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1. A shepherd with his flock. 2. Drawings of fish based on Medieval ceramic tiles. 3. The season of Capricorn; the butchering of a pig. 4. Female beekeeper. 5. Beehive. 6. A monks' garden.

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7. Harvesting leeks. 8. The production of grain. 9. Dairy scene. From The Da Costa Hours; Flemish, 1515. 10. Gathering apples. Le Rustican, Pierre de Crescens. Flemish, early 16th century. 11. Woman harvesting grain. 12. Carrying a sack of wheat to the mill. Le mortifiement de vaine plaisance, Rene I d'Anjou. French, 15th century. 13 14 15 16 17 18

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13. Dispatching a boar. 14. Wild boars. From Gaston Phoebus' Book of the Hunt, 15th Century. 15. A hen in the henyard. 16. The season of Scorpio; harvesting grapes & making wine. 17. The month of December; innkeepers slaughter a pig. 18. Harvesting grain for the mill. 19 20 21 22 23 24

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19. Stomping grapes for wine. 20. Threshing grain. 21. Cutting grapes. 22. A fox catching a rooster. 23. A manor's barn yard. 24. A shepherd with flock; detail of previous image. 25 26 27 28 29 30

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<>25. Feeding hens. <>26. Harvesting grain. <>27. The month of August; harvesting grain. From the Compost et Kalendrier des Bergres, Paris 1499. <>28. Milking a cow. <>29. A wild boar. <>30. A cowherd with his animals. 31 32 33 34 35 36

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31. Killing a wild boar. 32. Stuffing a hen. 33. Feeding acorns to pigs. 34. Beekeeping. 35. Butchering a pig. 36. A beehive. 37 38 39 40 41 42

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37. Salmon. Jacques Vontet, La mthode de trancher les alouttes, bequefis, & ortolans, avec toutes sortes d'autres petits oyseaux. 38. Collecting geese eggs. Tacuinum sanitatis, Germany, 15th c. 39. Lambs. Matre de Charles d'Angoulme, Les secrets de l'histoire naturelle, contenant les merveilles et choses mmorables du monde, 1485, Paris. 40. Peasants labor in field & forest. Gilles de Rome, Le Rgime des princes, Rouen, 1450. 41. Virgil observing bees. uvres avec les commentaires de Servius, Paris, 15th c. 42. A Rooster. Pen-and-ink drawing from Troyes 145, fol. 12.

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1. The letter "O;" a drinking scene, with a wine barrel. 2. Drawings of fish based on Medieval ceramic tiles. 3. Various jugs. 4. 17th century woodcut - an alewife. 5. 17th century woodcut - Mother Louse, an alewife and "the last woman in England to wear a ruff." 6. 17th century woodcut - an alewife. 7 8 9 10 11 12

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7. 17th century woodcut - a drunkard. 8. 17th century woodcut - wine barrels. 9. 17th century woodcut - wine barrels. 10. 17th century woodcut - a Scotsman at his table. 11. Tapping a keg; drawing based on a Medieval misericord wood carving. 12. A Medieval innkeeper welcomes a guest. 13 14 15 16 17 18

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13. Alehouse patrons gather underneath the alestake. 14. 17th century woodcut - outdoor tavern scene with alestake. 15. 17th century woodcut - playing chess in an alehouse. 16. A cellerer fills a jug while stealing a drink. From the Sloane Manuscript. 17. Distilling alcohol. 18. Checking the quality of wine. 19 20 21 22 23 24

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19. A taverner passes drink to his clientele. 20. Young man with a portable flask. 21. A student's drinking bout, from Directorium Statuum, Strassburg, about 1489. 22. A hunter enjoying a drink; detail of a page from Horae, Paris 1503. 23. Grapes and a wine cask decorate an initial A, from the Morton Missal, London 1500-1501. 24. Bees with honey mead. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

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25. Filling a pitcher with spring water. 26. Enjoying aged wine. 27. Drinking; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis, sterreichische Nationalbibliothek. 28. White Wine; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome. 29. Red Wine; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome. 30. The wine merchant. 31. Making mead.

