the entity is an actual
number, such as “105.” This option is
ON by default.
Beginning Number
Recognizes an ID if the number begins
Trailing Number the name, such as “52_shell_property.”
This option is OFF by default.

Encoded Syntax
Recognizes an ID if it directly follows the
first occurrence of the specified syntax.
Syntax Marker: . For example, with this option activated
and the specified syntax set to “.”, the ID
assigned to a material given the name
“Steel_1027.32” would be 32.
OK Defaults Cancel

Recognizes an ID if it tails the name, such as “shell_property_52.” This option is OFF by default.

Main Index
112 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Translation Parameters

Note that both the Patran Neutral file reader and the Patran MD Nastran input file reader preserve the IDS
of named entities with a “.” syntax, so that an MD Nastran PSHELL entry of ID 12 will be assigned the
name “PSHELL.12.” This last option allows great continuity between input model data and output model
data. This option is ON by default, and the default Syntax Marker is “.”

Note: “The Encoded IDs” option currently only works for element properties and material
properties.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 113
Solution Types

4.4 Solution Types


Three solution types are supported in the Patran MD Nastran thermal interface: steady state, transient,
and linear structural. The two thermal (only) analysis types employ nonlinear solution algorithms so that
nonlinear material properties or boundary conditions can be included in the model. The linear structural
analysis type (STRUCTURAL HEAT ANALYSIS) performs first a linear steady-state thermal analysis
(SOL 153), then it performs a linear structural analysis (SOL 101) using the results of the thermal
analysis as loading on the structural model. Use the form shown below to select the solution type. By
default, a steady-state thermal analysis is requested.

Performs linear or nonlinear steady-state thermal analysis usin


MD Nastran Solution Sequence 153.

Performs linear or nonlinear transient thermal analysis using


MD Nastran Solution Sequence 159.

Performs linear structurall analysis using MD Nastran Solution


Sequence 101, and the temperature results from a linear
steady-state thermal analysis.

Brings up a form that controls various settings that pertain to th


overall analysis process.

Displays the MD Nastran Solution Sequence number.

Main Index
114 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Solution Types

Solution Parameters
The solution parameter form contains options and subordinate forms for defining parameters that affect
the overall analysis. The Subcase Parameter forms, described below, are used for setting input data that
control the analysis only within a single subcase. You should always review the settings on both forms
before submitting an analysis.

Requests that the model singularities


be constrained automatically.

Select the Solution Sequence. If a static


analysis is being performed (SOL 153)
the choices are SOL 153, 400, or 600. If
a transient analysis is being performed
(SOL 159) the choices are SOL 159,
400, or 600.

Controls whether or not the input file is


printed to the Nastran output file (f06).

Maximum number of lines to be


written to the Nastran output file
(f06).
Maximum number of CPU minutes the
analysis job is allowed to run. The job
will terminate when this limit is reached.

Buttons to bring up subordinate forms


for additional parameters needed for
radiation analysis.
Select this button to specify what is to be
output from the analysis.

Defines the default initial temperature for all node points which have not been given an initial temperature
by the Initial Temperature object of Loads/BCs.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 115
Solution Types

Radiation Parameters
Figure 4-1

The value of “absolute


temperature scale” may
be entered directly or
selected from the menu.

The value of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant must be input in


units that are consistent with the rest of the model definition.
Values in several different combinations of units are
available for selection in the menu, or you can enter the
value directly.

View Factor Parameters


This subordinate form defines parameters and output options to calculate view factors. For all the
radiation enclosures selected, the Patran MD Nastran forward translator automatically enables the
Gaussian integration view factor calculation method by applying the terminology defined here. A more
detailed description of the calculation of view factors can be found in the MD Nastran Thermal Analysis
User’s Guide.

Main Index
116 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Solution Types

Figure 4-2

Defines the view factor sum that the enclosure will be set to if the view factor summation of the
enclosure is greater than 1.0. No scaling is performed if this databox is left blank.

View Factor Parameters

Defines Gaussian integration order for


View Factor Scale = calculating net effective view factors in
the presence of third-body shading.
Gaussian Int Order (3rd Body Shading): 4

Gaussian Int Order (Self Shading): 4 Defines Gaussian integration order for
calculating net effective view factors in
the presence of self shadowing.
Discretization Level = 4

Error Tolerance = 0.1 Defines the discretization level used


in the semi-analytic contour
integration method.
Assumed Level of Calculation = 1.0e-10

Assumed Degree of Warpage = 0.01 Defines the assumed level of


calculation below which the numbers
are considered to be zero.

Defines the assumed degree of warpage above which the


actual value of Fii will be calculated. (For a flat surface Fii =
0.0)

Defines the error tolerance above which a corrected view factor is calculated
using the semi-analytic contour integration method.

NOTE: See the MD Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s


Guide for a description of error estimators for view factor
calculation.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 117
Solution Types

Defines diagnostic output request options for the radiation exchange surfaces. The
output will be written to the NASTRAN output (f06) file.

Diagnostic Output Requests

Grid Table and Element Connectivity

Surface Diagnostics

View Factor Calculation Diagnostics

Output Device Option: Both

OK Defaults Cancel

Defines the output device options (Both, Print, Punch, None) for printing or punching view factors onto
RADLST/RADMTX entries. The printed view factors are written to the NASTRAN output (f06) file, while
the punched view factors are written to a punch file, job_name.pch. If the FEM mesh and the
application regions of loads and boundary conditions are not changed in subsequent runs, the lengthy
view factor calculations may be skipped by including the RADLST/RADMTX punch files, which can be
retrieved from the Bulk Data Include File menu in the Translation Parameters form.

Solution Parameters for Transient Analysis


Figure 4-3

Main Index
118 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Solution Types

Controls the printout of model singularities.

Solution Parameters

Transient Solution Parameters Controls whether or not the input filefile is


printed to the NASTRAN output (f06) file.
Print Out Singularities

Data Deck Echo: None


Maximum number of lines to be written to
the NASTRAN output (f06) file.
Maximum Printed Lines = 999999999

Maximum Run Time = 600 Maximum number of CPU minutes the


analysis job is allowed to run. The job will
terminate when this limit is reached.
Default Init Temperature = 0.0

Radiation Parameters...
The radiation and view factor input data
View Factor Parameters... forms are identical to those shown
above for steady-state analysis.

OK Defaults Cancel

Defines the default initial temperature for all grid points which
have not been given an initial temperature by the Initial
Temperature Object of Loads/BCs.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 119
Direct Text Input

4.5 Direct Text Input


This form allows you to enter entries directly in the File Management, Executive Control, Case Control,
and Bulk Data sections of the NASTRAN input file. The input file reader1 also creates these entries for
any unsupported entries in the input file. If the data is entered by the user, the Write to Input file toggle
default setting is ON. If the data comes from the input file reader, the default for the Input file toggle is
OFF. A good practice is to review and edit the MD Nastran input entries. If they should be written to any
input files subsequently created by the interface, the appropriate Write to Input file toggle should be set
to ON.
Text entered into the Case Control section is written to the input file before the first subcase. The Direct
Text Input option on the Subcase Create form should be used to enter text directly within a subcase
definition.

1
The current input file reader provides limited support for thermal analysis.

Main Index
120 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Direct Text Input

Switches to determine which data section the


MSC ⁄NASTRAN input would be sent.
Direct Text Input

Bulk Data Section

uu File Management Section FMS Write To Input Deck


uu Executive Control Section EXEC Write To Input Deck
uu Case Control Section CASE Write To Input Deck
u Bulk Data Section BULK Write To Input Deck

OK Clear Reset Cancel

Clears the current form. Resets the form back Resets all four forms back to its
Saves the current to the data values it previous value and closes the
setting and data for the had at the last OK. form.
four sections and
closes the form.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 121
Subcases

4.6 Subcases
This form appears when you select the Subcase Create button on the Analysis form. The subcase is the
MD Nastran mechanism for associating loads and boundary conditions, output requests, and various
other input data to be used during part of a complete run.

Main Index
122 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases

The Patran MD Nastran interface automatically associates default parameters and output requests with
each Patran load case to create a subcase with the same name as the load case. You can access the Subcase
Parameters and Output Requests forms to view or modify these defaults.

Subcase Create

Solution Sequence: 153

Available Subcases
Default
Convection_Case Displays all the available subcases associated
Radiation_Case with the current Solution Sequence.
100_BTU_Heat_Load

Subcase Name Displays the subcase name that is being


created, modified, or deleted. You can type in
Default the subcase name or pick it from the Available
Subcases listbox.
Subcase Description
This is the default subcase

Displays the description of the current subcase


The description can be 256 characters long.
Available Load Cases
Default
Convection_Case
Displays all the available loadcases in the curr
Radiation_Case database. Only one loadcase can be selected
100_BTU_Heat_Load subcase.

Subcase Options

Subcase Parameters...

Output Requests... These buttons bring up subordinate forms for


additional input associated with the subcase.
Direct Text Input...

Apply Delete Cancel

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 123
Subcases

Note about Structural Heat Analysis:


• There can be only two subcases.
• First subcase has only thermal Loads/BCs (Case Control LOAD and SPC entries) and thermal
Output Requests (Case Control THERMAL entry).
• Second subcase has only structural Loads/BCs (Case Control LOAD and SPC entries) and
structural Output Requests (Case Control STRESS entry). The temperatures from the thermal
analysis (first subcase) are a part of the structural Loads/BCs (Case Control
TEMPERATURE(LOAD) = ID (ID of the first subcase) entry).
• Both thermal (Bulk Data MAT4 entry) and structural (Bulk Data MAT1 entry) material
properties must exist. The IDs of the MAT4 and MAT1 entries must be equal.
• PARAM, HEATSTAT, YES in written to the Bulk Data section to enable this type of analysis.

To set up and perform a chained thermal-structural analysis in one run using SOL 101. The procedure is
to:
1. With Patran Preferences set to MD Nastran, Structural, create and set up your structural LBCs and
load case
1. Change the Patran Preferences to MD Nastran, Thermal, create and set up your thermal LBCs and
load case
1. Set the Solution Type to STRUCTURAL HEAT ANALYSIS
1. Set up two Subcases, one referencing the structural load case and the other referencing the thermal
load case.
1. Select the two Subcases in the order: Thermal, Structural
1. Submit the job
The Nastran run is submitted as a SOL 101 with two Subcases. The first subcase is the heat transfer run
to determine the temperature loading. The temperature results from the first subcase are used along with
any other structural LBCs called out in the second subcase, which is a SOL 101 run. PARAM,
HEATSTAT, YES is written to the input file.

Subcase Parameters
The controls and parameters set on the Subcase Parameters forms apply to a single MD Nastran subcase
within the overall analysis run.

Steady-State Subcase
This subordinate form appears when the Subcase Parameters button is selected on the Subcase Create
form and the solution type is Steady State. This form provides for the definition of the input data that
controls the solution of the nonlinear equations.
Occasionally, when solving a set of nonlinear equations, it may not be possible to obtain a solution
directly with the total heat load applied. Instead, the solution is obtained by applying the loading in

Main Index
124 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases

increments, solving the system equations for the current fraction of the total load, and using that solution
as the starting point for the next increment of load. This process continues until the desired total heat load
is applied. It should be mentioned that the number of load increments has no effect on the accuracy of
the solution-- it is merely a computational technique to aid in obtaining the solution efficiently. In linear
or mildly nonlinear problems, a single increment is usually applied. In highly nonlinear problems, dozens
of increments may be required to obtain a converged solution.
This incremental procedure is only applicable with respect to applied heat loads and specified
temperature boundary conditions. There is no incremental provision for convection or radiation boundary

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 125
Subcases

conditions. As a result, it is more common with highly nonlinear boundary conditions to exceed the
nonlinear iteration limit. This defaults to 25 currently, but can be increased.

Number of increments over which the heat load is


applied.

These parameters control aspects of the


nonlinear equation solving process. For more
information, see table on page 127.

The convergence criteria are used to determine


when the solution is sufficiently accurate to be
considered “converged.” See page 127 for more
information.

See the next page for the contact table form.

Main Index
126 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases

Thermal Contact Table

This data can optionally be


defined for each individual
contact pair (which is
selected by clicking on the
cell of the above contact
body matrix) and is written
to the BCTABLE bulk data
entry. See the MD Nastran
Quick Reference Guide for
more information.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 127
Subcases

The parameters controlling the steady-state solution process are discussed more fully in the table below.
More extensive information can be found in the MD Nastran Thermal Analysis User’s Guide.

Parameter Name Description

Matrix Update Method This option determines the strategy used to determine how often to
update (reform) the nonlinear conductance and radiation matrices.
The three options are Automatic, Semi-Automatic, and Controlled
Iters. The optimum strategy would result in the lowest computational
cost. When the Automatic option is selected, MD Nastran tries to
select the most efficient strategy based on convergence rates. If
Controlled Iters is selected, the matrices are updated after a
prescribed number of iterations (determined by the Number of
Iterations per Update parameter).

Number of Iterations per When the Matrix Update Method is set to Controlled Iters, this is the
Update number of iterations before the matrices are reformed.

Allowable Iterations per This parameter specifies the maximum number of allowed iterations
Increment in a load increment. If this number is exceeded, the load increment
is halved and the iteration process repeated.

Convergence Criteria The convergence criteria provide for the comparison of user-
requested maximum levels of error and the error in the solution as
estimated numerically. In this sense, the convergence criteria
determine when the solution is sufficiently accurate to be considered
converged. Any or all of the three convergence criteria listed below
can be selected. When more than one criteria is selected, each one
must be satisfied for convergence to be achieved.

Temperature Error Indicates whether a temperature convergence criterion should be


used. If Temperature Error is selected, the Temperature Tolerance
Temperature Tolerance field becomes active. A norm of the temperature increment vector
calculated in the iteration must be less than this tolerance for a
converged solution.

Load Error Indicates whether a load convergence criteria should be used. If


Load Error is selected, the Load Tolerance field becomes active. A
Load Tolerance norm of the residual heat load vector must be less than this tolerance
for a converged solution.

Work Error Indicates whether a work convergence criteria should be used. If


Work Error is selected, the Work Tolerance field becomes active.
Work Tolerance The incremental work associated with the iteration must be less than
this tolerance for a converged solution.

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128 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases

Transient Subcase Parameters


This subordinate form appears when you select the Subcase Parameters button on the Subcase Create
form and the solution type is Transient. This form provides for the definition of the input data that
controls the solution of the nonlinear time-dependent equations.
The integration in time is carried out using Newmark’s method with variable time steps. An initial time
step and the number of time steps must be input. Since the time increment is adjusted during the analysis,

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 129
Subcases

the actual number of time steps may not be equal to the input value. However, the total time duration will
be close to the product of the input values.

Subcase Parameters
Initial Time Step = 0.01 Initial time increment for the Newmark
method.
Number of Time Steps = 100
This number is used along with the initial time
Transient Nonlinear Iterations step to calculate the total time duration.
Matrix Update Method: Adaptive

Number of Bisections per Update =


2 Defines the maximum number of time step
bisections to be used in each matrix update.
Allowable Iterations per Time Step =
10

The maximum number of allowed iterations in a


Convergence Criteria time step.
Temperature Error

Temperature Tolerance = 1.0e-02

Load Error The convergence criteria are described


above for the steady-state case. The
temperature convergence criteria must be
Load Tolerance = 1.0e-03 selected if the analysis involves any time
varying temperature boundary conditions.
Work Error

Work Tolerance = 1.0e-06

Fixed Time Steps Directs MD Nastran to use the initial time step
for all time steps. This disables the automatic
Exit on Failure to Converge time stepping mechanism.

OK Cancel

If this toggle is ON, the run will terminate if the converge criteria are not met for
any time step. If OFF, the run continues to the next time step.

Main Index
130 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases

Structural Heat Subcase Parameters


This subordinate form appears when you select the Subcase Parameters button on the Subcase Create
form and the solution type is Structural Heat. This form provides for the definition of the input data that
controls the solution of the linear structural equations.
The parameters that can be set have to do with 1) Default Load Temperature, 2) Rotor Dynamics, 3)
Contact Table, and 4) Solvers/Options..

Default Load Temperature is for specifying


the temperature at nodes for which the
temperature has not been specified using
Loads/BCs.

By clicking Enable Rotor Dynamics, and


clicking Specify Rotor Speed, several things
are to be specified. They are 1) Reference
Rotor, 2) the units of the speed, and 3) Rotor
Speed.

Clicking the Contact Table button displays the


Contact Table form. This form is used to
specify what and how contact bodies are to be
in contact. For example, rubber seal (flexible)
contacts door (rigid). See Thermal Contact
Table, 126

Clicking the Solvers / Options button displays


the Solvers / Options form that is used to
specify the Solver Type (for example, Nastran
Default or an iterative method), a
Preconditioner method (for example,
Cholesky), Maximum Number of Iterations,
and other parameters.

Output Requests
The output requests forms allow you to define what result quantities will be written to the MD Nastran
print file for viewing and the OUTPUT2 file for import into Patran. A reasonable set of default result
quantities are predefined. The simplest way to change these is to use the Basic Output Requests form.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 131
Subcases

More control over output quantities is provided for sophisticated users by changing the Form Type menu
from Basic to Advanced. The Basic form is shown below.

Output Requests
The available output requests depend on the
SUBCASE NAME: active Solution Sequence as indicated by
SOLUTION SEQUENCE: 159 this value.

Form Type: Basic


This option menu is used to switch between the
advanced and basic versions of this form.
Select Result Type
Temperatures
Heat Fluxes
Applied Linear Loads
Heats of Constraint
Enthalpies Displays the appropriate result types that may
be selected for the solution sequence indicated
Rate of Change of Enthalpies at the top of the form. The output requests are
selected one at a time by clicking.

Output Requests
THERMAL(SORT2,PRINT)=All FEM
FLUX(SORT2,PRINT)=All FEM

Displays the selected output requests for the


subcase shown at the top of the form.

Delete Deletes the output request highlighted in the


Output Requests listbox.

OK Defaults Cancel

NOTE: The OK button accepts the output requests and closes the form. The Defaults button deletes all
output requests and replaces them with defaults. The Cancel button closes the form without saving the
output requests.

Main Index
132 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases

When the Form Type is set to Advanced, the Output Requests form expands to the form below. The same
result types are available in the Select Result Type listbox, but more options are available to control these.

Use this listbox to select the This listbox is used to select the group of
result type to be created. nodes or elements to which the output
requests relate.

Output Requests
SUBCASE NAME: Select Group(s)/SET
SOLUTION SEQUENCE: 153 All FEM
Form Type: Advanced

Select Result Type


Temperatures Options
Heat Fluxes
Applied Linear Loads Sorting: By Node/Element
Heats of Constraint
Output Device Opt: Print

Output Requests
THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=All FEM
FLUX(SORT1,PRINT)=All FEM

Create
Intermediate Output Option: No
Delete

OK Defaults Cancel

Creates output requests for highlighted result types. It These options are appropriate for the
also modifies highlighted output requests. The button highlighted result type. They also indicate
label changes to reflect the operation. the options that were selected for a
highlighted output request. See Table 4-1.

