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Welcome Message
Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University in collaboration with Department of Forest Research and Survey, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation and the Forests and Landscape University of Copenhagen, Denmark, is organizing a three-day international conference on Forests, People and Climate: Changing Paradigm on 28-30 August, 2013 at Fulbari Resort and Spa, Pokhara. The broad objective of the conference is to build and enrich existing knowledge on improved livelihoods through sustainable and equitable management of forest resources. The conference deliberates on three thematic areas of Forest and Livelihood Relation, Biodiversity Conservation and Governance . The conference themes emphasize the urgency for worldwide response to biodiversity conservation and livelihood improvement through good governance, climate change adaptation, and better forest management for action on the part of all stakeholders at the global, national, regional and local levels. About 150 participants from 14 nations have confirmed their oral and posters presentations in the conference. Four internationally dignified personalities Prof. Keijiro Otsuka (Japan), Prof. Carsten Smith-Hall (Denmark), Prof. Bina Agarwal (India), and Dr. Eric Dinerstein (USA) are key note speakers for the conference. It is believed that this conference will help in collective learning and mutual sharing of experiences and also crafting better policies for conservation and sustainable utilization of forest resources for wider socioeconomic development, biodiversity conservation, exemplary governance, balanced growth and climate change mitigation and adaption. With this brief message, International Conference Organizing Committee would like to welcome distinguished delegates and participants in the beautiful city of Pokhara and also wish them a pleasant and memorable stay.

International Conference Organizing Committee 24th August 2013

THEME ONE: CHANGING FOREST AND LIVELIHOOD RELATIONS


ASSESSING VULNERABILITY AND PLANNING ADAPTATION IN PANCHASE: AN ECOSYSTEM-BASED ADAPTATION APPROACH
Madhav B. Karki, Ajaya Dixit, Yogendra Subedi, Kamal Thapa, Shova Yadav, Sravan Shrestha, Deeb R. Rai, Rabi Wenju, Shristi Silwal, Minaxi Chhetri, Emma Karki and Anustha Shrestha ISET-Nepal and EbA team, Nepal

This paper presents the vulnerability impact assessment (VIA) assessment of Panchase ecosystem in Nepal. With rich biological, cultural, and religious diversities, this unique ecosystem connects lowland Tarai with highland Himalayan eco-regions. The VIA aimed to establish information base and develop knowledge system useful for planning ecosystem centered adaptation strategies to reduce climate sensitive risks and build overall resilience of the ecosystem and its services. It aimed at proposing options for a sound and sustained adaptive ecosystem management plan to enhance resilience of both communities and ecosystems. The approach is based on coupled human-environmental system and embedded systems-agents-institutions-exposure framework by delineating the ecosystems at core, secondary, and tertiary regions. Using 25 indicators comprising of socio-economic, ecological, biophysical, and institutional factors at landscape level the approach systematically maps resources, climatic stresses and capacities and present ward level vulnerabilities in series of maps. These are then layered by trends in historical and predicted temperature and precipitation as well as future scenarios, both of which suggest high variability and unpredictability in climate related extreme events. Preliminary VIA results suggest moderate to high exposure and sensitivity of the landscape and people, which is likely to increase in the future. The ward-level vulnerability maps indicate that the landscapes characterized by mountainous/ hilly topography with moderate to high slope gradients and different landscape features generally show south and west facing slopes more vulnerable. The ecosystem and the local communities are likely to face moderate to high climatic and non-climatic stresses in future manifested by drying up of water sources, increasing landslides and flood events, degrading biodiversity, decreasing grazing lands, and declining agricultural productivity. Some of the first order ecosystem based adaptation (EBA) options arrived through participatory consultations include launching of climate mainstreamed eco-tourism; improved management of ecosystem services enhancing livelihood opportunities; promoting conservation agriculture; managing wild life by protecting/improving habitats; and strengthening local organizations by building human capacity and skills. The VIA identifies the vulnerability of ecosystems and integrates nature-based solutions into adaptation strategies to enhance the resilience of the ecosystem and communities dependent upon the ecosystem services and reduce their vulnerability. It suggests options for adapting to negative impacts of climate change. With low to moderate capacities of the agents and systems, there is an urgent need for undertaking adaptation options that reflect the collective needs of the coupled human-ecological system. Key words: ecosystem, vulnerability, sensitivity, exposure, adaptation capacity, impact assessment, resilience, adaptation options.

INTEGRATING TRANSFORMATIVE WISDOM IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION
Bishal Sitaula Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1430 s, Norway; Email: bishal.sitaula@umb.no

Primary causes and consequences of climate change are deeply rooted in the human mind, and so solutions must be searched within us. Materialism, consumerism and severe erosion of human values are widespread problems. Naturally, materialism will increase consumerism because extreme materialism creates greed, attachment, ego, etc., which eventually lead to severe depletion of natural resources. Education, which is not turned into wisdom in the end creates various forms of consumerism and collectively leads to different forms of global crises. Therefore, any global challenges should be understood in linked context as they are rather complex phenomena influenced by different factors and processes following law of dependent origination as web of life are connected. Growing need for interdisciplinary work across natural, social and noetic/yogic science demands that each achieve some common understandings about global crises as multidimensional issues and in linked contexts. To understand this better, one must first identify linkages between environmental problems deeply rooted in human greed and its manifestation in various forms such as biodiversity losses, climate change and land degradation. All these major components of global environmental challenges are linked together in a complex cybernetics network of feedbacks. If one is altered, it will produce a change in other components in more complex way than presently understood. To address these problems at their source will require understanding of human desires and how this can be balanced using yogic science for personal and social transformation. There are international initiatives for enhancing coordination between individual/social behaviours and links among climate change, biodiversity and desertification. There are also research challenges for unfolding linkages between environment and security, particularly between environmental causes, such as natural disasters, water shortages and famine, and their effects on security of people and societies. Issues of global food challenges and environmental degradation leading to violent conflict are a recent focus of scientific investigation. One effect of environmental degradation is the large displacement of people creating a large flux of environmental refugees. These linked problems require a rarely seen collaboration among scientists and spiritual masters. Therefore, science of wellbeing including noetic/consciousness-based spiritual sciences coupled with environmental science is quite essential in the present time. The quest is how to tailor such course curricula in universities that effectively establishes memory of wholeness in students who will be a part of solution in Being, Thinking and Doing for addressing global environmental challenges. Key words: Human values, global crises, global challenges, web of life, noetic/yogic science

WHO EXTRACTS THE FOREST PRODUCTS? A GENDERED PERSPECTIVE


Helle Overgaard Larsen and Marive Pouliot University of Copenhagen, Denmark Forest management is frequently considered a male domain. Women typically earn less income from forest products and have less influence on forest governance. Womens uses of forest products what type of products they extract, how much they extract-are not well known, and this may give reasons to fear that female forest uses are invisible, and therefore, not recognized. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical data on womens forest product extraction and to explore differences between male and female forest utilization strategies in four community forest user groups in Nepal. Study sites are located in the mountains, middle hills and lowlands of Nepal; data were collected with four quarterly household questionnaires; in total 557 households were sampled. Results include data on intra-household forest product extraction in female and male headed households.

Key words: Forest management, male domain, forest governance, forest utilization, community forest

PEOPLE FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION: AN ANALYSIS OF COMMUNITY FOREST SYSTEM IN THE MID-HILLS OF NEPAL
Prativa Sapkota, Dr. Rod Keenan and Dr. Hemant R. Ojha, The University of Melbourne South-Asian Institute of Advanced Studies The University of New South Wales
psapkota@student.unimelb.edu.au

Adaptation to climate change has now become an urgent task for reducing vulnerability of the local communities. Forest constitutes integral part of livelihood system, not only in Nepal but more generally in developing world; its role in adaptive capacity has been neglected in both scholarly research and policy debates. The interface between people and forests is poorly recognized in contemporary adaptation studies. Over thirty years of its development in Nepal, community forestry offers an interesting situation to understand how peoples dependence on forest has changed over time, in relation to both climatic stress and other socio-economic changes. It is also the region where some of the worlds poorest and climate vulnerable communities reside. In addition, CF offers a rich case of a social-ecological system with diverse forms of interactions between the forest ecosystem and community dynamics. While ecological and livelihoods impact of Nepals CF is well studied, no studies have yet been conducted in relation to whether, how and to what extent CF can contribute to the adaptive capacity of the marginalised groups. The proliferating literature on adaptation lacks evidence and theoretical insights into how forest-community interactions affect adaptive capacity. Taking a community forestry user group in middle hill social and ecological contexts, it focuses on establishing possible causal relations between community forestry system and adaptive capacity of the forest dependent communities. It analyses changes in forest condition, peoples dependence on forest, institutional dynamics, forest management practices and decision systems. Marginalised people are the focus group of this study and understanding their adaptation is outcome of this study which is analysed using historical and contemporary information. This study has used a mix of social science and natural science tools to understand both socially constructed realities and attributes of forest condition. Qualitative research methods including in-depth interviews, focus group discussion and participatory rural appraisal are the tools used in this study.

