Sie sind auf Seite 1von 65

Asset Data Standards Manual

Acknowledgements
This Asset Data Standards Manual is prepared for the Road and Bridge Maintenance Section, Abu Dhabi Municipality and Town Planning Department, Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Asset Management group of engineers from the following three Consultants for Abu Dhabi Island, Mainland and Western Region were given the task to prepare the Asset Data Standards Manual DIWI Consult Hyder Consulting WS Atkins Dr. Atef Garib ADM

Under the direction of Abu Dhabi Municipality and Town Planning Engineer

The above-mentioned engineers held several meetings in developing the Asset Data Standards Manual for the Condition Assessment of Roads and Road Furnitures. ADS Manual is intended for the Abu Dhabi Municipality Road Maintenance Section and for the Consultants employed on various Road Maintenance Project.

Asset Data Standards Manual

EMIRATE OF ABU DHABI

ABU DHABI MUNICIPALITY AND TOWN PLANNING DEPARTMENT

ASSET DATA STANDARDS MANUAL

PAVEMENT CONDITION ASSESSMENT

Asset Data Standards Manual

Contents

Asset Data Standards Manual

1.

OBJECTIVE:

Road Infrastructure in Abu Dhabi is fairly new. In the past, maintenance work for Abu Dhabi main roads and internal roads was the responsibility of the Works Department. Abu Dhabi Municipality and Town Planning Department has been recently given the responsibility for the road maintenance within the Municipality limits. The network managed by the Abu Dhabi Municipality is divided into three regions. These three regions are known as Abu Dhabi Island, Main land and Western Region. The objective of this Manual is to set the Asset Data Standards for Road and Road Furniture based upon their condition grading. This Manual is also intended for the Road Inspectors and for the civil engineering students as a part of their study program. 2. METHODOLOGY:

In the past, pavements were maintained but not managed. In todays economic environment as the pavement infrastructure has aged, a more systematic approach to determining maintenance and rehabilitation needs and priorities is necessary. Pavement networks must be managed not simply maintained. The first and most important part of the road network management is the Pavement Distress Survey and Rating Procedure. The pavement condition rating procedure presented here is the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) Refer to Asphalt Pavement Inspection Sheet. The PCI is a numerical index, ranging from 0 for a failed pavement to 100 for a pavement in perfect condition. Calculation of PCI is based on the visual condition survey in which distress type, severity and quantity are identified. The PCI was developed to provide an index of the pavement structural integrity and surface operational condition. The distress information obtained as part of the PCI condition survey provides an insight into the causes of distress, and whether it is related to load or climate. The degree of pavement deterioration is a function of distress type, distress severity, and amount or density of distress. The pavement management is entirely dependent upon the accuracy of the pavement condition data. Hence, there is a need to set the Asset Data Standards and to train the road inspectors involved in the pavement assessment. Also there is a need for the civil engineering students to seek training in the pavement management as a part of their study program. Following methodology is recommended for the training program: To prepare a Asset Data Standards Manual. In-house training on the contents of the Manual. Field validation training on pavement distresses.

Asset Data Standards Manual

3.

CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF SURFACE DISTRESSES:

An important feature of a pavement management system (PMS) is the ability to determine the current condition of a pavement network and to predict its future condition. Current condition of the pavement is assessed based upon damage to the road surface. . Damage to the pavement is caused by traffic loading, type of construction materials used, weather conditions, utility services etc. Surface distresses are divided into four major categories as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Surface Defects: Divided further into 6 types of distresses as shown on the attached chart. Surface Deformations: Divided further into 6 types of distresses as shown on the attached chart. Cracking: Divided further into 6 types of distresses as shown on the attached chart. Patching: Only 1 type of distress known as Patching & Utility Cut Patching

Asset Data Standards Manual

4.