Use this listbox to select output requests


that are to be modified or deleted.
NOTE: The ALL FEM set must be selected to request the
heat flux output associated with loads and boundary
conditions.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 133
Subcases

Table 4-1 Output Request Form Options

Multiple
Select
Options Label Allowed Descriptions
Sorting By Node/Element No Output is presented as tabular listing of
nodes/elements for each load step or time.
By Time/Load No Output is presented as tabular listing of load
Step step/time for each node or element type.
Output Device Print No Requests that the output be written to the
Options NASTRAN output (f06) file.
Punch No Requests that the output be written to the punch file
(job_name.pch).
Both No Requests that the output be written to the
NASTRAN output (f06) file and the punch file
(job_name.pch).
IntermediateO Yes Once per Intermediate outputs are requested for every
utput Options subcase computed load increment. Applicable for steady-
state analysis only.
No Once per Intermediate outputs are requested for the last load
subcase of the subcase. Applicable for steady-state analysis
only.
All Once per Intermediate outputs are requested for every
subcase computed and user-specified load increment.
Applicable for steady-state analysis only.
Percent of -- Once per An integer ‘n’ that specifies the percentage of
Step Output subcase intermediate outputs to be presented for transient
analysis. Default = 100.

Direct Text Input


This form is used to directly enter entries into the Case Control section for the defined subcase.

Main Index
134 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcases

Directly entered entries may potentially conflict with those created by the interface. Writing these
entries to the file can be controlled with this toggle.

Direct Text Input


Write To Input Deck

OK Clear Reset Cancel

Clears the current form. Resets the form back Resets the form back
to the data values it to its previous value
had at the last OK. and closes the form.
Saves the current
setting and data and
closes the form.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Running a Thermal Analysis 135
Subcase Select

4.7 Subcase Select


This form appears when you select the Subcase Select button on the Analysis form. It allows you to select
a sequence of subcases associated with an analysis job. The Default subcase is selected automatically. If
multiple subcases are selected, the subcases selected must contain identical sets of convection, radiation
boundary conditions, and fixed value temperature boundary conditions because these boundary
conditions are not subcase selectable in MD Nastran thermal analysis.

Subcase Select

Subcases For Solution Sequence: 153


Default
Displays all the available subcases for
Second-Load-Case the current solution sequence. The
Radiation-Case current solution sequence is displayed
at the top of the form.

Subcases Selected:
Default
Displays all subcases that have been
associated with the current jobname.

OK Cancel

Within the current Patran MD Nastran design, only those boundary conditions referred to as loads are
subcase selectable. All heat flux types and temperature boundary specifications are defined as thermal
loads, whereas all occurrences of convection and radiation are defined as boundary conditions and are not
subcase selectable. As a result, the use of multiple subcases in MD Nastran thermal analysis has limited
utility and in general is not recommended.

Main Index
136 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Subcase Select

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Results Processing and Visualization


5
J
Overview 138
J
Reading Thermal Analysis Results 139
J
Results Visualization Options 150

Main Index
138 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Overview

5.1 Overview
Before postprocessing of thermal results can occur, the MD Nastran analysis results must be loaded into
the Patran database through the Read Output2 or Attach XDB Action on the Analysis form. You can then
display, sort, or retrieve the results using the following options:

Contour Plots (Fringe Contour Plots can be made for temperatures (isotherms), temperature gradients, and
Plots) heat fluxes. Since temperature gradients and heat fluxes are vector quantities, plotting
their values on the geometry requires selecting the desired result quantity; magnitude,
x-component, y-component, or z-component. Contour plots can be made for any
steady-state solution, and any temporal solution state in a transient analysis.
XY Plots The most common XY plot for heat transfer is the representation of nodal temperature
versus time. On an elemental basis, temperature gradients and heat fluxes may also be
represented as functions of time. In a general sense, the following XY plot types are
available:

• Results versus Global Variables


• Results versus Another Result
• Results versus Distances
• Global Variables versus Global Variable
• Result in Local System
• Result in Arbitrary Path
Global variables include time and percent of load*. Results include: temperature,
temperature gradients, and heat fluxes.
* Percent of load refers to the nonlinear extreme solution technique of determining the result by incrementing the load
toward its full level from a reduced initial condition or load.

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 139
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

5.2 Reading Thermal Analysis Results


The Analysis form will appear when you select Analysis from the main form.

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There are currently two Actions--Read Output2 and Attach XDB--for importing results. Selecting Read
Output2 as the Action on the Analysis form allows the model and⁄or results data to be read into the Patran
database from an NASTRAN OUTPUT2 file. Subordinate forms of the Analysis form will define
translation parameters, which control the data to be translated, and the OUTPUT2 file from which to
translate. The OUTPUT2 data files are created by placing a PARAM,POST,-1 entry in the MD Nastran
Bulk Data section.
Selecting Attach XDB as the Action on the Analysis form allows the results data from a MSC.Access
database (an .xdb file) to be accessed. In this case the results are not read directly into the Patran database
but instead remain in the MSC.Access database. Only what is termed as meta data is read into the Patran
database. Meta data consists of the Result Case names, their associated subcases, primary and secondary
result types, global variables, and the file location of the MSC.Access database or .xdb file. The Meta
data is used to translate results when the user attempts to postprocess the model. Subordinate forms of
the Analysis form will define translation parameters, which control the data to be accessed on attachment.

Main Index
140 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

MSC.Access databases are created by placing a PARAM,POST,0 entry in the MD Nastran Bulk Data
section.

See following sections

See following sections

Use this option if results are to be attached using MASTER/DBALL


direct results access.

Use this option if SOL 600 results are to be attached using T16/19
direct results access.

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 141
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

Read Output2 Form


This form appears when you select Analysis from the main menu. Read Output2, as the selected Action,
defines the type of data to be read from the MD Nastran results file into Patran. The Object choices are
Result Entities, Model Data, or Both.

Main Index
142 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

Defines how far the results translation will proceed. If Translate is selected, a job file containing information for
the results translation control is created and then submitted for translation. If Control File is selected, the
procedure will stop as soon as the control file is generated.

Analysis

Action: Read Output2


When the Object selected is Result Entities, the
model data must already exist in the database. No
Object: Result Entities results can be read into Patran if the associated
node or element does not already exist. Model Data
Method: Translate only reads the model data that exists in the results
file. Both will first read the model data, then the
result entities. If Model Data or Both are selected,
you must ensure that there will not be any ID
Code: MD Nastran conflicts with existing model entities.

Type: Thermal

Available Job Names


my_job

Defines the jobname to be used for this job. The same


jobname used for the Analyze Action should be used for
the Read Output2 Action. This will allow Patran to load
the results directly into the load cases that were used for
the analysis.
Job Name
my_job

Job Description
MSC.Nastran job created Defines the tolerances used during model translation.
on 18-Apr-96 at 13:58:15 The division tolerance is used to prevent division by
zero errors. The numerical tolerance is used when
comparing real values for equality. For Results Entities
and Both Objects, the Translations Parameters form
also specifies which version of the NASTRAN
OUTPUT2 file will be read.
Translation Parameters...
Selects the results file (*.op2) to be read. The form that is
Select Results File... called up lists all files recognized as being MD Nastran results
files. Even if there is only one .op2 file, it must be explicitly
selected.
Begins the translation of NASTRAN OUTPUT2 results into
Apply the Patran database for postprocessing.

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 143
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

Results File Formats


The Patran MD Nastran interface supports several different OUTPUT2 file formats. The interface,
running on any platform can read a binary format OUTPUT2 file produced by MD Nastran running on
any of these same platforms. For example, a binary OUTPUT2 file produced by MD Nastran running on
an IBM RS/6000 can be read by Patran running on DEC Alpha. Patran may be able to read binary format
OUTPUT2 files from other platforms if they contain 32 bit, IEEE format entities (either Big or Little
Indian).
For platforms that do not produce OUTPUT2 files in these formats, Patran can read OUTPUT2 files
created with the FORM=FORMATTED option in MD Nastran. This option can be selected from the
Analyze/Translation Parameters form in Patran Analysis menu and directs MD Nastran to produce an
ASCII format OUTPUT2 file that can be moved between any platforms. The Patran MD Nastran
interface detects this format when the OUTPUT2 file is opened, automatically converts it to the binary
format, and then reads the model and/or results into the Patran database.
An OUTPUT2 file is created by MD Nastran by placing a PARAM,POST,-1 entry in the Bulk Data
portion of the input file. The formatted or unformatted OUTPUT2 file is specified in the FMS section
using an ASSIGN OUTPUT2 = filename, UNIT=#, FORM=FORMATTED (or UNFORMATTED)
command. See Translation Parameters, 109.

Supported OUTPUT2 Results


The following table indicates all the possible results quantities that can be loaded into the Patran database
during results translation from MD Nastran. The Primary and Secondary Labels are items selected from
the postprocessing menus. The Type indicates whether the results are Scalar or Vector and determines
which postprocessing techniques are available to view the results quantity. Data Block indicates which
NASTRAN OUTPUT2 datablock the data comes from. The Description gives a brief discussion about
the results quantity, such as whether it is a nodal or elemental result, and what type of output request will
generate this datablock.

Secondary Data
Primary Level Level Type Block Description
Temperatures S OUGV1 Nodal temperatures
Applied Linear Loads S OPG1 Nodal applied linear loads
Heats of Constraint S OQG1 Nodal heats of constraint
Heat Flows Applied Load S OEF1 Heat flows from applied surface loads
Free Conv S OEF1 Heat flows from free convection
Forced Conv S OEF1 Heat flows from forced convection
Radiation S OEF1 Heat flows from radiation
Total S OEF1 Total heat flows into surface elems
Temperature Gradients V OEF1 Conduction element temperature gradients
Heat Fluxes V OEF1 Conduction element heat fluxes

Main Index
144 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

Secondary Data
Primary Level Level Type Block Description
Enthalpies S OUGV1 Nodal enthalpies
Rate of Change of S OUGV1 Rate of change of nodal enthalpies
Enthalpies

Heats of Constraint are the mathematical (non-physical) heat flow into or out of a nodal point which is
associated with a user-specified temperature. In real-world analysis, we generally do not know the
structural temperatures, but we do know something about the heat loads, convection and radiation
boundaries, etc. We then invoke MD Nastran to calculate the temperatures. However, suppose we have
results of an experiment in which a thermocouple is used to measure the boundary temperature. This
temperature could then be applied as a boundary condition in the finite element model. In the
experimental test, there may well be heat flow into or out of the boundary, but we have not made any
attempt to qualify or quantify the heat flow mechanism because we actually measured the temperature.
When the MD Nastran thermal analysis is performed, the heat of constraint output represents the heat
flow that must occur at the physical boundary to support or maintain the measured temperature.
In addition to standard results quantities, several Global Variables can be created. This table outlines
Global Variables that may be created. Global Variables are results quantities where one value is
representative of the entire model:

Label Type Data Block Description


Time S Oxxx Time value of the time step
Percent of Load S Oxxx Percent of load value for a nonlinear steady-state analysis

When reading model data from an NASTRAN OUTPUT2 file by selecting the Model Data Object, all
the data that will be created in the Patran database and the location in the OUTPUT2 file from where it
is derived are described in the following table:

Item Block Description


Nodes GEOM1 Node ID

Nodal Coordinates

Reference Coordinate Frame

Analysis Coordinate Frame

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 145
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

Item Block Description


Coordinate Frames GEOM1 Coordinate Frame ID

Transformation Matrix

Origin

Can be Rectangular, Cylindrical, or Spherical


Elements GEOM2 Element ID

Topology (e.g., Quad4 or Hex20)

Nodal Connectivity

Main Index
146 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

Attach XDB Form


This form appears when you select Analysis from the main menu. Attach XDB, as the selected Action,
defines the type of data to be read from the MD Nastran results file into Patran. The Object choices are
Result Entities, Model Data, or Both.

Attach XDB When the Object selected is Result Entities, the model
Action: data must already exist in the Patran database. Only
metadata or catalog information such as Result
Object: Result Entities Cases/Types, Global Variables, and file connection is
read into the Patran database. The results data
Method: Local remains in the XDB file. The Model Data Object only
imports Nodes, Elements, and Coordinate Systems.
The Both selection will first read the model data, then
the result entities. If Model Data or Both are selected,
Code: MD Nastran you must ensure that there will not be any ID conflicts
with existing model entities.
Type: Thermal

Study:

Available Jobs
my_job

Defines the jobname to be used for this job. The same


jobname used for the Analyze Action should be used for
the Attach XDB Action. This will allow Patran to load the
results directly into the load cases that were used for
Job Name the analysis.
my_job
Selects the results file (MSC.Access database or xdb file)
Job Description to be read. The form that is called up lists all files
recognized as being MD Nastran results files. By default,
all files with an xdb extension are listed on them. This can
MSC.Nastran job created on be changed with the filter. One may attach up to 20 .xdb
14-Apr-98 at 13:24:31 files simultaneously.
Defines the tolerances used during model translation. The
division tolerance is used to prevent division by zero
errors. The numerical tolerance is used when comparing
real values for equality.

Select Results File...


Begins the reading of the meta data from the MD Nastran
Translation Parameters... xdb file for postprocessing.

Apply

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 147
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

Results File Formats


The same basic issues exist for MSC.Access databases as for OUTPUT2 files. For example, the
MSC.Access database (xdb file) may be exchanged between computer systems that have binary
compatibility. That is, an XDB file generated on a SUN Machine may be used on an IBM/AIX, HPUX
or SGI computers.
However, in order to exchange the XDB file on binary incompatible machines, one needs to use the
TRANS and RECEIVE utilities delivered with every installation of MD Nastran.
TRANS converts an XDB file generated by MD Nastran to an “equivalent” character, i.e. ASCII, file
which can be transported to another computer across the network via ftp or rcp. RECEIVE converts the
character file back into the XDB format for postprocessing.
For more information on TRANS and RECEIVE utilities, please consult the “Configuration and
Operations Guide” for V70 of MSC.Nastran.
A MSC.Access XDB database is created by MD Nastran by placing a PARAM,POST,0 entry in the Bulk
Data portion of the input file. See Translation Parameters, 109.
In this release, it is assumed that the geometry, loads, and results ouput all reside in the same physical
XDB file. That is, "split" XDB databases are not supported.

Supported MSC.Access Results


The following tables list the currently supported quantities from the MSC.Access database (xdb file). The
Primary and Secondary Labels are items selected from the postprocessing menus. The Type indicates
whether the results are Scalar or Vector and determines which postprocessing techniques are available to
view the results quantity. The Object indicates which MSC.Access object the data comes from. The
Description gives a brief discussion about the results quantity, such as whether it is a nodal or elemental
result, and what type of output request will generate this datablock.
To get further information on the MSC.Access, i.e. XDB, objects supported in Patran, please use the
ddlprt and ddlqry utilities delivered with every installation of MD Nastran.
ddlprt is MSC.Access' on-line documentation.
ddlqry is MSC.Access’ Data Definition Language (DDL) browser.
See “Configuration and Operations Guide” for MSC.Nastran V70.

Secondary
Primary Level Level Type Object Description
Temperatures S THERR Nodal temperatures
Applied Linear Loads S HTFLR Nodal applied linear loads
Heats of Constraint S HTFFR Nodal heats of constraint

Main Index
148 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

Secondary
Primary Level Level Type Object Description
Heat Flows Applied Load S QHBDY Heat flows from applied surface
loads
Free Conv S QHBDY Heat flows from free
convection
Forced Conv S QHBDY Heat flows from forced
convection
Radiation S QHBDY Heat flows from radiation
Total S QHBDY Total heat flows into surface
elems
Temperature Gradients V QBARR, Conduction element
QBEMR,QCON temperature gradients
R,
QHEXR,QPENR,
QQD4R,
QQD8R,
QRODR,
QTETR,
QTUBR, QTX6R
Heat Fluxes V QBARR, Conduction element heat fluxes
QBEMR,
QCONR,
QHEXR,QPENR,
QQD4R,
QQD8R,
QRODR,
QTETR,
QTUBR, QTX6R
Enthalpies S ENTHR Nodal enthalpies
Rate of Change of S ENRCR Rate of change of nodal
Enthalpies enthalpies

Heats of Constraint are the mathematical (non-physical) heat flow into or out of a nodal point which is
associated with a user-specified temperature. In real-world analysis, we generally do not know the
structural temperatures, but we do know something about the heat loads, convection and radiation
boundaries, etc. We then invoke MD Nastran to calculate the temperatures. However, suppose we have
results of an experiment in which a thermocouple is used to measure the boundary temperature. This
temperature could then be applied as a boundary condition in the finite element model. In the
experimental test, there may well be heat flow into or out of the boundary, but we have not made any
attempt to qualify or quantify the heat flow mechanism because we actually measured the temperature.

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 149
Reading Thermal Analysis Results

When the MD Nastran thermal analysis is performed, the heat of constraint output represents the heat
flow that must occur at the physical boundary to support or maintain the measured temperature.

Main Index
150 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options

5.3 Results Visualization Options


The Results or XY Plot toggle, located on the Patran application selections, may be chosen to visualize
thermal analysis results. The Results application displays contour plots and XY plots that can be sorted
or grouped by various kinds of variables. The XY Plot application creates and manages the definitions
of XY windows, curves, and titles. It also manages the display of XY plot information.

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The following pages describe how to process basic thermal results. For more information on
postprocessing results, see Postprocessing Results and XY Plotting.

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 151
Results Visualization Options

Contour Plots
Thermal contours can be plotted using the Quick Plot object (default) selected from the Results
application. If advanced features or XY plots are desired, the Fringe or Graph object must be used.

Results

Action: Create

Object: Quick Plot

Selects the desired result case. This will fill out the Select
Fringe Result listbox below. If this listbox is empty, no
Select Result Cases results exist in the database. Results can be imported from
the Analysis application or with Import in the FIle pulldown
Default, PW Linear : 100. % of Loa menu.

After selecting a result case, the plot options are


displayed. This listbox is used to select a desired contour
plot.
Select Fringe Result
Heat Fluxes,
Temperature Gradients,
Displays the result quantity options when a Vector result
Temperatures, (Temperature Gradients or Heat Fluxes) is chosen in the
Select Fringe Result listbox above. If the selected contour
result is a scalar value, this menu does not appear. The
possible result quantities are:
Magnitude, X component, Y component, Z component
Quantity: Magnitude

Select Deformation Result

Ignores this listbox for thermal analysis.

Animate

-Apply- Click on Apply to create the contour plot.

Main Index
152 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options

To create a contour plot:


1. Select the results case from the first listbox.
1. Select the fringe result from the second listbox.
1. If the fringe result is a vector quantity, select the scalar quantity (Magnitude, X component, Y
component, or Z component) to be derived for the fringe.
1. Click on Apply.