CROSS REGIONAL STUDY OF ADAPTATION ACTIONS OF FARMERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT IN NEPAL: DOES IT SUPPORT FARM PRODUCTIVITY?
Madhu Sudan Gautam Southasia Institute of Advanced Studies (www.sias-southasia.org) Kathmandu College of Management, Kathmandu University (http://www.kcm.edu.np/). gautammadhusudan@hotmail.com The impact of anthropogenic climate change is much higher in the developing country like Nepal. While not contributing significantly in the global warming, Nepal is more sensitive to effects of climate change because of weak adaptation capacity. Majority of people receives main income and livelihood from agriculture sector in rural areas. However, little is known on self-adaptive capacity and response behavior of farmers to the impact of climate change. This paper provides an empirical analysis, by using primary data obtained from survey of 400 farm households producing cereal crops, of the adaptation actions of Nepalese farmers and its role in supporting crop productivity across different regions and altitudes of Nepal. The logit model is applied to analyze the adaptation actions of farmers with climate variables after accounting for regions, soil, farm and household specific characteristics. The econometric estimates showed that an adaptation action across regions and altitudes was different and there was no evidence that adaptation actions supported farm productivity. Substituting to cereal crops, changing action in soil preparation and tree planting for soil conservation, altering timing of cultivation, using different variety of crops, and increasing use of pesticides and fertilizers are common actions observed in the study sites. We observed some determinants of adaptation and crops productivity. Education of household head, total farm size and opportunity to off farm employment affected positively and significantly to the chances of adopting adaptation actions. On the other hand, the most contributing factor to productivity of crops was found to be education. The findings highlight the urgent necessity of implementing adaptation actions focusing on very low capacity of household farm enterprise on adaptation, his/her socio-economic condition and climate change impact variation across regions and altitudes. Key words: Self-adaptive capacity, response behavior, climate variables, cereal crops, determinants of adaptation

INCOME STRATEGIES AMONG THE FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN RURAL NEPAL: THE ROLE OF NON-FARM ACTIVITIES
Bir Bahadur Khanal Chhetri, PhD Institute of Forestry, ComForM Project, Pokhara This paper investigates the household-level importance of various income sources and the factors associated with the non-farm work activities in rural Nepal. Qualitative contextual information was collected in two community forest user groups followed by a structured survey of 275 randomly selected households; income data was collected quarterly throughout 2009. The income data are presented in absolute and relative terms by different household categories. The determinants of nonfarm work participation were tested using probit regression model. Results showed that non-farm income constituted on average of 55.5% of the total household income, the major share of which is the remittances constituting an average of 3/4th of the total. Larger sized non-Dalit households holding relatively larger value of implements and smaller land area showed their significant association with non-farm work participation. The varying share of the non-farm income to the total household income resulted by the combination of households individual and socio-economic characteristics are discussed. The study claimed that Nepals rural economy is moving from a high dependence on traditional practices of subsistence agriculture to a higher dependence on income generated from non-farm activities. Non-farm income, in particular through remittances (migration for work abroad) and pensions, constitutes the most important source of income for all category households. The study suggests that typical policies such as improvement in human capital, e.g. improved literacy and skills, and rural infrastructures will remain important for promoting and making the poor benefited from the income opportunities through various non-farm sectors. Key words: Income dependence, non-farm work participation, remittance, poor, subsistence agriculture

LIVELIHOOD, TREE DIVERSITY AAND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE FOREST MARGIN: CASE STUDY FROM EASTERN INDONESIA
Noviana Khususiyah1, Subekti Rahayu1, Betha Lusiana1,2 and Suyanto1
1 2

World Agroforestry Centre ICRAF Southeas Asia Programme, Bogor, Indonesia Institute for Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Sub-Tropics, Hohenheim University, Stuttgart, Germany

This study explored the contribution of community based forest management (CBFM) on farmers income, tree diversity and carbon sequestration. The study draws on a case study in eastern part of Indonesia, Sesaot-Lombok Island where CBFM provides landless farmers with access to cultivate land on designated forest conservation areas that has already been converted and become degraded land. In return, farmers must plant trees to improve watershed function of the area. Based on village level lists of households, we surveyed 80 participating and 40 non-participating CBFM farmers in Sesaot. The CBFM Programme is intended for landless farmers. However, contrary to the regulation, permit to access state land are often being transacted between farmers in the area. This lead to 3 typology of farmers: (i) pure CBFM (own State Land only), (ii) non-CBFM farmers (own private land) and (iii) hybrid CBFM (own state and private land). The average land holding was 0.48, 0.65 and 1.01 for pure CBFM, non-CBFM and hybrid CBFM respectively. Hybrid CBFM farmers had the highest income per capita of 1.8 USD/capita/year, compared to 1.2 and 1.5 USD/capita/year of pure CBFM and non-CBFM farmers respectively. The land productivity of CBFM farmers was 1,829 USD/ha/year, roughly 12% lower than non-CBFM and also, hybrid CBFM farmers had almost similar land productivity. The state land had similar tree diversity with private land of 7 and 8 tree species respectively, where state land was enriched with shade/fruit trees as opposed to timber trees in private land. The carbon sequestration of state and private land was also similar of 48 Mg/ha and 66 Mg/ha, respectively. Overall, CBFM has improved the income of the vulnerable/landless farmers by 50% (contribution from state land). However, the acquisition of CBFM permit by farmers owning private land may lead to inequity of income. CBFM also improved the tree diversity and carbon of degraded state land (grass land) to similar condition as private land, even though it is still less than secondary forest condition. Key words: Community based forest management, income equity, tree diversity, land productivity, degraded land

REDUCING POVERTY OF FOREST DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES: AN IMPACT OF SEABUCKTHORN JUICE PRODUCTION IN MUSTANG DISTRICT OF NEPAL
Bishnuhari Pandit1, Shiva Shankar Neupane2, Shambhu Paudel3 and Laxman Ghimire4 Kathmandu Forestry College, Amarawati Marg, Koteswor, Kathmandu, Nepal 1 bhpandit29@gmail.com 2 ssneupane@gmail.com 3 oasis.excurrent@gmail.com Despite the recognition of the role of forests in various facets of livelihood capital, there has been relatively little empirical exploration related to its contribution to poverty reduction, and the relation of social learning processes to natural resource governance and management. This article is part of the Action Research Project of the Community Based Forest Management in the Himalayas-Phase III, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal. The study was conducted in two Conservation Area community forestry user groups of Mustang district. A before and after approach was used to measure the change in income level of the sample households. Most data were generated through discussion with community groups and Key informant survey. Besides this, household survey was done in 32 households dividing these into four wellbeing groups (well-off, poor, medium poor and ultra poor). The findings indicate that the financial and forest assets of both women and the poorand especially poor women increased as a result of participatory action research intervention. As a major project intervention, several trainings related to processing of seabuckthorn and its sustainable management, were delivered to the target groups. At the end of the project, local peoples awareness (98%), skills (96%) and enrolment time (70%) were significantly increased. Further, it was recorded that time invested by female (17.54 days) was greater than male (15.08 days) in each activity implemented by project (t= -5.85, p=0.000). The study further revealed that total annual average income of the beneficiary increased from NPR 82,303 in 2010 to 112,958 in 2012 (1USD = 84NPR) in two years. Overall beneficiary income increased by 37 percent owing to project intervention. Income from seabuckthorn was 23 percent of the total household income, which was more than two-thirds (86%) of the total change. The seabuckthorn juice making is the strongest driver to reduce poverty (72 % to 34%) in the study area.

