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TRANSLATION OF MAIMONIDES' TREATISE ON LOGIC A Treatise on the art of logic, by the head of the religion of Israel, Musa ibn

'Obaid Allah of Cordova, may God be gracious unto him! In the name of God, the merciful and the compassionate! An eminent person, one of the masters of the juridical sciences and the possessors of clarity and eloquence in the Arabic language, has asked a man who studied the art of logic to explain to him the meanings of the numerous terms frequently occurring in the art of logic, to interpret to him the technical language commonly adopted by the masters of this art, and to endeavor to do this with extreme brevity and not to indulge in details of meaning, lest the discourse become too long. For, his intention, may his glory be everlasting,I was not to learn the art I am about to outline to him - since the introductions placed before one who desires to learn it are many - but only to know those technical terms in most of their meanings, and nothing else. I begin then to present the desired discussion. CHAPTER I The noun which the Arabian grammarian calls a beginning, the logicians call a subject, and that which the grammarian calls information concerning the beginning, the logicians call a predicate. It does not matter whether the information is a noun, a verb, a particle, or a phrase; it is called in any case a predicate. Nor is there any difference as to whether the information affirms or negates. For example, when we say 'Zayd stands', we say 'Zayd' is the subject, and 'stands' is the predicate; when we say, 'Zayd does not stand' or 'Zayd is not standing', we say that in this case 'Zayd' is the subject, 'does not
I See Introduction 5, a.
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stand' is the predicate; when you say, 'Zayd stood', or 'will stand', we say that 'Zayd' is the subject, 'stood' or 'will stand' is the predicate; and when you say 'Zayd is in the house', we say that 'Zayd' is the subject, 'is in the house' is the predicate. Similarly, when the information is a clause or a verb with its adjuncts, we call it all a predicate. The entire expression, composed of the information and of that about which the information is offered, whether in affirmation or negation, i. e., the subject and the predicate together, is called a proposition. It is also called an enunciative sentence. The proposition always has two parts: the subject and the predicate, even if it consists of many words. For example, when we say 'Zayd of Basra, who resided in the house of 'Amr, killed his son Abu-Bekr of Egypt', we say that the subject of this proposition is 'Zayd of Basra who resided in the house of 'Amr', and its predicate is 'killed his son Abu-Bekr of Egypt'. Let this guide you in all other expressions. All the terms explained in this chapter are four: predicate, subject, proposition, enunciative sentence. CHAPTER II Every proposition either affirms something of something, e. g., 'Zayd is wise', 'Zayd stands', or negates something of something, e. g., 'Zayd is not wise', 'Zayd does not stand'. That proposition which affirms something of something, we call an affirmative proposition; that which negates something of something, we call a negative proposition. The affirmative proposition may affirm the predicate of all of the subject, e. g., 'Every man is an animal'; and we call it a universal affirmative, and we call 'every' a universal affirmative sign. It may affirm the predicate of a part of the subject, e. g., 'Some men write'; and this we call a particular affirmative, and we call 'some' a particular affirmative sign. The negative proposition may negate the predicate of all of the subject, e. g., 'No man is a stone'; and this we call a universal

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negative, and we call 'no' a universal negative sign. It may negate the predicate of a part of the subject, e. g., 'Not every man writes', or 'Some men do not write', or 'Not some men write'; and this we call a particular negative. We do not discriminate among these three expressions of the particular negative; nevertheless, we always prefer our expression in the particular negative to be 'not every', which we call the particular negative sign. The signs then are four: 'Every', 'some', 'no', and 'not every'; and the propositions that have signs are four: universal affirmative, particular affirmative, universal negative, and particular negative. If however no sign is attached to the subject of the proposition, as when we say 'Men are animals' or 'Men write', we call this proposition indesignate, that is, it is left open and not surrounded with a wall. We regard it always as a particular proposition, whether affirmative or negative. Thus when we say 'Men write', it has for us the same force as if we said 'Some men write'; and when we say 'Men do not write', it is as if we said 'Not every man writes'. When however the subject of a proposition is a single individual, e. g., 'Zayd is an animal', 'Amr writes', 'Bekr is wise', we call it a singular proposition. Thus, there are necessarily six2 kinds of propositions: universal affirmative, particular affirmative, universal negative, particular negative, the indesignate (whose force is that of the particular, both in the affirmative and in the negative), and the singular which may likewise be affirmative or negative. We call that part of the proposition which designates universality and particularity the quantity of a proposition; and that which designates affirmation and negation, we call the quality of a proposition. For example, when we say, 'Every man is an animal', we say that the quantity of this proposition is universal and its quality is affirmative, but when we say 'Some men do not write' we say that the quantity of this proposition is particular and its quality is negative. All the terms explained in this chapter are fourteen: affirmative, negative, universal affirmative, particular affirma2 See Introduction 6, a.

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tive, universal negative, particular negative, indesignate, singular, universal negative sign, particular negative sign, universal affirmative sign, particular affirmative sign, quantity of a proposition, quality of a proposition.

CHAPTER III Every proposition whose predicate is a verb, or a verb accompanied by other words, we call binary, be it in the affirmative or in the negative; e. g. 'Zayd stood', 'Zayd killed AbuiBekr', 'Zayd did not stand', or 'He did not kill Abu-Bekr'. All these propositions, we call binary, because they require no third element to connect the predicate with the subject. But when the predicate of the proposition is a noun, we call it a trinary proposition. Thus, when we say 'Zayd-standing', the expression does not indicate the connection of the predicate of this proposition with its subject as to tense: whether Zayd is now standing, or was standing in the past, or will be standing in the future. We must therefore have a third expression which will connect the predicate with the subject; e. g., 'Zayd is now standing' 'Zayd was standing' or 'Zayd will be standing'; though it is immaterial whether this expression is or is not explicitly stated. Hence we call it trinary; and these words which connect the predicate with the subject in a definite time, past or future, we call copulas. These are: 'was', 'is', 'will be', 'became', 'existed', and their derivatives; for they indicate the inherence of the predicate in the subject at a particular time. Sometimes a word is added to the predicate of the proposition to indicate the manner of the predicate's inherence in its subject, e. g., 'possible', 'impossible', 'probable', 'necessarily', 'obligatory', 'necessary', 'ugly', 'beautiful', 'fitting', 'incumbent', and the like. These and kindred words, which may occur in a binary or a trinary proposition, we call modes. Thus, when we say 'It is possible that man will write', we say 'it is possible' is a mode; and when we say 'Every man is necessarily an animal', we say 'necessarily' is a mode. Similarly, 'Zayd must stand', 'It is ugly for Zayd to insult', 'It is fit that Zayd should learn',

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'It is probable that Zayd will so act'- all these, we call modes. And we call the verb a word,3 and verbs - words. All the terms explained in this chapter are five: binary sentence, trinary sentence, copulas, word, mode. CHAPTER IV When any two propositions have the very same predicates and subjects, but one of the propositions is in the affirmative and the other is in the negative, we call them opposites; and we call the affirmation and the negation opposition. For example, 'Zayd is wise' and 'Zayd is not wise', or 'Man writes' and 'Man does not write'; these two propositions, and all that are like them, we call opposites. But when the opposition is between two propositions which have signs, it is designated by a specifying term. Thus, if a universal sign is joined to either one of the two opposite propositions, e. g., 'Every man is an animal', 'No man is an animal', we call these two propositions contrary, and this opposition we call contrariety. If a particular sign is joined to either one of them, e. g., 'Some men write', 'Some men do not write', we call them subcontrary. If to one of them is joined a universal sign and to the other a particular sign, we call them contradictory; and we call this condition contradiction. This is of two kinds. The first kind is where one proposition is a universal affirmative and the other a particular negative; e. g., 'Every man is an animal', 'Not every man is an animal'; these two are contradictory. The second is where one proposition is a universal
3 This statement occurs frequently in Arabic logic. See Khowarizmi, Mafdtit al-'Uluim, ed. G. van Vloten, 145; Madkour, L'Organond'Aristote dans le mondearabe, 160; Algazali, Makdaid,section 1, division 2, Mi'yar 42. The use of dibbuir and dabarin the sense of verb is also frequent; see Levias, 'Osar tokmat ha-lashon,315, 327. The same connection of 'word' and 'verb' is also found in Gr. rj/a and Lat. verbum. But why does Maimonidesadd the plural-form? Comtino tries to explain, but Habib says: "I have heard and seen many explanations all of which are unacceptable." Perhaps Maimonides meant that the plural of kalimatin its technical sense is not kalimdt, which is the regular form, but kalim.

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negative and the other a particular affirmative, e. g. 'No man flies', 'Some men fly'; these two are also contradictory. It is obvious that in every affirmation or negation, that which you affirm or negate of something is inevitably either necessary or possible or impossible with reference to it. For example, when we say 'Every man is an animal', we call this proposition necessary; when we say 'Every man is a bird' we call this proposition impossible; and when we say 'Some men write', we call this proposition possible. We say that both the necessary and the impossible are so of necessity because we say, 'Man is of necessity an animal' and 'Man is of necessity not a bird'. When we assert concerning Zayd, let us say, at the time of his birth, 'This Zayd is writing' or 'this Zayd is not writing', we call this proposition truly possible;4 but when we say this concerning Abu-Isbak the lad,s when he is actually writing, we do not call this proposition possible but absolute or actual. For, a thing can be possible only with reference to the future, before one of the alternatives is realized; when such a realization takes place, the possibility is removed.6 When Zayd stands near us, his standing is no longer a possibility but resembles something necessary. All the terms explained in this chapter are thirteen: opposition, contrariety, contradiction, opposites, contrary, contradictory, subcontrary, necessary proposition, impossible proposition, proposition of necessity, absolute proposition, possible proposition, actual proposition.
4 See Introduction 6, b. According to Habib, the 'truly possible' is one whose occurence and non-occurrenceare equally possible. s Ar. Abu I,a&h al-adbi. See introduction 5, b. For other orthographical inaccuracies see Introduction, section 1. See also Lane's Dictionary 1605b, where ,dbi =,abi. Prof. H. A. Wolfson writes me that in his opinion this is to be taken as a propername identical with ISballal-$abi, mentionedin the Moreh NebukimIII, 29, in the discussion of Sabean star-worship. One wonders however why Maimonides should select the name of an idolator merely to serve as an example of a person engaged in writing. 6 "The possibility e. g. of this particularwriting but not of writing in general which is always of possible matter". Habib. So also Comtino. But see Introduction 6, b.

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CHAPTER V If the predicate and the subject of any proposition have been transposed and the proposition remains true, we call it a conversion of a proposition, and we say this proposition is converted; but if it does not retain its truth, we call it an inversion of a proposition, and we say this proposition is inverted. For example, when we say: 'No man is a bird', its converse is 'No bird is a man'. But when we say 'All men are animals', the case is as follows: if you say 'Some animals are men', it is a right conversion, because it is true; if, however, we change it by saying 'All animals are men', it is an inversion and not a conversion. All the terms explained in this chapter are four: conversion of a proposition, inversion of a proposition, converted proposition, inverted proposition.

CHAPTER VI A little reflection will make it evident that from any two distinct propositions nothing else will ever result, as when we say, 'Every man is an animal', and 'Every fire is hot', and 'Every snow is cold'. Even if the number of the distinct propositions is indefinitely increased, nothing will result from their combination. But if they are connected in some form, so that another proposition follows from them, then the combination of these two propositions is called a syllogism; and each one of the two propositions is called a premise; and the third proposition which results from the union of these two propositions is called a conclusion and also a consequent. For example, when we say 'Every man is an animal', and 'Every animal is sentient', it necessarily results from this combination that 'Every man is sentient', which is the conclusion. Observe this example and you will find that the syllogism consists of three parts; for, every proposition has, as explained, two parts: a predicate and a subject; and there is also one part

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which the two propositions have in common. Hence there are three parts: the part common to both propositions, which we call the middle term, and the two distinct parts which we call extremes and whose union constitutes the conclusion. Observe also the parts of the conclusion. The predicate in the conclusion is what is called in the syllogism the first and major term, and that premise of the syllogism which contains the first term is called the major premise; the subject of the conclusion is what is called the last and minor term of the syllogism, and the premise of the syllogism which contains the minor term is what we call the minor premise. Let us return to our example so as to clarify further the meaning of the terms. The syllogism which we used as an example was 'Every man is an animal', and 'Every animal is sentient', the conclusion of this syllogism being 'Every man is sentient'. The parts of this syllogism are three: 'man', 'animal', and 'sentient'; its middle term is 'animal' and the extremes are 'man' and 'sentient'; the minor premise is our expression 'Every man is an animal', and the major premise is our expression 'Every animal is sentient'. This is the explanation of the meaning of these most important terms which one must know in the art of logic. All terms explained in this chapter are eleven: syllogism, premise, conclusion, consequent, middle term, first term, major term, last term, minor term, major premise, minor premise. CHAPTER VII It is clear from our preceding discussion that the connection between two propositions may occur in one of three ways. First, the middle term may be the subject of one of the two propositions and the predicate of the other, as in our example 'Every man is an animal' and 'Every animal is sentient'; and whatever is so composed, we call the first figure of the syllogism. Second, the middle term may be the predicate of both propositions, as when we say 'Every man is an animal' and 'Every bird is an

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animal';7 and whatever is so combined, we call the second figure of the syllogism. Third, the middle term may be the subject of both propositions, as when we say 'Every animal is sentient', 'Some animals are white'; and whatever is so combined, we call the third figure of the syllogism. It is clear then that there are three figures of the syllogism. Know that not every pair of propositions joined by a middle term in one of these three ways, constitutes a syllogism, but only such as the following division will determine. In every one of the three figures, there occur thirty-six combinations, making a total, in the three figures, of one hundred and eight. Those combinations which constitute true and conclusive syllogisms are fourteen, and every one of these combinations is called mood. There are four moods in the first figure, four in the second, and six in the third. These have been so arranged that we say, e. g., this syllogism is the fourth mood of the first figure, this one is the third mood of the second figure, and this one is the fifth mood of the third figure.

