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Research Proposal


The comparative study between travel motivations of X and Y generation living in Chandigarh
By Diwakar Raturi


Creation of Chandigarh and Generation X,Y There has been a lot of research on the motivational theory of the Individuals who are known as Gen X and Gen Y. In India these two generation have experienced different influences due to different socio-economic and political circumstances of India. India began its journey as a socialistic nation after Independence where as Chandigarh has started after the partition of Punjab. The city was conceived not only to serve as the capital of East Punjab, but also to resettle thousands of refugees who had been uprooted from West Punjab Chandigarh is only planned city in India. The construction of capital city of joint Punjab was started in early 50s. The City Chandigarh was declared a Union Territory in the year 1966 with joint capital of both the states of Punjab and Haryana.

Generation X (also known as the 13th Generation and the Baby Busters) is the generation generally defined as those born after the baby boom ended, from 1965 to 1981. The term has also been used in different times and places for a number of different There is not one accepted or true version of generational theory, there are a number of competing versions available as credible and legitimate for theorizing using this framework(eds P.Benckendroff et al.). Similarly the Generation X in Chandigarh are those who have

flourished with Chandigarh itself. They have seen all the changes in Chandigarh. Most of them are educated and use technological features in their daily life. They generally grew in families where parents migrated from neighboring areas of Chandigarh. Living in a joint family tradition with their grandparents was followed a decline in Chandigarh. So this generation started a transition into Nuclear families and more freedom to spend.

Generation Y are those people who are born between 1982 and 1995. They comprise of the age ranging between 18 to 30. Also their social networking is through technological gadgets like mobile, internet and various other informational tools. Most of them have been visiting outside their Chandigarh for short duration but they are too sensitive to go for places with lesser facilities in which they born and grew up. This generation has lesser influence of Ethnic culture and Indian Traditions. So they still desire to see and experience Traditional India.

Population The refugees and the native population started living in this new Capital. With creation of new Sectors, Administrative offices of Punjab and Haryana government there was a huge wave of migrants required to work and inhabitant this place. Even today the city remains as a Service center economy where more advance forms like IT, computer, Entertainment, Soft-skill, Tourism and Hospitality services have grown many folds. Most of the Jobs are created in the Tertiary sector and people of Chandigarh are very sensitive to service quality.

Chandigarh The city Chandigarh because of its unique concept is known as City beautiful. It is one of the greenest cities of India with its 1400 nos. green belts / parks/ gardens. The quality of life is the consideration of people in Chandigarh. The maintenance of basic urban service is altogether different than the conventional old cities. Moreover it is the regional center of three adjoining States of Punjab, Haryana ad Himachal. It is hub of political and bureaucratic activities of adjoining States. The high profile services provided by

Chandigarh Administration & Municipal Corporation is a role model for other urban Cities Chandigarh is known only for service class people and hub for bureaucratic and political activities of the region.

With a per capita income of

99,262, Chandigarh is the richest city in India. This figure

shows that there is a lot of potential tourist who are able to spend on leisure activities. Since Chandigarh is considered to have a good profile of tourist services and infrastructure so they also foresee a better service provider in the visiting areas. Thus to attract any set of consumer from Chandigarh a destination should have better infrastructural capacities.

With 274519 as per census 2001 persons lying in Generation Y it has a high percentage of about 30 % of total population. And 540943 as per census 2001 Generation X was about 60% of the total population of 900635 persons in 2000-01

The nuclear families are declining and the Gen Y who are not living with their parents are now seeking close friendship as they live alone. This attitude helps the gen y to move to tourism sites along with their friend as compare to the Gen X who were more likely to travel with their joint family.

The motivation factors for gen X were mainly for pilgrimage and visiting friends and relatives. So in India the destinations with poor infrastructure were able to attract a lot of visitors and tourists. There was unawareness among the majority gen X in their adolescence about the Tourism and its benefits. Most of the richer people of Generation X were used to travel on the order of their Doctor to heal themselves at some nature friendly destination rather they were self motivated. Similarly it is known that Government servants were facilitated with LTC (leave travel concession) but the travel destinations of majority of them were to their Relatives or ancestral home.

In Chandigarh UT, there are 809,653 literates as per Census 2011 resulting in an overall literacy rate of 86.43 percent This shows that as per consumer they are easily

assessable by Print Media. Also there is high percentage of Gen Y who regularly surf the Internet.

Justification for Research There has been a paradigm shift in the market from being a product focused to a more customer focused. The need for this research emererges due to the versatility of a population. Where niche market segmentation and product positioning has become the success formula for the Public and Private enterprises Even a person may change his travel preferences as he moves through the family life cycle from a single-career person to a more family-oriented person, his motives for choosing destinations may be changed accordingly (Jie Zhang and Carl Marcussen,2007). So the study of Generational preferences will help to allocate resources of Public and Private sector in better ways.

1. The aim of the study will be to determine the travel experiences and motivations of the different generations. 2. This study could provide benefits to different travel planners for the purpose of marketing. Multi-generational marketing is the practice of appealing to the unique needs and behaviors of individuals within more than one specific generational group, with a generation being a group of individuals born and living about the same time. Morris, W. (1982). 3. It will help the researchers, businesses, universities and the media to use the information to formulate projects, work environment, studies and public awareness. 4. It will also find the reasons for not travelling by both Gen X and Y




To evaluate the experiences of the two generation while travelling for one or more night out of the city.

2. To evaluate and analyze the differences/ gaps in the motivation of Generation X and Y 3. To understand how exposure of information effects the decision making of the tourist 4. To understand various kinds of problems and barriers different generation have faced and current generation continues to face 5. To understand that whether generation X or Y have a higher tendency to recommend the destinations to their friends and also revisit those places themselves 6. To understand the spending habits of generation X and generation Y and how it impacts concerned tourism 7. To assess the level of dissatisfaction or satisfaction among the different generation due to the habit of living in Chandigarh with best Infrastructure in India 8. To provide recommendations to the tourist service providers as how they can have a positive impact on Different Chandigarh Generations


HYPOTHESIS H1: There are minor differences between the motivations or perceived benefits of the Generation X and Generation Y H2: Generation X prepare for more adventurous journey and still remain cautious while preparing for their journey H3: There is a growing trend of travel among the Generation Y as their Nuclear Families are becoming more open minded H3 a: Generation Y who are alone or away from their parents are more ready to tour outside Chandigarh H3 b: Generation Y who are living with Generation X parents in a nuclear

family are restricted by them to travel H3 c: Generation Y who have more social network friends on Internet are less travelling than who have limited friends H4: The repeated customer behavior is higher in Generation X in comparison to generation Y as Generation X dont want to experiment too much H5 : Gen X and Y have difference in pattern when they travel for long duration Journey H5a : Money for spending H5b : Travelling with whom H5c : Early booking patterns H5d : Contact point of buying/ booking H6 : The travelling allowances and paid leaves benefits are much lesser in availability to Generation Y in comparison to Generation X. H7: Nowadays marketing is more customers focused and intense in comparison to yesterday years

REVIEW OF LITERATURE The main purpose of conducting literature review is to establish background for the research as it provides source for the hypothesis and suggest relevant solutions to the available problem There will be a detail study of various literatures describing the concepts of Tourist motivation, attributes affecting the perception of tourists, the various differences among the generations, Census reports of Government of India, Research papers dealing with the tourist behavior and its analysis There will be in-depth study and comparison of the thesis by other researchers having similar studies, explaining the motivation for Indians and International tourists with reference to their demography. Chandigarh has less than 10 % of its original population. Also the majority of populations Gen X and Gen Y so there will be an easy segregation of the population into two major groups. Majority of GEN X works in government jobs in Chandigarh. Therefore, thorough study of the behavior of Government servants will be required so that an actual image can be produced about the individuals motivation There will be a study of the articles, advertisements and news papers to recognize the pattern in which one will find out the latest happening activities arranged by the promoters to market their products to the Target Population of Chandigarh There will be a brief study about the literatures discussing the behavioral changes in individuals retired from their jobs. It would help to frame the futuristic Image of Chandigarh- a city of opportunity. Travelers will be in between their 50s and 80s. So the literature giving an idea to handle such situations will be provided as secondary data.



Primary research will be conducted using qualitative and quantitative research Methodologies

When it comes to economy, geography, psychology or marketing, researchers tend to use quantitative approaches (Decrop, 1999). Walle, (1997:528); explained that the use of qualitative research methods in tourism is useful and appropriate

Quantitative research is conclusion and theory based, and the observational material is collected by numerical measurement. The target group is usually a group that fits the expectation of the research, and the information collected is expected to be reliable and trustworthy. The raw data is later analyzed and the variables emerged are turned into the tables and statistics. (Hirsjrvi, Remes & Sajavaara 2007, 136).


The sampling of individuals will be according to Stratified Random Sampling, where Individuals will be selected with interest to the research. (Beins and McCarthy,2012)

This research will use a quantitative data collection from the individuals who are living in Chandigarh for more than 10 years. This can help to learn the preferences and motivations of Individuals who are conditioned in the atmosphere of Chandigarh. There will be questionnaire for the individuals with close end options. The group of two generations may consist of both 1000 individuals.

For the purpose of fair Representation of Population of Chandigarh. There would be a further separation of the groups into three economic tiers according to their family earnings. This would give us an idea of Purchase power of the Generation.


Purposive (judgmental) samplingA non random (non probability) sampling technique in which participants are selected for a study because of some desirable characteristics, like expertise in some area. (Beins and McCarthy,2012)

To collect qualitative data from the Tour operators, Travel Advisors, travel Agents and tourism experts in and out of the City Chandigarh sampling would be conducted to achieve a broader perspective of the Chandigarhians. They will be asked questions in a personal interview and a tape recorder will be used to know their point of views. Those who will be inaccessible, e-mails will be forwarded to them for their recorded responses

The study will also take the help of research data in any readable form without breaking any legal right of the publishers. Data will be mentioned with references and date of usage or publication.

Secondary Data will help to overcome the difficulty of making universal relation with other researches in similar field of interest. Secondary Data will be searched from the local Libraries and research Journals. and Tourism Board for the Visitor survey of Local population to meet the need of research in back date to prepare a qualitative data

Data Formulation Interpretation

The results will be in Tabular form and Graphical form. Likert Scale will be used to know the strength of the Statement of close ended surveys. Other statistical tools such as mean, median, mode, central tendencies and standard deviation will be used for statistical analysis of data


BIBLIOGRAPHY Benckendorff P. et al., Tourism and Generation Y,CAB International 2010

Beins B. C., McCarthy M. A., Research methods and statistics (2012) Decrop, A.1999. Triangulation in qualitative tourism research. Tourism Management, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp.157-161. Finance secretary Chandigarh Administration, City Development Plan Chandigarh

Hirsjrvi, S. Remes, P. & Sajavaara, P. 2007 & 2008. Tutki ja kirjoita. (Research and Write.) 15th Rev. Ed. Helsinki: Tammi earch%20and%20Statistics (Retrieved on 1 Sep 2012) Morris, W. (1982), The American Heritage Dictionary, 549. Schneider I. E., & Wilhelm S. A., Heisey J. J. Does Generation Matter? Differences in Perceived Benefits Among Baby-boomers, Generation-X & Generation-Y at a WaterBased Recreation Area Walle, A. H. 1997. "Quantitative versus qualitative tourism research". Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.24, No. 3, 524-536. Williams K. C., Page R. A. Marketing to the Generations, Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business Zhang J., Marcussen C., Tourist motivation, market segmentation and marketing strategies 5th Bi-Annual Symposium of the International Society of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research June 4-6, 2007, Charleston, South Carolina, USA

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