Key words: Action research, peoples awareness, household income, enterprise, income

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DETERMINANTS OF ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN RURAL FARMING PRACTICES OF NEPAL HIMALAYA

Krishna.R. Tiwari1, Ridish.K. Pokharel, Santosh Rayamajhi and Mohan K. Balla Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara, Nepal 1 krishna.iof@gmail.com Climate change (CC) impacts on rural framing and adaptation practices adopted by the local farmers are new areas of study in the rural farming systems. This study focused on better understanding of CC impacts and adaptation practices in rural farming in three different agro-climatic regions (TransHimalayan- Mustang, Mid-Mountain-Dhading and Kavre and Inner Terai-Chitawan district) of Nepal. Household survey, key informant interview and focus group discussion methods were applied to collect primary information at household and community levels supplemented with national climate data. Soil moisture or irrigation deficiencies are the main limiting factors for farm production of the upland framers, particularly, in the mid-mountain region. It is observed that adaptation to CC is location specific and determined by market, exposure from CC impact and income from the farm products. Logistic regression model indicated different factors, such as year of schooling, experiences in the farming, resources availability, family labour availability, farm income, institutional activities and involvement in the community level organization of households influenced adaptation practices. Barriers of the adaptation in the rural farming practices included lack of information on adaptation methods and financial constraints. Planners and development workers should formulate location specific adaptation programmes and activities focusing on water management for minimizing the impacts of CC.

Key words: Socioeconomics, institution, upland farming, water management, farm production

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IMPROVING FOREST BASED LIVELIHOODS THROUGH INTEGRATED CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN CHITWAN ANNAPURNA LANDSCAPE OF NEPAL
Pratima Shrestha and Dev Raj Gautam CARE International in Nepal, Kathmandu The Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL), a North-South linkage includes whole or part of 19 districts of the Gandaki river basin had a total of 1.14 million hectares (35.5% of landscape area) of forest in 2010. Hariyo Ban Program, CARE Nepal, leading major component as climate change adaptation has carried out integrated climate vulnerability and capacity assessment (ICVCA) and prepared community based integrated climate change adaptation plans of action targeting poor, vulnerable and socially excluded people in different location of three river system (Seti, Marsyangdi and Daraundi) of Kaski, Syangja, Tanahu, Lamjung and Gorkha. People residing in this region are highly dependent on fragile sensitive natural resources, especially forest for their livelihoods. Forest based livelihoods are harshly affected by climate change and other non climatic stressors. Forests as one of the precious natural assets available in the landscape is best means to address community and ecosystem vulnerability through adaptation works like plantation, protecting against hazards like landslide, floods, water scarcity, etc. In Nepal, community forest users groups (CFUG) are playing unconditional role in adaptation. CFUGs with legal entity serve as grass-root organization in preparation of community based adaptation plan of action (CAPA). Hariyo Ban program, CARE have facilitated in preparation of CAPAPs in remote, vulnerable and marginalized communities of different places of CHAL. Community adaptation plans were prepared using the National Framework of local adaptation plan (2010), Integrated community adaptation plan: Guidance Manual, Hariyo Ban (2013) and other available materials. The result shows community perception towards climate change impacts in forest based livelihoods. Uncertainties and extreme events of climate change, such as flash floods, floods, landslide, soil erosion, drought, pests, diseases, forest fires, and other development stress like unplanned rural road construction, have mystified the grass-root communities with no better adaptation options besides forcing communities to suffer. CAPA has provided ray of hope towards building resilient communities and ecosystem reducing threats and vulnerabilities nearby their communities and diversifying climate resilient livelihood options through implementation of CAPA.

Key words: Community forest, forest based livelihood, climate vulnerability, CAPA, Hariyo Ban program

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ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT ON RURAL LIVELIHOODS, POVERTY AND FOREST A ND ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE USE
L.C. Charlery*, H. Meilby and C. Smith-Hall

University of Copenhagen, IFRO, Denmark


*E-mail: lindycharlery@ifro.ku.dk

Nepal, like many other developing countries, across Asia, Africa and Latin America, remains burdened with poor public infrastructural development. This burden appears to contribute to social poverty and inequality, especially in the less accessible rural communities of these regions. Recent studies have found that roads were among the most important factors affecting rural livelihoods in Nepal. But the question of how important a factor it really is still remains insufficiently studied, documented and understood. This study aims to contribute to answering this question by using the case of the construction of the Beni-Jomsom road as an example to analyze the effects of increasing community access and mobility on rural livelihoods, poverty and natural resource use. We hypothesize that the changes brought about by the new road have led to an increase in average household income, which mostly benefit the richer households, thus having little to no positive effects on poverty reduction and social equity. We also believe that increased market access has driven changes in household livelihood strategies, which also influence natural resource use. To analyze and compare changes in household income, poverty dynamics and social equity, the study makes use of a dataset with one survey round before the construction of the road and two rounds after. Isolating which changes can be attributed to the new road would address through comparison of the study sites with a reference site in an adjacent district. It is expected that the results stemming from this study would help guide policy makers in implementing policies aimed at addressing the problem of poor infrastructural development in a manner that considers the impacts on all sections of the society, especially the poorer, marginalized households.

Key words: Nepal, rural roads, livelihood strategies, social inequality, market access, mobility

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FOOD SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN RUPA LAKE AREA OF KASKI DISTRICT, NEPAL

Sajani Shrestha Division of Agriculture and Food Technology, Research Center for Applied Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal; Mobile: 9841360723

The Rupa lake area in Lekhnath Municipality, Kaski district, Nepal was selected to explore impacts of climate change on livelihoods in terms of food security. 20% of the wetland dependent communities constituted sample households (HH) and semi-structured questionnaire and focused group consultations held. It is found that majority of population (87%) of lake basin is dependent on agriculture for food security in terms of availability of lake resources, nutritional status and local economy for which the lake is proven to be very instrumental. Status of community forest and lake environment has improved in a period of 10 years because of conservation practices initiated by communities including the Rupa Lake Restoration and Fishery Cooperative. As a result abundance of NTFPs has increased - 49 NTFPs are available in the lake basin. 10% HHs has additional income from NTFP-based medicine as indirect provider to food security. A few HHs already started farming of NTFPs. Availability of fodder and fuelwood from community forests has significantly contributed to livelihoods whereas wild edible fruits and vegetables have supplementary roles. Further, nutritional security has improved because of fish farming in lake yet in practice by the cooperative, and the share income thereby, distributed to HH members directly contributing to the livelihoods. There is a year-round food security for 50% HHs, with 22% of this having surplus food. A 5% of HHs has food security for less than three months whereas 19% HHs have food security for more than six months. Within this scenario, over 90% HHs responded to climate change in the form of rise in temperature (74%), unpredictable rainfall (77%), shift in rainfall (64%), and phonological changes (51%). However, the impacts of climate change in the context of livelihood and food security are not yet visible at community level. It may be because, the communities in Rupa lake basin are least aware to differentiate generic impacts and the impacts of climate change in food security, or improved lake basin environment has been readdressing micro-climate issues such as surface temperature, soil moisture and so on which needs further investigation. Key words: Livelihood, NTFP, wetland, lake environment, community forest

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EVALUATING COMMUNITY PLANTED FOREST AND PUBLIC PLANTATION UNDER THE FRAMEWORK OF CDM AND REDD+ MECHANISM
Ram Asheshwar Mandal1, Ishwar Chandra Dutta2, Pramod Kumar Jha3, Sidhibir Karmacharya4, Samshul Mohammad Haque5,

Trichandra college, Kathmandu; ram.mandal@gmail.com Tribhuwan University Service Commission, Kirtipur, Kathmandu 3 Central Department of Botany, Tribhuwan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu 4 Trichandra College, Department of Botany, Kathmandu
1 2

Institute of Forestry, Hetauda Campus, Hetauda

Community planted forests (CPFs) and public plantations (PPs) are unique types of participatory forest management practice in Nepal, but their eligibility issues to clean development mechanism (CDM) and reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) mechanism are not evaluated yet. The main objective of the research was to study the management practice of plantations under the framework of CDM and REDD+. Three CPFs and three PPs in Mahottary district, Nepal were selected for study site and their maps were prepared using GPS coordinates. Altogether 55 sample plots were randomly distributed on the map and nested plots of size of 10m x 10m for pole and 1m x 1m for litter and grasses were established in the field. Height and diameter at breast height (DBH) of poles and sapling were measured. Soil samples were taken from each plot at 0-0.1m, 0.1-0.3m and 0.30.6m depth. The biomass was calculated using the equation of Chave et al. and converted into carbon while soil carbon was analyzed in laboratory. Available documents regarding management practices were evaluated under the framework of CDM and REDD+. The CPFs are the patches of national forest managed by users while PPs are public land managed especially by disadvantaged community under agro-forestry practice. The carbon stock ranged from 30.34 ton/ ha in Bisbitty PP to 148.89 ton/ ha in Sita CPF. It is difficult to certify plantations under CDM because of its complex eligibility technical elements, which may be easy under REDD+ applying bundling with large forest blocks.