PHOTOGRAPHS OF VARIOUS DISTRESSES:

Photographs on the following pages gives details of the surface distresses observed mainly in the Abu Dhabi. This photographic chart is known as the Condition Grading Chart. The following pages have at least 3 photos for each type of distress to show the distress severity for low, medium and high level. Since the Road Infrastructure is fairly new, it was not possible to find evidence for each type of distress. Distress number 14 for Railroad crossing does not exist in Abu Dhabi.

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME:

ALLIGATOR CRACKING (I)

DESCRIPTION Alligator or fatigue cracking is a series of interconnected cracks caused by fatigue failure of the asphalt concrete surface under repeated loading. Cracking begins at the bottom of the asphalt surface (or stabilized base) where tensile stress and strain are highest under a wheel load. The cracks propagate to the surface initially as a series of parallel longitudinal cracks. After repeated traffic, loading, the cracks connect, forming many sided, sharp-angled pieces that develop a pattern resembling chicken wire or the skin of an alligator. The pieces are less than 0.6 m on the longest side. Alligator cracking occurs only in areas subject to repeated traffic loading, such as wheel paths. Therefore, it would not occur over an entire area unless the entire areas were subjected to traffic loading. Alligator cracking is considered a major structural distress and is usually accompanied by rutting. SEVERITY LEVELS LFine, longitudinal hairline cracks running parallel to each other with none or only a few interconnecting cracks. The cracks are not spalled. Future development of light alligator cracks into a pattern or network of cracks that may be lightly spalled. Network or pattern cracking has progressed so that the pieces are well defined and spalled at the edges. Some of the pieces may rock under traffic. Also potholes may be found.

M-

H-

HOW TO MEASURE Alligator cracking is measured in square meters of surface area. The major difficulty of measuring this type of distress is that two or three levels of severity often exist within one distressed area. If these portions can be easily distinguished from each other, they should be measured and recorded separately. However, if the different levels of severity cannot be divided easily, the entire area should be rated at the highest severity level present.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Alligator (Distress Type 1)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Alligator (Distress Type 1)

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

Photo 3: Alligator (Distress Type 1)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME:

BLEEDING (2)

DESCRIPTION Bleeding is a film of bituminous material on the pavement surface that creates a shiny, glasslike, reflecting surface that usually becomes quite sticky. Bleeding is caused by excessive asphalt cement or tars in the mix, excess application of bituminous sealant, and/or low air void content. It occurs when asphalt fills the voids of the mix during hot weather and then expands onto the pavement surface. Since the bleeding is not reversible during cold weather, asphalt or tar will accumulate on the surface. SEVERITY LEVELS LBleeding has only occurred to a very slight degree and it is visible however asphalt does not stick to shoes or vehicles. Bleeding has occurred to the extent that 30-50% of the Lane Width shows signs of Bleeding and asphalt sticks to shoes and vehicles Bleeding has occurred extensively greater than 50% and considerable asphalt sticks to shoes and vehicles and it forms a thin Layer like Rubber

MH-

HOW TO MEASURE Bleeding is measured in square meters of surface area. If bleeding is counted, polished aggregate should not be counted.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 2: Bleeding (Distress Type 2)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Bleeding (Distress Type 2)

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

Photo 2: Bleeding (Distress Type 2)

High Severity

Photo 2: Bleeding (Distress Type 2)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: DESCRIPTION

BLOCK CRACKING (3)

Block cracks are interconnected cracks that divide the pavement into approximately rectangular pieces. The blocks may range from (0.3 by 6 m). Block cracking is caused mainly by shrinkage of the asphalt concrete and daily temperature cycling (which results in daily stress/strain cycling). It is not load associated. Block cracking usually indicates that the asphalt has hardened significantly. Block cracking normally occurs over a large proportion of pavement area, but sometimes will occur only in non traffic areas. This type of distress differs from alligator cracking in that alligator cracks form smaller, many sided pieces with sharp angles. Also, unlike block cracks, are caused by repeated traffic loadings, and are therefore found only in traffic areas (i.e. wheel paths). SEVERITY LEVELS LOne of the following conditions exists: 1. 2. 3. MNon filled crack width is less or equal 7mm that is easily visible (including hairline cracks) Filled crack of any width (filler in satisfactory condition) About 3m X 10m size blocks.