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1. Dinner scene; tavern scene. 2. A dinner scene. 3. Hunters have an outdoor dinner. 4. The Canterbury Tales pilgrims having dinner at The Tabard. 5. Detail from a Last Supper. 6. The month of January; a wealthy man at dinner. 7 8 9 10 11 12

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7. Monks at dinner. 8. 17th century woodcut - dinner scene. 9. A king at his table. 10. "The House of Rest;" a dinner scene, with bread & frumenty being eaten. 11. Detail from St. Peter Healing Petronilla, by Sano di Pietro (1406-1481). 12. Detail of a Last Supper. 13 14 15 16 17 18

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13. Dining at a round table. 14. Serving supper by the fireside. From The Da Costa Hours; Flemish, 1515. 15. Lazarus in Heaven. From Jean Dupr's Horae, 1488-90. 16

16. A Royal family at dinner. 17. Outdoor dining. 18. A large stew, the communal bath which featured feasting & prostitution. 19 20 21 22 23 24

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19. Workers taking a lunch break; detail from the Maciejowski Bible, 13th century. 20. A fat cook enjoying a drink with company. 21. St. Mary at home. 22. A couple enjoying a stew. 23. Bath and board; Tristan, Paris, 1494-95. 24. St. Louis feeds the poor. La Vie de St. Louis le confesseur de la reine Marguerite, Paris, 13th century. 25 26 27 28 29 30

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25. Grace before the Meal, by Anthonius Claessins, c. 1538-1613. 26. Three woman dining. 27. A fish dinner. 28. A rustic serves 3 gentlemen. 29. Two lovers share a large pasty. 30. A Fool's table. 31 32 33 34 35 36

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31. The Canterbury Tales Pilgrims dining at The Tabard Inn. 32. Three women having a meal. 33. A rustic serving three gentlemen. 34. A dining couple offer a sculptor a drink; detail from Mercury and His Children, from the Hausbuch, Munich. 35. The King entertained, from G. Caorsin, De Casu Regis Zyzymy, Ulm 1496. 36. The Marriage at Cana, from the Spiegel menschlicher Behltnis, Basle 1476.

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37. Enjoying a "stew" - a bath and a meal. 38. Nursemaid feeding a child. 39. The Luttrell family at dinner; from the Luttrell Psalter. 40. A king dining alone, from Walter de Milemete's manuscript of De secretis secretorum, 1326-7. 41. Woodcut of a king and queen at dinner. 42. Rception chez un marchand. Al-Harr, Al-Maqmt (Les Sances). Baghdad, 1237.

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1. Feast scene; the king of France entertaining a guest. 2. Feast scene; a lavish spectacle presented by Charles V. 3. Feast scene; noblemen & knights. 4. Feast scene; nobles celebrating. 5. Feast scene; a king & queen are entertained by a female drummer. 6. Feast scene. 7 8 9 10 11 12

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7. A feast table, with a table dormant at left. 8. An English castle feast hall. 9. A 14th century French royal feast. 10. A king & queen at feast. 11. Feast scene representing The Supper of the Lamb, 12th century. 12. Musicians at a feast. 13 14 15 16 17 18

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13. Entertainment at a feast. 14. Renaissance silver plate featuring a classical feast scene. 15. Feast scene; detail from the Bayeux Tapestry. 16. A Biblical feast scene; detail from the Maciejowski Bible, 13th century. 17. Anglo-Saxon feast scene. 18. Anglo-Saxon feast scene. 19 20 21 22 23 24

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19. Noblewomen at a feast, Germany. 20. Feast scene from Gregory's Moralia. Paris, 12th century. 21. David's Engagement to the Daughter of King Saul; Peter Lombard Manuscript, late 12th century. 22. Death and the King. From Hans Holbein's Dance of Death. 23. King Arthur and his knights feasting at the Round Table. 24. A server; detail of previous picture. 25 26 27 28 29 30

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25. Illumination from Les Tres Riche Heures - the Duc de Berry at feast. 26. A king at feast. 27. John of Gaunt being entertained by the King of Portugal, 14th century. 28. The death of St. Lucrecia. 29. A large feast with servers on horseback. 30. A noble lady's dinner. 31 32 33 34 35 36

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31. Wild men at a woodland feast. 32. King Arthur and his Knights at the Round Table, from Walter Map, Le Livre des vertueux faix de plusiers nobles chevaliers, Rouen 1488. 33. Three servers; detail from previous image. 34. Detail from Exercitium super Pater Noster, Netherlands. 35. 12th century German drawing of a king & queen being served. 36. Arthur, Lancelot, and Guinevere at feast; an illumination from a French romance of 1300. 37 38 39 40 41

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37. Richard Beauchamp at dinner with Sir Baltirdam; from the Beauchamp Pageant, 1483-7. 38. The Wedding at Cana; from the Holkham Bible picture book, 1220-30. 39. The Last Supper; from the Luttrell Psalter. 40. A king prepares for dinner; from Walter de Milemete's manuscript of De secretis secretorum, 1326-7. 41. An 11th century banquet.