Key words: Participatory forest management, soil carbon, carbon stock, bundling

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LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES AND POVERTY IN RURAL NEPAL

Bir Bahadur Khanal Chhetri, Helle Overgarrd Larsen, Santosh Rayamajhi, ystein Juul Nielsen, Carsten Smith-Hall and Marive Pouliot

This paper uses a novel quantitative activity choice approach, based on identification of activity variables and application of latent class cluster analysis, to identify seven major rural livelihood strategies pursued by households (n=861) in rural Nepal. Preliminary findings reveal that less remunerative livelihood strategies are associated with gender and ethnic affiliation and other household characteristics that should be addressed simultaneously in targeted poverty interventions. In particular, education and access to natural capital and migrant work improve income earnings among poor households. Livelihood strategies are partly location specific while poverty is widespread and not confined to remote areas only. Accordingly, it is important to consider likely regional impacts associated with rural development policies.

Key words: Ethnic affiliation, household characteristics, natural capital, migrant work

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HOLOCENE CLIMATIC CHANGES VIS--VIS FLUCTUATIONS OF GANGOTRI GLACIER WESTERN HIMALAYA


Amalava Bhattacharyya*, Parminder Singh Ranhotra and Santosh K. Shah Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, India * amalava@yahoo.com Tree ring and pollen are widely used for the reconstruction of climate during Holocene from the Himalayan region. Tree-rings of Birch (Betula utilis) growing at 3900 m.a.s.l along the moraines at Bhojbasa, about 3 km south of snout of Gangotri Glacier have been studied towards understanding of probable linkage with the climate and fluctuations of this glacier. This tree exhibits negative relationship with temperature of January, March and April; and direct relationship with precipitation of March, April and June; and temperature of February. Further, increased tree growth recorded in recent years matched with the rapid recent retreat of this glacier. We hypothesize that the fast retreat of this glacier might be cumulative effect of several climatic parameters, which enhance tree growth i.e. increased precipitation of March, April, June and increased temperature of February, latter might be linked with low snowfall. Similarly, pollen from sub-surface sediments near snout of this glacier gives a glimpse of paleovegetation-palaeoclimate changes during the Holocene. Around 8.7k yrs BP climate was warm-moist when thermophilous trees used to grow in vicinity of the site and their decline with the expense of steppe elements around 8.3k yr BP, turned to arid climate, which is interrupted by brief moist conditions during 7.3 to 6.0 k yr BP. Progressive increases of steppe taxa also indicated a climatic change towards drier phase, which cumulating in peak around 5 k yr BP. Around 5-3 k yr BP climate was less-dry when both conifers and birch declined. Around 2 k yr BP, climate became cooler and moister with further amelioration subsequently around 1.7 k yr BP. The sharp increase of steppe elements around 1.0-0.85 k yr BP reflected a trend towards cool-dry climatic conditions. During recent time, climate again reverted to warmer condition.

Key words: Betula utilis, temperature, precipitation, pollen, paleovegetation, palaeoclimate

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AGRICULTURE INTENSIFICATION, PESTICIDE USE, HUMAN HEALTH AND ECONOMIC COSTS

Kishor Atreya1, Bishal Kumar Sitaula1, Roshan Man Bajracharya2 and Subodh Sharma2
1

Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas, Norway. 2 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Post Box 6250, Dhulikhel, Nepal. The excessive use of chemical pesticides in vegetable farming in hills of Nepal not only pollutes the environment but also affects farmers health. It may adversely affect human health and increased economic costs for the farmer. A study was carried out in Ansikhola watershed of central mid-hills of Nepal. The objective was to observe the effect of the use of chemical pesticides on intensive farming and its health and economic consequences. Data was collected through household surveys, group discussions and individual interviews. The Test-mate ChECholinesterase Test System was used to monitor erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity before and after pesticide application seasons. Cost-of-illness, defensive expenditures, and willingness to pay approaches were applied for estimating health costs of pesticide use. To this, an opportunity cost of spraying time, and amount spent on purchasing chemical pesticides were added for estimating total economic cost of pesticide use. The study found low levels of care with regard to pesticide use and high level of awareness among the farmers with regard to the environmental impacts of pesticide use. However, farmers failed to take adequate safety precautions. Current levels of use of pesticides were sufficient to cause acute health symptoms and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) depressions. Also, it revealed that exposed farmers were likely to have carried increased economic costs as a result of pesticide use. On average, the health costs of illness associated with pesticide use was equivalent to nearly 5% of agricultural cash income, which was likely to be higher for small-scale households (5.7%) than the large-scale (3.6%). Similarly, the total economic costs of pesticide use for farmers amounted to 15% of agricultural cash income and/or 5% of total household cash income.

Key words: chemical pesticide, vegetable farming, intensive farming, acetylcholinesterase, environmental impact

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AN ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND ADAPTATION MEASURES ON WATER RESOURCES IN RURAL A REAS OF WESTERN NEPAL: A CASE STUDY OF UPALLO LOHORE SUBWATERSHED AREA OF D AILEKH DISTRICT
KISHOR ARYAL The study entitled was carried out during February to July, 2012 to assess the impacts of climate change and its adaptation measure on water resources. Six VDCs in the North East high altitudinal subwatershed were taken for the study purposes. Various tools including structured and semi-structured questionnaire survey of 115 households, 6 group discussions, 15 key informants survey, direct observation and trend line observation were carried out to collect the primary data. Data analysis was done by both qualitative and quantitative means. Although, most of the people were found to be unaware of the impacts of climate change, landslide and flooding were the major prominent problems. Scarcity of water sources for domestic as well as irrigation purposes was also imminent. Temperature was believed to be increasing and there was the decreasing trend of precipitation. Frequency of occurrence of intense rainfall, flooding, prolonged drought period and forest fires were found to be increasing. Decrease in the production of agricultural crops due to lack of irrigation was the most precarious. Diarrhea was the prominent water induced health hazards. Water source protection, irrigation canal improvement, rainwater collection were found to be practiced for the adaptation to water source scarcity. Check dam, embankment, bio engineering works were in practice to minimize the impacts of water induced hazards. Vulnerability analysis, mapping of water induced hazardous area need to be done and participatory local adaptation plan of action for the climate change adaptation need to be developed and Programmes and activities should be implemented accordingly. Provision of compensation to the victims of climate change impacts at policy level, identification of most vulnerable areas and endorsement of package Programme of climate change adaption must be the future concerns. Key words: Climate change adaptation, water sources, water induced hazards, adaptation plan of action, vulnerability analysis

19

WILDLIFE DAMAGES AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES: A CASE FROM CHITWAN NATIONAL PARK, NEPAL
T. Silwal1*, R. Subedi1 and B.S. Poudel2
1

Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal Department of Forest Research and Survey, Kathmandu, Nepal *Corresponding email: thakur.silwal@gamail.com
2