Vector Output Definitions


Thermal vector results include temperature gradients and heat fluxes for conduction elements. Their
result quantities are as follows:

Result Quantity Temperature Gradients Heat Fluxes


Magnitude {(dT/dx)2+ (dT/dy)2+ (dT/dz)2 } 1/2 { qx2 + qy2 + qz2 } 1/2
X Component dT/dx qx = -k dT/dx
Y Component dT/dy qy = -k dT/dy
Z Component dT/dz qz = -k dT/dz

The sign convention for heat flow is as follows. Positive heat flow takes place as energy is transferred
from a region of high relative temperature to a region of low relative temperature. Similarly, heat flux
into the surface of a body is a positive quantity.

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 153
Results Visualization Options

For example,

T=100. K = Constant

L=10. T=0.

T=100.
y 1 2

T=60.

T=40.
x
T=0.

X=0. X=4. X=6. X=L=10.

dT T2 – T1 40. – 60.
--------------- = -------------------- = --------------------- = – 2. (Negative Gradient)
dx 1 – 2 X2 – X1 6. – 4.

dT
qx = – k ------------- = 2⋅k (Positive Flux)
1–2
dx1 – 2

XY Plots
In transient thermal analysis, XY plotting is frequently applied to track the temperature-time history of
grid points. You select this capability from the Results application using the Graph object. You can also

Main Index
154 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options

use the Fringe object and the Report object for advanced features of contour plots and text report
generation.
Toggles the form to select the result case(s) from the first list box. This is the default form for the Graph
object.

Results Display
Results

Action: Create

Object: Graph

Method: Y vs X

-none- -none- -none- -none- Turns the Abbreviate Subcases toggle OFF
if more than one subcase exists for a Result
Case.
Select Result Case(s)
transient, Time=60.
transient, Time=140.
transient, Time=220. Selects result cases for results postprocessing.
transient, Time=380. NOTE: If nothing appears in this listbox, then the
transient, Time=540. results are not successfully loaded into the database.
transient, Time=700. Go back to the Analysis menu or pull down File
transient, Time=860. Import to read in analysis results.
transient, Time=1020.

Y: Result
Selects the Y-axis value.

Select Y Result
Boundary Heat Flux, Radiation
Boundary Heat Flux, Total Lists result types for each selected load case. This
Heat Fluxes, listbox is used to select a result for postprocessing.
Temperature Gradients,
Temperatures,
,

Selects the layer if more than one layer is


Position...((NON-LAYERED)) associated with the result.

X: Global Variable Selects the X-axis value.

Variable: Time Selects a Global Variable.

Apply Reset

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 155
Results Visualization Options

The Target Entities form shown below is used to select target entities.

Results

Action: Create

Object: Graph Toggles the form to select the entities for which
you wish to create an XY plot.
Method: Y vs X

-none- -none- -none- -none-

Target Entity:
Nodes Selects entity type.

Select Nodes

Node 49:54 Select (pick or type) entities.

Apply Reset

Main Index
156 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options

To create a fundamental XY plot of temperature versus time:

Results

Action: Create

Object: Graph STEP 1: Select Graph object.

Method: Y vs X STEP 4: Press the Target Entities icon to toggle the


form to select target entities.

-none- -none- -none- -none-

Select Result Case(s)


STEP 2: For XY Plotting, we need a series of results
transient, Time=60. data, such as the temperature results over a period of
transient, Time=140. time from a transient analysis. You can select the result
transient, Time=220. cases with a mouse click and drag over the time states
transient, Time=380. of interest.
transient, Time=540.
transient, Time=700.
transient, Time=860.
transient, Time=1020.

Y: Result

Select Y Result
Boundary Heat Flux, Radiation
Boundary Heat Flux, Total
Heat Fluxes,
Temperature Gradients,
Temperatures, STEP 3: Choose Temperatures from the Select Y Result
, listbox.

Position...((NON-LAYERED))

X: Global Variable

Variable: Time

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 157
Results Visualization Options

Results

Action: Create

Object: Graph

Method: Y vs X

-none- -none- -none- -none-

Target Entity:
Nodes STEP 5: Select Nodes as the target entity.

Select Nodes

Node 49:54 STEP 6: Select (pick or type) Node IDs.

STEP 7: Click on Apply to create an XY plot.

Apply Reset

Main Index
158 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options

Delete an XY Window

STEP 1: Select the XY Plot toggle on the Patran m

Patran

up Viewport Viewing Display Preferences Tools Help

try © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XYPlot

n file patran.ses.01 started recording at 25


ed by Patran 03:36:58 PM
Initialization complete. Acquiring license(s)...

Main Index
Chapter 5: Results Processing and Visualization 159
Results Visualization Options

XY Plot

Action: Delete STEP 2: Select the Delete option.

Object: XYWindow

XYWindow List STEP 3: Select the desired window(s) to


delete from the XYWindow List listbox.
window_1
window_2
window_3
window_4

-Apply- STEP 4: Click on Apply.

Main Index
160 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Results Visualization Options

Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Read Input File


6
J Review of Read Input File Form 162
J Data Translated from the NASTRAN Input File 170
J Conflict Resolution 171

Main Index
162 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of Read Input File Form

6.1 Review of Read Input File Form


The Analysis form will appear when the Analysis toggle, located on the Patran main menu, is chosen.

Patran
File Group Viewport Viewing Display Preferences Tools Help

© Geometry © FEM © LBCs © Matls © Properties © Load Cases © Fields © Analysis © Results © XY

$# Session file patran.ses.01 started recording at 25


$# Recorded by Patran 03:36:58 PM
$# FLEXlm Initialization complete. Acquiring license(s)...
hp, 2

Read Input File as the selected Action on the Analysis form allows much of the model data from a
NASTRAN input file to be translated into the Patran database. A subordinate File Selection form allows
the user to specify the NASTRAN input file to translate. This form is described on the following pages.

Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File 163
Review of Read Input File Form

Read Input File Form


This form appears when the Analysis toggle is selected on the main menu. Read Input File, as the selected
Action, specifies that model data is to be translated from the specified NASTRAN input file into the
Patran database.

Analysis

Action: Read Input File

Object: Model Data

Method: Translate

Code: MD Nastran
Indicates the selected Analysis Code and Analysis
Type: Type, as defined in the Preferences>Analysis
Structural (p. 431) in the Patran Reference Manual.

Available Jobs

List of already existing jobs.

Job Name
simple Name assigned to current translation job. This job
name will be used as the base file name for the
message file.
Job Description

MSC.NASTRAN job
created on 30-Jan-93
at 16:05:33
Activates a subordinate Entity Selection form
which allows the user to specify the specific
entry types to be read. Also defines ID offset
Entity Selection... values to be used during import.

Select Input File...


Activates a subordinate File Select form which
allows the user to specify the NASTRAN input file
to be translated.

Main Index
164 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of Read Input File Form

Entity Selection Form


This subordinate form appears when the Entity Selection button is selected on the Analysis form and
Read Input File is the selected Action. It allows the user to specify which MD Nastran entity types to
import.

Entity Selection

Entity Packets

Nodes
Elements
Material Properties Highlighted entity types will be imported.
Element Properties
Coordinate Frames
Load Sets
Subcases
MPC Data

Select None

Select All

Select All FEM

Select All LBC

Activates the form to define ID offsets.

Define Offsets...

Reset

OK Cancel

Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File 165
Review of Read Input File Form

The following table shows the relation between the entity types listed above and the actual MD Nastran
entry types effected. If an entity type is filtered out, it is treated as if those entries did not exist in the
original input file.

Entity Type MD Nastran Entries


Nodes GRID, GRDSET, SPOINT
Elements BAROR, BEAMOR, CBAR, CBEAM, CBEND, CDAMP1, CDAMP2, CDAMP3,
CDAMP4, CELAS1, CELAS2, CELAS3, CELAS4, CGAP, CHEXA, CMASS1,
CMASS2, CMASS3, CMASS4, CONM1, CONM2, CONROD, CPENTA, CQUAD4,
CQUAD8, CQUADR, CROD, CSHEAR, CTETRA, CTRIA3, CTRIA6, CTRIAR,
CTRIAX6, CTUBE, CVISC, PLOTEL
Material Properties MAT1, MAT2, MAT3, MAT8, MAT9
Element Properties PBAR, PBCOMP, PBEAM, PBEND, PCOMP, PDAMP, PELAS, PGAP, PMASS,
PROD, PSHEAR, PSHELL, PSOLID, PTUBE, PVISC
Coordinate Frames CORD1C, CORD1R, CORD1S, CORD2C, CORD2R, CORD2S
Load Sets FORCE, GRAV,MOMENT, PLOAD1, PLOAD2, PLOAD4, PLOADX1, RFORCE,
TEMP, TEMPP1, TEMPRB, SPC, SPC1, SPCD
Subcases LOAD, SPCADD, Case Control Section
MPC Data MPC, RBAR, RBE1, RBE2, RBE3, RROD, RSPLINE, RTRPLT

It should be noted that since the GRID entry is controlled with the Nodes filter, the grid.ps load set with
the permanent single point constraint data will also be controlled by the Nodes filter.

Main Index
166 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of Read Input File Form

Define Offsets Form


This subordinate form appears when the Define Offsets button is selected on the Entity Selection form.
It allows the user to specify the ID offsets used when reading a NASTRAN input file.

If selected, the value in the Maximum column will be Minimum and Maximum IDs currently
used as the offset for the selected rows. found in the Patran database.

Entity Label Offset Definition

Input Offset Value


Automatic Offset

Define Label Offsets for Selected Entities: All offset data boxes
can be selected at once
Entity Existing ID Range in Db New ID by selecting this
column header.
Minimum Maximum Offset
Nodes 1 200
Elements 1 200
Material Properties
Element Properties
ID offset value to be
Coordinate Frames used during import.
The new ID value will
Distributed Load Set IDs be the ID found in the
Node Force Load Set IDs NASTRAN input file
plus this offset value.
Node Displacement Set IDs
Bar element Init Displacement

Reset

OK Cancel

All references made in the input file will also be offset. If a node references a particular CID as its
analysis frame, then the reference will be offset as well. If the coordinate frame is defined in the same
input file, the proper references should be maintained. The preference will be properly maintained. If the
coordinate frame existed in the file prior to the import, then it needs to be the offset CID. If a coordinate
frame with that CID is not found in the database, an error message will be issued.

Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File 167
Review of Read Input File Form

To determine which offset effects a particular MD Nastran entry type, refer to the table in the previous
section.
For Patran entities identified by integer IDs (nodes, elements, coordinate frames, and MPCs), the offset
value is simply added to the MD Nastran ID to generate the Patran ID.
For Patran entities identified by text names (materials, element properties, load sets, and load cases), the
offset value is first added to the MD Nastran ID. The new integer value is then used to generate the Patran
name per the naming conventions described in later sections.

Selection of Input File


This subordinate form appears when the Select Input File button is selected on the Analysis form and
Read Input File is the selected Action. It allows the user to specify which NASTRAN input file to
translate.

Select File

Filter

/bahamas/users/sprack/pf/main/*.bdf

Directories Files
/bahamas/users/sprack/pf/main/. ids.bdf
/bahamas/users/sprack/pf/main/.. ids_1.bdf
/bahamas/users/sprack/pf/main/clip north.bdf

Selected Input File

/bahamas/users/sprack/pf/main/north.bdf

OK Filter Cancel

Main Index
168 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Review of Read Input File Form

Summary Data Form


This form appears after the import of the NASTRAN input file has completed. It displays the number of
entities imported correctly, imported with warnings, or not imported due to errors. These figures reflect
the number of Patran entities created. In some cases, there is not a one-to-one relation between the
original MD Nastran entities and the generated Patran entities. For example, when material orientations
on several CQUAD4s are defined using references to varying MCIDs while still referencing the same
PID, Patran needs to create a unique property set for each different MCID reference.
When the OK button is selected, the newly imported data will be committed to the Patran database, and
can not be undone. If there is any question as to whether or not this import was desired, review the
graphics data prior to selecting OK on this form. If the import was not correct, select the undo button on
the main menu bar before selecting OK on this form.

NASTRAN Input File Import Summary

Imported Imported with Warning Not Imported


Nodes
Elements
Coordinate Frames
Materials
Element Properties
Load Sets
Load Cases
MPCs

Reject Entries...

OK

Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File 169
Review of Read Input File Form

Reject Card Form


During import of the NASTRAN input file, some entriess types might not be understood by Patran.
Those entries are brought into Patran in the direct text input data boxes. Selecting the Reject Entries
button on the Summary Data form will bring up this Reject Card Form. You can review these entries here.

Direct Text Import

Bulk Data Section


$

$CBEAM 215 213 214 0. 0. 1.


MPCADD 100 101 102

uu File Management Section uu Case Control Section

uu Executive Control Section u Bulk Data Section

OK

Only card types not supported by Patran are sent to the reject card blocks. (This includes comments.)
Entries which are otherwise recognized, but can not be imported due to syntax or invalid data errors are
not sent to the reject blocks.

Main Index
170 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Data Translated from the NASTRAN Input File

6.2 Data Translated from the NASTRAN Input File


For more information about which specific MD Nastran entry types can currently be read into Patran, see
Data Translated from the NASTRAN Input File (p. 713) in the Patran Interface to MD Nastran Preference
Guide.

Main Index
Chapter 6: Read Input File 171
Conflict Resolution

6.3 Conflict Resolution


If an entity can not be imported into Patran because another entity already exists with that ID or name,
then the conflict resolution logic is used. For more information, see Conflict Resolution (p. 724) in the
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Preference Guide.

Main Index
172 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Conflict Resolution

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Example Problems
7
J Overview 174
J Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis 175
J Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board 200
J Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board 214
J Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance 231
J Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow 241
J Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures 261
J Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe 273
J Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads 290
J Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads 302
J Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate 310

Main Index
174 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Overview

7.1 Overview
This chapter provides ten examples that illustrate popular capabilities in Patran’s interface to the MD
Nastran thermal solver. The first example, which describes transient thermal analysis, is an extension of
the steady state modeling exercise given in Getting Started - A Guided Exercise (Ch. 2). This example
contains step-by-step descriptions of the menu picks involved in the modeling process.
Examples 2 through 10 are in easy to follow tutorial format. The actual menu structures are not shown
since the expectation is for the user to follow along interactively with the Patran modeling system.
The session files of the example problems described in this chapter are delivered with the software. To
run an example problem:
1. Start Patran by entering the command p3.
1. From Patran’s main form, pull down the File menu and select Session -- Play. A Play Session
File form will appear.
1. Select nastherm_exn.ses from the Session File List listbox.
1. Click on Apply.
Patran will execute the modeling process and show you how to build the model.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 175
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

7.2 Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis


Objectives
The objectives of this exercise are as follows:
• Open the database created in Getting Started - A Guided Exercise (Ch. 2).
• Define time dependent functions using the Field application.
• Create a transient load case. Add two existing load sets (temperature and convection boundary
conditions) to this transient load case.
• Apply time varying heat flux to the right edge of the plate.
• Apply a transient volumetric heat generation inside the shaded area of the plate.
• Select solution type as transient analysis.
• Specify the default initial temperature.
• Define time steps.
• Select a transient load case.
• Perform a transient thermal analysis using MD Nastran within the Patran system.

Main Index
176 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

• Postprocess the transient results (Contour and XY plots).

0.4 m

1m
Aluminum Plate

k = 204 W/m-oC

Cp = 896 J/kg-oC

ρ = 2707 kg/m3

h = 10.0 W/m2-oC
3m q = qflux(t) W/m2
Tamb = 20.0 Co

q = qvol(t) W/m3 Thickness = 0.1 m

T0 = 50 oC

T = 50 oC

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 177
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Open the Database Created in Chapter 2

File

New... Ctrl N STEP 1: From Patran’s main form, pull down


the File menu and select Open. A form will
Open... Ctrl O appear called Open Database.
Close Ctrl W
Save Ctrl S
Save a Copy
s

Utilities New Database Name


Open Database
Import...
Enable NFS Access
Export...
s

Session Filter
Print... /tmp/*.db
Apply Filter Cancel
Report...
Directories Database List
Quit Ctrl Q
/tmp/. plate.db
/tmp/..

Existing Database Name


/tmp/plate.db

OK Filter Cancel

STEP 2: Within the Database List listbox,


highlight plate.db. The database name
STEP 3: Click on OK. will appear inside the Existing Database
Name databox.

Define Time Dependent Functions


Before applying time varying loads and boundary conditions, we need to define time dependent functions
using the Field application. In this model, two time fields are defined, one for applied heat flux and one
for volumetric heat generation.

Main Index
178 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Click on the Fields application. The Fields form will appear.

Fields
Action: Create
Object: Non Spatial STEP 1: Toggle the Object setting to Non Spatial.
Method: Tabular Input

Existing Fields

Field Name
flux_time STEP 2: Click inside the Field Name databox and type in
flux_time.

Table Definition
Active Independent Variables

Time (t)
Frequency (f)
Input Data ... STEP 3: Click on the Input Data button.

[Options...]

-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 179
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

STEP 4: Fill in the table with the following values


using the RETURN or ENTER key.
Time Value
0 1
10 1.25
30 1.75
50 2
100 2
Time/Frequency Scalar Table Data

Input Scalar Data

Time(t) Value
1 0.00000E+00 1.00000E+00
2 1.00000E+01 1.25000E+00
3 3.00000E+01 1.75000E+00
4 5.00000E+01 2.00000E+00
5 1.00000E+02 2.00000E+00
6
7
8

STEP 5: Click on OK. You must


also click on APPLY located on
the Fields form.
Map Function to Table...

OK

Main Index
180 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Similarly, a time dependent function for volumetric heating is defined as follows.

Fields
Action: Create
Object: Non Spatial
Method: Tabular Input

Existing Fields

Field Name
qvol_time STEP 6: Click inside the Field Name
databox and type in qvol_time.

Table Definition
STEP 7: Click on the Input Data button. Fill in the
Active Independent Variables table with the following values using the
RETURN or ENTER key.
Time (t) Time Value
Frequency (f) 0 10000
Input Data ... 10 12000
[Options...] 30 13000
50 14000
100 14000
-Apply-

STEP 8: Click on OK. You must also click on APPLY located on


the Fields form.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 181
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Create a Transient Load Case


Our next task is to create a transient load case. Click on the Load Cases application. The Load Cases form
will appear.

Load Cases

Action: Create

* Filter

Existing Load Cases


Default

Load Case Name


transient STEP 1: Click inside the Load Case Name databox. Type in the
name transient.
Make Current

Load Case Type:


Time Dependent STEP 2: Toggle the Load Case Type setting to Time Dependent.
Since the temperature and convection boundary conditions are
Description not changed from the Getting Started example, we can
associate these two load sets with the new load case directly.

Assigned Load/BCs Sets


Appli_flux
Conve_conv STEP 3: Highlight Conve_conv and Temp_tempbc within the
Temp _tempbc
Temp_tempbc Assigned Load/BCs Sets listbox.