One of the following conditions exists: 1. 2. 3. 4. Non filled crack width is 7mm to 10mm. Non filled crack of any width up to 75 mm surrounded by light and random cracking; Filled crack of any width surrounded by light and random cracking. About 3m X 5m size blocks.

H-

One of the following conditions exists: 1. 2. 3. 4. Any crack filled or none filled surrounded by medium or high severity random cracking. None filled crack over 25 mm in width. A crack of any width where a few inches of pavement around the crack is severely broken. Smaller than 3m x 5m blocks.

HOW TO MEASURE Block cracking is measured in square meters of surface area. It usually occurs at one severity level in a given pattern section; however, any areas of the pavement section having distinctly different levels of severity should be measured and recorded separately.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Block Cracking (Distress Type 3)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Block Cracking (Distress Type 3)

High Severity

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

Photo 3: Block Cracking (Distress Type 3)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME:

BUMPS AND SAGS (4)

DESCRIPTION Bumps are small, localized, upward displacement of the pavement surface. They are different from shoves in that shoves are caused by unstable pavement. Bumps, on the other hand, can be caused by several factors including. 1. Buckling or bulging of underlying Portland cement concrete (PCC) slabs in asphalt concrete overlay over PCC pavement. 2. Volume change of subgrade. 3. Infiltration and buildup of material in a crack in combination with traffic loading. Sags, on the other hand, are small, abrupt, downward displacement of the pavement surface. Distortion and displacement which occur over large areas of the pavement surface, causing large and/or long dips in the pavement is called swelling. SEVERITY LEVELS LMHBump or sag causes low severity ride quality (No need to change speed, but drivers feel it). Bump or sag causes medium severity ride quality (reduce the speed) Bump or sag causes high severity ride quality (stop is needed)

HOW TO MEASURE Bumps or sags are measured in linear feet. If bumps appear in a pattern perpendicular to traffic flow and are spaced at less than 3m the distress is called corrugation. If the bump occurs in combination with a crack, the crack is also recorded.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Bumps & Sags (Distress Type 4)

Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTOGRAPH NOT AVAILABLE

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Bumps & Sags (Distress Type 4)

PHOTOGRAPH NOT AVAILABLE

High Severity

Photo 3: Bumps & Sags (Distress Type 4)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: DESCRIPTION

CORRUGATION (5)

Corrugation (also known as wash boarding) is a series of closely spaced ridges and valleys (ripples) occurring at fairly regular intervals usually less than 3m along the pavement. The ridges are perpendicular to the traffic direction. This type of distress is usually caused by traffic action combined with an unstable pavement surface or base. If bumps occur in a series less than 3m due to any cause, the distress is considered corrugation. SEVERITY LEVELS LMHCorrugation produces low-severity ride quality Corrugation produces medium-severity ride quality Corrugation produces high-severity ride quality

HOW TO MEASURE Corrugation is measured in square meters of surface area.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Corrugations (Distress Type 5)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Corrugations (Distress Type 5)

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

Photo 3: Corrugations (Distress Type 5)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME:

DEPRESSION (6)

DESCRIPTION Depression is a localized pavement surface area with elevations slightly lower than those of the surrounding pavement. In many instances, light depressions are not noticeable until after a rain, when ponding water creates birdbath areas; on dry pavement, depressions can be spotted by looking for stains caused by ponding water. Depressions are created by settlement of the foundation soil or area result of improper construction. Depressions cause some roughness, and when filled with water of sufficient depth, can cause hydroplaning. SEVERITY LEVELS LMHMaximum depression depth is 13 to 25mm. Maximum depression depth is 25 to 50mm. Maximum depression depth is greater than 50mm.