The human-wildlife conflict is an increasing issue, which has become challenging problem for rural communities and management authorities that threaten both wildlife and people in Nepal, particularly in the buffer zone (BZ) of protected areas. This case study discusses the trend of wildlife damages, adaptation initiatives and their effectiveness in Chitwan National Park in order to explore better understanding issues of conflicts. Moreover, the study provides an insight into wildlife damages and its adaptation based on information collected by using PRA tools. The focus group discussions (n = 22) at each user committee, key informant interviews and victim households (n = 200) were used for questionnaire survey covering all sorts of damages. The wildlife damaged registered at BZ Management Committee were also used to assess the extent and trend of damages. The study showed that crop raiding, livestock depredation, property damages and human casualties by wild animals are increasing and animals like elephant, tiger and rhino were blamed responsible in recent years. Communities close to forest areas having agriculture and livestock based livelihoods and having poor infrastructure, and forest dwellers for daily livelihoods seem to be more exposed to damage. More than 50% people have major threats to elephant followed by tiger, rhino, wild boar, beer, leopard and spotted deer. About 80% respondents perceived that increase in population of large animals, shrinkage and deterioration of natural habitats were the major causes of animals moving out from the forest and create damages. Crop guarding, fire chasing, use of explosive, fencing, watch tower construction, trench construction, making noise, crop diversifying and introducing unpalatable varieties were some initiatives. Among them electric fencing seemed more effective to control animals entering into farmlands. Most of respondents were unsatisfied with the wildlife damage compensation scheme, which is minimal and is a complex process. It is concluded that existing adaptation initiatives are not readily able to cope with increasing wildlife damages. The process of providing relief funds should be shortened and simplified for all types of damages. Immediate needs of quick relief fund should be created and electric fences expanded to the remaining settlements. Key words: Compensation, buffer zone, protected area, natural habitat, electric fencing

20

NATURE OF POVERTY IN COMMUNITY FORESTS AND REALIZATION OF F OREST BENEFITS BY THE USERS (A CASE OF U NSEEN POOR IN THE MOST SEEN CF)

Rajbabu Pahadi Deradhun, India Two successful community forests (CFs) of Makawanpur district were purposively selected for the study. The objective of the research was to analyse the nature of poverty and the state of inequality regarding CF benefit sharing by the users. The study also looked into measuring the inequality of the income distribution among the users, examining the state of CF benefits realization by the different class (caste, wealth) of users and analysing the dimension of direct product and service benefits of CF to the users. 101 and 31 respondents were selected from Jhirghari CF and Simpani Devkot CF respectively for the questionnaire survey conducted during mid April to mid June 2007. Different mathematical and the statistical tools have been utilized to analyse the data. The collected data and its analysis showed the rampant poverty in both CFs. Also, there was income inequality among the users in both CFs. Though the non- poor received more benefit from CFs in absolute term in both of CFs, the share of CF income to their total income was more in case of absolute poor. Share of CF income to total household income of absolute poor and non poor in Jhirghari CF were 27.64% and 22.29% respectively while in Simpani Devkot CF They were 20.45% and 3.77% respectively. There were also some site-specific differences between the two CFs. Key words: Income, forest benefit sharing, inequality, Makawanpur, poor, income distribution

21

VULNERABILITIES OF SHIFTING CULTIVATORS AND POTENTIAL LAND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS IN SHIFTING CULTIVATION SYSTEMS OF NEPAL
Keshav Thapa*, P. Chaudhary, G.B. Sharma, RC Khanal, B.B. Tamang, P. Limbu, K. Aryal, B. Ranabhat, V. Joshi and A. Shrestha * kthapa@libird.org This study examined vulnerability of shifting cultivators (SCs) in relation to climate variability and associated changes using a household survey with randomly sampled 486 shifting cultivation households from selected VDCs of Nawalparasi, Gorkha, Dhading, Chitwan, Makwanpur, Sankhuwasabha and Taplejung, 12 focus group discussions and 46 key informant interviews (15 females). The study also took into account of exposure of shifting cultivators, their sensitivity and adaptive capacity in order to arrive at the conclusion. Main indicators of adaptive capacity considered are: food security, cash income (saving), sources of income, knowledge base and preparedness, status of livelihood assets (diverse and option of choice in the use of assets). The study revealed that food shortage (43% hh), crop failure (30% hh), loss of livestock (22%), and water scarcity (14%) were the major shocks faced by SCs in Nepal. SCs perceived a major contribution of climate change and associated hazards to generate these shocks. 55% respondents believed that drought has increased and 30% believed it remained same over the last 10 years. Likewise, 45% reported high intensity but short duration rainfall has increased and 20% reported no change over the same period. Increased drought has directly contributed to less food production, crop failure, water scarcity for livestock and water stress for livestock; whereas increased intensity of rainfall has accelerated soil erosion and hence decreased soil fertility of shifting cultivation land. Among SCs, households living in central Nepal having no legal rights to their lands and few livelihood options (such as only shifting cultivation) were found to be most vulnerable. In this context, increasing food security through increasing land productivity with secured tenureship over land and diversifying livelihood assets and strategies of SCs is crucial. We recommend promoting better land management practices with increasing fallow periods and using appropriate agro-forestry interventions such as integration of legumes, fruits, fodders, and medicinal plants and wild edibles can enhance land productivity of sloping and shifting cultivation lands and improve food security of SCs. Key words: Climate variability, adaptive capacity, sources of income, livelihood assets, agro-forestry

22

CHEPANG AND CHIURI: OPPORTUNITY OF PARADIGM SHIFT FROM INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE TO TRADE, AND CLIMATE CHANGE CONSEQUENCES IN LIVELIHOOD
Surya Binod Pokharel Promotion of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in Nepals trademark forest management modality community forestry is well known in the world. Forest coverage of Chitwan district is 128,500 ha (57%) and 30,035 ha (33%) are being managed through participatory forest management modalities. Eight Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs) have been managing 2829 ha of forest area in Korak VDC, the study area. Primary data was collected through focus group discussion and key informant interview with CFUGs, traders and government officers. The perception of climate change, adverse effect and coping strategies were also discussed with local community during the field study. Altogether 22,702 Chiuri trees (Aesandra butyracea roxburn) found in the study area and around 50% are matured. Chiuri seeds collection, ghee production and their use by Chepang, an indigenous community are being practiced from ancient time. Out of 1610 households in the study area, around 50% collected seeds and produced a significant volume of ghee by using their traditional Chepuwa extractor for its extraction. The total worth of collected seeds, ghee and oil cake produced was NPR 4,587,200. The market of Chiuri ghee is expanding from home consumption to commercial and aesthetic values such as for making herbal soap and cosmetics products and for burning lights in monasteries and temples. The facts illustrate that Chuiri ghee production has huge potential shifting to trade and can be commercialised as a major source of income for Chepang community livelihoods. However, upgrading/replacing of traditional extractor Chepuwa by modern machine, orientation on market linkages and agro-forestry techniques to Chepang community will increase their production, income and employment. Chepang communities were found not familiar with the term climate change; however, they perceived a significant change in climatic parameters such as temperature and precipitation. They have noticed drying up of water springs and decreased crops yields. As copping strategies, they have diversified their livelihood support measures such as crop production, sales of NTFPs, bee keeping and preserved edible wild plants and explored the option of off-farm employment.

Key words: NTFPs, community forest, income, climatic parameters, coping strategy

23

FORESTS AND RURAL P OVERTY DYNAMICS: THE CASE OF THREE DISTRICTS IN NEPAL
S. Z. Walelign, L.C. Charlery, B.B. K. Chhetri, H.O. Larsen, .J. Neilsen And C. Smith-Hall,

The literature on poverty dynamics in developing country communities that are reliant on forest income is almost entirely based on cross-sectional assessments. These snap-shot figures provide information on the current consumption and gap filling functions of forests but they do not allow an analysis and understanding of the role of forests towards escaping poverty. To address this issue, we used panel income and consumption data collected in 2006 and 2009 in the same households (n=446) in three sites in Nepal. The data is used to categorize households with regard to their expected poverty status and assess the weight of the eight major income sources in each category. Preliminary analyses show that 66 households moved into poverty, 70 moved out of poverty, 161 remained poor and 149 households remained non-poor. The roles played by the various income sources in the observed poverty dynamics are discussed; calculations of poverty transition rates with and without forest incomes illustrate the importance of forest access to rural livelihoods.