Prioritize Load/BCs

-Apply- STEP 4: Click on Apply.

Main Index
182 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Apply Time Varying Heat Flux to the Plate’s Right Edge


At this point, we will impose a transient flux load on the plate’s right edge. The magnitude of this flux
load is 5000 W/m2 multiplied by the time dependent function flux_time defined earlier under the Fields
application. Click on the Loads/BCs application.

Load/BoundaryConditions

Action: Create

Object: Applied Heat

Type: STEP 1: Change the settings to:


Element Uniform Action:Create
Object:Applied Heat
Method:Element Uniform
Option:Normal Fluxes
Option: Normal Fluxes

Analysis Type: Thermal


Current Load Case:

transient...

Type: Time Dependent

Existing Sets
flux

New Set Name


tran_flux STEP 2: Click inside the New Set Name databox. Type in the nam
tran_flux.

Target Element Type: 2D


STEP 3: Toggle the Target Element Type setting to 2D.

Input Data...
STEP 4: Click on the Input Data button. The Input Data form will
. appear.
Select Application Region..

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 183
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Input Data
Form Type: Basic
Surface Option: Edge
STEP 5: Toggle the Surface
Option setting from Top to Edge. Edge Heat Flux * Time Function
5000 f:flux_time

STEP 6: Click inside the databox


under Edge Heat Flux. Type in
5000.

Spatial Fields Time Dependent Fields


qvol_time
flux_time
flux_time

OK Reset Cancel

STEP 7: Click on the flux_time in the Time Dependen


STEP 8: Click on OK. Fields listbox. The *Time Function databox will now
appear as f:flux_time.

Main Index
184 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Next, click on Select Application Region located on the Loads and Boundary Conditions form.

STEP 9: Two icon choices will appear, Surface and Edge. Click on the
bottom icon, Edge.

Select Application Region


Geometry Filter
u Geometry
uu
FEM

Application Region
Select Surfaces or Edges STEP 10: Position the
cursor over the right
Surface 1.3 edge of the surface and
click on this edge with
the mouse. Patran will
insert Surface 1.3 in the
Add Remove databox under the
heading Select Surfaces
Application Region or Edges.

STEP 11: Click on Add.

OK STEP 12: Click on OK. Be


sure to click on Apply
located on the
Load/Boundary Conditions
form.

Note: A yellow marker will appear on the surface’s right edge indicating that a heat flux load has been
applied along the right edge.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 185
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Apply Transient Volumetric Heat Generation Inside the Plate


The volumetric heating can be applied in a similar way, using the Loads and Boundary Conditions form
as follows.

Main Index
186 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Load/BoundaryConditions

Action: Create

Object: Applied Heat


STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Type:Element Uniform
Type: Element Uniform Option:Volumetric Generation

Option: Volumetric Generation

Analysis Type: Thermal


Current Load Case:

transient...

Type: Time Dependent

Existing Sets

New Set Name


tran_qvol STEP 2: Click inside the New Set Name databox. Type in the
name tran_qvol.

Target Element Type: 2D STEP 3: Toggle the Target Element Type setting to 2D.

Input Data... STEP 4: Click on the Input Data button. The Input Data form will
. appear.
Select Application Region..

-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 187
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Input Data
Form Type: Basic
Volumetric Heat Generation * Time Function
f:qvol_time

STEP 5: Click on the qvol_time


in the Time Dependent Fields
listbox. The *Time Function
databox will now include
Spatial Fields Time Dependent Fields f:qvol_time.
qvol_time Note: The scale factor of the
flux_time volumetric heating will be set
to 1.0 by default if no data is
input in the Volumetric Heat
Generation databox.

OK Reset Cancel

STEP 6: Click on OK.

Main Index
188 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Next, click on Select Application Region located on the Loads and Boundary Conditions form. We want
to apply an internal heat generation inside a section of the plate from x=0.0 m to x=0.4 m. This
application region will be selected by graphical cursor using the FEM geometry filter.

Select Application
Load/Boundary Region
Conditions
Geometry Filter STEP 7: Click on FEM under the Geometry
Action: Create Filter. Use the mouse cursor to drag a
uu Geometry rectangle covering the elements located
Object: Temp (Thermal) between x=0.0 m and x=0.4 m. Release the
u mouse cursor. The first two columns of the
FEM
Type: Nodal elements will turn red indicating the selection.
Also, a list of elements will appear in the
Select 2D Elements databox.
Application Region
Analysis Type: Thermal
Select Load
Current 2D Elements
Case:
56 57 61 Default...
62 66 67 71 72

Type: Static
STEP 8: Click Add Remove
on Add. Existing Sets
Application Region

New Set Name


tempbc STEP 9: Click on OK. Be sure to click on
Apply located on the Load/Boundary
OK Conditions form.

Note: A square yellow marker will appear on the center of the selected element indicating that a volumetric
heating has been applied on this element.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 189
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Select Solution Type


Now we are ready to set the analysis controls for transient thermal analysis. Click on the Analysis
application. The Analysis form will appear.

Analysis
STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action: Analyze Action:Analyze
Object:Entire Model
Object: Entire Model Method:Full Run

Method: Full Run

Code: MD Nastran

Type: Thermal

Available Jobs
plate

Job Name
plate_tran STEP 2: Click inside the Job Name databox and change the j
name to plate_tran.
Job Description
STEP 3: Click on Solution Type. The Solution Type form will
MSC.Nastran job created appear.
on 18-Apr-96 at 13:58:15

Solution Type
Translation Parameters...
MD Nastran
Solution Type
Solution Type...
Solution Type:
Direct Text Input... uu STEADY STATE ANALYSIS STEP 4: Click
u TRANSIENT ANALYSIS on the
Subcase Create... TRANSIENT
ANALYSIS.

Subcase Select...
STEP 5: Click on
Solution
Parameters to
specify the
default initial
temperature.

Main Index
190 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Specify the Default Initial Temperature


For transient thermal analysis, we have to employ a starting temperature from which the solution evolves.
If the initial temperature distribution is uniform, a default initial temperature is sufficient to specify the
initial state. Otherwise, the Initial Temperature object in Loads and BCs application must be used to
define initial nodal temperatures explicitly. See Initial Temperature, 75 for information.

Solution Parameters
Transient Solution Parameters
Print Out Singularities

Data Deck Echo: None

Maximum Printed Lines = 999999999

Maximum Run Time = 60

Default Init Temperature = 50.0 STEP 1: Click inside the Default Init Temperature
databox and change the value to 50.0.
Radiation Parameters...

View Factor Parameters...

OK Defaults Cancel

STEP 2: Click on OK. Be sure to click on OK located on the Solution


Type form.

Define Time Steps


We must now create a subcase. Click on Subcase Create located on the Analysis form. The Subcase
Create form will appear.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 191
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Subcase Create STEP 1: Within the Available Subcase listbox, highlight


transient. The word transient will appear inside the Subcase
Solution Sequence: 159 Name databox.

Available Subcases STEP 2: Click on the Subcase Parameters button. The


Subcase Parameters form will appear.
Default
transient
STEP 3: Change the Initial Time Step to 10.
Make sure the Number of Time Steps
settings is 100. Thus, the total analysis time
is 1000 seconds.
Subcase Name
transient
Subcase Parameters
Subcase Description
Initial Time Step = 10
This is a default subcase. Number of Time Steps = 100
Transient Nonlinear Iterations
Available Load Cases Matrix Update Method: Adaptive
Default
Number of Bisections per Update =
transient
2
Allowable Iterations per Time Step =
10

Subcase Options Convergence Criteria

Subcase Parameters... Temperature Error


Temperature Tolerance = 1.0e-02
Output Requests...
Load Error
Direct Text Input... Load Tolerance = 1.0e-03

Select Superelements... Work Error


Work Tolerance = 1.0e-06
Apply Delete Cancel
Fixed Time Steps

STEP 4: Click on OK. Click on APPLY. Exit on Failure to Converge

OK Cancel

Main Index
192 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Select a Transient Load Case


Our last task on specifying analysis controls is to select the load case for the analysis. Click on Subcase
Select located on the Analysis form. The Subcase Select form will appear.

Subcase Select
Subcases For Solution Sequence: 159
Default
transient STEP 1: Click on transient within the
Subcases for Solution Sequence: 159
listbox. The word transient will appear
inside the Subcases Selected listbox.

Subcases Selected:
Default STEP 2: Click on Default in the Subcases
transient Selected listbox to remove the load case
Default.

OK Cancel

Click on OK.

Perform a Transient Thermal Analysis


To submit the job for MD Nastran thermal analysis, simply click on the Apply button on the Analysis
form. It will take a while for the MD Nastran solver to perform a transient thermal analysis in the
background.
When the analysis is completed, the model is ready for result processing.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 193
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Read the Analysis Results into Database

Analysis

Action: Read Output2


Object: Result Entities STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Action:Read Output2
Method: Translate Object:Result Entities
Method:Translate

Code: MD Nastran

Type: Thermal

Available Jobs
plate
plate_tran

Job Name
plate_tran STEP 2: Make sure that the Job Name setting is
plate_tran.
Job Description

MSC.Nastran job created


on 18-Apr-96 at 13:58:15

Translation Parameters...

Select Results File... STEP 3: Click on the Select Results File button and
double click on the file called plate_tran.op2.

Apply STEP 4: Click on Apply.

Note: The heartbeat will change to the color blue, indicating that reading process is underway. When the heartbeat
turns green again, the results are ready for postprocess.

Main Index
194 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Visualize the Transient Results (Contour Plot)


We will create a contour plot of temperature distributions at time=700 sec using the Results Display form.

Results Display
Results

Action: Create

Object: Quick Plot

Select Result Cases


transient, Time=380. STEP 1: Scroll down the vertical scroll bar of the Select Results
transient, Time=540. Cases listbox, and click on transient, Time=700.
transient, Time=700.

Select Fringe Result


Heat Fluxes,
Temperature Gradients,
Temperatures, STEP 2: Within the Select Fringe Result listbox, highlight
Temperatures.

Quantity: Magnitude

Select Deformation Result

Animate

-Apply- STEP 3: Click on Apply.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 195
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Visualize the Transient Results (XY Plot)


Now we will apply XY plotting to visualize the temperature-time history of Nodes 49 to 54.

Results
Action: Create

Object: Graph STEP 1: Set the Object setting to Graph.

Method: Y vs X

-none- -none- -none- -none- STEP 4: Press the Target Entities icon to toggle
the form to select target entities.

Select Result Case(s)


transient,
transient, Time=60.
Time=60.
transient,
transient, Time=140.
Time=140. STEP 2: In the Select Result Case(s) listbox, click and
transient,
transient, Time=220.
Time=220. drag mouse to select the time states from transient,
transient, Time=380. Time=0. to transient, Time=1020.
transient, Time=540.
transient, Time=700.
Time=380.
transient, Time=860.
transient,
transient, Time=860.
Time=1020.

Y: Result

Select Y Result
Boundary Heat Flux, Radiation
Boundary Heat Flux, Total
Heat Fluxes,
Temperature Gradients,
Temperatures,
,
STEP 3: Within the Select Y Result listbox, highlight
Temperatures.
Position...((NON-LAYERED))

X: Global Variable

Variable: Time

Main Index
196 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Results

Action: Create

Object: Graph

Method: Y vs X

-none- -none- -none- -none-

Target Entity:
Nodes STEP 5: Select Nodes as the target entity.

Select Nodes

Node 49:54 STEP 6: Click inside the Select Nodes databox. Use
the mouse cursor to drag a rectangle covering
nodes 49 to 54. A list of nodes, Node 49:54, will
appear in the Node IDs databox.

STEP 7: Click on Apply to create an XY plot.

Apply Reset

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 197
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Modify the XY Plot


At this point, we will modify the Y scale of the XY plot and display grid lines in the Y direction by
clicking on the XY Plot application.

XY Plot
Action: Modify
STEP 1: Change the settings to:
Object: Axis Action:Modify
Object:Axis

Select Current XYWindow


XYWindow1
XYWindow1

Active Axis
uu X u Y STEP 2: Toggle the Active Axis setting to Y.

Options...

Scale... STEP 3: Click on Scale. The Axis Scale form will


appear.
Labels...

Title...

Tick Marks...

Grid Lines...

Main Index
198 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Axis Scale

Scale

u Linear
uu Logarithmic

Assignment Method

uu Automatic
uu Manual
uu Semi-Automatic
u Range STEP 4: Toggle the Assignment Method to Range.

Enter Lower and Upper Values

45 70 STEP 5: Change the data under Enter Lower and Upper


Values to 45 70.
Number of Primary Tick Marks

6 STEP 6: Change the data under Number of Primary Tick


Marks to 6.

Reset

Apply Cancel

STEP 7: Click on Apply.

STEP 8: Click on Cancel.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 199
Example 1 - Transient Thermal Analysis

Next, you must click on Grid Lines located on the XY Plot form. The Grid Lines form will appear.

Grid Lines
Display

Primary STEP 9: Click on Primary under the Display selection.

Secondary

Options
u Primary
uu Secondary
uu Both

Line Style: Color


?25
LongDash

1 50
1

Line Thickness

Reset

Apply Cancel

STEP 10: Click on Apply.

Main Index
200 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

7.3 Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board


Figure 7-1

9.0 in

1.0 in

1.0 in
1.0 in 6.0 in
1.0 in
4.0 in
1.5 in
1.0 in
2.0 in
1.0 in 1.0 in
X
4.0 in
5.5 in

q = 5.0 W/in2
Kpcb = 0.066 W/in-oC

Kchip = 2.24 W/in-oC


0.25 in
0.1 in

h = 0.02 W/in2-oC
Tamb = 20.0 oC

Figure 7-2 Printed Circuit Board Assembly

Problem Description
Figure 7-2 depicts a printed circuit board (PCB) assembly which has three significant chip devices
mounted on it. Each chip is generating heat at a rate that is consistent with the application of a heat flux
of 5.0 W/in2 over each device surface area. Heat is dissipated by thermal conduction within the chips and
underlying board. Free convection to the ambient environment provides the ultimate heat sink. The
ambient temperature for convection is assumed to be 20.0 oC, and a heat transfer coefficient of 0.02

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 201
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

W/in2-oC is used to apply convection to the entire assembly surface. We will analyze the printed circuit
board to determine the device temperatures so that they can be compared to manufacturer allowables.

Modeling
This example demonstrates the modeling of a printed circuit board with multiple components. We will
create surfaces for PCB and electronic devices, extrude the surfaces to generate 3D solids, specify
properties, apply thermal loads and boundary conditions, and then perform a steady-state analysis.

Main Index
202 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 203
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Create the Surfaces of Printed Circuit Board and Electronic Components

Table 7-1 ◆ Geometry


PCB
Action: Create
Object: Surface
Method: XYZ

Table 7-2 Surface ID List 1


Vector Coordinates List <960>
Origin Coordinates List [000]
-Apply-

Chip 1
Surface ID List 2
Vector Coordinates List < 1 1.5 0 >
Origin Coordinates List [110]
-Apply-

Chip 2
Surface ID List 3
Vector Coordinates List <110>
Origin Coordinates List [440]
-Apply-

Chip 3
Surface ID List 4
Vector Coordinates List <110>
Origin Coordinates List [ 5.5 2 0 ]
-Apply-

Main Index
204 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Extrude the Surfaces to Create Solids


Create the PCB solid by extruding surface 1 by -0.1 inch in the Z direction. Extrude surfac
direction by 0.25 inches.

Table 7-3 ◆ Geometry


PCB
Action: Create
Object: Solid
Method: Extrude

Table 7-4 Solid ID List 1


Translation Vector < 0 0 -0.1 >
If the Auto Execute is ON, you do not need to
Auto Execute click on -Apply-
Surface List Surface 1
-Apply-

Chips 1, 2, 3
Solid ID List 2
Translation Vector <0 0 0.25>
Surface List Surface 2:4
You can use the Auto Execute instead of
-Apply- clicking on -Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 205
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Mesh the Solids


You will now create the model’s finite elements.

Table 7-5 ◆Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Solid

Global Edge Length 0.25


Element Topology Hex8 Highlight
Solid List Solid 1:4
-Apply-
To obtain a clearer view, select the isometric
view by clicking on the Iso 1 View icon

Main Index
206 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Specify Materials
For this model we will assume that the PCB and chips are manufactured from isotropic materials having constant
conductivities:

Kpcb = 0.066 W/in-oCKchip = 2.24 W/in-oC

PCB
◆ Materials
Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Table 7-6 Material Name pcb


Input Properties...
Thermal Conductivity = 0.066 Since we are preforming a steady-state
analysis, specific heat and density are not
required.
-Apply-

Chips 1, 2, 3
◆ Materials
Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Table 7-7 Material Name chip


Thermal Conductivity = 2.24
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 207
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Main Index
208 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Define Element Properties


For a solid model element properties are used to assign the materials to the various parts of the model.

PCB
◆ Properties
Action: Create
Dimension: 3D
Type: Solid

Table 7-8 Property Set Name pcb


Input Properties...
Material Name m:pcb Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Select Members Solid 1
Add
-Apply-

Chips 1, 2, 3
Property Set Name chip
Input Properties...
Material Name m:chip Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Select Members Solid 2:4
Add
-Apply-

To verify that the correct material properties have been defined and assigned to the correct model locations, change th
option to Show and create a scalar plot of the model’s materials.

Table 7-9 ◆ Properties


Action: Show

Table 7-10 Select Property Material Name Highlight


Display Method Scalar Plot
Select Groups ◆Current Viewport Highlight
default group
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 209
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Merge the Common Nodes

The duplicate nodes located at the PCB and chip interfaces must be merged. Merging establishes and simulates
the physical connection between the PCB and chip components. In Patran equivalencing the model performs node
merging.

◆ Finite Elements
Action: Equivalence
Object: All
Method: Tolerance Cube

Table 7-11 Equivalencing Tolerance0.005


-Apply-

Verify the Free Edges

To check the equivalence process you should verify the element boundaries. If the model has been equivalenced
properly you should see a wireframe rendering of your model where only the free edges are components of the
wireframe image. Display the view to ensure that the model has no cracks between elements.

◆ Finite Elements
Action: Verify
Object: Element
Test: Boundaries

Table 7-12 Display Type ◆Free Edges


-Apply-

Main Index
210 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Apply a Head Load on Each Device

A heat flux will now be applied to the exposed plan form face of the chips.

◆ Load/Boundary Conditions
Action: Create
Object: Applied Heat
Type: Element Uniform

Table 7-13 Option: Normal Fluxes


New Set Name flux
Target Element Type: 3D
Input Data...
Heat Flux 5
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Solid Faces Solid 2.6 3.6 4.6 Or select with mouse using the
Select icon.
Use the Free Face Select icon to
help you pick the exposed chip
faces.

Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 211
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Apply a Convection Boundary Condition on the PCB .


The convection boundary condition will now be applied to the back side of the PCB (side opposite the
chips).

