Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB00 50 Research Methodology (Internal Assignment)

(Book ID: B1206)

ASSIGNMENT- Set 1
Question: 1 a. Explain the types of research. b. What is the significance of research in social and business sciences?

Answer: a. Types of Research: Any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as: 1. Pure Research: It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, eg., Einsteins theory of relativity, Newtons contributions, Galileos contribution, etc. It is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions & enables us to choose the best solution. 2. Applied Research: It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and actiondirected. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a news market or for studying the post-purchase experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. It can put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previously existing theories. 3. Exploratory Research: It is known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researchers familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables. 4. Descriptive Study: It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at indentifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts

through empirical observation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program. 5. Diagnostic Study: It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance. 6. Evaluation Studies: It is a type of applied research. It is a made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with change over time. 7. Action Research: It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an existing situation. It includes six major steps: diagnosis, sharing of diagnostic information, planning, developing change programme, initiation of organizational change, implementation of participation and communication process, and post experimental evaluation.

b. Significance of Research in Social and Business Sciences:


According to a famous Hudson Maxim. All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for its leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention. It brings out the significance of research, increased amounts of which makes progress possible. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking, besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. The increasingly complex nature of government and business has raised the use of research in solving operational problems. Research assumes significant role in formulation of economic policy, for both the government and business. It provides the basis for almost all government policies of an economic system. Govt. budget formulation, for example, depends particularly on the analysis of needs and desires of the people, and the availability of revenues, which requires research. Research helps to formulate alternative policies, in addition to examining the consequences of these alternatives. Thus, research also facilitates the decision making of policy-makers, although in itself it is not a part of research. In the process, research also helps in the proper allocation of a countrys scare resources. Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and economic structure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in the country. Collection of statistical information though not a routine task, involves various research problems. Therefore, large staff of research technicians or experts is engaged by the governments these days to undertake this work. Thus research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation

Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them. The prognosis i.e., the prediction of future developments. Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. In several ways, operations research, market research, and motivational research are vital and their results assist in taking business decisions. Market research is refers to the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the formulation of efficient policies relating to purchases production and sales. Operational research relates to the application of logical, mathematical, and analytical relates to the application of logical, mathematical, and analytical techniques to find solution to business problems such as cost minimization or profit maximization, or the optimization problems. Motivitational research helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do with respect to market characteristics. More specifically, it is concerned with the analyzing the motivations underlying consumer behavior. All these researches are very useful for business and industry, which are responsible for business decision making. Question:2 What is meant by validity? How does it differ from reliability and what are its types? Answer: A measurement scale may be considered to be valid if it effectively measures a specific property or characteristic that it \intends to measure. The question of validity does not arise in the case of measurement of physical characteristics such as length, weight and height. This is because the measurement is direct and can be done through standard measuring devices. On the other hand, the measurement of abstract characterisistics such as motivation and attitudes is more indirect and therefore poses the problem of validity, In such cases, there must be some evidence to prove that the measurement scale actually measures what it is supposed to measure. Such evidence is generally gathered through the application of statistically techniques. Validity may be classified into different types, as described below. The degree of validity of each type is determined by applying logic, statistical procedures or both.

1. Content Validity: This type of validity may be of two types a) Face validity and
b) sampling validity. Face validity is determined through a subjective evaluation of measuring scale. For Ex: a researcher may develop a scale to measure consumer attitudes towards a brand and pre-test the scale among a few experts. If the experts are satisfied with the scale, the researcher may conclude that the scale has face validity. However, the limitation of this type of validity is that it is determined by opinions, rather than through a statistical method . 2. Predictive Validity: This type of validity refers to the extent to which one behavior can be predicted based on another, based on the association between the results yielded by the measuring instrument and the eventual outcome. 3. Construct validity: A construct is a conceptual equation that is developed by the researcher based on theoretical reasoning. Various kinds of relationships may be perceived by the researcher between a variable under study and other variables. These relationships must be tested in order to determine the construct

validity of a measuring instrument. The instrument may be considered to have construct validity only if the expected relationships are found to be true.