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1. Adam & Eve with The Tree of Knowledge portrayed as a Date tree, Norway, 13th century. 2. Harvesting dill; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 3. Grapes. 4. Leeks being prepared for market; from Tacuinum Sanitatis in Medicina, Verona, 16th century. 5. A 15th century merchant with a giant nutmeg. 6. Harvesting onions. 7 8 9 10 11 12

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7. Pea pods.

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8. A salt merchant. 9. Summer savory, from Anne of Burgandy's Book of Hours. 10. Harvesting and stomping grapes. 11. Unripe grapes being pounded in a mortar to make verjuice; from Tacuinum Sanitatis in Medicina, Verona, 16th century. 12. A date tree. From Tacuinum Sanitatis; German, 15th century. 13 14 15 16 17 18

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13. Pouring grapes into the wine vat. From Theatrum Sanitatis; Italian, 1400. 14. Picking grapes into a basket. 15. Placing grapes in a tub. 16. A mulberry plant. 17. Woman with variously shaped loaves of bread. 18. A basket of figs; from an anonymous broadside, Strasbourg, 1500. 19 20 21 22 23 24

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19. Preparing poultry; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 20. Lettuce; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 21. Purslain; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 22. Dragon-wort; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 23. Prickly Lettuce; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 24. Parsley; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 25 26 27 28 29 30

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25. Bitter almonds; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 26. Citrus; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 27. Cabbage; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 28. Orache; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 29. Spinach; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 30. Anda; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 31 32 33 34 35 36 22

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31. Chestnuts; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 32. Bay; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 33. Currants; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 34. Almonds; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 35. Black Olives; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 36. A rose garden, representing joy; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome. 37 38 39 40 41 42

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37. Fresh Cheese; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome. 38. Prawn; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome. 39. The meats of sheep, ewe, and lamb; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome. 40. Bitter Milk; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome. 41. Spinach; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome. 42. Quince; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome. 43 44 45 46 47 48

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43. Oats. 44. Harvesting - July. 45. Harvesting wheat. 46. Flailing rye. 47. Garlic. 48. Onion. 49 50 51 52 53 54

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49. Gathering garlic. 50. Cabbage. 51. Harvesting cabbages. 52. Turnips. 53. Green legumes. 54. Lentils. 55 56 57 58 59 60

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55. Peas and broad beans. 56. Harvesting fava beans. 57. Pears. 58. Gathering plums. 59. Gathering apples. 60. Milk. 61 62 63 64 65 66

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61. Milk. 62. Shaping cheese. 63. Preparing butter. 64. Gathering olives. 65. Butter, wrapped in a cabbage leaf for storage. 66. Salt. 67 68 69 70

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67. Salted meats. 68. Cumin. 69. Ginger. 70. Black pepper.

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1. Hunting a stag. From Gaston Phoebus' Book of the Hunt. 2. Hunting a stag. From Gaston Phoebus' Book of the Hunt. 3. Hunting a deer. From Gaston Phoebus' Book of the Hunt. 4. Huntress. Metamorphosis moralisees, Ovide. French, 1380-1390. 5. Removing an eel from a trap. 6. Monks fishing. 7 8 9 10 11 12

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7. A fowler catching birds. 8. Catching geese. 9. Quail hunting. 10. A fowler catching birds. 11. Woodcut of a fisherman. 12. Lampreys; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome. 13 14 15 16 17 18

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13. A pheasant trap; Livre du roi Modus et de la reine Ratio. 14. Freshly-killed game; Le Livre de chasse de Gaston Phbus. 15. Fishing for lamprey; Tacuinum Sanitatis, 15th c., Paris. 16. Le Sangier. Gaston Phoebus, Le livre de chasse, 14th c., Paris.

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17. Le cerf. Gaston Phbus, Le livre de chasse, 14th c., Paris. 18. Henri de Ferrires, Livre du roi Modus et de la reine Ratio, Paris.