Table 7-14 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Convection
Type: Element Uniform

Table 7-15 Option: To Ambient


New Set Name conv
Target Element Type: 3D
Input Data...
Convection Coefficient 0.02
Ambient Temperature 20
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Solid Faces Solid 1.6 Or select with mouse using the Select icon.

Use the Free Face Select icon to help you pick


the back face of the PCB.

Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
212 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Perform the Analysis

Table 7-16 ◆ Analysis


Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run

Table 7-17 Job Name ex2


Solution Type...
Solution Type: ◆ STEADY STATE ANALYSIS
OK
-Apply-

Read in the Analysis Results

Table 7-18 ◆ Analysis


Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate

Table 7-19 Job Name ex2


Select Results File...
ex2.op2 Highlight
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 213
Example 2 - Free Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Display the Results

◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot

Table 7-20 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
-Apply-

Discussion of Results
The heat generated by the electronic devices is conducted to the printed circuit board, and then spread on the epoxy glas
PCB. The cooling mechanism is provided by a free convection heat exchange between the backside of the PCB and th
ambient fluid that is maintained at 20 oC. As a result, the largest electronic device has the highest temperature. Becaus
of their identical size, the other two electronic chips possess nearly the same temperature distribution.

Main Index
214 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

7.4 Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit


Board
Figure 7-3
Z q = 20.0 W/in2

X
. h = h(T) W/in2-oC Air
m= 8.33E-3 lbm/sec

Tin = 20.0 oC 9.0 in X

Problem Description
This is an extension of the previous analysis (Example 2). The geometry is unchanged; however, the
applied heat flux is increased to 20.0 W/in2. In place of free convection to an ambient environment, an
advective flow will traverse the surface. The coolant stream travels in the X-direction with the inlet
located at X=0 and the outlet positioned at X=L=9.0 inches. The mass flow rate is constant at any X
location with a value of 0.5 lbm/min (8.33E-03 lbm/sec). The inlet temperature is set at 20 oC.

Associated with the advection flow which transports energy streamwise, is the heat transfer that takes
place between the fluid stream and the PCB. In this problem, energy passes from the PCB into the fluid
stream. The convection behavior for this transport is specified with a temperature dependent heat transfer
coefficient. In the absence of any film node specification, the look up temperature for this heat transfer
coefficient defaults to the average temperature between the PCB surface element and its ambient points,
in this case, the nodal points in the advected fluid stream.

Modeling
We will model the previous PCB thermal analysis with forced air convection over the flat plate, using the
Coupled Advection feature. The air temperature rises in the X direction as the fluid stream traverses the
circuit board. The temperature dependency of the convection coefficient will be defined using a
temperature dependent field.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 215
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Create the Geometry

Table 7-21 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Surface
Method: XYZ

Table 7-22 Vector Coordinates List < 9 6 0 >


Origin Coordinates List [000]
-Apply-

Vector Coordinates List < 1 1.5 0 >


Origin Coordinates List [110]
-Apply-

Vector Coordinates List <110>


Origin Coordinates List [440]
-Apply-

Vector Coordinates List <110>


Origin Coordinates List [ 5.5 2 0 ]
-Apply-

Main Index
216 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Extrude the Solid

Table 7-23 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Solid
Method: Extrude

Table 7-24 Translation Vector < 0 0 -0.1>


If the Auto Execute is ON, you do not
Auto Execute need to click on -Apply-
Surface List Surface 1
-Apply-
Translation Vector < 0 0 0.25 >
Surface List Surface 2:4
You can use the Auto Execute instead of
-Apply- clicking on -Apply-

Mesh the Solids

Table 7-25 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Solid

Table 7-26 Global Edge Length 0.25


Element Topology Hex8 Highlight
Solid List Solid 1:4
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 217
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Merge the Common Nodes

Table 7-27 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Equivalence
Object: All
Method: Tolerance Cube

Table 7-28 Equivalencing Tolerance0.005


-Apply-

Verify the Element Boundaries

Table 7-29 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Verify
Object: Element
Test: Boundaries
Display Type ◆ Free Edges
-Apply-

Main Index
218 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Specify Materials

Table 7-30 ◆ Materials


Table 7-31 Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Table 7-32 Material Name chip


Input Properties...
Constitutive Model: Solid properties
Thermal Conductivity = 2.24
-Apply-

Material Name pcb


Constitutive Model: Solid properties
Thermal Conductivity = 0.066
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 219
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Define Element Properties

Table 7-33 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Dimension: 3D
Type: Solid

Table 7-34 Property Set Name chip


Input Properties...
Material Name m:chip Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Select Members Solid 2:4
Add
-Apply-

Property Set Name pcb


Input Properties...
Material Name m:pcb Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Select Members Solid 1
Add
-Apply-

Main Index
220 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Define Temperature Dependent Field

Table 7-35 ◆ Fields


Action: Create
Object: Material Property
Method: Tabular Input

Table 7-36 Field Name conv_temp


Active Independent Variables
Temperature (T)
Input Data...
Input Scalar Data Hit Enter Key
T Value
0 0.2
100 0.3
200 0.35
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 221
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Select Two Nodes to Create a Curve

Table 7-37 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Curve
Method: Point

With the mouse select the Node icon. Click on


the nodes located at the center of the left edge
and the center of the right edge.

Starting Point List Node 938


Ending Point List Node 1838
-Apply-

Define the Location of the Air Stream

Table 7-38 ◆ Geometry


Action: Transform
Object: Curve
Method: Translate

Table 7-39 Translation Vector < 0 0 -1.0 >


Curve List Curve 1
-Apply-

Main Index
222 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Mesh the Air Stream

Preferably, the mesh size should be the same on the air stream as on the PCB.

Table 7-40 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Curve

Table 7-41 Global Edge Length .25


Element Topology Bar2 Highlight
Curve List Curve 2 Curve 2 was the result of translating
Curve 1
-Apply-

Note: The identical mesh size is not required, but may provide the most accurate model. The Closest Approach metho
select the nearest neighboring structure and fluid nodes.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 223
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Specify the Materials Properties of Air

Table 7-42 ◆ Materials


Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Table 7-43 Material Name air


Input Properties...
Constitutive Model: Fluid properties
Thermal Conductivity = 6.66e-4
Specific Heat = 456.2
Density = 5.01e-5
Dynamic Viscosity = 1.03e-6
-Apply-

Main Index
224 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Define Flow Tube Properties

Table 7-44 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Dimension: 1D
Type: Flow Tube

Table 7-45 Property Set Name flow_tube


Input Properties...
Material Name m:air Select from Material Property Sets
Diameter at Node 1 1.0
OK
Select Members Curve 2
Add
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 225
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Action: Create
Object: Convection
Type: Element Uniform

Table 7-47 Option: Coupled Advection


New Set Name flow_by_plate
There are two application regions:
• The Structure Region (Application Region 1) can be 1D, 2D, or 3D. In this case we have a 3D structure,
and the appropriate Target Element Type is 3D.
• The Second Application Region must be 1D, which represents the airflow over the flat plate. In this case,
select the curve along the X direction. Patran will then couple the fluid to the structure locally by the
Closest Approach method.
Target Element Type: 3D
Region 2: 1D
Input Data...
*Temperature Function f:conv_temp Select from Temperature
Dependent Fields
Mass Flow Rate 8.33e-3
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Solid Faces Solid 1.6
Add
For the Companion Region (the
Active List second one)
Select Curves Curve 2 Highlight
Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
226 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Apply a Heat Flux on Each Device

Table 7-48 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Applied Heat
Type: Element Uniform

Table 7-49 Option: Normal Fluxes


New Set Name heat_flux
Target Element Type: 3D
Input Data...
Heat Flux 20
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Solid Faces: Solid 2.6 3.6 4.6 With the mouse select the top
surfaces of the three-chips
Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 227
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Define the Inlet Temperature of the Fluid

Table 7-50 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Temp (Thermal)
Type: Nodal

Table 7-51 New Set Name inlet_temp


Input Data...
Boundary Temperature 20
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Geometry Entities Point 35 Pick the initial point on the
airstream curve
Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
228 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Define the Default Initial Temperature and Perform the Analysis

Table 7-52 ◆ Analysis


Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run

Table 7-53 Job Name ex3


Solution Type...
Solution Parameters...
Data Deck Echo: Sorted Examine the input data in the F06 file
Default Init Temperature 100 Define the default initial temperature
OK
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 229
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Read in the Analysis Results

Table 7-54 ◆ Analysis


Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate

Table 7-55 Job Name ex3


Select Results File...
ex3.op2 Highlight
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
230 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 3 - Forced Air Convection on Printed Circuit Board

Display the Results

Table 7-56 ◆ Results


Object: Quick Plot

Table 7-57 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load


Select Fringe Result Temperatures
-Apply-

Discussion of Results
With the advection flow attached to the printed circuit board’s back surface, the resulting temperature pr
significantly different behavior than in the prior example where free convection provided the heat transfe
the printed circuit board and a surrounding fluid maintained at a constant temperature (20 oC). In this exam
receives energy as it moves downstream along the PCB. Since the inlet flow is maintained at 20 oC, the ed
coincides with X=0 is the coolest and the trailing edge (X=L) is necessarily warmer. Similarly, the most
streamwise sense has the highest peak temperature.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 231
Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance

7.5 Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance


Figure 7-4
Y
5.0 in

2.0 in

2.0 in

5.0 in
Kpwb = 0.6 W/in-oC

Kchip = 1.34 W/in-oC

2.0 in

X
2.0 in

Z q = 10.0 W/in2

Contact Coefficient = 1.2 W/in2-oC


0.25 in

0.5 in
X

T = 20.0 oC

Problem Description
The dimension of the chip is 2 x 2 inches with a thickness of 0.25 inches. The printed wiring board is 5
x 5 inches with a thickness of 0.5 inches.

Thermal conductivity properties for the chip and wiring board are, respectively, 1.34 and 0.6 W/in-oC.

Main Index
232 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance

A heat flux of 10 W/in2 is imposed on the top of the chip component. A thermal conductance value of
1.2 W/in2-oC is applied between the chip and the printed wiring board. The bottom of the printed wiring
board is held at a constant temperature of 20 oC.

Modeling
In this example we will model the contact resistance between two solids--in this case, the contact between
an electronic component and a printed wiring board (PWB)--to determine the maximum temperature at
the top of the chip and the temperature drop to the bottom of the wiring board.

Creating the Geometry

Table 7-58 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Solid
Method: XYZ

Table 7-59 Solid ID List 1


Vector Coordinates List < 5 5 .5 >
Origin Coordinates List [000]
-Apply-

Solid ID List 2
Vector Coordinates List < 2 2 .25 >
Origin Coordinates List [221]
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 233
Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance

Mesh the Solids

Table 7-60 ◆Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Solid

Table 7-61 Global Edge Length 0.25


Element Topology Hex8 Highlight
Solid List Solid 1:2
-Apply-
To obtain a clearer view, select the
isometric view by clicking on the Iso
1 View icon.

Merge the Common Nodes

Table 7-62 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Equivalence
Object: All
Method: Tolerance Cube

Table 7-63 Equivalencing Tolerance0.005


-Apply-

Main Index
234 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance

Specify Materials

Table 7-64 ◆ Materials


Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Table 7-65 Material Name pwb


Input Properties...
Constitutive Model: Solid properties
Thermal Conductivity 0.6
-Apply-

Material Name chip


Constitutive Model: Solid properties
Thermal Conductivity 1.34
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 235
Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance

Define Element Properties

Table 7-66 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Dimension: 3D
Type: Solid

Table 7-67 Property Set Name pwb


Input Properties...
Material Name: m:pwb Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Select Members Solid 1
Add
-Apply-
Property Set Name chip
Input Properties...
Material Name: m:chip Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Select Members Solid 2
Add
-Apply-

Main Index
236 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance

Apply Coupled Convection

Contact resistance is modeled in Patran using the Convection-Coupled menu operation (select the bottom
chip surface and the top of the printed wiring board
to specify the thermal conductance between the two surfaces). This technique enables you to apply a connection throu
convection between two solid geometric faces without connecting the structures with finite elements. One advantage o
method is that mesh sizes between the two regions need not be congruent. Patran will automatically find the ambient
closest to the thermal contact area. (The same technique can be used to model thermal contacts directly from 2D to 1D ge
entities, or even from solid faces to nodal ambient points.) However, this convenience is not intended as a replacemen
responsible modeling practices.

Table 7-68 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Convection
Type: Element Uniform

Table 7-69 Option: Coupled Select the Coupled Option before


defining the Element Uniform Type
New Set Name coup_conv
Target Element Type: 3D
Region 2: 3D
Input Data...
Convection Coefficient: 1.2
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Solid Faces Solid 2.5
Add
For the Companion Region (the
Active List second one)
Select Solid Faces Solid 1.6
Add
OK
-Apply-
Note: Arrows should be pointing downward into the printed wiring board.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 237
Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance

Apply a Heat Flux on the Top Surface of the Chip

Table 7-70 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Applied Heat
Type: Element Uniform

Table 7-71 Option: Normal Fluxes


New Set Name heat_flux
Target Element Type: 3D
Input Data...
Heat Flux 10
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Solid Faces Solid 2.6 Or select with mouse using the
Select icon
Using the mouse, select the Free
Face of a Solid icon

Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
238 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance

Apply a Temperature Boundary Condition on the Back Side of the PWB

Table 7-72 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Temp (Thermal)
Type: Nodal

Table 7-73 New Set Name tempbc


Input Data...
Boundary Temperature 20
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Geometry Entities Solid 1.5 Or select with mouse using the
Select icon
Using the mouse, select the
Surface or Face icon

Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 239
Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance

Perform the Analysis

Table 7-74 ◆ Analysis


Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run

Table 7-75 Job Name ex4


-Apply-

Read in the Analysis Results

Table 7-76 ◆ Analysis


Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate

Table 7-77 Job Name ex4


Select Results File...
ex4.op2 Highlight
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
240 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 4 - Thermal Contact Resistance

Display the Results

◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot

Table 7-78 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
-Apply-

Discussion of Results
Due to the simple geometry, a hand calculation can be performed to provide an estimate of the maximum
temperature at the chip surface:
Layer Resistance ≅ Thickness / ( K * A cross section)

Contact Resistance ≅ 1 / ( h * A contact)

Material Thermal Resistance (C/Watt)


Chip 0.046642
Thermal Contact 0.208333
PWB (5x5) 0.03333
PWB (2x2) 0.208333
Total Resistance 0.2883 < R < 0.4633

For a total heat load of 40 W, the maximum temperature can be estimated as:
Q = ∆T / Total Resistance
Then, Tmax = 20.0 + 40.0 * (Total Resistance)
or 31.53 oC < Tmax < 38.53 oC

The finite element calculation determined the maximum temperature as 36.51 oC, which is rational
considering the hand calculation and the approximation inherent in that solution.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 241
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

7.6 Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow


Figure 7-5

Z X
q = 20 W/in2

0.5 in
10.0 in

5.0 in
Aluminum Plate
K = 4.0 W/in-oC
Tin = 20.0 oC
. 0.8 in
Air
m= 8.333E-3 * 5 lbm/sec
K = 6.66E-4 W/in-oC
DH = 0.5333 in Cp = 456.2 J/lbm-oC
0.5 in 0.4 in
ρ = 5.01E-5 lbm/in3
h = 0.3 W/in2-oC
1.0 in
µ = 1.03E-6 lbm/in-sec

Problem Description
Forced air convection is a very efficient method of removing heat in a limited space. In electronic
packaging, forced air convection is used to remove heat in a compact heat exchanger. Modeling this
problem within the Patran MD Nastran system requires building a structural model and a fluid model,
and connecting them in an appropriate fashion. Patran can associate the structure nodes with the fluid
nodes using a technique called the Closest Approach method. This method allows the analyst an option
to specify non-coincident mesh sizes on the structure and the fluid nodes. However, it is recommended
that you use an identical mesh size for a regular isoparametric rectangular mesh, as demonstrated in this
example.

Main Index
242 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Modeling
The compact heat exchanger dimensions are 0.5 inch high, 5.0 inches wide, and 10 inches long. The heat
exchanger has a total of five rectangular ducts. Each duct has a dimension of 0.8 inch in width and 0.4
inch in height. The inlet temperature of the fluid is at 20 oC. The power density is applied to one side of
the heatsink at 20 W/in2. The mass flow rate per channel is 0.5 lbm/min (0.008333 lbm/sec). The fluid
properties of the air are evaluated at 25 oC.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 243
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Main Index
244 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Create the Geometry

Table 7-79 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Curve
Method: XYZ

Table 7-80 Curve ID List 1


Vector Coordinates List <100>
Origin Coordinates List [000]
-Apply-*

Table 7-81 ◆ Geometry


Action: Transform
Object: Curve
Method: Translate

Table 7-82 Curve ID List 2


Translation Vector < 0 0.5 0 >
If the Auto Execute is ON you do
Auto Execute not need to click on -Apply-
Curve List Curve 1
-Apply-*

Table 7-83 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Curve
Method: Point

Table 7-84 Curve ID List 3


Starting Point Point 1

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 245
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Main Index
246 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Table 7-85 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Surface
Method: Extrude

Table 7-86 Translation Vector < 0 0 -10 >


Curve List Curve 1:4
-Apply-
Use Iso 4 View icon to obtain 3D view

Table 7-87 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Curve
Method: XYZ

Table 7-88 Vector Coordinates < 0 0 -10 >


List
Origin Coordinates List [ 0.5 0.25 0 ]
-Apply-

Table 7-89 ◆ Geometry


Action: Transform
Object: Surface
Method: Translate

Table 7-90 Translation Vector <100>


Repeat Count 4
Click on the Surface icon

Surface List Surface 1 2 4


-Apply-
Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 247
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Ending Point Point 3


You can use the Auto Ex
-Apply- clicking on -Apply-
Curve ID List 4
Starting Point Point 2
Ending Point Point 4
You can use the Auto Ex
-Apply- clicking on -Apply-
Table 7-91 Translation Vector <100>
Repeat Count 4

Main Index
248 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Create Finite Elements


Mesh Surfaces 1 to 16 to create QUAD4 elements with global edge length 0.25. Similarly, mesh Curves
with Bar2 elements using a Global Edge Length of 0.25.

Table 7-93 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Surface

Table 7-94 Global Edge Length .25


Element Topology Quad 4 Highlight
Surface List Surface 1:16
-Apply-

Table 7-95 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Curve

Table 7-96 Global Edge Length .25


Element Topology Bar 2 Highlight
Curve List Curve 5:9
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 249
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Merge the Common Nodes

Table 7-97 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Equivalence
Object: All
Method: Tolerance Cube

Equivalencing Tolerance 0.005


-Apply-

Main Index
250 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Special Material Properties

Table 7-98 ◆ Materials


Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Material Name alum


Input Properties...
Constitutive Model: Solid properties
Thermal Conductivity 4.0
-Apply-

Material Name air


Constitutive Model: Fluid properties
Thermal Conductivity 6.66e-4
Specific Heat 456.2
Density 5.01e-5
Dynamic Viscosity 1.03e-6
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 251
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Main Index
252 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Define Element Properties


The thickness of the four side walls that separate fluid channels is 0.1 inch. The other walls have a thickness of
0.05 inch. For flow tube elements, the equivalent hydraulic diameter is: Dh = 4 * Cross-Sectional Area / Perimeter
= 4 * 0.32 / 2.4 = 0.5333 inch.