INTERPOLATED

COMMENT8

[In the first figure the minor premise must be affirmative and the major, universal. The second figure resembles the first in quantity but differs in quality, both in the premise and in the conclusion. By resemblance in quantity, I mean that it must keep the law of universality; that is, the major premise
7 "This example, consisting of two universalaffirmativepremises,is invalid, because it yields no conclusion. Hence, apparently the change in Tibbon's version" (Roth, Millot Higgayon,34, note 1). However, Palquera in his Sefer ha-mebakeesh (Warsaw, 1924), 130, offers the very same example for the second Paulus Persa, in the sixth century, gave a similar example: omnis figure. homo animal, omnis equus animal (Land, Anecdota Syriaca, 18). We may assume then that these examples are meant to illustrate the form and not the validity of a syllogism in the second figure. 8 This interpolation,as shown in the introduction 5, c, is by Jacob Anatoli, an important Hebrew translatorof Arabic scientificliterature in the thirteenth century.

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must in all cases be universal. By the difference in quality, I mean that the second figure has an advantage over the first; for, here the minor premise does not have to be affirmative. As to the difference in the conclusion, I mean that it may be universal as in the first figure but cannot be affirmative. The third figure resembles the first in quality but differs from it in quantity, both in the premise and in the conclusion. It resembles it in quality, because the minor premise cannot be negative; it differs in quantity, because the major premise may be particular; and the conclusion may be affirmative but not universal. The second and the third are opposed to each other in quantity and in quality; i. e., the second must keep the law of universality but not that of affirmation, and may yield a universal but not an affirmative conclusion; whereas the third keeps the law of affirmation but not that of universality, and therefore may yield an affirmative but not a universal conclusion. In general, the second does not keep the law of affirmation and does not yield it in the conclusion; whereas the third does not keep the law of universality and does not yield it in the conclusion. The first figure, in which the middle term is the subject of one premise and the predicate of another, has four moods: (1) *. (2) .'. (3)
*

Every C is B Every B is A Every C is A Every C is B No B is A No C is A. Some C is B Every B is A Some C is A Some C is B No B is A Some C is not A.

(4) . *.

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The second figure, in which the middle term is the predicate of both premises, has four moods: (1) *. (2) . (3) . . (4) Every C is B No A is B No C is A No C is B Every A is B No C is A Some C is B No A is B Some C is not A. Some C is not B Every A is B Some C is not A

The third figure, in which the middle term is the subject of both premises, has six moods: (1) . (2) . (3) . (4) Every B is C Every B is A Some C is A Every B is C No B is A Some C is not A Some B is C Every B is A Some C is A Every B is C Some B is A . Some C is A

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(5) .. * (6) .

Some B is C No B is A Some C is not A Every B is C Some B is not A Some C is not A

Here ends the interpolation.] All those that are other than these fourteen moods of combinations, i. e., the ninety-four remaining combinations, are not syllogisms, because nothing necessarily results from them. But the argument for the invalidity of the latter and the validity of the former, and the exposition of these moods, form a large part of the art of logic, which is beyond the scope of this discourse. These fourteen moods of the syllogism are called categorical syllogisms. As for hypothetical syllogisms, they are of two kinds: hypothetical conjunctive and hypothetical disjunctive. A hypothetical conjunctive syllogism is when we say 'If the sun rises, it will now be day'; then we exclude the condition by saying 'But the sun is rising' and it follows, 'It is now day'. Every syllogism so composed is called a hypothetical conjunctive. The hypothetical disjunctive syllogism is when we say 'This number is either even or odd' or 'This water is either hot or cold or lukewarm'; we then exclude by saying in the first example, 'But it is odd', and it follows 'It is not even', or we exclude in the second example by saying, 'But this water is hot', and it follows, 'It is neither cold nor lukewarm'. Every syllogism so composed is called a hypothetical disjunctive syllogism. The conclusive moods of the hypothetical syllogism are five: two for the conjunctive and three for the disjunctive;9 but the proofs and examples thereof are beyond the scope of this discourse. The masters of this art deal also with a kind of syllogism which they call apagogic. Thus, if, wishing to verify a certain
9 See the explanation of these moods in Introduction 6, c.

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proposition, we construct one of the categorical syllogisms which yields to us as a conclusion the proposition whose truthfulness we wanted to ascertain, we call it a straight categorical syllogism. But if we verify this proposition in another way, namely, by assuming hypothetically the contradictory of the proposition which we want to verify, and by forming a syllogism, proving the falsehood of that hypothetical contradictory proposition, so that the contradictory of that which we hypothetically assumed is the true one without a doubt, and is the proposition we want to substantiate,- such a syllogism, demonstrating to us the falsehood of a contradictory of a proposition which we want to verify, we call apagogic. We have another kind of syllogism which we call the inductive" syllogism. Thus, when there is a certain proposition whose particulars you have examined and some of them have been proven inductively to be true, we may take this proposition as a universal and posit it as a premise of a syllogism. We have another kind of syllogism which we call the analogical syllogism; as when, in two things that resemble each other in some respect, we find a certain law which excludes" one of them and we apply this law to the other thing. Thus, if in reply to a question whether the heavens are created, we say: yes, and the proof of this is that the heavens are matter and the wall is matter, and since the wall is created, the heavens must also be created,we have a case of an analogical syllogism. But if we prove the creation of the heavens by investigating all or most of the material things that are under the heavens, finding that they are created, and then apply the same law to the heavens,- we call this an inductive syllogism. For example, when we say: Matter consists of the treasury, the chair, the basin, and their like, and they are all created; the heavens belong to the class of material things; consequently they too are created,- we have an inductive syllogism.
Io Literally: by investigation. Ahitub's rendering means literally 'backward'. See Introduction, note 6. " This is according to the Arabic, Tibbon, and Ahitub. But a positive expression is expected here. Perhaps Vivas had a better reading when he rendered: "and we find a certain law in one of them."

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We have other syllogisms which we call juridical," but we need not discuss them in this connection. All the terms explained in this chapter are twelve: first figure of the syllogism, second figure, third figure, mood of the syllogistic figure, categorical syllogisms, hypothetical syllogisms, hypothetical conjunctive, hypothetical disjunctive, straight categorical syllogism, apagogic syllogism, inductive syllogism, analogical syllogism. CHAPTER VIII The propositions which are known to be true and require no proof for their truthfulness are of four kinds: perceptions, as when we know that this is black, this is white, this is sweet, and this is hot; first ideas, as when we know that the whole is greater than the part, that two is an even number, and that things equal to the very same thing equal each other; conventions, as when we know that uncovering the privy parts is ugly, that compensating a benefactor generously is beautiful; and traditions, i. e., whatever is received from a chosen person or from a chosen assembly. For we demand proof for the trustworthiness of a transmitter of a tradition only generally and not forevery word that he utters. He is met with nothing short of complete acceptance; for his general reliability has already been demonstrated. Now as to perceptions and ideas, there is no difference among those of the human species that possess normal senses and intuitions,13 nor is there any contention for superiority14among them with reference to their truthfulness. But as to conventions, there is difference and rivalry for superiority, since there are propositions that have become known among one people and not among another; and whenever a precept is known among
'1 A syllogism used in Muslim jurisprudenceto develop laws either from the sacred text or from analogous cases. Comp. the Talmudical hekesh. See Algazali, Mihakk p. 84 and Madkour 1. c. 262 ff.
'3

The Tibbonian ye,irah (creation, nature) as well as the Arabic fitar, may

also mean the intellectual nature or intuitions, which seems to fit the context much better. Indeed, Vivas renders it by da'at.
14See Introduction 5, d.

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many peoples its acceptability is stronger. Similarly, in the case of traditions, a tradition among one group may be lacking in another. Now, that which is obtained from whatever is perceived by means of a healthy sense is undoubtedly true. The same applies to ideas, first and second; by second ideas I mean such as geometric theorems and astronomic calculations, which are all true, because they may all be demonstrated by premises, most of which come close to the first ideas. In like manner, all the results of experience, e. g., that scammony is a cathartic and gall-nut causes constipation, are also true. Whatever becomes known through one of these three's truthful channels the logicians call apodictic. After these preliminaries, you must know that every syllogism both of whose premises are apodictic, we call a demonstrative syllogism; and the making of these syllogisms and a knowledge of their conditions constitute what we call the art of demonstration. When, however, one or both premises of the syllogism belong to conventions, we call it a dialectic syllogism; and the making of these syllogisms and a knowledge of their conditions constitute the art of dialectics. When one or both premises of the syllogism belong to traditions, we call it a rhetorical syllogism; and the making of these syllogisms and a knowledge of their conditions constitute the art of rhetoric. There is also a kind of syllogism used for deception and falsehood, where one or both premises are such wherewith or wherein a man errs or falsifies in any of the syllogistic moods.'6 Such syllogisms are
Is I. e., perception, first and second ideas, and experience. 16The words in Tibbon admit of various interpretations. A glossator in one

of our manuscriptstakes the passageto mean two classes of fallacies: (1) erroneous premises,(2) invalid moods. This may also be the meaningof the passage in Vivas, and it is the definition of sophism in Samuel ibn Tibbon's Perush
meha-millot zarot. But the distinction between 'immah and bah in our Tib-

bonian passage shows probably a three-fold classificationof fallacies: (1) the Aristotelian fallacies in dictioneand extradictione,i. e., such where the premises are true but which lead one to error by means of e. g. a homonymous expression, (2) those that have erroneouspremises, (3) invalid moods. This deviates from the standard Arabian classification- see Madkour 1.c. 238 which is: (1) formal, or Maimonides'first class, (2) material,or Maimonides' third class, (3) formal and material.

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called sophistic, and the making thereof and the knowledge of the ways in which people deceive and utter falsehood constitute what is called sophism. Then there are some who praise and blame things in no other way than by means of imitations;17 and any syllogism whose premise is used in this way of imitation we call a poetic syllogism, and the art which deals with such syllogisms and explains the ways of imitations is called the art of poetry. Know that there are conditions of the demonstrative syllogism which cannot be discussed in this treatise. In general, however, the demonstrative syllogisms do not use analogy under any circumstances, nor do they use induction except under certain conditions;i8 but the art of dialectics does use general induction; and the art of rhetoric uses the analogical syllogism. Furthermore, sometimes in a rhetorical syllogism, one premise appears while the other is, for various reasons, suppressed; this we call an enthymeme.'9 All terms explained in this chapter are seventeen: perception, first ideas, second ideas, conventions, traditions, apodictic proposition, demonstrative syllogism, the art of demonstration, the dialectical syllogism, the art of dialectics, rhetorical syllogism, the art of rhetoric, sophistic syllogism, the art of sophism, poetic syllogism, the art of poetry, enthymeme. CHAPTER IX The causes of things are of four kinds: matter, form, agent, and purpose. Let us take, for example, among artificial things, a chair; its matter is the wood, its agent is the carpenter, its form is a square if it is square, or a triangle if it is triangular,
I7 "The epopee, therefore, and tragic poetry, and moreover comedy, and dithyrambic poetry, and the greatest part of the art pertaining to the flute and the lyre, are all entirely imitations . . . imitators imitate those who do something, and it is necessary that these should either be worthy or depraved persons . . ."- Aristotle, Poetics chs. 1, 2. See Roth 1. c. p. 51, note 4. i8 I. e., exhaustive induction or complete similarity between the particulars (Comtino). Avicenna distinguishes between complete and incomplete inductions. Madkour, 1. c. 218.

I9 See Introduction, section 5, e.