HOW TO MEASURE Depressions are measured in square meters of surface area.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Depression (Distress Type 6)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Depression (Distress Type 6)

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

Photo 3: Depression (Distress Type 6)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME:

EDGE CRACKING (7)

DESCRIPTION Edge cracks are parallel to and usually within 0.3 to 0.6m of the outer edge of the pavement. This distress is accelerated by traffic loading and can be caused by poor drainage. The area between the crack and pavement edge is classified as raveled if it breaks up (sometimes to the extent that pieces are removed). SEVERITY LEVELS LMHLow or medium cracks with no breakup or raveling Medium cracks with some breakup and raveling Considerable breakup or raveling along the edge

HOW TO MEASURE Edge cracking is measured in linear meter.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Edge Cracking (Distress Type 7)

Med. Severity

Photo 2: Edge Cracking (Distress Type 7) and corrugations (Distress Type 7) -Low Severity

Asset Data Standards Manual

Photo 3: Edge Cracking (Distress Type 7)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME:

JOINT REFLECTION CRACKING (8)

DESCRIPTION This distress occurs only on asphalt pavements which have been laid over a PCC slab. It does not include reflection cracks from any other type of base (i.e. cement or lime stabilized bases); such cracks are listed as longitudinal and transverse cracks. Joint reflection cracks are mainly caused by the thermal or moisture induced movement of the PCC slab beneath the asphalt concrete surface. This distress is not load related; however, traffic loading may cause a breakdown of the asphalt surface near the cracks. If the pavement is fragmented along a crack, the crack is said to be spalled. Knowledge of slab dimensions beneath the asphalt surface will help to identify these distresses. SEVERITY LEVELS LMHSame as low severity block cracking Same as medium severity block cracking Same as high severity block cracking

HOW TO MEASURE Joint reflection cracking is measured in linear meters. The length of each crack should be recorded separately. For example, a crack that is 15m long may have 3m of high severity; these would all be recorded separately. If a bump occurs at the reflection crack, it is also recorded.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Joint Reflection (Distress Type 8)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Joint Reflection (Distress Type 8)

Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTO NOT AVAILABLE

High Severity

Photo 3: Joint Reflection (Distress Type 8)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME:

LANE/SHOULDER DROP OFF (9)

DESCRIPTION Lane/shoulder drop off is a difference in elevation between the pavement edge and the shoulder. This distress is caused by shoulder erosion, shoulder settlement, or by building up the roadway without adjusting the shoulder level. SEVERITY LEVELS LThe difference in elevation between the pavement edge and shoulder is 25 to 50mm. The difference in elevation is 50 to 100mm. The difference in elevation is greater than 100mm.

MH-

HOW TO MEASURE Lane/shoulder drop off is measured in linear meters.

Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTO NOT AVAILABLE

Low Severity

Photo 1: Lane/Shoulder Drop off (Distress Type 9)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Lane/Shoulder Drop off (Distress Type 9)

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

Photo 3: Lane/Shoulder Drop off (Distress Type 9)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE CRACKING (10) DESCRIPTION Longitudinal cracks are parallel to the pavements centerline or lay down direction. They may be caused by: 1. A poorly constructed paving lane joint. 2. Shrinkage of the asphalt concrete due to low temperature or hardening of the asphalt and/ or daily temperature cycling. 3. A reflection crack caused by cracking beneath the surface course, including cracks in PCC slabs (but not PCC joints). SEVERITY LEVELS L- Same as low severity block cracking M- Same as medium severity block cracking H- Same as high severity block cracking HOW TO MEASURE Longitudinal and transverse cracks are measured in linear meters. The length and severity of each crack should be recorded after identification. If the crack does not have the same severity level along its entire length, each portion of the crack having a different severity should be recorded separately. If a bump or sag occurs at the crack, it is also recorded.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1 : Longitudinal & Transverse Cracks ( Distress Type 10)

Medium Severity

Photo 2 : Longitudinal & Transverse Cracks ( Distress Type 10)

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

Photo 3: Longitudinal & Transverse (Distress Type 10)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: PATCHING AND UTILITY CUT PATCHING (11) DESCRIPTION A patch is an area of pavement which has been replaced with new material to repair the existing pavement. A patch is considered a defect no matter how well it is performing (a patched area or adjacent area usually does not perform as well as an original pavement section). Generally, some roughness is associated with this distress.

SEVERITY LEVELS L- Patch is in good condition and satisfactory. Ride quality is rated as low severity or better. M- Patch is moderately deteriorated and / or ride quality is rated as medium severity. H- Patch is badly deteriorated and / or ride quality is rated as high severity. Patch needs replacement soon. HOW TO MEASURE Patching is rated in square meters of the surface area. However, if a single patch has areas of differing severity, these areas should be measured and recorded separately, for example, a 3 square meters patch may have 1 square meter medium severity and 2 square meters of low severity. These areas would be recorded separately. No other distress (e.g. shoving or cracking) is recorded within a patch (e.g. even if a patch material is shoving or cracking, the area is rated as only a patch). If a large amount of pavement has been replaced, it should not be recorded as a patch, but considered as new pavement (e.g. replacement of full intersection).

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Patching and Utility Cut Patching (Distress Type 11).

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Patching and Utility Cut Patching (Distress Type 11)

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

Photo 3: Patching & Utility Cut Patching (Distress Type 11)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: POLISHED AGGREGATE (12) DESCRIPTION This distress is caused by repeated traffic applications. When the aggregate in the surface becomes smooth to the touch, adhesion with vehicle tires is considerably reduced. When the portion of aggregate extending above the surface is small, the pavement texture does not significantly contribute to reducing vehicle speed. Polished aggregate should be counted when close examination reveals that the aggregate extending above the asphalt is negligible and the surface aggregate is smooth in touch. This type of distress is indicated when the number on a skid resistance test is low or has dropped significantly from previous ratings. SEVERITY LEVELS No degrees of severity are defined. However, the degree of polishing should be significant before it is included in the condition survey and rated as a defect. HOW TO MEASURE Polished aggregate is measured in square meters of surface area. If bleeding is counted, polished aggregate should not be counted.

Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTO NOT AVAILABLE

Low Severity

Photo 1: Polished Aggregate (Distress Type 12)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Polished Aggregate (Distress Type 12)

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

Photo 3: Polished Aggregate (Distress Type 12)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: POTHOLES (13) DESCRIPTION Potholes are small (usually less than 1.0 meter in diameter), bowl-shaped depression in the pavement surface. They generally have sharp edges and vertical sides near the top of the hole. Their growth is accelerated by free moisture collection inside the hole. Potholes are produced when traffic abrades small pieces of the pavement surface. The pavement then continues to disintegrate because of poor surface mixtures, weal spots in the base or subgrade, or because it has reached a condition of high severity alligator cracking. Potholes are generally structurally related distresses and should not be confused with raveling and weathering. Thus, when holes are created by high severity alligator cracking, they should be identified as potholes, not as weathering. SEVERITY LEVELS The levels of severity for potholes under 75 cm. in diameter are based on both the diameter and the depth of the pothole according to the following table. Maximum Depth of Pothole (cm) 10 20 1.3 2.5 2.5 5.0 > 5.0 Low Low Medium Average Diameter (cm.) 20 45 Low Medium Medium 45 75 Medium High High

If pothole is over 75 cm. in diameter, the area should be determined in square meters and divided by 0.5 m2 to find the equivalent number of potholes. If the depth is 2.5 cm. or less, they are considered medium severity. If the depth is over 2.5 cm. they are considered high severity. HOW TO MEASURE Potholes are measured by counting the number that are low, medium and high severity and recording them separately.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Pothole (Distress Type 13) and Depression (Distress Type 6)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Pothole (Distress Type 13)

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

Photo 3: Pothole (Distress Type 13).

High Severity

Photo 4: Pothole (Distress Type 13); Weathering & Raveling (Distress Type 19)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: RAILROAD CROSSING (14) DESCRIPTION Railroad crossing defects are depressions or bumps around / or between rail tracks. SEVERITY LEVELS LMHRailroad crossing causes low-severity ride quality Railroad crossing causes medium-severity ride quality Railroad crossing causes high-severity ride quality

HOW TO MEASURE The area of the crossing is measured in square meters of surface area. If the crossing does not affect ride quality, it should not be counted. Any large bump created by the tracks should be counted as part of the crossing.

Asset Data Standards Manual

DOES NOT EXIST IN ABU DHABI

Low Severity Photo 1: Railroad Crossing (Distress Type 14)

DOES NOT EXIST IN ABU DHABI

Medium Severity Photo 2: Railroad Crossing (Distress Type 14)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DOES NOT EXIST IN ABU DHABI

High Severity Photo 3: Railroad Crossing (Distress Type 14)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: RUTTING (15) DESCRIPTION A rut is a surface depression in the wheel paths. Pavement uplift may occur along the sides of the rut, but, in many instances, ruts are noticeable only after a rainfall, when the paths are filled with water. Rutting stems from a permanent deformation in any of the pavement layers or subgrade, usually caused by consolidation or lateral movement of the materials due to traffic loads. Significant rutting can lead to major structural failure of the pavement. SEVERITY LEVELS LMHMean rut depth is 5 to 15 mm. Mean rut depth is 15 to 25 mm. Mean rut depth is greater than 25 mm.

HOW TO MEASURE Rutting is measured in square meters of surface area, and its severity is determined by the mean depth of the rut. The mean rut depth is calculated by laying a straight-edge across the rut, measuring its depth, then using measurements taken along the length of the rut to compute its mean depth.

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Rutting (Distress Type 15)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Rutting (Distress Type 15)

Asset Data Standards Manual

High Severity

9 Photo 3: Rutting (Distress Type 15)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: SHOVING (16) DESCRIPTION Shoving is permanent, longitudinal displacement of localized area of the pavement surface caused by traffic loading. When traffic pushes against the pavement, it produces a short, abrupt wave in the pavement surface. This distress normally occurs only in unstable liquid asphalt mix (cutback or emulsion) pavement. SEVERITY LEVELS LMHShove causes low-severity ride quality Shove causes medium-severity ride quality Shove causes high-severity ride quality

HOW TO MEASURE Shoves are measured in square meters of the surface area. If shoves occur in patches, they area considered in rating the patch, not as a separate distress.

Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTO NOT AVAILABLE

Low Severity
Photo 1: Shoving (Distress Type 16)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Shoving (Distress Type 16)

Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTO NOT AVAILABLE

High Severity

Photo 3: Shoving (Distress Type 16)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: SLIPPAGE CRACKING (17) DESCRIPTION Slippage cracks are crescent or half-moon shaped cracks having two ends pointing away from the direction of traffic. They are produced when breaking or turning wheels cause the pavement surface to slide or deform. This distress usually occurs when there is lowstrength mix or a poor bond between the surface and the next layer of the pavement structure. SEVERITY LEVELS LMAverage crack width is less than 10 mm One of the following conditions exists: 1. average crack width is between 10 to 40 mm 2. the area around the crack is broken into tight-fitting pieces HOne of the following conditions exists: 1. the average crack width is greater than 40 mm 2. the area around the crack is broken into easily removed pieces HOW TO MEASURE The area associated with given slippage crack is measured in square meters and rated according to the highest level of severity in the area.

Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTO NOT AVAILABLE

Low Severity Photo 1: Slippage Cracking (Distress Type 17)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Slippage Cracking (Distress Type 17)

Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTO NOT AVAILABLE

High Severity Photo 3: Slippage Cracking (Distress Type 17)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: SWELL (18) DESCRIPTION Swell is characterized by an upward bulge in the pavements surface a long, gradual wave of more than 3 m. long. Swelling can be accompanied by surface cracking. This distress is usually caused by frost action in the subgrade or by swelling soil. SEVERITY LEVELS LSwell cause low-severity ride quality. Low-severity swells are not always are not always easy to see, but can be detected by driving at the speed limit over the pavement section. An upward acceleration will occur at the swell if it is present. Swell cause medium-severity ride quality. Swell cause high-severity ride quality.

MH-

HOW TO MEASURE The surface area of the swell is measured in square meters.

Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTO NOT AVAILABLE

Low Severity Photo 1: Swell (Distress Type 18)

Medium Severity

Photo 2: Swell (Distress Type 18)

Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTO NOT AVAILABLE

High Severity Photo 3: Swell (Distress Type 18)

Asset Data Standards Manual

DISTRESS NAME: WEATHERING AND RAVELING (19) DESCRIPTION Weathering and raveling are the wearing away of the pavement surface caused by the loss of asphalt binder and dislodged aggregate particles. These distresses indicate that either the asphalt binder has hardened appreciably or that a poor quality mixture is present. Softening of the surface and dislodging of the aggregates due to oil spillage is also included under raveling. SEVERITY LEVELS LAggregate or binder has started to wear away. In some areas, the surface is starting to pit. In case of oil spillage, the oil stain can be seen, but the surface is hard and cannot be penetrated with a coin. Aggregate and/or binder have worn away. The surface texture is moderately rough and pitted. In case of oil spillage, the surface is soft and can be penetrated with a coin. Aggregate and/or binder have been considerably worn away. The surface texture is very rough and severely pitted. The pitted areas are less than 10 mm. in diameter and less than 15 mm. deep; pitted areas larger than this are counted as potholes. In case of oil spillage, the asphalt binder has lost its bindings effect and the aggregate has become loose.

M-

H-

HOW TO MEASURE Weathering and raveling are measured in square meters of surface area.

Low Severity

Asset Data Standards Manual

Low Severity

Photo 1: Weathering & Raveling (Distress Type 19)

Photo 2: Weathering & Raveling (Distress Type 19) and Longitudinal Crack (Distress Type 10)

Medium Severity

High Severity Asset Data Standards Manual

PHOTO NOT AVAILABLE

Photo 3: Weathering & Raveling (Distress Type 19)

Asset Data Standards Manual

5.

PCI CALCULATION SYSTEM BY RAIS

We can use a Software Package named as Road Asset Information System to calculate the PCI rating of Roads based upon the distresses. The screen of this PCI calculation Software is shown below:

1.Roads location data

2.Road dimensions and Inspection Date

3. Distresses with Area

4. Button to be pressed in order to calculate PCI

5. Rating of the Road

Steps to Calculate PCI 1. First we enter the Roads data (in which Region, Zone, Sector the Road is located, type of Road and No. of lanes). 2. We then enter the dimension of Sample inspected. This includes Sample number, Inspection date, length and width of sample and Riding Quality. 3. After this we enter distresses in the table. This includes distress number with area of distress. 4. Then we press the button Existing Distress Type, Quantity, Severity. This will calculate the PCI value of the section of Road. 5. The rating of the Road is displayed based upon the PCI value. The rating can be Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, Very Poor or Failed.

Asset Data Standards Manual

8.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The pavement management is entirely dependent upon the accuracy of the road surface condition data collected by the inspectors. It is highly recommended that all Road Inspectors must be trained for the Pavement Condition Assessment and Road Furniture Assessment. Requirements of Asset Data Standards Manual must be implemented on all maintenance contract.