Table 7-99 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Object: 2D
Type: Shell

Table 7-100 Property Set Name outside_walls


Input Properties...
Material Name: m:alum Select from Material Property
Sets
Thickness 0.05
OK
Using mouse click on Front
View icon to choose walls

Select Members Surface 1:3 5 6 8 9 11 12 14:16


Add
-Apply-

Property Set Name inner_walls


Input Properties...
Material Name: m:alum Select from Material Property
Sets
Thickness 0.1
OK
Select Members Surface 4:13:3
Add
-Apply-

Table 7-101 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Object: 1D

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 253
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Table 7-102 Property Set Name air_flow


Input Properties...
Material Name: m:air Select from Material Property Sets
Diameter at Node 1 0.5333
OK
Select Members Curve 5:9
Add
-Apply-

Main Index
254 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Apply a Heat Load on the Top Surface

Table 7-103 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Applied Heat
Type: Element Uniform

Table 7-104 Option: Normal Fluxes


New Set Name flux
Target Element Type 2D
Input Data...
Surface Option: Top
Top Surf Heat Flux 20
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 2 6:15:3 Or select with mouse using the Select
icon
Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 255
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Define the Inlet Temperature of the Fluid

Table 7-105 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Temp (Thermal)
Type: Nodal

New Set Name inlet_temp


Input Data...
Boundary Temperature 20
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Click on the Point or Vertex icon

Select Geometry Entities Point 9 27:33:2


Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
256 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Apply Coupled Advection


Five load sets, one for each channel, are defined for the fluid-structure coupling.

Table 7-106 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Convection
Type: Element Uniform

Table 7-107 Option: Coupled Advection


New Set Name: conv1
Target Element Type: 2D
Region 2: 1D
Input Data...
Surface Option: Top
Top Surf Convection Coef 0.3
Mass Flow Rate 8.333e-3
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Change the view to Front View

Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 1:4 For the Application Region


Add
For the Companion Region (the
Active List second one)
Select Curves Curve 5
Add
OK
-Apply-

Do the same for the remaining four (4) channels.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 257
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Active List For the Companion Region

Select Curves Curve 6


Add
OK
-Apply-

New Set Name: conv3


Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Active List For the Application Region

Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 7:10


Add

Active List For the Companion Region

Select Curves Curve 7


Add
OK
-Apply-

New Set Name: conv4


Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Active List For the Application Region

Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 10:13


Add

Active List For the Companion Region

Select Curves Curve 8


Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
258 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Active List For the Companion Region

Select Curves Curve 9


Add
OK
-Apply-

Perform the Analysis

Perform the analysis.

Table 7-109 ◆ Analysis


Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run

Job Name ex5


-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 259
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Read in the Analysis Results

Table 7-110 ◆ Analysis


Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate

Job Name ex5


Select Results File...
ex5.op2 Highlight
OK
-Apply-

Display the Results

Display the results.

◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot

Table 7-111 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
Change
the view
to Iso1
View
-Apply-

Main Index
260 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 5 - Typical Avionics Flow

Discussion of Results
The heat flux is imposed on the top of the plate with power density of 20 W/in2. The heat is then spread
throughout the aluminum heat sink, and is carried away by the forced air convection inside the channels.
The inlet temperature is at 20 oC. There will be a temperature rise in the fluid due to the imposed surface
heat flux. The maximum temperature, 101.2 oC, occurs near the exhaust of the module. The exit air
temperature is at 71.82 oC.
We can check the energy balance on the fluid as follows:
Total heat = 20*5*10=1000 W

The specific heat is 456.2 J/lbm-oC.

The mass flow rate is 0.008333 * 5 = 0.04167 lbm/sec

∆T = 1000/(0.04167*456.2) = 52.6 oC

Exit air temperature = 20 + 52.6 = 72.6 oC

We can see the exit temperature (71.82oC) calculated by MD Nastran is very close to the hand calculation
of 72.6 oC.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 261
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

7.7 Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

I II III
Cavity 1 Cavity 2

Aluminum Plate

k = 204 W/m-oK
ε = 1.0 1 1/2 m
3m

Thickness = 0.001 m

q=2000 W/m2
2m
Y
X 1m

Z 2m 3m

Problem Description
Three plates are in radiative equilibrium with a zero-degree ambient environment. Each plate measures
2 m by 3 m, and are arranged as shown in the figure above. The center plate (II) has a heat flux applied
to it with a magnitude of 2000 W/m2 in the central region, as illustrated.
The emissivity of all surfaces is chosen as 1.0, representing perfect blackbodies. The plate thicknesses
are all 0.001 m, and the material is aluminum. Temperature distribution for each plate will be determined.

Modeling
Each plate is meshed with sixteen QUAD8 elements. Two radiation cavities are defined. Cavity 1
includes all the elements on Plates I and II that view each other. These elements also communicate with
zero-degree space. The second cavity is comprised of the elements on Plates II and III, which see each
other, and they also communicate with zero-degree space. By defining two separate cavities, we have
eliminated any of the shadowing calculations that would be required on a single-cavity model. The non-
cavity sides of Plates I and III are treated as adiabatic surfaces (i.e., perfectly insulated). The normal heat
flux is applied to one side of the centermost four elements of Plate II, for a total heat load of 3000 W.

Main Index
262 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

Create the Geometry

Table 7-112 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Surface
Method: XYZ

Vector Coordinates List <230>


Origin Coordinates List [000]
-Apply-

Table 7-113 ◆ Geometry


Action: Transform
Object: Surface
Method: Translate

Translation Vector: <002>


If the Auto Execute is ON, you do not
Auto Execute need to click on -Apply-

Surface List Surface 1


-Apply-
Change the view to Iso 2 View

Translation Vector: <003>


Surface List Surface 2
You can use the Auto Execute instead
-Apply- of clicking on -Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 263
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

Mesh the Plates

Mesh the plates.

Table 7-114 ◆Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh Seed
Type: Uniform

◆Number of Elements
Number= 4
Curve List Surface 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2
-Apply-

Table 7-115 ◆Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Surface

Global Edge Length 1


Element Topology Quad8 Highlight

◆IsoMesh
Surface List Surface 1:3
-Apply-

Main Index
264 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

Specify Materials

Specify the materials to be used.

Table 7-116 ◆ Materials


Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Material Name alum


Input Properties...
Constitutive Model Solid properties

Thermal Conductivity 204


-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 265
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

Define Element Properties

Define the element properties.

Table 7-117 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Dimension: 2D
Type: Shell

Property Set Name alum


Input Properties...
Material Name m:alum Select from Material Property Sets
Thickness 0.001
OK
Select Members Surface 1:3
Add
-Apply-

Main Index
266 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

Define Radiation Enclosures

In this example, we are going to define two cavities for radiation exchange. In so doing, we explicitly
eliminate the need for any shadowing calculations when performing the view factor calculations.
This will save a lot of time in attaining a temperature solution within MD Nastran. Basically, to
identify the TOP and BOTTOM surfaces appropriately, each independent surface within an
enclosure will have a distinct SET NAME. Consistent use of the ENCLOSURE ID with each SET
NAME ensures that the elements are included in the appropriate enclosure

Table 7-118 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Radiation
Type: Element Uniform

Option: Enclosures Select the Enclosures Option before


defining the Element Uniform Type
New Set Name: encl_1
Target Element Type: 2D
Input Data...
Surface Option: Top
Enclosure ID 1
Top Surf Emissivity 1.0
First time must turn toggle OFF
Surface Can Shade
First time must turn toggle OFF
Surface Can Be Shaded
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 1
Add
OK
-Apply-
New Set Name: encl_1a
Input Data...

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 267
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

Main Index
268 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

Select Application Region


Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 2
Add
OK
-Apply-

New Set Name: encl_2


Input Data...
Surface Option: Top
Enclosure ID 2
Top Surf Emissivity 1.0
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 2
Add
OK
-Apply-

New Set Name: encl_2a


Input Data...
Surface Option: Bottom
Enclosure ID 2
Bottom Surf Emissivity 1.0
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 3
Add
OK

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 269
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

Apply a Heat Flux

Table 7-119 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Applied Heat
Type: Element Uniform

Option: Normal Fluxes


New Set Name heat_flux
Target Element Type: 2D
Input Data...
Surface Option: Top
Top Surf Heat Flux 2000
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆FEM
Select 2D Elements or Edges Elm 22 23 26 27
Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
270 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

Set Default Initial Temperature and Perform the Analysis

Since radiation heat transfer, by definition, makes our problem highly nonlinear, we need to
consider the Default Initial Temperature setting if we hope to achieve a converged solution with
the MD Nastran thermal solver.

Table 7-120 ◆ Analysis


Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Type: Full Run

Job Name: ex6


Solution Type....
Solution Parameters...
Default Init Temperature= 500
Radiation Parameters....
Stefan-Boltzmann Constant: 5.6696E-8 Click on Stefan-Boltzmann
Constant for list in various units
OK
OK
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 271
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

Read in the Analysis Results

◆ Analysis
Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate

Table 7-121 Job Name ex6


Select Results File...
ex6.op2 Highlight
OK
-Apply-

Display the Results

◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot

Table 7-122 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
-Apply-

Discussion of Results
The center plate has the highest and the lowest temperature for the problem. Since the heat flux is applied
to this plate, we expect the maximum temperature to occur here.

Main Index
272 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 6 - Radiation Enclosures

But what about the minimum temperature? Recall that our model includes a good deal of radiation
exchange with a space environment. The outer plates (I and III) are insulated on their non-cavity sides.
Therefore, only the cavity-facing side can “see” the space environment. The center plate with the heat
flux load, however, can view space from both sides, allowing it to be twice as effective in loosing energy
to space. This accounts for the minimum temperature condition on the edges of the plate. Additionally,
plate I has a higher temperature than Plate III due to its relative location being closer to the center plate
than Plate III.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 273
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

7.8 Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe


Figure 7-6

Fluid Region A Region B

q = qvol (z) = 1200 (1 - Z/5) Btu/hr-ft3

h = 3.0 Btu/hr-ft2-oF
5.0 ft
Tamb = 100 oF

X
1.5 ft
3.5 ft
3.9167 ft
4.75 ft

Oil Flow Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.3333

Tin = 100 oF Koil = 0.077 Btu/hr-ft-oF KA = 0.2 Btu/hr-ft-oF


. KB = 0.5 Btu/hr-ft-oF
m = 2.88E6 lbm/hr Cp oil = 0.44 Btu/lbm-oF
µoil = 100.08 lbm/ft-hr ρoil = 56.8 lbm/ft3

Problem Description
In this example we will analyze an axisymmetric structure for its temperature distribution. We will use
the MD Nastran CTRIAX6 axisymmetric element (in its 3 node configuration) as the heat conduction
element.
The basic geometry is detailed in the figure above. A section of pipe consisting of composite materials
is divided into two different material regions. Region A is from radius 1.5 feet to 3.5 feet. Region B is
from radius 3.5 feet to 4.75 feet. The overall pipe section is 5.0 feet long with an inside diameter of 3 feet
and an outside diameter of 9.5 feet.

Main Index
274 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Oil flows through the interior with an inlet temperature of 100 oF and a mass flow rate of 2.88E6 lbm/hr.
The forced convection heat transfer coefficient between the oil and wall is calculated by MD Nastran
using the following relationship:

Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.3333

Thermal conductivity properties for Region A and Region B are 0.2 and 0.5 Btu/hr-ft-oF.
Volumetric internal heat generation occurs in the subregion of Region B (Specifically from radius 3.5 feet
to 3.9167 feet), and varies based on Z location. The heat generation is 1200 * (1-Z/5) Btu/hr-ft3, where
Z is given in units of feet. Free convection to an ambient temperature of 100 oF is applied to the exterior
surface of the structure through a heat transfer coefficient of 3.0 Btu/hr-ft2-oF.

Modeling
We will apply a special modeling technique, FIELDS, to input the volumetric heating rate as a function
of Z. Coupled Flow Tube is used to tie the structure to the fluid elements.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 275
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Main Index
276 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Create the Geometry

Table 7-123 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Curve
Method: XYZ

Vector Coordinates List <005>


Origin Coordinates List [000]
Select the Bottom View for working
with axisymmetric geometries

-Apply-

Table 7-124 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Surface
Method: XYZ

Surface ID List 1
Vector Coordinates List <205>
Origin Coordinates List [ 1.5 0 0 ]
-Apply-

Surface ID List 2
Vector Coordinates List < .4167 0 5 >
Origin Coordinates List [ 3.5 0 0 ]
-Apply-
Surface ID List 3
Vector Coordinates List < .8333 0 5 >
Origin Coordinates List [ 3.9167 0 0 ]
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 277
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Main Index
278 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Mesh the Fluid Curve and the Pipe Surfaces

Table 7-125 ◆Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh Seed
Method: One Way Bias

Number = 10
L2/L1 = 2.0
Curve List Curve 1 Surface 1.4 3.2
-Apply-

Table 7-126 ◆Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Surface

Global Edge Length= 0.25


Element Topology= Tria3
Surface List Surface 1:3
-Apply-

Table 7-127 ◆Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Curve

Global Edge Length = 0.25


Element Topology = Bar2
Curve List Curve 1
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 279
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Remove Coincident Nodes

Table 7-128 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Equivalence
Object: All
Method: Tolerance Cube

Equivalencing Tolerance 0.005


-Apply-

Main Index
280 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Specify Material Properties

Table 7-129 ◆ Materials


Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Material Name mat_a


Input Properties...
Constitutive Model: Solid Properties
Thermal Conductivity = 0.2
-Apply-

Material Name mat_b


Constitutive Model: Solid Properties
Thermal Conductivity = 0.5
-Apply-

Material Name oil


Constitutive Model: Fluid Properties
Thermal Conductivity = 0.077
Specific Heat = 0.44
Density = 56.8
Dynamic Viscosity = 100.08
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 281
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Define Element Properties

Table 7-130 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Dimension: 2D
Type: Axisym Solid

Property Set Name pipe_a


Input Properties...
Material Name: m:mat_a Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Application Region
Select Members Surface 1
Add
-Apply-
Property Set Name pipe_b
Input Properties...
Material Name: m:mat_b Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Application Region
Select Members Surface 2 3
Add
-Apply-

Table 7-131 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Dimension: 1D
Type: Flow Tube

Property Set Name oil


Input Properties...

Main Index
282 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Define a Spatial Field

Table 7-132 ◆Fields


Action: Create
Object: Spatial
Method: PCL Function

Field Name qvol_z


Scalar Function (’X, ’Y, ’Z) 1200*(1.0-’Z/5.0)
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 283
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Apply a Volumetric Heat Load

Table 7-133 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Applied Heat
Type: Element Uniform

Option: Volumetric Generation


New Set Name: qvol
Target Element Type: 2D
Input Data...
Volumetric Heat Generation f:qvol_z Select from Spatial Fields
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Surfaces: Surface 2
Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
284 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Apply Free Convection

Table 7-134 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Convection
Type: Element Uniform

Option: To Ambient
New Set Name conv
Target Element Type 2D
Input Data...
Surface Option edge
Edge Convection Coef 3.0
Ambient Temperature 100
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select the Edge icon

Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 3.2


Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 285
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Define Inlet Temperatures of the Fluid

Table 7-135 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Temp (Thermal)
Type: Nodal

New Set Name inlet_temp


Input Data...
Boundary Temperature 100
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Geometry Entities Point 1
Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
286 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 287
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Define Coupled Flow Tube

Apply a fluid-structure coupling between the oil and the inner wall of the pipe.

Table 7-136 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Convection
Type: Element Uniform

Option: Coupled Flow Tube


New Set Name coup_ftube
Target Element Type 10
Region 2 2D
Input Data...
Form Type: Advanced
Mass Flow Rate 2.88e6
Heat Transfer Coefficient 0.023
Formula Type Option ◆ h=k/d*coef*Re**Expr*Pr**Expp
Reynolds Exponent 0.8
Prandtl Exponent, Heat In 0.3333
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Curves Curve 1
Add
For the Companion Region
Active List (the second one)

Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 1.4


Be sure to click on the Edge
icon while selecting the
geometrical entity

Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
288 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Perform the Analysis

Table 7-137 ◆ Analysis


Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run

Job Name ex7


-Apply-

Read in the Analysis Results

Table 7-138 ◆ Analysis


Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate

Job Name ex7


Select Results File...
ex7.op2 Highlight
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 289
Example 7 - Axisymmetric Flow in a Pipe

Display the Results

◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot

Table 7-139 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
-Apply-

Discussion of Results
The maximum temperature occurs near the internal heat generation region with a temperature of 842.3oF.
The fluid temperature remains constant at 100 oF because of the massive flow rate at 2.88E6 lbm/hr.

We can check the energy balance on this model as follows:


Total heat = 2.91246E4 Btu/hr (from the OLOAD RESULTANT of the F06 file)
Sum of the heat on the column under Free Convection = 2.5828E4 Btu/hr
Sum of the heat on the column under Forced Convection = 3.297E3 Btu/hr
Sum of the heat on the above two columns = 2.9125E4 Btu/hr, which is equal to the input heat of
2.91246E4 Btu/hr.
An assumption of a 1-D fluid element is that temperature gradients within the fluid are only significant
along the axial direction. With such a large diameter flow tube, this assumption is probably being misused
in this particular problem. The application of the flow tube boundary convection relationship also implies
fully developed flow, yet, over only a 5 foot section and with a 3 foot diameter, this is also a very crude
approximation. In essence, what we are saying, is that this example serves to illustrate coupled
convection in an axisymmetric environment, application of spatial heat loads, and use of convection
correlation equations, rather than fluid physics.

Main Index
290 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

7.9 Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads


Figure 7-7

6.0 in

Radiation Boundary Condition


View Factor = 1.0
1.5 in
q = qvec = 30 W/in2 Tamb = 20.0 oC

Aluminum Cylinder

Y k = 3.96 W/in-oC
α = ε = 0.8

Thickness = 0.0625 in
Z X

Problem Description
In this example we will apply a directional heat load on cylinder. We will orient the surface normal from
the surface such that the normal vector (Right hand rule) will point away from the surface. This allows
the incoming directional heat flux to see the normals, and project the correct energy by forming a dot
product with this vector. A typical application of this directional heat load process is in an orbital heating
environment.
The dimension of the cylinder is 1.5 inch in diameter with a length of 6 inches. The material is aluminum
with a thermal conductivity of 3.96 W/in-oC. The absorptivity and emissivity of the cylinder surface are

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 291
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

0.8. The directional heat load is 30 W/in2. The exterior surface of the cylinder looses heat by radiation to
space. The radiation view factor is 1.0 and the ambient temperature is 20 oC.

