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EXTRACTION

Jhoe Cynder Legaspi, James Liwag, Eunice Meneses, Mikee Melad and Alisson Mangabat Group 5 2F Pharmacy Organic Chemistry Laboratory

ABSTRACT
The main objective of the experiment was to extract caffeine from the dried tea leaves and to calculate the percent yield of it. The method used was single extraction. Results found out that 10g of tea leaves contain 0.3g of caffeine and the percentage yield of caffeine present in 10g of tea leaves (Lipton) was 3%.

INTRODUCTION

This experiment uses single extraction process. Extraction is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in solubility of their components. The objective of the experiment is to separate the caffeine from the dry tea leaves and to be able to compute the percentage yield of caffeine.

B. Procedure The set-up used for this experiment is single extraction set-up. (Refer to the figures below). 4.4g of anhydrous sodium carbonate was placed in a beaker and 100ml of distilled water was added. Mixture was heated in a water bath until the solid has dissolved (Picture 1). Five teabags were then added to the mixture and the beaker was covered and the tea mixture was boiled for 10 minutes in a low flame to accomplish the solid-liquid extraction (Picture 2 and 3). Tea bags were removed then and squeezed by pressing them against the side of the beaker using the stirring rod. The liquid was cooled (Picture 4) and transferred to the separatory funnel. 60ml of Dichloromethane (DCM) was then added. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed when the aqueous solution was extracted using the addition of DCM. Caffeine was then separated from the aqueous solution that was visible with the 2 layers of solution seen in the separatory funnel (Picture 5, 6 and 7). Caffeine was drained into a clean beaker that contains half a spatula of sodium sulfate that will obtain the remaining aqueous solution (Picture 8). The aqueous layer was discarded. The solution is decanted onto a tared evaporating dish (Picture 9) and was evaporated to dryness under the hood (Picture 10). The residue was weighed to obtain the percentage yield (Picture 11). Picture 1

EXPERIMENTAL
A. Compound/s tested(or Sample/s used) Dried tea leaves (Lipton) Tea is an aromatic beverage which is prepared by infusing the dried, crushed leaves of a tea plant in boiling water. [6] Every tea bag contains 2g of tea leaves. The experiment requires 10g of tea leaves: hence, 5 tea bags were used. According to the label, 10g of tea leaves will contain about 550mg of caffeine.

Picture 2 Picture 3

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It shows that the caffeine obtained, 300mg, is less than what it is said on the label, 550mg. However, systematic errors may occur during the experiment. Tannins in tea are acidic in nature and anhydrous sodium carbonate is a base. The addition of the latter is required so that the acids are converted to their sodium salts which are highly-soluble to water. [7] Since the Dichloromethane (DCM) dissolves caffeine which are both organic and is not miscible with water, inorganic, DCM will aid in purifying and separating caffeine from water by layers. [3] DCM-containing caffeine, denser than water, is then found at the bottom layer. The use of anhydrous sodium sulfate, a drying agent, is to remove final traces of water. A drying agent is an inorganic salt which readily takes up water to become hydrated. [2] Errors in results may occur due to the following: incomplete squeezing of liquid from the tea bag; imperfect distribution coefficient of caffeine between water and DCM; remains of caffeine in water; incomplete decantation and other causes. [7]

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REFERENCES
[1] Chemicool. Definition of Extraction. http://www.chemicool.com/definition/extraction. html 7/17/13 [2] Colorado University. Drying Organic Solution. http://orgchem.colorado.edu/Technique/Procedur es/Drying/Drying.html. 1/17/13 [3] Matt. Mendelset: Extractiona nd determination of a Distribution Coefficient. http://www.mendelset.com/articles/685/extractio n_and_determination_distribution_coefficient_kd 1/17/13 [4] Oxford Dictionary. Definition of tee in Engligh. http://oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/ameri can_english/tea 7/17/13 [5] UC Davis Chemwiki. Liquid-Liquid Extraction. http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/VV_Lab_Techniques /Liquid-Liquid_Extraction 7/17/13 [6] Wikipedia. Tea. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tea 7/17/13 [7] Xavier University of Loiusiana. Extraction: Isolation of Caffeine from Tea. http://www.xula.edu/chemistry/documents/orgle clab/14Caff.pdf 1/17/13

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The results obtained are tabulated in Table 1. Table 1 Weight of tea leaves Wight of evaporating dish Weight of Evaporating dish + caffeine Weight of Caffeine Percentage yield (grams of caffeine/ grams of tea leaves) x 100

10g 113g 113.3g 0.3g (0.3g/10g)x100 3%