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1. Dinner scene, detail from the Bayeux Tapestry. 2. Bakers at work. 3. Early outdoor cooking pot. 4. A detailed kitchen scene. 5. Cooks at an oven. 6. Drawing of a cook from the Lutrell Psalter. 7 8 9 10 11 12

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7. Cooking in a large kitchen. 8. A kitchen hearth. 9. The month of March; bakers and their ovens. 10. A portable oven and a pretzel merchant's stall. 11. 17th century woodcut - outdoor cooking scene. 12. Three-footed bronze cooking pot, 14th century. 13 14 15 16 17 18

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13. The kitchen cat chasing rats. 14. English salt cellar in the form of an eagle, 1570. 15. Medieval flesh hooks, for collecting meat from pots. 16. A reconstructed Medieval kitchen. 17. Milk being churned; drawing based on an illumination from the Lutrell Psalter. 18. Cooking with a 3-legged pot. 19 20 21 22 23 24

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19. A 15th century salt cellar. 20. A kitchen hearth. 21. A woman using a mortar. 22. A medicinal drink being prepared at the hearth. Quart volume de histoire scolastique, J. du Ries; Flemish, 1475. 23. The Holy Family at the hearth. From the Hours of Catherine of Cleves. Dutch, 1440. 24. Serving lady; detail of a woodcut from a Dutch block-book edition of Ars Moriendi, 1465. 25 26 27 28 29 30

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25. A woman churning. 26. A large kitchen. 27. Biblical feast scene from the Maciejowski Bible, 13th century. 28. Sieving flour and making wafers; Velislav Picture Bible, Bohemia, c. 1340. 29. Young man with 3-legged cooking pot. 30. Young man cooking with three pots. 31 32 33 34 35 36

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31. A portable oven. 32. Warming feet by a cooking pot. 33. A busy hearth. 34. Two boys tend a spit; detail from the Lutrell Psalter. 35. Cook with assistant; detail from the Lutrell Psalter. 36. Cook with large slotted spoon and meat hook; detail from the Lutrell Psalter. 37 38 39 40 41 42

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37. A stern cook with his kitchen staff; detail from the Lutrell Psalter. 38. Detail of previous image; from the Lutrell Psalter. 39. Coneys & a piglet on a spit; detail from the Lutrell Psalter. 40. Using a mortar and pestle. 41. Using a mortar and pestle. 42. A cook and his wife, by Albrecht Drer. 43 44 45 46 47 48

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43. Photograph of a kitchen hearth. 44. A portable oven and a pastry merchant. 45. A hearth scene; initial D from Jean d'Arras, Melusina, Strassburg, about 1478. 46. Butchering meat. 47. Detail from the Bayeux Tapestry, 11th century. 48. Preparing sausage skins; Flemish, 14th century. 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

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49. Making wheat bread; from the Tacuinum of Liege. 50. Making barley soup; from the Tacuinum of Liege. 51. A butcher at work; German, late 14th century.

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52. Preparing poultry; from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. 53. Making bread; from Tacuinum Sanitatis, 15th c., Paris. 54. A bakery; from Tacuinum Sanitatis, 15th c., Paris. 55. A baker; Boccace, Le Dcameron, Flandres, 1432.

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1. Selling doves. From Tacuinum Sanitatis; Italian, 1390-1400. 2. Grain and spice merchants. 3. Goats-milk merchants. 4. Buying and selling eggs. 5. Selling and buying cheese. 6. A market scene. 7 8 9 10 11 12

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7. Taking bread to market. 8. A herring seller; Cris de Paris, approx. 1500. 9. A fish merchant; Tacuinum Sanitatis, 15th c., Paris. 10. A cheese merchant; Tacuinum Sanitatis, 15th c., Paris. 11. A milk seller; Tacuinum Sanitatis, 15th c., Paris. 12. A butcher's shop; Tacuinum Sanitatis, 15th c., Paris. 13 14 15

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13. A meat merchant; Tacuinum Sanitatis, 15th c., Paris. 14. A street of merchants; Le Livre du gouvernement des princes, Paris. 15. A raisin & grapes merchant; Tacuinum Sanitatis, 15th c., Paris.

These images are from a manuscript of around 1280, possibly from Canterbury
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1. Janus feasting; the month of January. 2. Warming feet by the fire; the month of February. 3. Pruning a tree; the month of March. 4. Planting a tree; the month of April.

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5. Picking flowers; the month of May. 6. A mower with his scythe; the month of June. 7. A reaper with his hook; the month of July. 8. A thresher with his flail; the month of August.

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9. Treading grapes; the month of September. 10. Sowing; the month of October. 11. Knocking down acorns for swine; the month of November. 12. Slaughtering with an axe; the month of December.

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