Modeling
We will first calculate the temperature distribution based on the above boundary conditions.
Subsequently in Example 9, we will create a spatial FEM field that defines the temperature load for a
thermal stress analysis.

Main Index
292 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

Create the Geometry

Table 7-140 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Point
Method: XYZ

Point ID List 1
Refer Coordinate Frame Coord 0
Point Coordinates List [ 0.75 0 0 ]
-Apply-

Table 7-141 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Curve
Method: Revolve

Curve ID List 1
Total Angle 360.0
If the Auto Execute is ON, you do not need to
Auto Execute click on -Apply-

Point List Point 1


-Apply-

Table 7-142 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Surface
Method: Extrude

Translation Vector < 0 0 -6 >


Curve List Curve 1
Click on Iso1 View icon to obtain 3D view of the
cylinder

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 293
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

The surface normal direction is important in this problem, because the incoming heat flux vector will
form a dot product with the normal vector for the surface generating the correct projected surface area
for application of the heat load. Therefore, when we created the cylinder using geometry, we should
verify that the normal vector points outward. This is accomplished by using:

Table 7-143 ◆ Geometry


Action: Show
Object: Surface
Info: Normal

Auto Execute If the Auto Execute is ON, you do


not need to click on -Apply-
Surface List Surface 1 With the mouse draw a box around
Surface 1
Change the view to Front View

-Apply-

Select Surface 1 to make sure that the normal vector indicated by the red arrow points outward from the cylinder. If
the normal vector is pointing inward, then you can reverse the surface normal by using the following command:

Table 7-144 ◆ Geometry


Action: Edit
Object: Surface
Method: Reverse

Auto Execute If the Auto Execute is ON, you do


not need to click on -Apply-
Surface List Surface 1
-Apply-

Main Index
294 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

Create Finite Elements

Table 7-145 ◆Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Method: Surface

Global Edge Length 0.1


Element Topology Quad4 Highlight
Surface List Surface 1

-Apply-
Change the view to Iso1

Remove Coincident Nodes

Table 7-146 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Equivalence
Object: All
Method: Tolerance Cube

Equivalencing Tolerance 0.005


-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 295
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

Specify Material Properties

Table 7-147 ◆ Materials


Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Material Name alum


Input Properties...
Constitutive Model Solid properties
Thermal Conductivity 3.96
-Apply-

Main Index
296 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

Define Element Properties

Table 7-148 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Dimension: 2D
Type: Shell

Property Set Name alum


Input Properties...
Material Name m:alum Select from Material Property Sets
Thickness 0.0625
OK
Select Members Surface 1
Add
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 297
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

Apply a Directional Heat Load

Table 7-149 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Applied Heat
Type: Element Uniform

Option: Select the Directional Fluxes


Option before defining the Element
Directional Fluxes Uniform Type
New Set Name vector_flux
Target Element Type: 2D
Input Data...
Surface Option: Top
Top Surf Absorptivity 0.8
Top Surf Heat Flux 30
Incident Thermal Vector < -1 0 0 >
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 1
Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
298 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

Apply a Radiation Boundary Condition

Table 7-150 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Radiation
Type: Element Uniform

Option: Ambient Space


New Set Name: rad_space
Target Element Type: 2D
Input Data...
Surface Option: Top
Top Surf Emissivity 0.8
Top Surf Absorptivity 0.8
Ambient Temperature 20
View Factor 1.0
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Surfaces or Edges Surface 1
Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 299
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

Specify Radiation Parameters and Perform the Analysis

Table 7-151 ◆ Analysis


Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run

Job Name ex8


Solution Type...

STEADY STATE ANALYSIS


Solution Parameters...
Radiation Parameters...
Absolute Temperature Scale: 273.15 Click on Absolute
Temperature Scale for list in
various units
Stefan-Boltzmann Constant: 3.6580E-11 Click on Stefan-Boltzmann
Constant for list in various
units
OK
OK
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
300 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

Read in the Analysis Results

Table 7-152 ◆ Analysis


Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate

Job Name ex8


Select Results File... ex8.op2 Highlight
OK
-Apply-

Display the Results

◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot

Table 7-153 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load Highlight
Select Fringe Result Temperatures Highlight
-Apply-

Note: Continue with Step 1 of Example 9 to perform a structural analysis.

Discussion of Results
Example 8 demonstrates an aluminum cylinder in radiative equilibrium. The heat source is directional
(light source oriented), and the radiation boundary condition is equal for all directions. The cylinder’s

maximum temperature (~473 oC) is attained on the side subject to the solar heat load. The minimum

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 301
Example 8 - Directional Heat Loads

temperature (~424 oC) occurs in the shadow region. The high conductivity of the cylinder helps to
equilibrate the temperatures. If the conductivity were very low, the maximum temperature would
approach 740 oC with the minimum approximately 20 oC.

Main Index
302 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads

7.10 Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional


Heat Loads
Figure 7-8

6.0 in

1.5 in Aluminum Cylinder

E = 1.0E7 lb/in2
ν = 0.34
α = 1.3E-5 in/in-oC
Y
Thickness = 0.0625 in

Z X

Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to apply the thermal results of Example 8 to perform a stress analysis.
We will create the temperature loading for the stress run by using the Create-Spatial-FEM command
under the Fields Application. You can also use the include punch file option to get the thermal load.
The diameter of the cylinder is 1.5 inch with a length of 6 inches. The material is aluminum. The heat
transfer problem solved in Example 8 resulted in a temperature solution which we would now like to
apply to a thermal stress analysis.

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 303
Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads

Modeling
We will first apply the Create-Spatial-FEM command to define the temperature load for a thermal stress
analysis. Initially, the structure is stress-free at a temperature of 0 oC. The cylinder is clamped on both
ends for the thermal stress calculation.

Create a Spatial FEM Field Based on the Temperature Profile

Table 7-154 ◆Fields


Action: Create
Object: Spatial
Method: FEM

Field Name tempload


FEM Field Definition ◆Continuous
Field Type ◆Scalar
Mesh/Results Group Filter ◆Current Viewport
Select Group default_group Highlight
-Apply-

Change the Analysis Type to Structural

Table 7-155 Preferences


Analysis...
Analysis Type: Structural
OK

Main Index
304 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads

Specify the Structural Materials

Table 7-156 ◆ Materials


Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Material Name alum_st


Input Properties...
Constitutive Model Linear Elastic
Elastic Modulus = 1.0e7
Poisson Ratio = 0.34
Thermal Expan. Coeff = 1.3e-5
Reference Temperature 0.0
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 305
Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads

Assign Element Properties

Table 7-157 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Dimension: 2D
Type: Shell

Property Set Name alum_st


Input Properties...
Material Name m:alum_st Select from Material Pro
Thickness 0.0625
OK
Select Members Surface 1
Add
-Apply-

Create a New Load Case


We will create a new load case consisting of the structural thermal loading and apply the fi
conditions on the ends of the cylinder.

Table 7-158 ◆ Load Cases


Action: Create

Load Case Name struct_load


Load Case Type: Static
-Apply-

Main Index
306 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads

Apply the Clamped Boundary Conditions

Table 7-159 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Displacement
Type: Nodal

Analysis Type: Switch to Structural from


Structural Thermal
Current Load Case: struct_load
New Set Name: clamp_bc
Input Data...
Load/BC Set Scale Factor 1.0
Translations <T1 T2 T3> < 0., 0., 0. >
Rotations <R1 R2 R3> < 0., 0., 0. >
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Click on the Curve or Edge icon

Select Geometry Entities Curve 1 Surface 1.3


Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 307
Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads

Define a Temperature Load

Table 7-160 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Temperature
Type: Nodal

Analysis Type: Structural


Current Load Case: struct_load
New Set Name temp_load
Input Data...
Load/BC Set Scale Factor 1.0
Temperature f:tempload Select from Spatial Fields
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Click on the Surface or Face icon

Select Geometry Entities Surface 1


Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
308 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads

Perform the Analysis

Table 7-161 ◆ Analysis


Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run

Job Name ex9


Subcase Select
Subcases For Solution Sequence: 101 struct_load Highlight
Subcases Selected: struct_load Click on default to
remove
OK
-Apply-

Read in the Analysis Results

◆ Analysis
Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate

Table 7-162 Job Name ex9


Select Results File... ex9.op2 Highlight
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 309
Example 9 - Thermal Stress Analysis from Directional Heat Loads

Display the Results

◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot

Table 7-163 Select Results Cases struct_load, Static Subcase


Select Fringe Result Stress Tensor
Position: At Z1
Quantity: von Mises
Select Deformation Result Displacements, Translational
-Apply-

Discussion of Results
For output we plot the von Mises stress for the fixed end cylinder undergoing the directional thermal load.
Peak stresses occur near the fixed end points (recall the points are fixed in X, Y, and Z directions).
Thermal expansion causes growth in the axial and radial directions with a circumferential variation due
to the directional nature of the thermal load. Near the cylinder mid-plane, in an axial sense, we find the
maximum stress at the location which is normal to the directional load vector. The minimum is on the
opposite side of the cylinder in the shadow.

Main Index
310 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

7.11 Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic


Plate
Figure 7-9
Y
KGe = 1.524 W/in-oC
1.0 in
Ksolder = 1.27 W/in-oC

1.0 in EGe = 1.885E7 lb/in2


GGe = 0.933E7 lb/in2
αGe = 5.8E-6 in/in-oC
X

ESolder = 1.3E7 lb/in2


Z
T = -30.0 oC νSolder = 0.4
αSolder = 2.47E-5 in/in-oC
Ge: 0.025 in
X
Solder: 0.05 in Tref = -30 oC

T = 70.0 oC

Problem Description
In this example we will perform the thermal stress analysis of a bi-metallic strip. We will build the entire
model from geometric construction so that we can apply loads directly on the geometry. The dimension
of the bi-metallic strip is one inch by one inch. The thickness for the solder type material is 0.05 inch,
and the thickness of the Ge material is 0.025 inch. Thus the assembly thickness is 0.075 inch.

The top surface temperature boundary condition is -30 oC, and the bottom surface temperature boundary
condition is 70 oC. We will determine the temperature distribution by running a steady-state thermal
analysis.

Modeling
Prior to the development of the Patran MD Nastran Heat Transfer interface, one would request:
TEMP(PUNCH)=all
in the MD Nastran Case Control section of the thermal run. The temperature load is then created and
saved inside the punch file. In the subsequent thermal stress analysis one can access this file by defining
TEMP(LOAD)=1

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 311
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

in the Case Control section of the ensuing stress analysis run.


However, using Patran you can use the Create-Spatial-FEM command after you have postprocessed the
thermal result in the viewport. We will use this technique to apply a thermal load for the stress analysis.
Also, we will analyze the thermal stress analysis for the free-free expansion by enforcing a minimum
number of constraints to fix-rigid body motion.

Main Index
312 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Create the Model

Table 7-164 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Surface
Method: XYZ

Vector Coordinates List <110>


Origin Coordinates List [000]
-Apply-

Table 7-165 ◆ Geometry


Action: Create
Object: Solid
Method: Extrude

Translation Vector < 0 0 0.05 >


If the Auto Execute is ON, you do
Auto Execute not need to click on -Apply-

Surface List Surface 1


-Apply-
Click on the Solid Face icon

Translation Vector < 0 0 0.025 >


Surface List Solid 1.6
You can use the Auto Execute
-Apply- instead of clicking on -Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 313
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Mesh the Solids

Table 7-166 ◆Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh Seed
Type: Uniform

Number = 4
Curve List Solid 1.1.1 1.2.1 1.2.3 1.1.3 Click on the four (4) corners of Solid
1. Hold the shift key down while you
click
-Apply-
Number = 2
Curve List Solid 2.1.1 2.2.1 2.2.3 2.1.3 Click on the four (4) corners of Solid
2. Hold the shift key down while you
click
-Apply-

Table 7-167 ◆Finite Elements


Action: Create
Object: Mesh
Type: Solid

Global Edge Length= 0.1


Element Topology= Hex8 Highlight
Solid List Solid 1 2
-Apply-

Main Index
314 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Remove Coincident Nodes

Table 7-168 ◆ Finite Elements


Action: Equivalence
Object: All
Method: Tolerance Cube

Equivalencing Tolerance 0.005


-Apply-

Specify Thermal Material Properties

Table 7-169 ◆ Materials


Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Material Name Ge
Input Properties...
Constitutive Model Solid properties
Thermal Conductivity 1.524
-Apply-
Material Name Solder
Constitutive Model Solid properties
Thermal Conductivity 1.27
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 315
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Define Element Properties

Table 7-170 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Dimension: 3D
Type: Solid

Property Set Name Ge


Input Properties...
Material Name m:Ge Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Change the view to Bottom View

Select Members Solid 2


Add
-Apply-

Property Set Name Solder


Input Properties...
Material Name m:Solder Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Select Members Solid 1
Add
-Apply-

Main Index
316 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 317
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Apply Temperature Boundary Conditions

Table 7-171 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Temp (Thermal)
Type: Nodal

Analysis Type: Thermal


New Set Name temp_bottom
Input Data...
Boundary Temperature 70
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Click on the Surface or Face icon

Select Geometry Entities Surface 1 Click on bottom surface


Add
OK
-Apply-

New Set Name temp_top


Input Data...
Boundary Temperature -30
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Click on the Surface icon

Select Geometry Entities Solid 2.6


Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
318 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Perform the Thermal Analysis

Table 7-172 ◆ Analysis


Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run

Job Name ex10


-Apply-

Read in the Analysis Results

◆ Analysis
Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate

Table 7-173 Job Name ex10


Select Results File...
ex10.op2 Highlight
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 319
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Display the Results

◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot

Table 7-174 Select Results Cases Default, PW Linear: 100. % of Load


Select Fringe Result Temperatures

-Apply-

Define a Spatial FEM Field Based on the Temperature Profile

◆Fields
Action: Create
Object: Spatial
Method: FEM

Table 7-175 Field Name t_load


FEM Field Definition ◆Continuous
Field Type ◆Scalar
Mesh/Results Group Filter ◆Current Viewport
Select Group default_group Highlight
-Apply-

Main Index
320 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Change the Analysis Type to Structural

Table 7-176 Preferences


Analysis...
Analysis Type: Structural
OK

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 321
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Specify Structural Material Properties

Table 7-177 ◆ Materials


Action: Create
Object: Isotropic
Method: Manual Input

Material Name Solder_st


Input Properties...
Constitutive Model Linear Elastic
Elastic Modulus = 1.3e7
Poisson Ratio = 0.4
Thermal Expan. Coeff = 2.47e-5
Reference Temperature -30.0
-Apply-
Material Name Ge_st
Constitutive Model Linear Elastic
Elastic Modulus = 1.885e7
Shear Modulus = 0.933e7
Thermal Expan. Coeff = 5.8e-6
Reference Temperature -30.0
-Apply-

Main Index
322 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Assign Element Properties

Table 7-178 ◆ Properties


Action: Create
Dimension: 3D
Type: Solid

Property Set Name Ge_st


Options: Standard Formulation
Input Properties...
Material Name m:Ge_st Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Select Members Solid 2
Add
-Apply-

Property Set Name Solder_st


Options: Standard Formulation
Input Properties...
Material Name m:Solder_st Select from Material Property Sets
OK
Select Members Solid 1
Add
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 323
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Create a New Load Case

Table 7-179 ◆ Load Cases


Action: Create

Load Case Name struct_load


Load Case Type: Static
-Apply-

Main Index
324 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Define a Temperature Load

Table 7-180 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Temperature
Type: Nodal

Analysis Type: Structural Switch to Structural from Thermal


Current Load Case: struct_load
New Set Name temp_load
Input Data...
Load/BC Set Scale Factor 1.0
Temperature f:t_load Select from Spatial Fields
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Click on the Solid icon

Select Geometry Entities Solid 1 2


Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 325
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Main Index
326 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Apply Constraints
Apply constraints on the four corner points of the top surface.

Table 7-181 ◆ Load/Boundary Conditions


Action: Create
Object: Displacement
Type: Nodal

Analysis Type Structural


New Set Name: fix_x
Input Data...
Load/BC Set Scale Factor 1.0
Translations <T1 T2 T3> < 0., , >
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Click on the Point icon

Select Geometry Entities Point 9 10


Add
OK
-Apply-

New Set Name: fix_y


Input Data...
Load/BC Set Scale Factor 1.0
Translations <T1 T2 T3> < , 0., >
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Geometry Entities Point 11
Add
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 327
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

New Set Name: fix_z


Input Data...
Load/BC Set Scale Factor 1.0
Translations <T1 T2 T3> < , , 0.>
OK
Select Application Region
Geometry Filter ◆Geometry
Select Geometry Entities Point 9:12
Add
OK
-Apply-

Perform the Structural Analysis

Table 7-182 ◆ Analysis


Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run

Job Name ex10_st


Subcase Select
Subcases For Solution Sequence: 101 struct_load Highlight
Subcases Selected: struct_load Click on Default to
remove
OK
-Apply-

Main Index
328 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Read in the Analysis Results

Table 7-183 ◆ Analysis


Action: Read Output2
Object: Result Entities
Method: Translate

Job Name ex10_st


Select Results File...
ex10_st.op2 Highlight
OK
-Apply-

Display the Results

◆ Results
Object: Quick Plot

Table 7-184 Select Results Cases struct_load, Static Subcase


Select Fringe Result Stress Tensor
Quantity: von Mises
Select Deformation Result Displacements, Translational
-Apply-

Discussion of Results
The reference or zero stress state for the assembly is initialized at -30 oC. The thermal coefficient of
expansion for the solder is approximately four times that of Ge. When the temperature gradient

Main Index
Chapter 7: Example Problems 329
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

associated with the temperature boundary conditions is applied, the solder layer wants to grow
significantly more than the Ge layer due not only to the higher coefficient of thermal expansion, but also
because of the higher temperature relative to TREF. The Ge layer ends up with a more complex stress
pattern due to its four corner points being constrained, the distribution of temperature through the layer,
and the growth enforced by the solder layer. The free surface of the solder layer exhibits the low stress
levels.

Main Index
330 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal
Example 10 - Thermal Stress Analysis of a Bi-Metallic Plate

Main Index
Files
A
J
Files 332

Main Index
332
Files

1.1 Files
The Patran MD Nastran Preference uses or creates several files.The following table outlines each file and
its uses. In the file name definition, jobname will be replaced with the jobname assigned by the user.