Key words: Forest income, consumption, gap filling function, poverty status, income sources

24

FROM ENVIRONMENTAL BAD TO ECONOMIC GOOD: TRANSFORMATION OF MIKANIA MICRANTHA INTO C OMPOST
Rajan Subedi1 and Rajesh Kumar Rai2
1 2

Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal; Email- subedi.rjn@gmail.com Green Governance Nepal, Kathmandu; Email- rjerung@yahoo.com

Managing invasive plants has become a great challenge to biodiversity conservation throughout the world including Nepal. Mikania micrantha H.B.K., one of 32 worst invasive plant species, is colonizing rapidly in the tropical part of the country. The species is recognized as a threat to rural ecosystems including forest and livelihoods of local communities. There is no strategy to control the spread of vines, as a consequence, the vines are spreading freely and deteriorating forests. Manual cutting of and uprooting before flowering were the most suitable control techniques in Nepalese context as local communities are managing forest patches. The problem arises to manage the removed vines. A proper utilization of the removed biomass may have twofold benefits: (i) reduce management cost, and (ii) attracts farmers to remove vines. In this context, this study was designed to commoditize Mikania as compost. An experiment was carried out using three composting techniques including pit, heap and vermi-composting in Janakauli Buffer Zone Community Forest, Chitwan, Nepal. Two types of materials were prepared for compostingMikania only and mixing Mikania with other vegetation. The results of our experiment suggest that Mikania micrantha can be used to produce compost mixing with other native vegetation. Heap method produced more effective results compared to other two methods as Mikania micrantha has high moisture content. The lab test indicated that Mikania micrantha manure had 0.6-1.9 % nitrogen, 0.6-0.5% phosphorous and 0.2-2.5 % potassium. These values suggest that Mikania composts are nutritious to plants like other bio-fertilizers including animal manure. Higher nutrients concentration and fast decomposition were observed in the mixed vegetation treatment compared to Mikania alone. Mixing Mikania with other native vegetation also helps to lower the allelopathic effects. This study concludes that open semi pit ( Mulkhat in Nepali) nearby cattle shed is more suitable strategy to prepare compost of Mikania. Key words: Invasion, composting, pit, heap, vermin-composting

25

THEME TWO: BIODIVERSITY AND NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


MONITORING OF ABOVE GROUND FOREST BIOMASS: A COMPARISON OF COST AND ACCURACY BETWEEN LIDAR ASSISTED MULTI-SOURCE PROGRAM AND FIELD BASED FOREST RESOURCE ASSESSMENT IN NEPAL
Pem Narayan Kandel Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) Nepal, Department of Forest Research and Survey, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Nepal; pkkandelnepal@gmail.com

Analyzing forest monitoring costs and accuracy of forest carbon stock estimates are important criteria in the framework of Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD), because monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) system has been seen as an investment that aims to generate financial benefits to forest owners. Thus, comparisons of cost efficiency and accuracy were carried out between Lidar Assisted Multisource Program (LAMP) and field based multisource Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) applied in 23500 km2 Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) of Nepal in 2011 to estimate above ground biomass (AGB). The model based LAMP was applied by integrating 5% LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sampling, wall to wall Rapid Eye satellite image and sample field plot inventory. The design-based FRA was carried out to generate comprehensive forest resource information. Administrative and initial variable costs of both approaches were calculated separately, and converted to unit costs for comparison. To compare the subsequent forest monitoring costs, cumulative costs were derived on the basis of the calculated present variable items and expenditures. The accuracies were calculated by using mean error of mean biomass estimates (tons/ha) at different spatial scales ranging from 1 to 350,000 ha forests. Design-based FRA was cost efficient (US$ 0.22/ha) over the LAMP approach (US$ 0.28/ha) for baseline data collection, whereas administrative cost of multisource FRA (US$ 0.26/ha) was significantly higher. Although a huge amount of data were generated through multisource FRA in each cycle, LAMP approach appears cost efficient to estimate AGB in subsequent forest inventory. The mean errors in LAMP-derived mean biomass estimate are significantly smaller at all spatial resolutions than mean error in FRA-plot derived mean biomass estimate. The study concludes that spatial accuracy of LAMP is good enough to estimate biomass stock of community forests (CFs) where average size of CF was 150 ha in the study area.

Key words: Forest resource monitoring, model based forest inventory, baseline variable, administrative costs, spatial accuracy

26

IMPACT OF FOREST MANAGEMENT ON STAND STRUCTURE AND TREE DIVERSITY IN THE SAL (SHOREA ROBUSTA) FOREST OF NEPAL
Sunita Ranabhat1 and Rajesh Malla2
1 2

Green Governance Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal Department of Forest Research and Survey, Kathmandu, Nepal

Shorea robusta (Sal) forests are important for commercial and subsistence purposes in developing countries like Nepal. Vast tracts of Sal forest have been managed and conserved either by the government or by communities in the lowland of Nepal. This study was conducted to assess and compare the stand structure and tree diversity of the Sal forest under different management regimes, i.e. national park (NP) and community forest (CF) in the buffer zone area. The Bardia National Park has been under strict protection since 1969 while the Chidkaiya, Thakurdwara and Betani CF were under protection by communities since 1996. Three transects, 200 m apart, were laid out systematically. Concentric circular plots were used at 150 m apart in each transect for the ground measurement. The size of the plots was designed based on diameter class of the trees. Altogether 30 and 26 sample plots were employed in NP and CF respectively. The density of trees, poles and regenerations were higher in NP while the density of saplings was higher in CF. Similarly, basal area of trees was higher in NP than in CF. A total of 19 species of trees and poles, 11 species of saplings and 12 species of seedlings were identified in NP. The number of trees and poles, sapling and seedling species recorded in CF were 11, 13 and 19 respectively. Estimators of species diversity such as Jack 2, Chao 2 and Shannon Wiener Index identified NP as more diverse in tree and pole stage than CF. In contrast to this, CF was more diverse in sapling and seedling stage. The presence of low number of poles in CF indicates that before community conservation, the forest was highly disturbed in the past. But adequate numbers of saplings and seedlings in CF show that the condition of degraded forest can be enhanced under community management regime in the long run. Therefore, CFs in buffer zone areas seem to be one of the best alternatives to turn out the degraded Sal forest into better condition. Key words: Biodiversity, buffer zone area, community forest, protected area, Bardia National Park

27

TREE-LINE DYNAMICS WITH CLIMATE CHANGE IN NEPAL HIMALAYA


Narayan Prasad Gaire1,2*, Madan Koirala 2 and Dinesh Raj Bhuju1, 2
1

Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, Khumaltar, Lalitpur Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu *npgaire2007@gmail.com
2

Himalayan countries are more vulnerable to the climate change impacts, and temperature warming is more pronounced in their high altitudes. Tree-lines are sensitive biomonitors of past and recent climate change and variability, and also taken as early warning signal to climatic impacts on high altitude biota. Scientific information on the response of different communities to climate change is pre-requisite to develop any measures. We carried out a study at tree-lines of Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha) and Mt. Manaslu regions of the Nepal Himalaya with the aim to assess impacts of climate change in the tree-line ecotone and to reconstruct the past environmental history of the region. Two to three vertical belt transect plots (20m wide x >100m length) were laid down in each site. Both ecological and dendrochronological tools were followed and climatic response on radial growth, recruitment of Abies spectabilis D. Don and Betula utilis D. Don and their age distribution were analyzed. The tree density, basal area, DBH, height and age were found decreased with increasing elevation though with spatial heterogeneity. Abies showed slightly bimodal distribution of DBH and age classes, which was different for Betula. Upward advancement of tree-line is expected in the recent decades though not necessarily uniform throughout the tree-line. The tree core analysis showed that B. utilis was established earlier than A. spectabilis. The upper distribution limit shift of A. spectabilis at Manaslu was found 2.61m per year, which is comparable to other studies. Relationship between two site chronologies of Abies showed positive indicating some common factors limiting growth of the tree in both sites. Tree growth climate relationship showed negative response with temperature of MarchMay. Upward treeline shifting may have negative consequences to the alpine biota due to competition with lower species for space and resources. The differential regeneration or recruitment pattern of two tree-line tree species suggests: i) plant communities are changing in their composition with time, and ii) each plant species respond to environmental change differently. Hence, there should be species specific conservation measures to protect the species from adverse impact of climate change.