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or a circle if it is circular, and its purpose is the sitting thereon. Or let us take, e. g., a sword; its matter is iron, its agent is a smith, its form is a certain length, narrowness, and sharpedgedness, and its purpose is the killing therewith. These four causes are obvious and clear in the case of all artificial things, because every craftsman embodies the form, which he conceived, in some matter, whether wood, iron, copper, wax, or glass, for the sake of some meaning which he tries to convey by means of this vessel. In the case of natural things one should seek the very same causes; except that in this case, we do not apply the term 'form' to the figure and outline, but only to that which constitutes the specific essence of a thing, so that if you could possibly remove it, the thing would no longer be an individual of that species. For example, man belongs to the natural order, his matter is life, his form is the rational faculty, his purpose is the attainment of ideas, and his agent is the one who gave him his form or his rational faculty, because by "agent" we mean the creator of form in matter, and this is God, blessed be He, even according to the philosophers; albeit they maintain that He is the remote cause, and for every created thing they seek its proximate cause. For, some of the four causes are proximate and some remote. For example, in regard to the efficient cause, let us imagine a great mist rising from the earth, disturbing the air, creating strong winds, breaking the stem of a palm tree which, falling, smashes a wall; so that a stone thereof drops and hits a person's arm and breaks it. The proximate agent of the broken arm is the stone and the remote agent is the mist; and the wind and the stem of the palm-tree are also agents of the breaking, one of them being more proximate than the other. Similarly, in regard to the material cause, a person's proximate matter is his limbs; more remote are his four humors of which the limbs are composed. Now, it is known that the root of every organism is the earth's vegetation; and the material cause, which is more remote than this, is water, air, fire, and earth, out of the combination of which plants are formed. These four are called elements. Even more remote than the elements is that which they have in common, which bears the same relation to them as

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that of wax to whatever is made of wax, or that of gold to whatever is made of gold; for, it has been demonstrated that these four elements change into and originate from one another, so that they have undoubtedly some common element and this is their matter. Now, that which is common to the four elements and which the mind necessarily affirms is what we call materia prima, and its Greek name is hyle, and many physicians and philosophers call it the foundation. One may follow this example in regard to form and purpose until one can differentiate the proximate from the remote purpose, and the first from the last form. All the terms explained in this chapter are ten: matter, agent, form, purpose, proximate causes, remote causes, elements, materia prima, hyle, foundation. CHAPTER X The universal20 which includes a number of individuals and constitutes the essence of each one of them, we call species. The universal which includes two or more species and constitutes their essence, we call genus. The characteristic by which one species may be recognized and differentiated from another and which constitutes its essence, is called difference. That which always exists in all the individuals of a species but does not constitute the essence of that species, we call property. That which exists in most or some individuals of a species and does not constitute its essence, we call accident. These are the five universals as enumerated by the ancients. For example, man, horse, and scorpion are called species, and each comprises its own individuals like Reuben and Simon among the individuals of mankind. Animality is called genus, because it comprises a number of species like man, horse, scorpion, etc. Rationality we call man's difference, because it divides and differentiates the human species from others; and this
20 Ahitub begins this chapter with the words: "When we examine the universal, etc." and Vivas introduces it with the phrase "When we see with our mind the universal." Vivas' phrase is striking; it may reflect an anti-realistic view of universals.

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rationality, i. e., the faculty by which ideas are formed, constitutes the essence of man. It is fitting that we investigate in this manner every species until we know its constitutive difference. Laughter we call a property of man; for it exists always in all human individuals and is not found in any species other than that of man. In like manner, the broad chest, erect stature and wide nails, each one of these we call a human property, because it exists only in the human species and, naturally, in all its individuals. Every species necessarily has one or more properties. That universal which we find to be more general or more limited than the species we call accident. Thus, movement in the case of man is more general than the species; whereas blackness is both more limited than the human species, which is not all black, and also more general, since it is found also outside of man; hence blackness and motion and their like are called accidents. There are two kinds of accident: one inheres permanently and inseparably in its subject, like the blackness of pitch and the whiteness of snow and the heat of fire; and the other is a separable accident like the standing or the sitting of a person, or the heat of iron or stone. It is evident that just as the 'animal' includes all species of animals, so the 'plant' includes all species of plants; hence the 'plant' is likewise a genus. That which includes plants and animals, i. e., nourishable matter, we also call genus. And just as nourishable matter, including animals and plants, is a genus, so non-nourishable matter, including the heavens, the stars, the elements, and the minerals, is a genus. When, then, we say absolute matter, we include all, there being no genus which is more inclusive; and we call it substance,21 and the highest
21

The Stoics maintained that the ens is the summum genus, higher than

substance. To this view Maimonides, like the Arabian thinkers, seems here to be opposed. See Prantl, Geschichte der Logik, II, 314. The negation of a higher genus leaves outside of the realm of substance immaterialthings which, as Comtino remarks,can be only homonymouslygroupedwith material things as Being. Paulus Persa, on the other hand, divides substance into the corporeal and the incorporeal. Land, Anecdota Syriaca IV. 7. So also John
Philoponus in Baumstark's Syrisch-Arabische Biographieen des Aristoteles,

p. 205. Comp. Spinoza's identification of all Being with substance.

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genus. We call man, horse, scorpion, palm-tree, iron, and their like, the lowest species; because lower than these there is nothing but individuals of their respective species. We call 'animal' a subaltern genus or a subaltern species; because it is a genus with reference to the animal species that are under it, and it is a species with reference to nourishable matter, which is above it, and which includes both animals and plants. 'Plant' also is a subaltern genus to what is lower and a subaltern species to what is higher in the scale. We call 'animal' and 'plant' component species, for the genus of nourishable matter is completely divisible into animal and plant. Know that the summa genera embracing all existing things, according to Aristotle, are ten: the first is substance, the secondquantity, the third-quality, the fourth-relation, the fifth-time, the sixth-place, the seventh-posture, the eighth-possession, the ninth-action, the tenth-passion. The first of these ten categories is substance and the rest are accidents. Each one of them has subaltern species, infimae species, individuals, differences, and properties. These ten summa genera are called categories; and a discussion of these categories with all that is involved in them, with examples of their subaltern genera and their species and their individuals, is beyond the scope of our treatise. This is the first of the books of logic. The second deals with complex notions, and that is the Book of Interpretation. The third is the Book of The Syllogism, and we have already discussed the meaning of the syllogism and its figures and moods. These three books are of a general nature with reference to the five subsequent books. The first of these five books, i. e. the fourth is the Book of Demonstration, the fifth is the Book of Dialectics, the sixth is the Book of Rhetoric, the seventh is the Book of Sophism, and the eighth is the Book of Poetry. When we explain a species by referring to its genus and difference, we call it a definition; but if we explain it by means of its genus and one of its properties, we call it a description. For example, when we define man as a rational animal, 'animal' is the species and 'rational' is the difference. Sometimes man is defined as a rational and mortal animal, so that 'mortality' is the ultimate difference between man and

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ISRAEL EFROS

angels. But when we explain the name 'man' as denoting a wide-chested, erect, or laughing animal, we call these words descriptions. Sometimes we explain a name by means of genus and accidents, as when we explain the name 'man' by saying that it refers to an animal which can write or which can buy and sell; and this too is called a description. All the terms explained in this chapter are seventeen; genus, species, individual, difference, property, accident, permanent accident, separable accident, summum genus, lowest species, subaltern species, component species, summa genera, categories, substance, definition, description. We have mentioned the ten categories, but we have explained only 'substance', because the explanation of the others is difficult for a beginner and would take much time and would not be understood except through much study and thinking; whereas the purpose of these chapters is that any reader should understand the terms therein explained. CHAPTER XI Whatever is always connected with something, like falling with the stone and death with slaughtered animals we call per se; and whatever is connected for the most part, we also call per se. Thus, when we say 'Every man has five fingers in each hand'- this too is said to be of necessity, albeit sometimes a man may be found with six fingers. Whatever occurs seasonally for the most part, like cold in the winter and heat in the summer, we call essential. In general, all natural phenomena, even though they occur only for the most part, are essential. But whatever exists in a few cases is said to be per accidens, e. g., a man digging a foundation and finding money; and in general all unintended accidental occurrences, whether due to the work of man or of other forces, are said to be accidental. This is the sense of per se and per accidens. Every quality by which a thing is described and which exists in that thing at the time of the description, exists, we say, actually; but when a thing is described by a quality as yet nonexistent, but it is ready and prepared to receive it, we say that

MAIMONIDES' TREATISE ON LOGIC

55

that quality exists potentially. Thus when we say, e. g., concerning a piece of iron that it is a sword, because it is prepared to become a sword, we mean that it is a sword potentially. A piece of felt cannot be so designated; for, there is an important difference between the absence of the sword-nature from the piece of iron and the absence thereof from the piece of felt. Furthermore, when we say concerning a child when he is born that he is a writer, it means that he is a writer by remote potentiality; and when we say concerning a lad before he begins to study that he is a potential writer, this potentiality is nearer than the first; and when we say it concerning him during his studying, the potentiality is nearer than those preceeding; and when we say it concerning one who has been engaged in writing but who is at present asleep, the potentiality is still nearer; and when we say it concerning him when he is awake and has before him ink, pen, and parchment, it is indeed a very near potentiality. But we do not call him a writer in actuality, except at the time that he writes. It is the same with all other such cases. We have dilated on this subject because philosophers say that any one who cannot distinguish between the potential and the actual, between per se and per accidens, between the conventional22 and the natural, and between the universal and the particular, is unfit to reason. When two qualities are such that when one is present in a subject the other is removed, we call them contraries, e. g., heat and cold, moisture and dryness. Some of these contraries have an intermediate state e. g., hot and cold; for between them there is the lukewarm. But some of them have no intermediate state, e. g., even and odd in numbers, for every number is either even or odd. When two qualities cannot exist simultaneously in the same place, but one of them is an existence of something, and the other the removal and absence of that existence, e. g., blindness and vision, we say that vision is a habit and blindness is a privation; but we do not call them contraries like heat and
So Arabic, Ahitub, and Vivas; Tibbon: artificial. This Tibbonian term implies, according to Comtino, a distinction between mechanical and natural results, explained in the beginning of this chapter, though both may belong to the category of the essential.
22

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ISRAEL EFROS

cold; for the heat and cold equally partake of existence, and heat has no firmer hold on existence than cold, and vice versa, but vision and blindness are not so. This is the difference between privation and habit on the one hand, and two contraries on the other. The same is true of wisdom and folly: wisdom is a habit and the absence of this habit is folly. So also wealth and poverty, hairiness and baldness, having teeth in one's mouth and toothlessness, speaking and muteness,- they are all called habit and privation. But nothing can be described in terms of privation unless it is its nature to possess that habit which is the opposite of that absence, for we do not speak of the wall as foolish or blind or mute. This then is the meaning of habit and privation in our technical language. There are words which, when you hear them, you understand without comparing their meanings with other things, e. g., iron, copper, food, drinking, standing, etc. But some words do not convey their meaning except with respect to other objects, e. g., long and short; for the mind cannot grasp the meaning of 'long' except with reference to what is shorter, nor can we form a conception of anything short until our mind grasps something which is longer. This relation between long and short, etc., we call correlation; and we call each member of the relation a correlative, and we call both together correlatives. The same is true of above and below, half and double, before and after, different and similar, lover and enemy, father and child, master and slave,- each one of these and their like is called a correlative, because it fails to convey its meaning to the mind unless related and compared with something else; and the relation between them is called correlation. But that which the Arabian grammarian calls a governed noun, e. g., the servant of Reuben or the door of the house, we call an oblique noun. Now just as we say with regard to negative and affirmative that they are opposites, as already stated,23 so we say with regard to privation and habit, and two contraries, and two correlatives that they are opposites.
23

See ch. 4.

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57

All the terms explained in this chapter are sixteen: per se, per accidens, essential things, accidental things, potentiality, actuality, proximate potentiality, remote potentiality, contraries with an intermediate state, contraries with no intermediate state, habit, privation, correlation, correlative, correlatives, opposites. CHAPTER XII We speak of one thing as prior to another in five modes. First, priority in time, e. g., Noah is prior to Abraham. Second, priority in nature, e. g., animal and man, because if you could remove the animal, the existence of man would cease, but if you could remove man, the existence of the animal would not cease; hence we say that the animal is prior to man in nature and man posterior to the animal in nature. Third, priority in order, e. g., two men one of whom sits near the ruler and the other further away; so that we say that one is prior to the other in order. Fourth, priority in excellence i. e., the state of the better and more honored of two things whether of the same kind or of two different kinds. For instance, two physicians or two grammarians; if one of them abler than the other, we say that he is prior to his colleague in excellence. The same is true if the occupations are different; as, when one is a wise man though not outstanding in wisdom and another is a skilled dancer, we say that the wise man is prior to the dancer in excellence; for, the art of wisdom is prior to the art of dancing in excellence. Fifth, priority in cause; thus, when two things reciprocate as to the consequence of existence24 and neither exists without the other, and yet one is the cause of the other's existence, we call the cause prior to the effect; as when we say that sunrise is prior to, although simultaneous with, daylight, because the rising of the sun is the cause of the day.
24 This is the expressionused by Aristotle in Categories, ch. 12, for that interrelation wherein either one of two things is the cause of the other's existence. See Baneth in Tarbiz,VI, 31. Avicenna also, in Najit 5, uses the expression al-mukdfi fi al-wujad.

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ISRAEL EFROS

We speak of two things as being together in time when they exist at the same time, and as being together in place when they exist in the same place. When two things are equidistant from the same starting-point we say that they are together in rank. When two things reciprocate in necessary existence and one is not the cause of the other, we say that they are together in nature, e. g. the double and the half. The same is true of the correlatives from the standpoint of their correlation. All the terms explained in this chapter are nine: prior in time, prior in nature, prior in excellence, prior in order, prior in cause, together in time, together in place, together in order, together in nature.