Description

*.db This is the Patran database. During an analyze pass, model data is read from this
database and, during a Read Results pass, model and/or results data is written into
it. This file typically resides in the current directory.
jobname.jbr These are small files used to pass certain information between Patran and the
independent translation programs during translation. There should never be a need
to directly alter these files. These files typically reside in the current directory.
jobname.bdf This is the MD Nastran input file created by the interface. This file typically resides
in the current directory.
msc_v#_sol#.alt These are a series of MD Nastran alters that are read during forward translation.
These alters instruct MD Nastran to write information to the OUTPUT2 file that
the results translation will be looking for. The forward translator searches the
Patran file path for these files, but they typically reside in the
<installation_directory>/alters directory. If these files do not meet specific needs,
edit them accordingly. However, the naming convention of msc_v# <version
#>_sol#<solution #>.alt must be preserved. Either place the edited file back into
the <installation_directory>/alters directory or in any directory on the Patran file
path, which takes precedence over the <installation_directory>/alters directory. If
these files are not used, remove them from the Patran file path, rename them, or
delete them altogether.
jobname.op2 This is the NASTRAN OUTPUT2 file, which is read by the Read Results pass.
This file typically resides in the current directory.
jobname.flat This file may be generated during a Read Results pass. If the results translation
cannot write data directly into the specified Patran database, it will create this
jobname.flat file. This file typically resides in the current directory.
jobname.msg.xx These message files contain any diagnostic output from the translation, either
forward or reverse. This file typically resides in the current directory.
MscNastranExecute This is a UNIX script file, which is called on to submit MD Nastran after
translation is complete. This file might need customizing with site specific data,
such as, host machine name and MD Nastran executable commands. This file
contains many comments and should be easy to edit. Patran searches its file path to
find this file, but it typically resides in the <installation_directory>/bin/exe
directory. Either use the general copy in <installation_directory>/bin/exe, or place
a local copy in a directory on the file path, which takes precedence over the
<installation_directory>/bin/exe directory.

Main Index
Error Messages
B
J
Error Messages 334

Main Index
334
Error Messages

2.1 Error Messages


There are many error or warning messages that may be generated by the Patran MD Nastran Interface.
The following table outlines some of these.

Description
Unable to open a new message file " ". Translation If the translation tries to open a message file and cannot, it
messages will be written to standard output. will write messages to Standard Output. On most systems,
the translator automatically writes dmessages to standard
output and never tries to create a separate message file.
Unable to open the specified OUTPUT2 file " ". The OUTPUT2 file was not found. Check the OUTPUT2
file specification in the translation control file.
The specified OUTPUT2 file " " is not in The OUTPUT2 file is not in standard binary format. Check
standard binary format and cannot be translated. the OUTPUT2 file specification in the translation control
file.
Group " " does not exist in the database. Model The name of a nonexistent group was specified in the
data will not be translated. translator control file. No model data will be translated
from the OUTPUT2 file.
Needed file specification missing! The full name of The translation control file must be specified as the first
the job file must be specified as the first command- on-line argument to the translator.
line argument to this program.
Unable to open the specified database " ". If the translator cannot communicate directly to the
Writing the OUTPUT2 information to the PCL specified database. It will write the results and/or model
command file " ". data to a PCL session file.
Unable to open either the specified database " ", The naspat3 translator is unable to open any output file.
or a PCL command file, " ". Check file specification and directory protection.
Unable to open the NASTRAN input file " ". The translator was unable to open a file to where the input
file information will be written.
Unable to open the specified database, " ". The forward Patran MD Nastran translator was unable to
open the specified Patran database.
Alter file of the name " " could not be found. No The OUTPUT2 DMAP alter file, for this type of analysis,
OUPUT2 alter will be written to the NASTRAN could not be found. Correct the search path to include the
input file. necessary directory if you want the alter files to be written
to the input file.
No property regions are defined in the database. Elements referenced by an element property region in the
No elements or element properties can be Patran database will not get translated by the forward
translated. Patran MD Nastran translator. If no element regions are
defined, no elements will be translated.

Main Index
Supported Commands
C
J
File Management Statements 336
J
Executive Control Statements 337
J
Case Control Commands 338
J
Bulk Data Entries 339

Main Index
336
File Management Statements

3.1 File Management Statements


The following MD Nastran File Management statement is supported.

Description
ASSIGN An ASSIGN command is used to assign a particular name (job name + user specified MD
Nastran results suffix) to the NASTRAN OUTPUT2 file to be created during the analysis.

Main Index
337
Executive Control Statements

3.2 Executive Control Statements


The following MD Nastran Executive Control statements are supported.

Description
SOL Specifies the solution sequence or main subDMAP to be executed. (p. 113)
TIME Sets the maximum CPU and I/O time.(p. 114), (p. 117)

Main Index
338
Case Control Commands

3.3 Case Control Commands


The following MD Nastran Case Control commands are supported.

Description
DLOAD Selects a dynamic load or an acoustic source to be applied in a transient or frequency
response problem. (p. 66)
ECHO Controls echo (i.e., printout) of the Bulk Data. (p. 114), (p. 117)
ENTHALPY Requests form of enthalpy vector output in transient heat transfer analysis (SOL 159).
(p. 130)
FLUX Requests the form and type of gradient and flux output in heat transfer analysis. (p. 130)
HDOT Requests form of rate of change of enthalpy vector output in transient heat transfer analysis
(SOL 159). (p. 130)
IC Selects the initial conditions for direct transient analysis (SOLs 27, 69, 99, 109, 129, and
159). (p. 75)
LOAD Selects an external static load set. (p. 66)
MAXLINES Sets the maximum number of output lines. (p. 114), (p. 117)
MPC Selects a multipoint constraint set. (p. 50)
NLPARM Selects the parameters used for nonlinear static analysis. (p. 123), (p. 133)
OLOAD Requests the form and type of applied load vector output. (p. 130)
SPC Selects a single-point constraint set to be applied. (p. 73)
SPCFORCES Requests the form and type of single-point force of constraint vector output. (p. 130)
SUBCASE Delimits and identifies a subcase. (p. 121), (p. 135)
SUBTITLE Defines a subtitle that will appear on the second heading line of each page of printer output.
(p. 121)
TEMPERATURE Selects the temperature set to be used in either material property calculations or thermal
loading in heat transfer and structural analysis. (p. 75)
THERMAL Requests the form and type of temperature output. (p. 130)
TITLE Defines a character string that will appear on the first heading line of each page of MD
Nastran printer output. (p. 106)
TSTEPNL Selects integration and output time steps for nonlinear transient problems. (p. 128), (p. 133)

Main Index
339
Bulk Data Entries

3.4 Bulk Data Entries


The following MD Nastran Bulk Data entries are supported.

Description
CBAR Defines a simple beam element. (p. 60)
CBEAM Defines a beam element. (p. 62)
CBEND Defines a curved beam, curved pipe, or elbow element. (p. 61) (p. 62)
CDAMP1 Defines a scalar damper element. (p. 60)
CELAS1 Defines a scalar spring element. (p. 60)
CHBDYG Defines a boundary condition surface element without reference to a property entry. (p. 71)
CHBDYP Defines a boundary condition surface element with reference to a PHBDY entry. (p. 63),
(p. 71)
CHEXA Defines the connections of the six-sided solid element with eight to twenty grid points.
(p. 65)
CONROD Defines a rod element without reference to a property entry.(p. 110)
CONV Specifies a free convection boundary condition for heat transfer analysis through
connection to a surface element (CHBDYi entry). (p. 81), (p. 85), (p. 90)
CONVM Specifies a forced convection boundary condition for heat transfer analysis through
connection to a surface element (CHBDYi entry). (p. 82), (p. 87), (p. 90)
CORD2C Defines a cylindrical coordinate system using the coordinates of three points. (p. 51)
CORD2R Defines a rectangular coordinate system using the coordinates of three points. (p. 51)
CORD2S Defines a spherical coordinate system using the coordinates of three points. (p. 51)
CPENTA Defines the connections of a five-sided solid element with six to fifteen grid points. (p. 65)
CQUAD4 Defines an isoparametric membrane-bending or plane strain quadrilateral plate element.
(p. 64)
CQUAD8 Defines a curved quadrilateral shell or plane strain element with eight grid points. (p. 64)
CROD Defines a tension-compression-torsion element. (p. 60)
CTETRA Defines the connections of the four-sided solid element with four to ten grid points. (p. 65)
CTRIA3 Defines an isoparametric membrane-bending or plane strain triangular plate element.
(p. 64)
CTRIA6 Defines a curved triangular shell element or plane strain with six grid points. (p. 64)
CTRIAX6 Defines an isoparametric and axisymmetric triangular cross section ring element with
midside grid points. (p. 65)
CTUBE Defines a tension-compression-torsion tube element. (p. 63)
DLOAD Defines a dynamic loading condition for frequency response or transient response
problems as a linear combination of load sets defined via RLOAD1 or RLOAD2 entries for
frequency response or TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entries for transient response. (p. 66)

Main Index
340
Bulk Data Entries

Description
INCLUDE Inserts an external file into the input file. The INCLUDE statement may appear anywhere
within the input data file. (p. 109)
MAT4 Defines the constant or temperature dependent thermal material properties for conductivity,
heat capacity, density, dynamic viscosity, heat generation, reference enthalpy and latent
heat associated with a single phase change. (p. 53)
MAT5 Defines the thermal material properties for anisotropic materials. (p. 53)
MATT4 Specifies table references for temperature-dependent MAT4 material properties. (p. 53)
MATT5 Specifies temperature-dependent material properties on MAT5 entry fields via TABLEMi
entries. (p. 53)
MPC Defines a multipoint constraint equation of the form. (p. 50)
NLPARM Defines a set of parameters for nonlinear static analysis iteration strategy. (p. 123), (p. 133)
PARAM,AUT AUTOSPC specifies the action to take when singularities exist in the stiffness matrix
OSPC [Kgg]. AUTOSPC = YES means that singularities will be constrained automatically.
AUTOSPC = NO means that singularities will not be constrained. (p. 114)
PARAM,PRG Controls the printout of singularities. See AUTOSPC. Default = YES. (p. 117)
PST
PARAM,SIG The radiant heat flux is proportional to SIGMA*(Tgrid + TABS)4, where SIGMA is the
MA Stefan-Boltzmann constant. Default = 0.0. (p. 115)
PARAM,TAB TABS is used to convert units of the temperature input (oF or oC) to the absolute
S temperature (°R or °K). Default = 0.0. (p. 115)
PBAR Defines the properties of a simple beam element (CBAR entry). (p. 60)
PBEAM Defines the properties of a beam element (CBEAM entry). This element may be used to
model tapered beams. (p. 62)
PBEND Defines the properties of a curved beam, curved pipe, or elbow element (CBEND entry).
(p. 61) (p. 62)
PCONV Specifies the free convection boundary condition properties of a boundary condition
surface element used for heat transfer analysis. (p. 81), (p. 85), (p. 90)
PCONVM Specifies the forced convection boundary condition properties of a boundary condition
surface element used for heat transfer analysis. (p. 82), (p. 87), (p. 90)
PDAMP Specifies the damping value of a scalar damper element using defined CDAMP1 or
CDAMP3 entries. (p. 60)
PELAS Specifies the stiffness, damping coefficient, and stress coefficient of a scalar elastic
(spring) element (CELAS1 or CELAS3 entry). (p. 60)
PHBDY Referenced by CHBDYP entries to give auxiliary geometric information for boundary
condition surface elements. (p. 63), (p. 71)
PROD Defines the properties of a rod element (CROD entry). (p. 60)

Main Index
341
Bulk Data Entries

Description
PSHELL Defines the membrane, bending, transverse shear, and coupling properties of thin shell
elements. (p. 64)
PSOLID Defines the properties of solid elements (CHEXA, CPENTA, and CTETRA entries).
(p. 65)
PTUBE Defines the properties of a thin-walled cylindrical tube element (CTUBE entry). (p. 63)
QBDY2 Defines grid point heat flux into CHBDYi elements. (p. 76)
QBDY3 Defines a uniform heat flux load for a boundary surface. (p. 76)
QHBDY Defines a uniform heat flux load into a set of grid points. (p. 79)
QVECT Defines thermal vector flux from a distant source into a face of one or more CHBDYi
boundary condition surface elements. (p. 77)
QVOL Defines a rate of volumetric heat addition in a conduction element. (p. 56), (p. 80)
RADBC Specifies a CHBDYi element face for application of radiation boundary conditions. (p. 96),
(p. 97)
RADCAV Identifies the characteristics of each radiant enclosure. (p. 98), (p. 115), (p. 115)
RADM Defines the radiation properties of a boundary element for heat transfer analysis. (p. 77),
(p. 96), (p. 97), (p. 98)
RADMT Specifies table references for temperature dependent RADM entry radiation boundary
properties. (p. 71), (p. 77), (p. 96), (p. 97), (p. 98)
RADSET Specifies which radiation cavities are to be included for radiation enclosure analysis.
(p. 98)
SLOAD Defines concentrated static loads on scalar or grid points. (p. 79)
SPC Defines a set of single point constraints and enforced displacements. (p. 73)
SPOINT Defines scalar points. (p. 81), (p. 82), (p. 96)
TABLED1 Defines a tabular function for use in generating frequency-dependent and time-dependent
dynamic loads. (p. 71)
TABLEM1 Defines a tabular function for use in generating temperature-dependent material properties.
(p. 53), (p. 71)
TEMP Defines temperature at grid points for determination of thermal loading, temperature-
dependent material properties, or stress recovery. (p. 75)
TEMPBC Defines the temperature boundary conditions for heat transfer analysis. Applies to steady
state and transient conditions. (p. 73)
TEMPD Defines a temperature value for all grid points of the structural model which have not been
given a temperature on a TEMP entry. (p. 114), (p. 117)
TLOAD1 Defines a time-dependent dynamic load or enforced motion of the form. (p. 66), (p. 71)
TSTEPNL Defines parametric controls and data for nonlinear transient structural or heat transfer
analysis. TSTEPNL is intended for SOLs 129, 159, and 99. (p. 128), (p. 133)

Main Index
342
Bulk Data Entries

Description
VIEW Defines radiation cavity and shadowing for radiation view factor calculations. (p. 98)
VIEW3D Defines parameters to control and/or request the Gaussian Integration method of view
factor calculation for a specified cavity. (p. 115)

Main Index
MSC.Fatigue Quick Start Guide

Index
Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

A film node, 69, 82, 85, 87, 90, 93, 95


absolute temperature, 10, 115 finite element mesh, 26, 46, 47
alter file, 109 finite element properties, 30, 46, 49, 57, 58
Pa ambient temperature, 8, 82, 84, 85, 89, 91 0D, 58, 59
tra analysis, 105, 108 1D, 58, 59
analysis form, 106 2D, 58, 60
n 2D axisymmetric solid elements, 65
applied linear loads, 143, 147
Int Attach XDB, 139 2D shell elements, 64
erf 3D, 58, 60
ac 3D solid elements, 65
B beam and rod elements-general section,
e bulk data entry, 109, 110, 111, 119, 339
to 60
bulk data file, 162
capacitors, 60
M conductors, 60
C curved general section beam, 61
case control, 119, 133, 338 curved pipe section beam, 62
conductivity, 5 flow tube, 63
contour plots, 41, 138, 151 pipe section rod, 63
convergence criteria, 14, 125, 127, 129 tapered section beam, 62
coordinate frames, 47, 51, 110, 145 forced convection, 8
analysis coordinate frames, 47 formats, 110
reference coordinate frames, 47 free convection, 8

D G
database (Patran), 22, 138, 143 GEOM1, 144
delete XY window, 158 GEOM2, 145
direct text input, 119, 133 geometry creation, 25
geometry import, 46
E grid points, 48
elements, 145
enthalpies, 144, 148 H
error messages, 334 heat flows, 143, 148
executive control, 119, 337 heat flux, 8, 143, 148, 152
heat generation, 7, 8, 56
F heat transfer coefficient, 7, 8, 9, 82, 83, 84, 86,
file management statements, 119, 336 89, 90, 92, 93, 94
files, 332 heats of constraint, 143, 147
film coefficient(see also heat transfer
coefficient), 8

Main Index
344 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

I P
INCLUDE files, 110 Prandtl number, 8, 9, 56, 85, 90, 95
input file, 162
input file reader, 112, 119 R
radiation
K ambient nodes, 68, 97
Kirchhoff’s Identity, 10 ambient space, 68, 96
enclosures, 68, 98
L rate of change of enthalpies, 144, 148
load cases, 101, 104 read input file, 162
load tolerance, 14, 125, 127, 129 results, 141
results postprocessing, 41, 150
Reynolds number, 8, 9, 56, 85, 88, 90, 95
M
material properties, 5, 29, 46, 52
absorptivity, 9, 10, 77, 78, 79, 96, 97 S
anisotropic, 55, 56 steady-state analysis (SOL 153), 11, 40, 113
conductivity, 5, 56 initial conditions, 12
consistent units, 6 Newton-Raphson iteration, 11
density, 5, 56 radiation parameters, 114, 115
dynamic viscosity, 6, 56 solution parameters, 114, 127
emissivity, 9, 10, 96, 97, 98 subcase parameters, 123, 125, 127
enthalpy, 6, 56 view factor parameters, 114, 116
heat capacitance, 5, 56 Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 10, 115
isotropic, 54, 55, 56 subcase, 104, 107, 121, 123, 135
latent heat, 6, 56 SUPG, 9, 56
orthotropic, 54, 56
specific heat, 5, 56 T
MSC.Nastran version, 110 temperature gradients, 143, 148, 152
Patran Analysis Manager, 107 temperature tolerance, 14, 124, 127, 129
multi-point constraints, 47, 50 thermal analysis
loads and boundary conditions, 7
N steady-state analysis, 11
node points, 47 transient analysis, 13
nodes, 47, 110, 144 units, 6, 7
numbering options, 110, 111

O
OEF1, 143
OPG1, 143
OQG1, 143
OUGV1, 143
output requests, 130, 132, 133, 143, 144, 147
OUTPUT2, 41, 109, 138, 139, 141, 143, 144

Main Index
INDEX 345

thermal loads and BCs, 7, 46, 66 W


advection, forced convection, 8, 68 work tolerance, 14, 124, 127, 129
basic convection, 8, 37, 68
consistent units, 7
contact, 68
X
XY plots, 138, 153, 156
control nodes, 69, 76, 79, 80
convection coupled, 85
convection coupled advection, 90
convection coupled flow tube, 87
convection flow tube to ambient, 82
convection to ambient, 81
directional heat flux, 8, 68, 77, 79
directional heat flux-function of time, 78, 79
flow tubes, 82, 87, 90
initial temperatures, 75
nodal source, 8, 68, 79
normal heat flux, 7, 34, 68, 76
radiation enclosures, 10, 68, 98
radiation to ambient nodes, 97
radiation to space, 9, 68, 96
spatial dependence, 71
surface area, 71
temperature boundary conditions, 7, 32, 68,
73
temperature dependence, 71
time dependence, 71
two application regions, 70, 85, 87, 90, 97
volumetric heat generation, 8, 54, 56, 68,
80
tolerances, 109
transient analysis (SOL 159), 13, 113
initial conditions, 13
initial time step, 13, 128
solution parameters, 117
subcase parameters, 128
translation parameters, 109, 110

U
undo feature, 27

V
view factors, 10, 97, 115, 117

Main Index
346 Patran Interface to MD Nastran Thermal

Main Index