Key words: Age, dendrochronology, species limit, Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis

28

SEASONAL CHANGES AND POSSIBLE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIODIVERSITY


Remya K1, A. Ramachandran, Divya C and Radhapriya P Centre for Climate Change and Adaptation Research, Anna University, Chennai-600 025 1 remyak.cc@gmail.com

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change underpins the importance of conserving biodiversity in the face of changing climatic conditions. Some of the major considerations under impact of climate change on floral biodiversity include changes in species distribution, increased extinction rate of species, changes in reproduction timings and in length of growing season for plants. Eastern Ghats of India are endowed with an extensively rich variety of biological species, geological formations and different ethnic tribes. Kolli hills are part of the Eastern Ghats, which houses around 854 species of Angiosperms, 57 Pteridophytes and 5 Gymnosperms. The composite slope of Kolli hills consists of shola (6%), evergreen (1%), semi-evergreen (8%), deciduous (4%), thorn (38%) and scrub and plantation (1%). Though the biodiversity of Kolli hills has been studied widely, the climate impact on biodiversity changes has not been emphasized so far. Therefore, the present study aimed to understand the climate profile of Kolli hills and the indications of its relation to biodiversity. It is seen that there is a very slight shift in the onset of rainfall in Kolli hills and there has a significant decreasing trend in the south west monsoon, which drains major part of the area. An increasing Northeast monsoon rainfall trend is visible from the data analyzed over a period of four decades. Evidences on climate impact suggest that deciduous plants phenology exhibit high risk towards the rainfall trends in the summer season. Therefore, it could be concluded that rainfall pattern, especially increased summer rainfall will have profound effect on the deciduous flora of Kolli Hills. Further research in this regard requires investigation of temperature trend and the combined influence on biodiversity loss. Prediction of future rainfall pattern in Kolli hills will be required for formulating better adaptation strategies to climate change. Key words: Forest, rainfall trend, seasonal rainfall changes, deciduous flora

29

BIOCHAR AS A SOIL AMENDMENT AND ITS INDIGENOUS USE FOR CROP PRODUCTION ON MARGINAL LANDS IN THE MOUNTAINS OF NEPAL
Roshan M. Bajracharya, N.R. Dahal, S.B. Bajracharya and N. Gautam
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal Although the production and use of biochar in agriculture through indigenous methods is not new, scientific investigation into the benefits of biochar is a recent development. Biochar, the pyrolysis product of vegetative biomass combusted under low oxygen conditions, has unique structural, porosity and nutrient retention characteristics and hence acts as a catalyst for microbial activity in the soil. Applied as a soil amendment, it can serve to improve the soils fertility and productivity, while also has potential to enhance the carbon storage capacity and longevity in soil. Indigenous communities in Dolakha District of east-central Nepal have been using a locally developed technique for producing biochar and using it in the cultivation of finger millet under the Bukma system. Although this system of millet production is a form of shifting cultivation with 3-5 year fallow periods between successive cropping, and it is done mainly on marginal lands at elevations above 2500m, this study noted that millet production would have not been viable in the absence of biochar usage. While the soil physical and chemical properties of the Bukma soil were not significantly better than adjacent regular upland terrace farms, the system enabled reasonable harvests of millet despite the poor quality of the soil on these marginal and steep lands.

Key words: Biomass, soil fertility, productivity, Bukma, finger millet

30

REDUCED SOIL CH4 UPTAKE DUE TO GRAZING IN FOREST OF BILIGIRI HILLS OF INDIA
Nani Raut1*, Bishal Kumar Sitaula1 and Roshan Man Bajracharya2
1

Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO box 5003, N-1432 Aas, Norway 2 Department of Environment Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal * rautnani7@gmail.com We have measured the fluxes of CH4 with a closed chamber technique throughout one year in a forest of Western Ghats, Karnataka state, SW India. The results showed that the net CH 4 sink was significantly higher in undisturbed forest compared to disturbed forest. The annual CH4 sink in undisturbed and disturbed forest are 1.56 kg CH4 per ha and 1.04 kg CH4 per ha respectively. The accumulated CH 4 sink (g/m2/d) measured over the four different seasons were highest during monsoon whereas the lowest sink was during post monsoon season. During the monsoon season, the grazing activities are lower due to the heavy and prolonged rainfall, which could be the possible explanation for higher sink than during other seasons in both the sites. In contrast, the higher grazing pressure during post monsoon season led to the soil compaction due to livestock treading and trampling, thus created an anaerobic condition in the soil with reduced air filled pore spaces. This led to an increased methanogenic activity and could be the possible explanation for reduced CH 4 sink during post monsoon season.

Key words: Fluxes of CH4, Western Ghats, undisturbed forest, disturbed forest, monsoon

31

EFFECT OF LAND USE ON SOIL DEGRADATION IN CHITLANG WATERSHED OF NEPAL


Hari Ram Upadhayay1,3*, Susmina Gajurel1, Roshan Man Bajracharya1, Wim Cornelis2 and Pascal Boeckx3
1

Aquatic Ecology Centre, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal 2 Department of Soil Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent, Belgium 3 Isotope Bioscience Laboratory-ISOFYS, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent, Belgium *hrgene@gmail.com Land uses affect many natural resources and ecological processes such as surface runoff and erosion by affecting soil physico-chemical properties, which are directly linked to land degradation. Five land uses were studied to assess the quality of soil physical and chemical properties in Chitlang watershed, a sub-watershed of Kulekhani water basin in the mid-hills of central Nepal. The watershed was divided into four sectors and composite soil samples (0-150 cm) were taken from each sector by land uses. Soil particle size distribution, bulk density, loss on ignition (LOI), pH, erodibility (K) factor, total nitrogen and available phosphorus were determined. According to study result, top soil of the watershed was found dominated by medium fine (clay<35% and sand<15%) textural class that is very prone to soil erosion. Pristine forest was found to have significantly higher loss on ignition of soils while K factor was significantly lower than in other land uses. Significant difference (p<0.05) in pH (1:1 0.01 M CaCl 2) of soil between lowland (Khet) and upland (Bari) was reported. Pearsons correlation results showed significant correlation among K factor with other soil properties such as LOI and pH. This study showed that soil of the study area was sensitive to erosion especially from upland during early monsoon when there was less surface cover.

Key words: Loss on Ignition, erodibility, land degradation, soil erosion, bari, khet

32

DOES MOUNTAIN TOURISM CONTRIBUTE TO FOREST CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ? A CASE FROM LOWER MUSTANG OF NEPAL H IMALAYA
Suresh K. Shrestha and Santosh Rayamajhi Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal

Potentials of mountain tourism in natural resources conservation and sustainable community development have been emphasized by numerous scholars. Studies that compare tourisms role in nature conservation and community development (CD) in two similar areas with and without tourism (control area) are extremely lacking. The paper examines the impact of mountain tourism in CD and forest conservation (FC) by comparing income and employment status and FC activities in Lete (with some form of tourism development) and Kunjo (without any tourism activities) of Lower Mustang. Relevant data and information were collected using RRA/PRA and questionnaire survey of 180 randomly selected households including 32 hotel entrepreneurs and sampling of 120 permanent forest plots used by respondents. Surveys were replicated among the same respondents over four quarters of the survey year. Our result supported the view that tourism contributed to CD and FC. Specifically, more households in Lete were involved in tourism business than in Kunjo and the number of hotels was rapidly increasing in Lete. Likewise, the income level of Lete was higher than Kunjo due to increasing tourism activities including timber and firewood collection and trading, and increased land prices. It also revealed that tourism-dependent households had not only higher income from hotel business and use of forest resources, but also a higher level of awareness towards FC. Tourist income leakage was not too high. Major tourism borne issues in Lete were unequal distribution of tourism benefits, lack of farm labor, increased wage of farm labor, difficult livelihood for common villagers, reduction in traditional mode of travel (trekking), reduction in length of stay (less night stay but higher day visitors) and reduction in mode of transportation (use of mule) due to road construction. Our findings imply that the existing tourism policy of lower Mustang should be reviewed, especially in the context of construction of road and develop new trekking routes for eco-tourists which is a very strong means of distributing income and employment opportunities in remote areas like Mustang and train and encourage local people for hotel and other entrepreneurialship such as vegetable farming, NTFP farming, handicrafts and other traditional income generating activities. Key words: Natural resources conservation, tourism impact, income, employment, community development