CHAPTER XIII The word which the Arabian grammarian calls verb we call word,25 as we have already stated.26 The particle27 is called instrument. As for the noun, it is sometimes what we call straight and at other times what we call oblique. Said Abu Na*r Alfarabi: "In Arabic, every nominative, logicians call straight; whereas a genitive or an accusative noun, they call oblique." As for the noun which we call indefinite, it is a noun composed of the word 'not' and the habit, e. g., not-seeing, not-wise, and not-speaking. The nouns which the Arabian grammarian calls active and passive participles are what we call paronyms, and what the grammarians call verbal noun is what we call the primary example. As for the nouns which they call hidden e. g., I, thou, his, her, thine, mine, as in 'his slave', 'her slave', 'thy slave' 'my slave', we call them all hidden
25 Tibbon uses here the term linyan and Ahitub uses teba',both terms meaning 'habit' which does not suit the context. See Roth 1. c. and Ventura's note in his edition of this book. Vivas alone seems to have the correct rendering, namely ha-dibbSr. See at the end of Ch. 3. One Tibbonian manuscriptwhich we designated as zain is erased here and amended, as in various other passages (see Introduction, section 4), to agree with Vivas' version.

26
7

See above ch. 3 2.

I. e. any part of speech which is neither a verb nor a noun.

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and also pronouns.28 The noun and its adjective, we call a compound expression of explanation and modification, e. g. Reuben the writer, Simon the white. The grammatical combination of the governing and the governed nouns, we also call a compound expression of explanation and modification. But as for the enunciative sentence, we call it a compound expression of information. Words are in all languages necessarily divided into three classes: distinct, synonyms, and homonyms. When several words have the same meaning they are synonyms; when one word has several meanings, it is a homonym; and when different words have different meanings they are distinct. For example, in Hebrew, 'addm, 'Zsh, 'enosh all meaning man, sakin, ma'akelet both meaning knife, are synonyms; the word 'ain, meaning eye and a fountain, is a homonym; whereas mayim (water), 'esh (fire), 'ilon (tree) are distinct. All words resembling these are similarly classified. The homonyms are divided into six classes: absolute homonyms, univocals, amphibolous terms, terms used in general and in particular, metaphorical terms, and extended terms. The absolute homonym is one applied to two things, between which there is nothing in common to account for their common name, like the name 'ain signifying an eye and a spring of water, and like the name keleb (dog) applied to the star29 and to the animal. A term is used univocally when there is something which constitutes the essence of two or more things, and that term refers to each one of these things that share in that constitutive essence; e. g., the term 'animal', which is applied to man, horse, scorpion, and fish, because life which is nourishability is found in each one of these species and constitutes its essence. Thus, the name of any genus is applied to its component species univocally, and every specific difference is applied to all the individuals of the species univocally.
28The word damir means both hidden and pronoun. 29 A constellation called Canis. See introduction 5. f. Comp. Roth, 1. c. 94, n. 4; but the words can hardly have been in the original as they are found in none of our manuscripts.

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But the amphibolous term is a term applied to two or more objects because of something which they have in common but which does not constitute the essence of each one of them. An example of this is the name 'man' given to Reuben, the rational animal, to a certain man who is dead, and to an image of man carved in wood or painted. This name is applied to them because of their having one thing in common, to wit, the figure and outline of a man; but the figure and outline do not constitute the meaning of man. Hence it resembles a univocal term in so far as it is applied to these objects because they have something in common, and it also resembles the absolute homonym because the essence of one is different from that of the other. It is therefore called amphibolous. A term used in general and in particular is one that designates any species by the name of its genus, e. g., the word kokab applied to any star of heaven, though it is the name of one of the seven planets,30 and the word hashish in Arabic given to all kinds of grass and to the yellow flower used in dyeing. The metaphorical term is a name which in the original usage of the language came to denote, and to be fixed permanently in, a certain object, and afterwards it was given but not permanently to another object, e. g., the name 'lion' given to one of the animal species, but sometimes also to a man of might; and the name 'sea' by which a generous person is sometimes called.3I Poets use many such terms. The extended term is a name given originally, in the basic usage of the language, to a certain thing, and subsequently applied to another thing which may or may not have any resemblance to the former; so that both things, the one from which, and the one to which, it was extended, carry that name together. An example of this is tefillah, which in the basic usage of the language denotes a request but was subsequently extended to a special kind and special form of request, and also the terms 'accusative', 'genitive', 'particle,' 'nominal 'nominative',32
30 Mercury.
31 See

32 See

introduction 5, g; and Ventura: 1. c. III. introduction 5, h; and Roth 1. c. 98 n. 1.

TREATISEON LOGIC MAIMONIDES'

61

forms',33 'pausal' and 'connective', 'quiescent', 'vocal', etc., each one of which has in the original usage of the language a meaning different from that given to it by the grammarians who extended the significance of these names. All terms explained in this chapter are eighteen: particle,34 direct noun, oblique noun, indefinite noun, paronyms, the first example, hidden, pronoun, synonyms, distinct, absolute homonym, compound expression of explanation and modification, compound expression of information, univocal, amphibolous, noun used in general and in particular, metaphoric, extended. CHAPTER XIV The term logos technically used by the thinkers of ancient peoples,35 is a homonym having three meanings. The first is the faculty, peculiar to man, whereby he conceives ideas, learns the arts, and differentiates between the ugly and the beautiful;36 it is called the rational faculty. The second is the idea itself which man has conceived; it is called inner speech. The third is the interpretation in language of that which has been impressed on the soul; it is called external speech. And because this art, originated and developed in eight parts by Aristotle, imparts to the rational faculty rules for the attain33 Hebrew mish&al. See e. g. David Kimhi's Miklol, at the opening of the sha'ar dikdu& ha-shemot. The term shekel is also used in this sense. Is this

term due to the Arabic phonetically resemblingterm shakl? 34 See Roth. Vivas alone seems to have had here the correct Arabic rendering, which he rendered by ha-millah, 'particle.' Comtino tries to justify the
Tibbonian tinyan. 35 So Ahitub and Vivas. Tibbon's rendering ha-shelemot is erroneous. See my He'arot 'al Millot Higgayon in Tarbiz vii, 222, and Wolfsons "Note on

Maimonides' Classificationof the Sciences" in JQR XXVI, 375. 36I. e. in a moral sense. The threefold definition of reason here would seem to reflect the Aristotelianclassificationof reason as contemplative, productive,
and practical (see Metaph. 1025b26, Ethica Nicomachea 1139a27); except for

the fact that the term melakotis later in this chapter used also in the very wide
sense as covering the whole range of mental activity, and that in the parallel passages in Thamdniat Fusul the corresponding Arabic word for melakot is al-'ilm, science.

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ment of ideas, which are the inner speech, guarding it against error and leading it in the right path until it acquires the truth in so far as it is in man's power to attain truth, and it also imparts those rules, common to all languages, which lead external speech37 in the right path and guard it against error; so that whatever the tongue utters harmonizes and agrees with the hidden thought, the expression neither adding to, nor detracting of these benefits from, the promptings of the soul,-because bestowed by this art, they called it the art38of logic. Indeed it has been said: The relation of the art of logic to the mind is that of the art of grammar to language.39 The term 'art' is regarded by the ancient thinkers as a homonym, being applied to every theoretical science and also to mechanical workmanship. They call each one of the philosophical sciences theoretical art; and such as carpentry and stonecutting, they call productive40 art. The term 'philosophy' is also a homonym, sometimes signifying demonstration, and sometimes the sciences. In the latter sense, it is given to the two classes of science, one of which is called theoretical philosophy, and the other, practical philosophy or human philosophy or political philosophy. Theoretical philosophy is divided into three parts: mathematics, physics, and theology.
37 Comp. Aristotle Post. Anal. I, 10: "demonstration does not belong to external speech but to what is in the soul, since neither does syllogism". 38 In this book, logic is always designated as a Fina'at,an art, and not as an 'ilm or science. See however note 36. 39 See Introduction, section 6, note 15.
40

- has a different sense here from that of the same word in the immelakutit mediately following passage. Here it means 'productive': while in the next passage it means 'practical'. In Aristotelian terminology, the former is concerned with making, the latter - with acting, the former correspondsto the artistic, the latter- to the moral. In the Thamaniat Fusul, ed. M. Wolf, p. 8, Maimonides uses muhannl and fikri (Samuel ibn Tibbon: meleketmakashebet and malashabi) for the productive and the practical, respectively. Compare the term da'at as referringto the practical or moral science in my study entitled "More About Abrahamb. Hiyya's PhilosophicalTerminology" in JQR XX, 117. 124.

The Hebrew term ma'asit, employed by Tibbon and Vivas -

Ahitub:

MAIMONIDES' TREATISE ON LOGIC

63

Mathematics studies material things not as they are but as abstracted from, though always existing in, matter. The parts of this science which are its roots are four: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music; and these parts constitute what is called the propaedeutic science. Physics studies material things existing, not as products of human will, but in nature, e. g., minerals, plants, and animals. It studies these things and all that exists in them, I mean, their accidents, properties, causes, and also all in which they themselves exist, like time, space, and motion. Theology is divided into two parts. One of them is the study of every being which is not matter nor a force in matter, that is to say, of whatever appertains to God, may His name be exalted, and also, according to the opinion of the philosophers, to angels; for they deny that angels are corporeal, and they call them transcendent intelligences, i. e. separated from matter. The other part of theology studies the remote causes of the subject matter of the other sciences, and is called both divine science and metaphysics. These are all the sciences enumerated by the ancient thinkers. As for logic, they do not count it among the sciences, but rather as an instrument to science.4I Indeed it has been said: One cannot properly study or teach except by means of the art of logic; for it is an instrument, and an instrument of something is not a part thereof. Political science is divided into four parts: (1) self-government, (2) the government of the household, (3) the government of the city, (4) the government of the great people or the peoples.42 Self-government means the acquisition of worthy habits and the removal of unworthy ones if already formed. By habits is meant those exercised43 characteristics that cling to the soul
41 A Peripatetic and anti-Stoic view. Similarly Paulus Persa. See Land 1. c. p. 6.
42

See Wolfson in JQR XXVI, 369-377.

43 This

is how Tibbon's ha-na'asotshould probably be rendered. Compare

the term 'asiyyah' (Ar. mubasharah) meaning use, exercise in Moreh Nebukim

II. 38. See Thamaniat Fusiil, ch. 4, where Maimonidesemphasizeswith some

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ISRAEL EFROS

until they become habits which manifest themselves in actions. Philosophers describe habits as virtues and vices; and they call the worthy habits moral virtues, and the unworthy habits they call moral vices. The acts that come from worthy habits they call right, and the acts that come from unworthy habits, wrong. The intellect, i. e., the formation of ideas, they also describe in terms of virtues and vices; so that we speak of intellectual virtues and intellectual vices. The philosophers have numerous works dealing with the subject of virtues. As for a rule whereby one person governs another, it is called law. The government of the household involves the knowledge of how the members thereof should help each other and of what they need for their subsistence, so as to bring about the best possible improvement of their condition according to the requirements of time and place. The government of a city is a science imparting to its masters a knowledge of true happiness, showing them the way44to obtain it, and a knowledge of true evil, showing them the way to avoid it. It shows them how to use their habits in abandoning illusory happiness so that they will not desire it nor delight in it; and it explains to them what is illusory evil so that it will cause them no pain or grief. It also lays down laws of righteousness for the best ordering of the groups. The sages of the peoples of antiquity made rules and regulations, according to their various degrees of perfection, for the government of their subjects. These are called nomoi; and by them, the peoples were governed. On all these matters, the philosophers have many books which have been translated into Arabic. Perhaps those that have not been translated, are even more numerous. But in these times we do not need all these laws and nomoi; for divine laws govern human conduct.45
similarity of phrasing- our entire chapter has a number of parallels in the later work of Maimonides- that habits are formed through exercise. This is an Aristotelianview and is opposed to that of Plato who taught that virtues are divinely implanted. See Categ.ch. 8, Ethica II, chs. 1, 5. 44 See Introduction 5, i. 45 See Introduction 5, j, and Ventura 1. c. p. 120.

MAIMONIDES' TREATISE ON LOGIC

65

All terms explained in this chapter are twenty-five: rational faculty, inner speech, external speech, the art of logic, theoretical arts, productive arts, philosophy, theoretical philosophy, practical philosophy, human philosophy, political philosophy, mathematics, the propaedeutic sciences, physics, theology, metaphysics, habits, moral virtues, moral vices, intellectual virtues, intellectual vices, right, wrong, laws, nomoi. All the chapters of this treatise are fourteen. All the terms explained in these chapters are one hundred and seventy-five; and these are the most general terms used in logic. Some of them are technical terms used in physics, theology, and political science. This is what I thought fit to discuss; and perhaps, God willing it will fulfill its purpose.