Reliability:
This refers to the ability of a measuring scale to provide consistent and accurate results. To give a simple example, a weighting machine may be said to be reliable if the same reading is given every time the same object is weighted. There are two dimensions of reliability stability and equivalence or nonvariability. Stability refers to consistency of results with repeated measurements of the same object, as in the weighted machine example. Non variability refers consistency at a given point of time among different investigators and samples of items. The problem of reliability is more likely to arise with measurements in the social sciences than with measurements in the physical sciences, due to factors such as poor memory or recall of respondents, lack of clear instructions given to respondents and irrelevant contents of the measuring instrument. The desired level of reliability depends on the research objectives, as well as the homogeneity of the population under study. If precise estimates are required, the higher will be the desired level of accuracy. In the case of a homogeneous population, a lower level of reliability may be sufficient, since there is not much variation in the data. Reliabity and validity are closely interlinked. A measuring instrument that is valid is always reliable, but the reverse is not true. That is, an instrument that is reliable is not always valid. However, an instrument that is not valid may or may not be reliable and an instrument that is not reliable is never valid. Question: 3 a. Why literature survey is important in research? b. What are the criteria of good research problem? Answer: (a.) Frequently, an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated. The researchers task then is to review the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothesis from it. In some areas of the subject matter, hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers. The researcher has to take stock of these various hypotheses with a view to evaluating their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. Sociological journals, economic reviews, the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research, directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. In addition to these general sources, some governmental agencies and voluntary organizations publish listings of summaries of research in their special fields of service. Professional organizations, l research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant source of information about unpublished works in their special fields. (b.) Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research:
Verifiable Evidence: That is factual observations which other observers can see

1.

and check.

2. 3. 4.

Accuracy: That is describing what really exists. It means truth or correctness

5.

6. 7.

8.

of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions either by exaggeration or fantasizing. Precision: That is making it as exact as necessary, or giving exact number or measurement. This avoids colourful literature and vague meanings. Systematization: That is attempting to find all the relevant data, or collecting data in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Data based on casual recollections are generally incomplete and give unreliable judgments and conclusions. Objectivity: That is free being from all biases and vested interests. It means observation is unaffected by the observers values, beliefs and preference to the extent possible and he is able to see and accept facts as they are, not as he might wish them to be. Recording: That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. Since human memory is fallible, all data collected are recorded. Controlling Conditions: That is controlling all variables except one and then attempting to examine what happens when that variable is varied. This is the basic technique in all scientific experimentation allowing one variable to vary while holding all other variables constant. Training Investigators: That is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make them understand what to look for, how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection.

Question: 4 Explain the procedure for Testing Hypothesis. Answer: To test a hypothesis means to tell (on the basis of the data researcher has collected) whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid. In hypothesis testing the main question is: whether the null hypothesis or not to accept the null hypothesis? Procedure for hypothesis testing refers to all those steps that we undertake for making a choice between the two actions i.e., rejection and acceptance of a null hypothesis. The various steps involved in hypothesis testing are stated below.

1. Making a Formal Statement: The step consists in making a formal statement of the
null hypothesis (HO) and also of the alternative hypothesis (Ha). This means that hypothesis should clearly state, considering the nature of the research problem. For instance, Mr. Mohan of the Civil Engineering Department wants to test the load bearing capacity of an old bridge which must be more than 10 tons, in that as he can state his hypothesis as under: (Null Hypothesis H0: = 10 tons & Alternative Hypothesis Ha: >10 tons) 2. Selecting a Significant Level: The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified. Generally, in practice,

either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. The factors that affect the level of significance are: The magnitude of the difference between sample : The size of the sample; The variability of measurements within samples; 3. Deciding the Distribution to Use: After deciding the level of significance, the next step in hypothesis testing is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. The choice generally remains between distribution and the T distribution. The rules for selecting the correct distribution are similar to those which we have stated earlier in the context of estimation. 4. Selecting A Random Sample & Computing An Appropriate Value: Another step is to select a random sample(S) and compute an appropriate value from the sample data concerning the test statistic utilizing the relevant distribution. In other words, draw a sample to furnish empirical data. 5. Calculation of the Probability: One has then to calculate the probability that the sample result would diverge as widely as it has from expectations, if the null hypothesis were in fact true. 6. Comparing the Probability: Yet another step consists in comparing the probability thus calculated with the specific value for value in case of one tailed test (and /2 in case of two-tailed test), then reject the null hypothesis (i.e. accept the alternative hypothesis), but if the probability is greater then accept the null hypothesis. In case we reject H0 we run a risk of (at most level of significance) committing an error of type I, but if we accept H0, then we run some risk of committing error type II. 7. Testing of Hypothesis: The hypothesis testing determines the validity of the assumption (technically described as null hypothesis) with a view to choose between the conflicting hypotheses about the value of the population hypothesis about the value of the population of a population parameter. Hypothesis testing helps to secede on the basis of a sample data, whether a hypothesis about the population is likely to be true or false. Statisticians have developed several tests of hypothesis for the purpose of testing of hypothesis which can be classified as: Parametric tests or standard tests of hypothesis; Non Parametric test or distribution free test of the hypothesis. Important Parametric Tests: The important Parametric tests are: (1). Z-test (2).T-test (3). X2-test (4). F-test These entire tests are based on the assumption of normality i.e., the source of data is considered to be normally distributed. In some cases the population may not be normally distributed, yet the test will be applicable on account of the fact that we mostly deal with samples and the sampling distributions closely approach normal distributions. Question: 5 a. Explain the components of a research design. b. Briefly explain the different types of research designs. Answer: The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if he could, he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. Therefore, he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a symbolic construction may be called the
(a) Components of a research design:

research design or model. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. It specifies the objectives of the study, the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. It constitutes the blue print for the plan is the overall scheme or program of research. A research design is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting, analysing and interpreting observations. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz, Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe, A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. It is important to be familiar with the important concepts relating to research design. They are: 1. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values, like height, weight, income, etc. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as continuous variables. But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called non-continuous variables. 2. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between childrens school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an experimental errors Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables . 3. Control: One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. Technically, the term control is used when a researcher designs the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous independent variables. The term control is used in experimental research to reflect the restrain in experimental conditions. 4. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous, when the dependent variable is not free from its effects. Research hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods, it is known as research hypothesis. The research hypothesis is a predictive statement which relates a dependent variable and an independent variable. Generally, a research hypothesis must consist of at least one dependent variable and one independent variable. Whereas, the relationships that are assumed but not be tested are predictive statements that are not to be objectively verified are not classified as research hypothesis.

Experimental and control groups: When a group is exposed to usual conditions in an

experimental hypothesis-testing research it is known as control group. On the other hand, when the group is exposed to certain new or special condition. Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subject to. Experiment: An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of a statistical hypothesis relating to a given research problem. For instance, experiment may be conducted to examine the yield of a certain new variety of rice crop developed. Further, Experiments may be categorized into two types namely, absolute experiment and comparative experiment. If a researcher wishes to determine the impact of a chemical fertilizer on the yield of a particular variety of rice crop, then it is known as absolute experiment. Experiment unit: Experimental units refer to the predetermined plots, characteristics or the blocks, to which the different treatments are applied. It is worth mentioning here that such experimental units must be selected with great caution. (b) Types of research designs: Exploratory research- It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researchers familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables. It is a type of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why", "how" and "when" something occurs, it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many". Descriptive research- It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program. It also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how... Diagnostic research- It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can

be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate info, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis & test of significance. Evaluation research- It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. Question: 6 a. What are the assumptions of Case Study Method? b. Explain the Sampling process. Answer: (a) Assumptions of Case Study Method: Case study would depend upon commonsense imagination of the person doing the case study. The investigator makes up his procedure as he goes along.
1. If the life history has been written in the first person, it must be as complete &

coherent as possible.
2. Life histories should have been written for knowledgeable persons. 3. It is advisable to supplement case data by observational, statistical and historical

data since these provide standards for assessing the reliability and consistency of the case material.
4. Efforts should be made to ascertain the reliability of life history data through

examining the internal consistency of the material.


5. A judicious combination of techniques of data collection is a prerequisite for

securing data that are culturally meaningful and scientifically significant.


(b)Sampling Process: The decision process of sampling is complicated one. Researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique: Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population, then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. Measurability: The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. Probability samples only allow such computation. Hence, where the research objective requires statistical inference, the sample should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling method. Degree of Precision: Should the results of the survey be very precise, or even rough results could serve the purpose. The desired level of precision as one of the criteria of sampling method selection. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired, probability sampling should be used. Information about Population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are

available, it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. Then exploratory study with non-probability may be made to gain a better idea of population, appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. The Nature of the Population: In terms of the variables to be studied, is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population, even a simple random sampling will give a representative sample. If the population is heterogeneous, stratified random sampling is appropriate. Geographical Area of the Study & the Size of the Population : If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large, multistage cluster sampling would be appropriate. But if the area and the size of the population are small, single stage probability. Financial resources: If the available finance is limited, it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. However, if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated time. Time Limitation: The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. The above criteria frequently conflict and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain to obtain a good sampling plan. The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources. That is, it represents a compromise between idealism and feasibility. One should use simple workable methods instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques.