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White huns susanan galngan susan galngan The Ephthalite Huns were a Truko-Mongol Horde; in this case, it seems,

more Mongol than Turk and originating, according to Sung Yun, in the Kinshan hills-that is to say, in the Altai-whence they had come down to the steppes of present day Russian Turkestan. Their name, given as Ephthalites by Byzantine historians., Hayathelites by the Persian historian Mirkhond, and Ye-tai by the historians oc China, seems to be derived from the name of the royal clan Ephtha of Ye-ta. At the beginning of the 5th century A.D., the Ephthalites were no more thant a secondary horde, 254 Mean while the Ephthalites had entrenched themselves firmly on both sides of the hindu Kush, in Bactria and Kabul. In 520 A.D., at the time os Sung Yun pilgrimage, Their khan lived north of Hindu Kush migrating seasonally from Bactria, where he spent the winter, to Badhkshan, his summer residence. At Kabul in, in the old Greco-Buddhic provinces of Kapisa and Gandhara, a secondary Ephthalite chief had settled: .In the Pei-Shih and the story related by Sung Yun-who in 520 A.D., it will be remembered, visited first seat fo government is a moving cape22

Nijjar, B.S,(2008). Origins and History of Jats and other Allied Nomadic Tribes of India: 900 B.C. -1947 A.D. New Delhi, Atlantic. Chinese pilgrim Sung-Yun has left us of his own personal interview with the cruel and vindictive king one of kalhana anecdotes which accounts for Mihirakula characteristic epithet recorded by Hiuen Tsiang. 78 Kalhana,s Rajatarangini : a chronicle of the kings of Kashmir. Vol. 1 By Elibron Classics 2005. Adamant Media Corporation. Buddhism in China During the Chow dynasty, which ruled the empire from 1122 to 250 B.C., China was divided into a number ofpetty states or nations- at one time amounting to 125 and at another to 41-each of which was governed by its own prince, xvi. It was during this war with the Hinoung-nu that Hou Kiuping, the Chinese general, first saw a golden statue of Buddha, to which the King of Hieou-to paid worship, and which accurately corresponded with the reports of Chang-Kian respecting the worship of Feou-to (Buddha) in Thian (India). This statue was taken and brought to the emperor 121 B.C. and was the origin of the statues of Buddha, that were afterwards in use. Thus whilst the missionary zeal of the Buddhist church had spread their doctrines to the borders of the great country of the conflicting tribes, the war like spirit of the Chinese, under the Hand dynasty, had caused their arms to extend to the same point, and the knowledge of Buddha and of his doctrine was carried back to the seat of Government as a seed ready to germinate in due season. The events on the Indian frontier which followed this first intercourse of the two civilizations were rapied and most interesting. Xviii. From the Raja Taragini(Hist. of Kashmir) we learn that Kanishka ans his two brothers, Hushka and Jushka, ruled over Kashmir for 60 years. During this period(15 b.c-45 A.D) a great Buddhist Synod was held(in the Tamasavana Convent, at the confluence of the Sutlej and Beiah Rivers) under the

presidency of Vasoumitra, and the large Tope, of which ample mention is made by Sung-Yun was erected by the King at Peshawar. Xx It was in the fourth year of the reign of Ming Ti(62 A.D), the second emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty. That a remarkable vision appeared to him by night. He saw a golden .whoes golden image had been rendered familiar to them through the information brought by Chang-Kian and Hou Kiu-ping forms the west. Xx Another account however (Loyang Temples iv. 4)xx states, that the golden spirit, speaking to the Emperor, said, Buddha bids you send to the west countries to search for him, with a view to obtain books and images. On which the Emperor despatched an embassy that returned and entered Loyang in company with a white horse, carving the books and imageson which the temple of the White Horse was founded. Xxi Ming Ti immediately dispatched a mission to the country of the Great Yuchi and also to central india. After eleven years his messengers returned. They were accompanied by the Indian Kasyap Matanga( or Kasyamatanga, Jl. I xviii.), who translated the sutra of 42 sections, and died at Loyang. He was soon followed by Tsu-fah-lan, who worked conjoingly with him in the task of translation they had togather brought five Buddhist works from India- amongst with was the Sutra above referred to, the Dasabhumi Sutra, and the Lalita Vistara(Fo-pen-hing-king). These were translated by imperial order. From this time Buddhism began to prevail in the country. .xxii