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. ('D [131'1 4 11':ITD 1 . :lKIm n3l l l?' YCIl'

.1aDt).1

1DlRI 5

li on1 7 t6 Dm .D't D'DMtl] to"e3Z'7T .I 17Dm;1; [Mt1nn77 .D' t'D .1 BtmjD 192) [T1'SD 9 .t? n ; D^^n;1 D 'al^ D 1 D"'lln;l D"Z'`r 3 D"'lnn D'D3 71DD 7 1 ' n wnn 11 .' y r' 1 :[n] YV 'I,pTi p::l"l C... 10 a ... ,p,", 11 10 .., pnn Ji pa n [p:n3Dn" iv;r' r 10 WwpP'l,' pnl [ mvprnl 1 D -i cn r nnl t(nn l1) 19 pY DnP t1 n7 1h rlnr n,irvliv.m 20 . l ln .7S -1n] T il [p I'DD l p Inn 1D b1-7 Inl IDrXYi D'lt l 21 . pInnD nillrM
.3 ]y3 I1 3ll'y) .1[Dlly

'll l:;nyn:'' "D : ::nn Dn 1R:3 0T:3 1n1:r n31:D ,lrnnyn7 1 n% nnom 4ll nlnmtponl,nmipDtl nn" n3 mpI 0' , n,', t- 'nK w;. W;,: .tip' ~W W'~ m.~t ' nzr .' .n~nnn _m: ~"'-i .~D, nt n^-'y. npl.'71 m~t~ r' 13n' 13mD n3m Inr.nn3 iw tnn N3m nrvnrl nri tntp3 p [nri] :. n pr in :DDpi5 :n 'innD *n5nnn 13 ID ,:o
v'rW ,2n1'O 1'' DoVol
D 6*1D o31n5v n[

.1rm

9m1D'

-it

OUKUIn lrlD i i- 3 .0a^ nDRO 0Wm a'8fmi 1 Uxim-il )wvin ]^n ID 3D 1'3nn D*D17n [YDn'n014 12mn D;i iKr11 D'LDD1 DD*m 1i(8
^yn 'n' nb D ^i .n"n11n
i 1

rnoi&

cim lDm ni1

n3

7im ;ND1l

.ii

.,tn 1n 1inp

nnnwn L
;.D,l r,,

nlmnmmrinl,
,lipn," 'r\1

DM)i1D 1o ^31 .n^nn nmliyion


rnDl3r

."DIp'q

nir

(,DyP nl.:'lpn;'

.pED HNi nofr l3DD yD;n n;n^ o ^ tiwnn

3w^w ;rn
o9:

Dmn fin nlmp


[nlilin .Dm ol 3lnDp]n1 1N [1

.nln1m n-3it;1 n3itvinn


nlmlp nnmT3p;nr [imnn " .['D v . 'Y["N

1pi
,l DnD

m3m 1ri nt;n3vn n3i1nzr3 nlinn;i

mD73N nlrz3DnD nl- z


.1mn ' ]1n '"

1 3iimN .rn:DI c -iiyl InlH

;nD .D1 .nDn 14 nDI$

nD $Di D m;nT Dyn

.tr'7

3 3

1 O R nDK

4 D

. . . nl' 3 ."[nDl i ] i by n^apm1 . .t nlnlml nitnn;i

. .'

(lnaID) 1 3
p33 [pIa' minpm

. 3IDD3

5 [pDOD' O'11Dn it'9D IDmn 6oJll

.D1(onDK') ll .Dtyisn

n nirm ri;m Yn' 1Y'n (ln1lt3) a''1 9 (nT'^ )?7 .R'A13 " K'3i (O n)O .%nTM 1initmi a intnit m DI .m nt rD'mDn Qm p:l jin mi lu-n lTrnnl t .' t'<-3 onlm l'^of ntr y rt Ilin, oanr I l] 13 nml I'DwKn r1t ] 'i 1^'
.

[qi'n .3orpra

I'pI P [D1n

or .t D

na llinn nimnDmnnn pam

(0na non OCtumtt

....

wQ'-m

m)

tK D-i?N K 14

.yJ O t W Tl;lV D ttrli 12

. ti11]

[niiip

nlainn .' nmian . .0 nt Da ID" .' D cN<n [IDIDxbn


15

noninn;l
?02] .'^ 1

Y ;mni)K
11Y1 17

." t (Dt) 8 n MDo n1i .' ..m

nlmoDD
mi l

llnn p1e au1"m

K:ip' Dnt 'nnl

'non

D r1urlrtn n

-Im rrinin"-rn

' yvanwz

i ,nw mn,;nn nrmnp;n tvp;n

ymmnnly;r;nwim innm

n mn 1wI 'vp;nn wpn;-n n;iNp lmn: n,i,y; .,'nv1rn nu,non -'n n ny'n)l 5 onlr, ",';l;n"IW1 .nDl,n n:'.in^p 1,'lb'p:N H1'n
.nlrrn nWp;n lrnip nnlDD D pnnnn T ' pnn ni-rpn 1' nvr! yl .n1'13n nDiND nl;: nrTi ny,n n 'p; l nny n= niprt nhl . 1no 'o= n n 1ilp2 .ny-opn lpnn,topnn

n1p'l

Onn &lpDr^

nyi O'iTn

nynpl oTap

n 1i'

nWoyp

nl 'pmnl'D)-rU

D':l7V

l71 ID 'Nt<In' nIDmi nKc<p3 a1w"p

anl

nrynin

a ,pnn nI D,rin'rln olpn;l , 'rr ymprlnr

.3 (TnNrt) .r ." p1 n(ll~p3


['n' 8

:: "3 .* t 1 .' 'lat ['.y'tn'l1 (D',.DDglD)2 t"'1n" ['"rnl 'ni L nl'3Ml .r1 l 5 1 nl1 "] l11Y ,'l ') [l'rD:m' 'lD , Ip3 I ] Wn . [n .m: 1 n"13, 'nln1 [nslDn

.D [ln

3(lnD nnR 1N 1 .1 1, ['DItp1n T O

A :
I'D=

[l'D 10

.A (nD qD)91

.p['3]

JD =

' l D- n nDn13Tn ,n 1'DO' m .' ['api ;noTpn,'] "'] iltO 12 ;1 ln 1,P '5 an 1 -ipB on;lninN 'I n iyo ;nyO imm nDom nom -rirz 13rm iulmn [;iyDui
X .A (;ni ;,yO) ";1 (,' ... nlip3) 14 .x on'1n

nyYiU l

lm n m^ ; niyto

'

ly ' onn

pnl

t [lN]

yl) '

nfrlt~ : n1'lr
... n)

D'3Knn [I'f ] V[l " 13 , [ . 1':TnF ' [nr nnlT 15 .'Inrty on I frN on [Qni 16 .s 17 . [] ,b [,'n2-,. '1in [p1'Nn'ltrt] . 1 n: , ,pnm . (-f)yn .' DM'l n [l lr D'?D .' Q"plnl [i"lpnrr

., (O'ap,TnT ... lnoy) . [KIp'l] D'p n;l

,v (ny .: :"

...

or )

n'i O'IrMIn 'nDlion 'Wpi r .-'WUinMin oYIpn -r' 0w'iD Ypl n i8K = W b? DIMnMnID7 t3Vpnn m:;n VI IN IKDRD 7t1 nlK
6IKl
.1'KMn ON '9 n-ipn-n

Mi1 DIM MI1W WDVn IVy'

nbiw uSnlnm tvln nwynnl) ntinD ;nvyn nrrSnn twpn


Dnl impn,nlmD1nnnmn ;,rn,pn
Will nlDw V" ;Mt nn3ra3y Yyrn

7n 1 nmnn 1m .nl~r Dompn, . 1nD31n 1"yn nT13z92


w1n OW1Vnlnu;

^i91

nlinwmn. ,nlmDD'Dn ,nr^n ,nl3ntUmni;

nl mwlDn

,aDQnlDn

wpr; ,noiDr nzDNn ,flnvD;n wpn;n ltDn .ngN ,mO=nlmpn

,n;1,nn nD6D rpnn ,n;Irnn ,pn,mw n n n ,mD,mn3n 10 .nnD3n ,,tmn nDDn ,,,'t;n tmpnn ,;nrynn nmom ,yuony

lywn myw
.npmnm l1'mq
W[,Wp :l -yp 1K

15

mDnnr ;ml:rlm y,p~m;m ."'


.1: OK Win t1 lrnnD

m n

3n nl

nt NimD .Onrmlr D n m,a,y3 D"- T lnin-l~Syl yYn nin


K1n .b ,,m -mn [rtmn

nonnpWn1-i- 91mD1pi .1vhy -.rMVuV Inl9Znl .^ily KN-ot 20 Hrmnlin-iil nm3niyimi ritnnU oyl 1mcmn .mnixpn-Trnm
3 nipnn [n)'p .2 nItyn
.'n .r
nvp

n . vD'
;innMl

. D]rzn
nDTpn

[?i^D

3 .trIpn

." $n '1 1i Mn 4 R
7 [9tvl nDnl 8 .
X

I^m

(
o ItD

1
n

[in"ln
nm1

Tinn [1^'7r1 5
.3

.*' [t1Dn1I ] [nxin;lm -l1nDnl

tuinti
t0D

o-p^Pn
[r'

n'nl:D1

D nD1

[mnl:o no 10

.$ -1L
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Xn

'nDOl

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n [ni

n Pl'zlnD)

0r

1-inD37M [Mnn M6
n Dn -n^ LO

*.

n [1] 19 9nlD *.

17

. .3 (tl

1[n in OR m I'

.:
)

DDn n11

." n2

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Dr'' P: I'n3 i"':Nl

D DI', l 1.i1

.1" n'rlr Inrrnlm

C"',,'wK ;nl,:",,,
rN m,ly. ,l~y" n,",'r"t

mowD l',i: ':::


. .'rl IN " 1 t:::}m

.aS,: a:"nwtDn
;nlJ;l nrm:Ill: :YY

;m.n~mn bmop .:Dl'nb ::


o nilvD 1[1t . in 18

,= . 1n0l'n ln ti3V
nimu [1nP3]9

I n,n 13l, 533

'133 n:W,-T pnlr *i^n


nDn "1n intl

n (mJ3Yn .3"Y0nt * IWD lnlKm Kl; 1n;1,nt n n1 :inn M1rn1 n mIr Zm r' w-7I D. Mn,' nlX,tr 11D'n Ym Irt lp ipD:n
1,1,n"n

17

A mlXnn

.1 1U in;Ol

3n nDn DOY 0`Y;l


1 "In H nIM . ("y) D;

10 rn n;lt
14
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1 3,'T1 1plb naVn Inm "In t-1I D 1,5 ll,K;i^w i.,' .p3 n' nliDWln ',; 1l)

10

'5e2D2D ': lZitK bpwn;1 py .lnn-2Dn bH17 n n^tt n;nr1


nilt,LMICD67n

r
nm-In-

n an:r prnrn Pin 5,y- N:r1 ?In T'r


iypl rn o nD

'11 ny-LN

"NI P 'n'

nMI

K2C39D9 lWpn pnnln

ri prn riK n n: 'n mo ansy Wyl9;r Kl '9 l;1Wo^


1i

1m 31-

no

ny JrT-T .-pn1 1nD1ir nMmIp


mm^nnl
;yIwn

0770 '177 nlD;n


-YK;13D n ny

'

. nllpylw nipn 15

nylm

-11im"n y3n;l

n31"Kr TN

by

9n

rnrionn ytn mnw

nptynn

nrn nn^ nzi3 oyi

Dn 131 ino imxl In D1 0 inlxl yTnrt p iK lyywnm HimnI 811 pimR ynri^ intyn 3Tipn mylDn m]n .Wl? PIN"K

nilt 5
ivina

(no)

.0 :1 D oIHD no O1tIl: 3
by nl Vniit

.t $ (DJD1)2

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nC2; 6

nmnimmn;rmm

m IVn 01 -IMIM 7;3W 1lVrl

. [UJ

D0":3ym)

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3 n,3m [ym .;l zy I= ID: (o ) 15 x D ('" ) 14 Y D'1 .im1'^z

.$ yz;ml

llmivi

.3 1i2Ymnml: DYylan;n217 lyl-i1 -i.MD;1 18 .1nX"uo1 8iy 3 inlmip M 19

. *'

[nptr7 nly3n . ^nrn7 q irid)

nywx "b poaDni nFK

nr t'Opr .innin 1 rnp ni, -nrnM nm nt -mt, m"o ;mn JIDnl l3nnpinr ml'nwl 'm"nn' nlr 1ll" "1'1;r ,nlm nmr"npn "n "n
wn'

ID yil'll

.anIlm

n"ltn lw' 111nn3

n%l;l n'lymbun
[n;T
.nlnl-lDn

bKlU
5

TID ,'DIn MIn [; 'Krr 16


nimnl'llD .3 1 pin i

nm-Tnn pin-i bn WNmDnnm ,nmn


n t oKnD n^T1 [w1 lTrh
'1mn1
rn

n iv am:

WNrw :'lKw
oinp,'3 (IB'n

i,K'nnml',n

{?^ mlytn onl Dn'I'KN lDon^ itvW N' 1Ri^ Pnlwn m:nrn Kl; ' .3n1D nm 1D nWy1'2 nD Ir mlytn :nt;n Dn, '1 nit,y'm
mnnnn rnyp

om

ontp

lin,w

'

#n;

1iK nmb-;Dn
m lD,fni

'

nn-On
qlnln

btin

'mn

mir3n-fn

n-mn: nt 13:

~ pDDbmnp :,l V nm :,mD rt3an nr.nTnl 5p 2


;lt $yl . Olmysm l;-llwip, Ol'K9Dn;11C'91D1i9;1

ny

'nD

3:rn-

1inxyn ""D;1

1Dn2t risn-iir.nm .in pnn Dnm nrm D nr:n n=prIr yr1m7i npmn
0-11 nl2t ;nwy -

1:i (mnn wn nn m nn n-imltn mn

p-nin mvn

ilniii $Di1 yvu;r-ltm mr3pyWC19DD nn~Dn ,nu:mnpnn1:mn ,n,m-nm ,n-nnm riiSputm r,npnn

.Y3~Yp ,,~,;nrS ,l|iKn;n nDnn ,nl-lDn ,nlpnnmn


, : [r4 mnn33 .D nonn 'Jo -,1 D [1 a Dnn '' T rlD ' 1130o n .' n lirtl rnl 0im 0:i] n[i6 ll3l]
1[O ap3 6 .: D 1nrml t ... .Kl [1,"ii1

N ]: i:mw 0 ( ln ct)v) 1 24 .: (Btl"m) . l3Ipn"


.3 0'ly ty i" ; nmllD'"

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.D lnlYy^h n 11My B lYlIy

p1=H lIWn cDl1nn

O'W' CSDD91 rp nlDYy-royD H1r,l

CWK ^on1D p^3yr

1t1yD 1r l"3 l1o llDn 1r1Nii L'zYn ynn'13l 'r3m lnir ' lN . 1nlm'D i ban'to "nb: -ro -.1N 'nu 1'Dm,Ml Yion'VIM r'l, '0l Nn 1'D3 'I:lK :13m, ,I-]n: l'ZYnl rI13ln ',:r r'1 -1rn
i1'W, nHD
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09otDDiilz

lnlri

J1D inn K-pl

empil

tm.Kn

wmnD

lpDYsl p:1imD 10
alai

Otr =-i' -' P

an;

.n^n'7

pyDI

DIDDI trnc

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,2113Y .1' yn 1

a1 Qy x z
. lilti

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va rim- 1tic (13 .1 D'VIC l'

lp

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; ";i7n 7
n:nn .5';17' TD IV"IID
.axDi Yr^nl
t

17nn 12

1 n;lz TOpyMt InlK ...

y-73at14

[rn: i .Y'" r(n^n

.: (Kt: . . 7'3 .

n) 3 lml

I')tD

It:n. i .ti :1 '13 'nt71t ilK 1'2n KitO ' Ni1 7'3
] x1n
.B D 11'01 15

pIlDxo

'9 ntpo nyMWN

3= nirm ntnn mnn =nnmInmDlprn 1pI


b6 IW NtlT Olny= ONbI T91)D IrM1N73

.0a-N;n 1

nbil

nM iD 0C3 D-.T

m mm ID mK,n3 n3'I .m'tm nnDn1 1m'ni rn1 ny33 itit: 5r<n: m D, i 1n D nnr mmriD:m nnptm t:W 'i; lny',l .nlm:iD .1nmD In m1IDInm3 52 fnyinr nmp3o l;n'p3 1Dm -rnln mnl N l'r
inr' m 'n: 1 nlinvt
1K l'On 1D nKil lin '

n,

n-3n , 1,OK

I-mn, n:lt~

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-:iD'n:nt 1l," I'

a n-rnlfn 13n,
.npt

nD1r D1 n;m .nl mny,m nlinnwKinp3 1i3onnni 1inli' ,'o1


MM ,n3 m n3mi3 map rmprD 13DD 1Dmn,,D :;3Z np lmp

O 1lD QnD;1'n

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nn...;

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ln

1y3 .iD iDb


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rnI

a Dn
nrr:

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l 15

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D7'n

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nE K(p3I .ly)n 319 Dnl.

3 l211^K3p 20

az Da D3nrmNm aon'D

nlMn iDTnm orrl

nipym,I DlD11
-1uyn

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o nnn I'M I niltr 3nD1D 'w -i-p3i v'nDrT nn rim 1'D m1N nl r"D-l'nnn .DDn m3 31 'r 'It lD
D3*5
nin

[trfn

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I. 1Y

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114 7

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nn ni-lnm
15 noD

8
.

D .: - m-intrP mrnn
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13

.D (nMVn

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12 ...(tlVIt)

Dm ^nnoml

i'iipDr;l

16

.B lA I1 [rlmJ

p [rl

.(

(lD

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ln p:1: Dl:inn :1' ,IvrWK r13m'~ y ji,nn'1


/KI nl:'ol DoUmn

I'nn 1D Hni

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.frtnpit
1z'lD'll D10; '71 ['.nrD"p, [M '"'I, 51D . D ,l"1l

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lpn

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.

t ,"l[ . ."'

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l

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pI

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3 .Dp1po
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OsZ1D ;

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[D'"'y

13 .An (,n'o

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;

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flD K1, '"T ID,1T Kl,'ll

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in,D mnn nTn .3iHmi

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n lm

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t"' 'yt;l
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18

lpIn p1N 1-nM , Dm1nU, Cnan ,QOYr ,nnoNHrr , aw189 yn ozl, , o^pin, nirr a""ol:ni"a 1Inlonoo nnty;n1nj3nr ,tpSrOmDNO1 1nSy 'c6. n:98 nl:'Nml-'PI ronnnn y mwpN.-i'W D :1'-i ': ' 1m1 7,=7un 1:ml1n ) =IDV .1noi nMIM-nna: OKID13-7 1nD 1:m1 5 I: 1'^a-nyV n aDm,u 0nlM73y oK .D'PT1DD n pv 1sM:3

-iy -7nNnyw
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ri

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10

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;nD im 1p1 .nlyzxm ;lWt

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WIKnrltID1IN 063 O"IpDn7 0-r1n 12D 1', 01311D3D orMW M"ly;n
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byM HYn' o1yDOw D"yI nloscyn f rinl- by HtaDw lDot nlpn nlxz3i:

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16

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D

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llnn J1N t31in

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'in 1]zyn 1i'l oiyan

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yt,

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73D D'nn1 ]D
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1 n7nil P .WtlDl
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'l

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D c9DDa D7531 ktz,'yD'1 01rr '9n ' rn')C 1 . TnD mInn1n Ci,",'Or klD'O lnlo10 r1pn'C , rN

DDD.

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1 rnlK'I ID'
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r .lnn' ^ Mt 1':

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'i13p,

15

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nm-n .nmyni1

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) ;11m)
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Npv pu3D1 nyE$ 'I ;I

mnimpmi tiwn: -yn


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? i '1 l3m y'' MH1; .InODuI C Nlinn-Dn'irr .inn i3n 131z inpr3 KNl Qo3rm nIt

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lpn

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n:n

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10

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M-In;l yPo3

rn "n 'nD
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"n a3,m ,3z ntn:3


1(nM) 2 v i 'D InpD

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) 16

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= D(,'=n31Dn) XD .n (DnO) .V:l: m['1] [ln1' 17 .1 ' [Dn3D ';1 Dllp

6 [a1m1S1yXn
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.I

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t nt
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i.ty
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[n~3,1

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MAIMONIDES'

STATEMENT SCIENCE

ON POLITICAL

By LEO STRAUSS

Maimonides discusses the subject matter as well as the function of political science in the last chapter (ch. 14) of his Treatise on the Art of Logic (Millot ha-higgayon). Philosophy or science, he says, consists of two parts: theoretical philosophy and practical philosophy, the latter also being called human philosophy, political philosophy, or political science. Theoretical philosophy consists of three parts: mathematics, physics, and theology. Practical philosophy consists of four parts: man's governance of himself, governance of the household, governance of the city, and governance of the great [numerous] nation or of the nations. The first part of political science deals with the virtues and the vices, or with good and bad habits. "There are many books by the philosophers on the habits." Ethics does not deal with "commands," i. e., with that form of guidance by which a man guides other men, whereas the three other parts of practical philosophy do deal with them. Governance of the household supplies knowledge of how its members can help each other, and of what is sufficient for the best possible ordering of their affairs with due regard to time and place. Governance of the city is the science that supplies knowledge of human happiness and of the way toward its acquisition, as well as of the opposites of both those things; "furthermore, it lays down the rules of justice through which human associations are ordered properly; furthermore, the wise men belonging to the perfect [ancient]I
'Should the original have read al-umam al-mddiyuna? The expression al-umam al-mddiyuna in Farabi's Siydsdt 51, 6 (Hyderabad, 1346) is rendered .by Samuel ibn Tibbon nlmnlyn nlm n (42, 7 Filipowski). The adjective does not necessarily mean "ancient" or "past." It might also mean "piercing" or "penetrating." That Maimonides could have applied a term of praise of this
115

116

STRAUSS

[2]

nations, each of them according to his perfection, lay down rules of governance through which their subjects are governed [through which their kings govern their multitude]; they called [call] them [sc. those rules of governance] nomoi; the nations were governed by those nomoi. On all these subjects, the philosophers have many books which have already been translated into Arabic, but perhaps more which have not been translated. But we have no need in these times for all this, viz. for [the commands], the laws, the nomoi, the governance by [of] [these] human beings in divine things [for the laws and the nomoi; the governance of human beings is now through divine things]." The meaning of this statement is not entirely clear. The obscurities are partly due to the facts that the Arabic original of about the second half of the Logic is lost, and that the differences between the three Hebrew translations, or even between the various MSS of these translations, are sufficiently great as to make doubtful the reconstruction of the-original in every important point. In the preceding paragraph, the bracketed expressions correspond to alternative translations or readings which seem to be as defensible as the preferred versions. Three difficulties strike us at first sight: Maimonides rejects the books of the philosophers on politics proper as useless for "us" "in these times." Also, he divides politics proper in an unusual manner. And finally, while assigning the study of the virtues to ethics, he assigns the understanding of happiness, not to ethics, the first part of practical philosophy, but to politics proper, the last part of practical philosophy. To begin with the first difficulty, we are naturally inclined to believe that "we" means "we Jews": we Jews do not need the political teaching, nor perhaps the economic teaching, of the philosophers, since we have the Torah which guides us perfectly in every respect, and especially in respect of the divine things.2 Yet this is not precise enough. In the first place, whereas
kind to the Greeks, the Persians, and so on, in contradistinctionto the Chaldeans, the Egyptians, and so on, appears from Iggeret Teman 8, 15 Halkin, the Letteron Astrology351, 17-18 Marx, and Guide III 29 (63a Munk). 2 Cf. Comtino and Mendelssohnad loc.

[3]

MAIMONIDES' STATEMENT ON POLITICAL SCIENCE

117

Maimonides says in regard to politics proper, or a part of it, that we do not need the books of the philosophers on this subject, he says in regard to ethics merely that the philosophers have many books on ethics: he does not say that we do not need the books of the philosophers on ethics.3 He says nothing whatever in this context about the books of the philosophers on theoretical subjects. There is no need to prove that Maimonides knew of the existence of such books and that he was very far from regarding them as useless for "us": the statement under discussion occurs in a summary of logic which is based upon the philosophers' books on logic and on theoretical philosophy. What he suggests then is that of all genuinely philosophic books, only the books on politics proper (and perhaps on economics) have been rendered superfluous by the Torah. This implies that the function of the Torah is emphatically political. This interpretation is confirmed by the Guide for the Perplexed. In that work, Maimonides says that the Torah gives only summary indications concerning theoretical subjects, whereas regarding the governance of the city, everything has been done to make it precise in all its details.4 Still, Maimonides adds an important qualification to his statement that we do not need the books of the philosophers on politics proper: he says that we do not need those books "in these times." The Torah antedates philosophy, or Greek wisdom, by centuries. If it were the Torah which rendered superfluous the political books of the philosophers, those books would not have been needed by the Jewish people at any time. Hence we would seem to be compelled to understand Maimonides' statement as follows: not the Jews as such, but the Jews in exile, the Jews who lack a political existence, do not need the political books of the philosophers. The Torah is not sufficient for the guidance of a political community.5 This would imply that
3 Cf. Eight Chapters, Introduction. 4 III 27 (59b-60a). Cf. I Introd. (Sa [cf.

Treatiseon Resurrection 32 Finkel], 11a); I 33 (37a), 71 (93b-94a), III Introd. (2b), 28 (60b-61a), 54 (132a). Cf. Albo, Ikkarim I 3 (63, 13-19 Husik), 11 (100, 18), and 15 (133, 9-134, 1). s Cf. Mendelssohn ad loc. - Cf. the reference to the military art (which

118

STRAUSS

[4]

the political books of the philosophers will again be needed after the coming of the Messiah, as they were needed prior to the exile. These strange consequences force us to reconsider the assumption that Maimonides means by "we" "we Jews," or that his Logic is a Jewish book, i. e., a book written by a Jew as a Jew for Jews as Jews. The author describes himself as a student of logic, and he describes the immediate addressee as an authority on the sciences based upon divinely revealed law, as well as on Arabic eloquence: he does not describe himself and the addressee as Jews. When using the first person plural in his Logic, he normally means "we logicians," although he also speaks of "the logicians" in the third person. Yet on some occasions he speaks of subjects which belong to philosophy proper as distinguished from logic. Therefore, "we" might mean in some cases "we philosophers," although Maimonides normally speaks of "the philosophers" in the third person and even seems to indicate that he does not belong to them.6 One would not commit a grievous error if he understood by "we" "we men of theory," which term is more inclusive than "we philosophers" and almost approaches in comprehensiveness the present-day term "we intellectuals." Accordingly, Maimonides must be understood to say that the men who speculate about principles or roots do not "in these times" need the books of the philosophers which are devoted
belongs to politics properand is certainly not a part of the Torah) in Maimonides' Letter on Astrologywith H. Melakhim XI 4 and XII 2-5 as well as Resurrection 21, 11-23, 12. Cf. also Eight ChaptersVIII (28, 13-20 Wolff) with ib. (28, 2-3 and 27, 19-20). 6 Logic, Preface; ch. 9 (43, 11-14 Efros), 10 (46, 16-18), and 14 (61, 12-14).
-

ChaptersIV (9, 6-10, 16). There "we" occurs in the following four different meanings: 1) the author (3 times), 2) we human beings (3 times), 3) we physicians (4 times), 4) we physicians of the soul (i. e., we men of science; see ib. III [7, 6]) (17 times). It goes without saying that in Eight Chapters IV "we" frequently means "we Jews"; it occurs there in the meaning "we Jews," I believe, 14 times; see especially ib. (12, 23) where Maimonidessays that he is speaking only of "our law" or "the adherents of our law." For the interpretation, consider Guide I 71 (97a).-A kindred subtlety (nukta) is the in contradistinction to its nonuse of the emphatic "we" (e. g., Km3 lunrm), emphatic use, of which one finds good examples in Albo's Ikkarim II 4 (27, 9), 5 (48, 3-6), etc.

The first person plural is used with unusual frequency in a section of Eight

[5]

MAIMONIDES' STATEMENT ON POLITICAL SCIENCE

119

to politics proper because of the dominance of divinely revealed laws.7 Since Maimonides' statement as a whole implies that the need for the books of the philosophers on ethics and, especially, on theoretical philosophy has not been affected by the rise to dominance of revealed religions, he in effect suggests that the function of revealed religion is emphatically political. Moreover, he regards as useless "in these times" only the books of the philosophers on "the laws, the nomoi, the governance by human beings in divine things." He does not deny the validity of the basic part of the political teaching of the philosophers:8 the philosophers do distinguish adequately between true and imaginary happiness and the means appropriate to both, and they have an adequate knowledge of the rules of justice. Furthermore, if only the most practical part of the political teaching of the philosophers is superfluous "in these times" because its function is at present fulfilled by revealed religions; if, therefore, the function of revealed religion is emphatically political, political philosophy is as necessary "in these times" as in all other times for the theoretical understanding of revealed religion. The normal division of politics proper may be said to be that which distinguishes governance of the city, governance of the nation, and governance of many or of all nations (i. e., governance of the political union, as distinguished from a mere alliance, of many or of all nations).9 At first glance, Maimonides seems to replace "city- nation - many (all) nations" by "city great nation - the nations." He therefore seems to replace the nation by the great nation, which leaves us wondering why the small nation is not a subject of politics. Yet it seems to be equally possible that he uses "the great nation" as equivalent to "the nations" or "many or all nations," in which case he would have dropped the nation altogether, leaving us to wonder why the nation is not a subject of politics. However this may be, he
7 Cf. H. A. Wolfson, "Notes on Maimonides'Classificationof the Sciences," JQR, N. S. XXVI 377 n. 8 Note the transitionfrom the perfect tense to the past tense in Maimonides' statement. 9 Farabi, Siyasat (Hyderabad 1346) 39 and 50; Al-madina al-fadila 53, 1719 and 54, 5-10 Dieterici.

120

STRAUSS

[6]

certainly does not substitute a new tri-partition of politics proper for the normal one, but rather replaces the tri-partition by a bi-partition: he assigns the governance of the city to one branch of political philosophy, and the governance of the great nation or of the nations to another branch. The principle underlying the tri-partition was consideration of the difference of size between political communities (small, medium, and large). It is reasonable to assume that the bi-partition is based upon consideration of another important difference between political communities. Maimonides' references to the nations are framed partly in the past tense. It is possible that he even spoke explicitly of "the ancient nations." Furthermore, he calls the governance of the nations nomoi. Finally, in the same context, he speaks of a governance by human beings in divine things such as belongs to the past. With a view to these facts and to certain parallels in the Guide, Professor H. A. Wolfson has suggested "that the nations" stands for the ancient pagan nations, and "the great nation" stands for Israel, and therefore that Maimonides tacitly goes over from the distinction between political communities in regard to size to their distinction in regard to religion: the city stands for the "civil state," and the pagan nations and Israel stand for different forms of the "religious state."Io This suggestion necessarily implies that the governance, or guidance, of Israel, i. e., the Torah, is a subject of political philosophy. More precisely, Wolfson's suggestion necessarily implies that the governance of the great nation, i. e., the Torah, and the governance of the nations, i. e., the nomoi, are the subjects of one and the same branch of political philosophy. This should not be surprising: the same science deals with opposites. Accordingly, the chapters of the Guide which deal with the difference between the Torah and the nomoi of the pagans would belong to political science. Since one of these chapters (II 40) is the central chapter of the part devoted to prophecy, one would be justified in suggesting that Maimonides' prophetology as a whole is a branch of political science. This suggestion is confirmed by considerations
IOLoc. cit., 372-376.

[7]

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which are in no way based on the teaching of the Logic. These inferences are in perfect agreement with Maimonides' concluding remark, which is to the effect that we have no need in these times for the books of the philosophers on the laws, the nomoi, the governance by human beings in divine things: the practical use of books meant only for practical use is one thing; an entirely different thing is the use for purely theoretical purposes of books which are at least partly theoretical. Wolfson's suggestion is partly confirmed by Avicenna's division of political philosophy. Avicenna makes use of a bi-partition which is based upon exactly the same principle that Wolfson discerned in Maimonides' statement. According to Avicenna, one branch of political philosophy deals with kingship; the classic texts on this subject are the books of Plato and Aristotle on government. The other branch deals with prophecy and divine law; the classic texts on this subject are the books of Plato and Aristotle on nomoi. This second branch considers the existence of prophecy and the need of the human race for divine law; it considers the characteristics common to all divine codes as well as those which are peculiar to individual divine codes; it deals with the difference between genuine and spurious prophecy." There is then one point in Wolfson's suggestion which must be changed. There is no reason for identifying the great nation with Israel. If Maimonides had spoken of "the nation" or of "the virtuous nation," one might say that he might have meant Israel. But he speaks of "the great nation." He is fond of quoting Deuteronomy 4:6, where Israel is called "a great nation." As he indicates, the Biblical verse implies that Israel is not the only great nation. It is then impossible in precise speech to call Israel "the great nation" simply. On the contrary, since "great" here means "numerous," the term would apply to Islam (and to Christianity) rather than to Israel. Indeed, it would be more appropriate to call Israel the small nation:
Jacob "is small" (Amos
7:5).12

One might for a moment imagine

" Tis' Rasd'il, Istanbul 1298, 73-74. Cf. Falakera, Reshit hokma 58-59 David. See Wolfson, "Additional Notes," HUCA, III, 1926, 374. 12 IggeretTeman4, 8-10: 8, 3-6; 38, 1-2; 40, 4-6 (cf. Ibn Tibbon's transla-

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that Maimonides speaks of the great nation precisely in order to exclude the small nation, i. e., Israel, and hence the Torah, from the scope of political philosophy. But this possibility is contradicted by all the considerations which have been set forth here, and in particular by the fact that the Logic is not a Jewish book. We suggest then that Maimonides means by "the nations" the ancient pagan nations, and by "the great nation" any group constituted by a universalistic religion. In speaking of the great nation in the singular, he refers to the universalistic and hence exclusive claim raised by each of the three great monotheistic religions: on the premises of each, there can be only one legitimate religious community. In speaking of the nations in the plural, he refers to the national character of the religions of the pagans: that national character explains the co-existence of many equally legitimate religious communities.13 It is true that after having divided politics proper into governance of the city and governance of the great nations at the beginning of his statement on political science, Maimonides does not make explicit use of the bi-partition in the sequel: when discussing the function and the scope of politics proper, he identifies the whole of politics proper with governance of the city. This does not mean however that he drops the original bi-partition as unimportant. On the contrary, it means that that bi-partition is a hint which is addressed to the attentive reader and which may safely be lost on the others. To understand Maimonides' thought means to understand his hints. It is possible to explain a particular hint with utmost explicitness, but the nature of the subject matter compels the interpreter to have recourse, sooner or later, to other hints. These remarks do not suffice to clarify the obscurities of Maimonides' statement. As a rule, he enumerates at the end
tion); 40, 11 ff. Halkin. Cf. Guide II 11 vers.fin. and III 31. Cf. the use of "the great nations" which as such are distinguished from Israel, in Ibn Aknin's Commentary on the Song of Songs (Halkin in Alexander Marx Jubilee Volume,English section, New York 1950, 421). I3 Cf. Guide I 71 (94b): "the Christian nation embraced these nations." As regards the universalistic intention of the Torah, cf. e. g., H. Teshubah IX 9 and Resurrection 32, 4-6.

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of each chapter of the Logic the terms which he has explained in the body of the chapter. In the enumeration at the end of Chapter 14, he does not mention the terms designating the four parts of practical or political philosophy, whereas he does mention the terms designating the three parts of theoretical philosophy. Thus he does not even claim to have explained the meaning of "governance of the great nation or of the nations" in particular. We have seen how appropriate this silent declaration is. There are only two terms pertaining to politics proper and to economics which he mentions as having been explained in the chapter: "commands"I4 and nomoi. He did define "command": command is that guidance by which a man guides other men. But he did not define nomos. Yet the remark at the end of the chapter shows that the definition of nomos is implicitly conveyed through the statement on economics and on politics proper. It is obvious that nomos must be a species of the genus "command." Discussing the governance of the household, he says that that governance takes due account of time and place. He does not mention the consideration of time and place when discussing politics proper. We suggest that nomos is that species of command which is general in the sense that it does not regard time and place, or that it does not consider the individual in his individuality. The other species of command is that of particular commands, commands which change in accordance with changing circumstances, and especially in accordance with differences among the individuals to be guided.15 Does this mean that all political governance, or all sound political governance, is government by law? According to Farabi, whom Maimonides regarded as the philosophic authority second only to Aristotle, the unchangeable divine law (shari'a) is only
Should the original have '4 Ibn Tibbon: o'plnn;Vives: pnn;Ahitub: nn,mnn. read hukm? 15Cf. Guide III 34 with II 40 (85b), where Maimonides speaks about the conventional characterof the agreement producedby law between individuals of different and opposite temperaments. Consider the implications of the distinction between those psychically ill people who, being men of science, can heal themselves and those who are in need of being treated by others in III-IV. Eight Chapters

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a substitute for the government of a perfect ruler who governs without written laws and who changes his ordinances in accordance with the change of times as he sees fit.,6 The rule of living intelligence appears to be superior to the rule of law. There is then a form of sound political governance which is akin to the governance of the household, or to paternal rule, in that it pays due regard to time and place as well as to what is good for each individual - the form of political governance which Plato and Aristotle had praised most highly. Maimonides mentions the rule of living intelligence in the household and the rule of law in the city; he does not mention the rule of living intelligence in the city. He omits the central possibility. One of our first impressions was that he might have omitted from the normal enumeration of the kinds of political governance the governance of the nation, i. e., the central item. We see now that this impression was not entirely wrong: he did omit a central item. But whereas it remained uncertain whether he had omitted the nation or only the small nation, it is quite certain that he omitted the rule of living intelligence in the city or nation. If nomos is essentially a general command in the sense indicated, it is not, as we have previously assumed, essentially a religious order. Perhaps Maimonides even made an explicit distinction between nomos and "governance by human beings in divine things" at the end of his statement. However this may be, in his thematic discussion of nomos in the Guide, he suggests that the nomos, in contradistinction to the divinely revealed law, is directed only toward the well-being of the body and is unconcerned with divine things.I7 The nomos is, then, to use Wolfson's expression, essentially the order of a "civil state" as distinguished from a "religious state." One might think that the philosophers did not admit the possibility of a "civil state": according to them, divine worship is an essential function, and in a sense the primary function, of civil society. But this objection overlooks the fact that while the nomos must indeed be strengthened by myth or by a "governmental religion," that
I6

Siyasat 50-51; Al-madina al-fadila 60, 15 ff.

'7

Cf. II 39 end with II 40 (86a-b).

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religion is not part of the primary intention of the nomos and


of the association which is ordered by it.18

Whereas the nomos entails a religion that is in the service of government, the divinely revealed law which is a subject of the same branchof political philosophyas the nomosputs government in the service of religion, of the true religion, of the truth. The divinely revealed law is thereforenecessarilyfree from the relativity of the nomos,i. e., it is universal as regardsplace and perpetual as regardstime. It is then a much loftier social order than the nomos. Hence it is exposed to dangers which did not threaten the pagan nomoi. For instance, the public discussion of "the account of creation," i. e., of physics, did not harm the pagans in the way in which it might harm the adherents of revealed laws. The divinely revealed laws also create dangers which did not exist among the Greeks:they open up a new source of disagreementamong men.I9 To summarize, Maimonidesdirects our attention first to the differencesbetween political societies in regard to size. He then directs our attention to their differencesin regard to religion. He finally directs our attention to their differences in regard to the presenceor absenceof laws. He thus forces us to consider the effects produced upon the character of laws by the change from paganismto revealed religion. Maimonides' unusual division of practical or human philosophy has the result that philosophyor science consists of 7 parts. An uncommon chain of reasoning leads to a common result.20 We cannot in the present case account for the result by its commonness, precisely because it is arrived at in so uncommon a manner. We must consider the significanceof the number 7 in Maimonides' own thought. Considerations of this kind are
18Cf. Aristotle, Politics 1299a 18-19, 1322b 16-22, 1328b 11, and Meta-

physics 1074b 1 ff. Cf. Yehuda Halevi, CuzariI 13; Maimonides'Commentary on 'Abodah zara IV 7 (27 Wiener). '9 Guide I 17, 31 (34b), III 29 (65b). Cf. the variant reading of II 39 (85a IV (15, 13-20). Munk; 269, 27 Jonovitz) and Eight Chapters 20 Cf. H. A. Wolfson, "The Classification of Sciences in Medieval Jewish Jubilee Volume,Cincinnati 1925, 277-279 Philosophy," Hebrew Union College and 283-285.

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necessarily somewhat playful. But they are not so playful as to be incompatible with the seriousness of scholarship. The Logic itself consists of 14 (= 7 x 2) chapters; the number of terms explained in the work is 175 (=7 x 25); in Chapter 7, Maimonides discusses the 14 moods of valid syllogism. His Mishneh Torah consists of 14 books. In the Guide, he divides the Biblical commandments into groups in a manner which differs considerably from the division underlying the Mishneh Torah, yet the number of groups of commandments is again 14. In Guide III 51 (123b-124a) which happens to be the 175th chapter of that work, he assigns, in the first interpretation of a simile, the same place to law which he assigns, in the second interpretation, to logic: there seems to be a certain correspondence between law and logic. Should there be a connection between the number 14 on the one hand, and logic and law on the other? In the 14th chapter of the Guide, he explains the meaning of "man." We suggest this explanation: Man, being the animal which possesses speech, is at the same time the rational animal which is perfected by the art of reasoning, and the political animal which is perfected by law. Man is a compound of form and matter; he has a dual nature. The number 7 itself, as distinguished from its double, would then seem to refer to beings of a simple nature, to pure intelligences, i. e., to God and the angels which are the subjects of philosophic theology or of "the account of the chariot." The Guide, the highest and central theme of which is precisely "the account of the chariot," consists of 7 sections: 1) the names and attributes of God (I 1-70); 2) demonstration of God's existence etc. on the presupposition of the eternity of the world and discussion of that presupposition (i. e., defence of the belief in creation out of nothing) (I 71-II 31); 3) prophecy (II 32-48); 4) "the account of the chariot" (III 1-7); 5) providence (III 8-24); 6) the Torah (III 25-50); 7) conclusion (III 51-54). The central section of Maimonides' Heptameres, the thematic discussion of "the account of the chariot," the secret of secrets, consists of 7 chapters. It would be premature to attempt a discussion of the question why the number 7 is preeminent. We must limit

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ourselves to noting that the section devoted to "the account of the chariot" is surrounded by two sections of 17 chapters each, and to referring the reader to the 17th chapter of the Guide. It is of the essence of devices of this kind that, while they are helpful up to a certain point, they are never sufficient and are never meant to be sufficient: they are merely hints. But there are no isolated hints: the deficiency of one hint is supplied by other hints. The suggestion stated in the preceding paragraph suffers from an obvious flaw. The same strange division of practical philosophy which leads to the result that philosophy or science consists of 7 parts leads to the further result that ethics occupies the central place in the order of the sciences. And, as Maimonides intimates in his statement on political science, ethics does not deserve the central place. Ethics is the study of the virtues, which means primarily of the moral virtues; it is not the study of happiness or man's true end; the study of man's end belongs to politics proper. This means in the first place that the moral virtues and their exercise are not man's end. It means furthermore that the moral virtues can only be understood with a view to their political function. This does not mean of course that the true end of man is political or, more radically, the well-being of his body. But it does mean that the true end of man or man's final perfection can only be understood in contradistinction to his first perfection, the wellbeing of his body, and hence in contradistinction to man's political life at its best. In other words, morality in the common sense of the term belongs to the realm of generally accepted opinions, of the ^bvoza. The theoretical understanding of morality traces morality in the common sense to two different roots: to the requirements of society and the requirements of man's final perfection, i. e., theoretical understanding. Commonsense morality belongs to the realm of generally accepted opinion because the requirements of society and the requirements of theoretical understanding are not completely identical but are in a certain tension with each other. Commonsense morality is essentially unaware of its being a mixture of heterogeneous elements which has no clear or exact principle, and yet it is

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sufficiently consistent for almost all practical purposes: it is doxa. It is the most impressive expression of man's dual nature.2" Let us then look once more at Maimonides' division of the sciences. His division of theoretical philosophy into 3 parts and practical philosophy into 4 parts is not final. There is a further subdivision of two of the parts of theoretical philosophy: of mathematics into 4 parts (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music) and theology into 2 parts (speech about God and the angels, metaphysics). This might appear strange at first sight, but there is no mention of any subdivision of physics. We are justified in regarding the subdivisions of practical philosophy as no more important than the subdivisions of mathematics: neither of them is mentioned at the end of the chapter in the enumeration of the terms explained in the body of the chapter. We arrive then at a division of philosophy or science into 11 parts (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music, physics, speech about God and the angels, metaphysics, ethics, economics, governance of the city, governance of the great nation or of the nations). The central part in this second division, which is slightly less noticeable than the first, is occupied by speech about God and the angels, i. e., by a science which obviously deserves the central place.2 Yet the very plausibility of this consequence of the second division renders questionable the first division and therewith the significance of the number 7 and the implications thereof.23We are therefore forced to wonder whether
21 Logic, ch. 8; Eight ChaptersIV (12, 19-21), VI; GuideI 2, II 33 (75a), 36 (79a-b), 40 (86b), III 22 (45b), 27, 28 (61b), 46 (106a). Cf. the distinction between justice and the virtues in Farabi's Plato sect. 30 Rosenthal-Walser II on the one hand, and with the enumerationof the virtues in Eight Chapters with their enumeration in ib. IV on the other: justice is replaced by wit, liberality, and sense of shame. Cf. Guide III 23 (47b) and I 34 (39b). 2 In HUCA III, 1926, 373, Wolfson reports a division of science into 7 in Arabic, and also its Hebrew translation which, is which composed parts while deviating from the original in regard to the sciences mentioned,preserves the division of science into 7 parts: in both the original and the translation the central place is occupied by metaphysics. 23 On the basis of the second division, theoretical philosophy consists of 7 parts, with music in the center. The underlying view is that the theoretical sciences by themselves complete philosophy or science, or that only the

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"the account of the chariot" is identical with the science of God and the angels. By merely raising this question, we recognize the error of those who hold that Maimonides' allusive treatment of "the account of the chariot" is unreasonable because the secret toward which that treatment points is familar to the scholars of all religions.24 And to recognize that a scholarly criticism of Maimonides is unreasonable is equivalent to progressing in the understanding of his thought. The section of the Guide which is devoted to "the account of the chariot" is most reasonably the most mysterious section of the book. The study of Maimonides' statement on practical philosophy or political science thus leads directly into the center of the fundamental problem. This is no accident. The recovery of what we are in the habit of calling classical political philosophy and of what Maimonides called simply political science or practical philosophy is, to say the least, an indispensable condition for understanding his thought. Only those, he says, are able to answer the question of whether the Talmudic Sages were men of science or not, who have trained themselves in the sciences to the point of knowing how to address the multitude on the one hand and the elite on the other concerning divine things and things similar to the divine, and to the point of knowing the practical part of philosophy.25 The question of whether the
theoreticalsciences are philosophic. But this view is the view of "the ancients" (60, 11-14 and 61, 16-17): it is not the true view. It is a pre-Aristotelianand even a pre-Socraticview. (Cf. Farabi's Plato, loc. cit.) Cf. the report on "the ancient opinion" of the Pythagoreans and their "musical" philosophy in GuideII 8. It was the Pythagoreandoctrine which offereda solid justification for arithmology. After the refutation of Pythagoreanism by the discovery of the irrational numbers, arithmology ceased to be unqualifiedlyserious and became a serious play. Maimonides obviously does not share "the ancient opinions." Cf. GuideIII 23 (49b). - In his first enumerationof moral virtues in the Eight Chapters(II), Maimonidesmentions 7 moral virtues; the section of his Code dealing with ethics (H. De'ot) consists of 7 chapters. 24 Cf. Munk, Le Guidedes 1gares, III, p. 8 n. 1. See also the statement on theology in Logic, ch. 14. 25 Introduction to the Commentary on the Mishnah (E. Pococke, Porta Mosis, Oxford 1655, 147). Cf. Commentaryon Berakot IX 5 and Guide III 22 (46b).

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Talmudic Sages were men of science or not is identical with the question of the relation of "the account of the chariot" to metaphysics: the mystical meaning of "the account of the chariot" was vouched for by the Talmudic Sages.26 Maimonides' one-page statement on political science is a masterful epitome of the problem of revelation as it presents itself from the point of view of the philosophers, i. e., from the most sublime point of view to which pagans could rise. Once we realize this, we are on our way toward solving the other riddles pf the Logic -for instance, the strange reference to the Sabean Abui Ishaq in Chapter 4 and the related strange definition of substance in Chapter 10. Maimonides pursued the philosophic approach up to its end because he was "the great eagle" who, far from fearing the light of the sun, "by virtue of the strength of his sense of sight, enjoys the light and
longs to fly high in order to get near to it,"27 or because he was

animated by that intrepid piety which does not shrink from the performance of any duty laid upon us in the prayer "Purify our heart so that we can serve Thee in truth." If he had not brought the greatest sacrifice, he could not have defended the Torah against the philosophers as admirably as he did in his Jewish books.

26

Cf. Guide III 5.

27Cf. Albo, Ikkarim II 29 (190, 5-6) and GuideIII 6 end.

Note on Maimonides'
Treatise on the Art of Logic

Maimonides' Treatise on the Art of Logic is not a Jewish book. He wrote it in his capacity as a student of logic at the request of a master of the legal (religious) sciences, of a man of high education in the Arabic tongue who wished to have explained to him as briefly as possible the meaning of the terms frequently occurring in the art of logic. One ought therefore not to expect that Maimonides' Logic is an ordinary scholastic compendium, original or unoriginal. It is natural in the circumstances that he should introduce in the first chapter the terms which "we" (i.e. we logicians) use, as equivalents of the terms used by "the Arabic grammarians." In chapter 3, he mentions not only the possible, the impossible and the necessary but also the obligatory, the base and noble and the like among the modes of the proposition: is this due to an adaptation to a way of thinking to be expected from a master of the legal sciences? When he takes up in the next chapter the necessary, the possible and the impossible, he makes clear that the truly possible can only be said with a view to the future (e.g., it is truly possible that a newborn normal child will write); as soon as the truly possible is actualized, it resembles the necessary. One of the examples used in this connection deals with Abfi Ishaq the Sabean. This example is not strange if one considers that the Logic is not a Jewish book and that Sabeanism is an alternative to Judaism. (An author, Ishaq the Sabean, is mentioned in the Guide, III 29.) In chapter 7, he refers without discussing them to "the legal syllogisms." He discusses there, when treating "analogical syllogism" and "inductive syllogism," syllogisms proving that heaven is created; the syllogisms in question are based on a disregard of the difference between natural and artificial things.

In chapter 8 however we learn that it is the art of rhetoric as distinguished from the art of demonstration that uses analogical syllogisms. In chapter 9 it is made clear that the philosophershere mentioned for the first time admit God to be only the remote cause in particular also of what befalls human beings and seek in each case for a proximate cause. In the center of chapter 10 we read that "body simply" comprises everything or is the highest genus of beings: the Sabeans knew no gods but the stars. We are reminded at the end of the chapter that the Logic is written for beginners. In chapter 11 Maimonides quotes the saying of a philosopher according to which "everyone who does not distinguish between the potential and the actual, the essential and the accidental, the conventional things and the natural things, and the universal and the particular, is unable to discourse." Toward the end of chapter 11 and in chapter 13, Maimonides begins to refer again to the Arabic grammarian. In chapter 14, the concluding chapter, he speaks above all of the division of the sciences and at greatest length of political science. According to him, political science consists of four parts: self-government of the individual, government of the household, government of the city, government of the great nation or of the nations. The silence on government of a nation remains strange; perhaps Maimonides wished to exclude the government of a small nation. The expression "the great nation or the nations," as distinguished from "the great nation or all nations," may indicate that there cannot be a great nation comprising all nations. This "Averroist" view is best known to us from Marsilius of Padua's Defensor Pacis (I 17.10).