33

LAND USE INTENSIFICATION EFFECTS ON SOIL RESPIRATION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: A CASE STUDY FROM MID-HILLS OF NEPAL
Sameena Mumtaz1*, Roshan M. Bajracharya2 and Bishal K. Situala3 1 School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel 2 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel 3 NORAGRIC, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), Norway * saminalam@gmail.com Intensive agriculture is characterized by a low fallow ratio and the high use of inputs such as capital, labor, or heavy use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers relative to land area. In the study area the typical two food crops per year has increased to three crops per year, reflecting agricultural intensification. Carbon dioxide release from soil reflects the interplay of added and sequestered organic matter and the fraction that is being biologically decomposed. The rate of CO2 release is generally regarded as an indicator of soil health and used to estimate potential release of nutrients important for crop production. The present study was conducted in the central mid-hills of Nepal to investigate the effect of land use intensification on soil CO 2 respiration and physico-chemical properties. Soils from upland and low land of Paanchkhal were taken from intensive and non-intensive agricultural fields, and also from forest plots (forests considering as control being least disturbed). Soil CO2 respiration was measured using Solvita soil test gel-technology with fresh soil samples in jars. This study showed that most of the soils were approaching or declining from an ideal state of soil respiration. The results indicated that the soil may provide adequate nitrogen for light feeders but requires continued applications of microbially active organic matter. Key words: Soil health indicator, Carbon dioxide, organic matter, crop production, nitrogen

34

INTRODUCTION OF MOSO BAMBOO (PHYLLOSTACHYS PUBESCENS) ON DEGRADED SITES OF COMMUNITY FORESTS IN NEPAL
Sharad K. Baral, Hasta B. Thaha and Rajaram Aryal Department of Forest Research and Survey, Babarmahal, Kathmandu, Nepal Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most widely planted bamboo species in China for ecological restoration and economic production. This species is mainly used for bamboo timber and shoot production. As there are several chunk of treeless sites available in community forest areas in Nepal, it can be a potential bamboo species that can be planted for income generation of local users, erosion control and ecological restoration of degraded sites, and climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. However, it is important to test the species on a new site to examine survival and growth. The learning and recommendations of several field trials will guide us for its commercial plantation cautiously. Therefore, a moso bamboo plantation trial at Dhaneshwar, Kavre (273700 N and 853122E) was established in 2007 to assess the survival, growth and shoot production in a barren community forest land. Ninety six, 92 and 80% seedling survival were recorded in 4.5, 21 and 54 months respectively. The bamboo attained 3m average height and 2 cm average diameter at base in 4.5 years. In the mean time, on an average, 13 total shoots and 9 new shoots were developed per bamboo clump. These results indicated potentiality of successful establishment of moso bamboo plantation on degraded sites of community forests in the mid-hills region of Nepal. However, the appropriate structure of a moso bamboo stand (density, age structure, culm distribution and average diameter, etc.), which influences bamboo growth is yet to be tested. At present, caution must be taken towards the threat of soil nutrient exhaustion and invasion possibility when planting moso bamboo in other sites.

Key words: Barren land, community forest, ecological restoration, culm distribution, plantation

35

USE OF BIOCHAR FOR ENHANCING SOIL QUALITY IN MOUNTAIN AGRICULTURAL LANDS OF NEPAL
Ngamindra Dahal* and Roshan M. Bajracharya Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal * ngamindra@gmail.com Biochar is a charcoal like residual mass usually prepared by pyrolising biomass in controlled temperature and minimum oxygen conditions. Biochar is often prepared from leafy biomass and agricultural wastes. It has recently regarded by the scientific community as a useful agent to enhance soil quality as it brings about desirable changes in chemical and physical properties for soil microorganisms and crops. Studies undertaken elsewhere in the world have recognized effectiveness of biochar in improving soil quality, thus, saving costs and time of farmers though there are hardly any studies to prove such effectiveness in Nepal. Biochar may be produced by indigenous methods, by using improved cook stove designed for dual purpose of cooking and producing biochar, and through industrial-scale retort process. In Nepal, high mountain farmers have an indigenous method of preparing and applying biochar in their agriculture lands mostly for preparing millet nurseries and potatoes. Availability of sufficient amount of feedstock for biochar production is a critical issue as biomass is already used for livestock feeding, preparing compost and energy purpose in most of rural households. A recent feedstock survey conducted among farmer households in organic coffee plantation areas of Thuladurlung of Lalitpur, Talamarang of Sindhupalchok and Panchkhal of Kavre districts of Nepal revealed that local farmers always have some quantity of 'unused' or 'underutilized' or 'waste' biomass at each household and community. However, none of the areas have large scale waste biomass available as feedstock for preparing biochar. Nevertheless, there is a good prospect of preparing and using biochar in a small quantities round the year without adding any significant costs and time for farmers other than their 'business as usual' level. Taking examples from Nepal and elsewhere in the world, this paper throws light on prospects of promoting biochar among mountain farmers using the 'additional' stock of biomass, and addressing concerns associated with soil quality degradation and climate change.

Key words: Climate change, mountain farmer, biomass feedstock, biochar stove, sustainability

36

IMPLICATIONS OF RIVER COURSE CHANGE ON ECOSYSTEMS SERVICES: A CASE STUDY FROM THE KOSHI TAPPU WILDLIFE RESERVE, NEPAL
Sunita Chaudhary Ecosystem Services, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, GPO Box 3226, Kathmandu, Nepal

The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, located in the foothills of Nepalese Himalayas, is a wetland of international importance with significantly rich biodiversity. The reserve has been a source of vast array of ecosystem services for supporting subsistence livelihoods of people living in its buffer zone. In recent years, changes in river course coupled with human pressure are leading to rapid changes in its ecosystems and their capacity to deliver ecosystem services. After declaration of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve in 1976 under IUCN category IV, so far, there has not been any attempt to understand implications of river course change on various ecosystems and on future prospects of sustaining ecosystem services. This paper examines peoples dependency, and shows implications of river course change over a period of 34 years (19762010) on ecosystem services. Various geo-spatial tools considering multiscaled remote sensing data of 1976, 1989, 1999 and 2010 supported by secondary information on human dependency on ecosystem services were used to understand linkages between changes in ecosystems and its implications on sustaining services. Our results revealed that river/lake, swamp/marshes and forest were the most productive ecosystems for provisioning services, where as swamps/marshes, and forest for regulating, cultural, and supporting services. There has been significant lateral shift on river course inducing changes on ecosystems. Capacities of some of the critical ecosystems are decreasing with these changes in its state with potentially negative impacts on ecosystem services and dependency of people. There is an urgent need to address these changing scenarios of ecosystems for sustaining ecosystem services as well as biodiversity of the reserve.

Key words: Wetland, human dependency, subsistence livelihood, human pressure

37

BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION FOR CLIMATE RESILIENT LANDSCAPES IN NEPAL: THE HARIYO BAN APPROACH Judy Oglethorpe, Shant Raj Jnawali, Keshav Khanal, Sunil Regmi and Ghana Shyam Gurung, Netra Sharma Sapkota

The Hariyo Ban Program is five-year initiative (2011-2016). Funded by the United States Agency for International Development, the program aims to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change and threats to biodiversity in Nepal. The program works to empower Nepal's local communities in safeguarding the country's living heritage and adapting to climate change through sound conservation and livelihood approaches. The program is implemented by four consortium partners WWF Nepal (lead), CARE Nepal, Federation of Community Forestry Network and National Trust for Nature Conservation, together with the government, communities, civil society, academia and the private sector and works in two geographical areas: the Terai Arc Landscape and Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape. The program takes a holistic and integrated approach, emphasizing links between people and forests. It has three interwoven components biodiversity conservation, sustainable landscapes including payment for ecosystem services, and climate change adaptation. These components are supported by livelihoods, governance, and gender and social inclusion as cross-cutting themes with a strong communication approach. During the first two years of its implementation so far, Hariyo Ban has focused its efforts in areas critical for biodiversity conservation including biological corridors, catchments and climate refugia, working to link protected areas through corridors to meet ecological habitat requirements of focal species and enhance ecological services. The program works towards payments for ecosystem services through plantation, rehabilitation of degraded land and promotion of sustainable forest management, resulting in improved natural resource management. Climate change adaptation is taking an integrated approach acknowledging both human rights and ecosystem principles. The program has supported planning and implementation of 40 adaptation plans addressing adverse impacts of climate change in vulnerable communities and ecosystems. The program also improves livelihoods of forest dependent communities including poor, women, and marginalized people, promoting enhanced participation and sound governance and stewardship of natural resources. Hariyo Ban is a learning program, testing cutting-edge approaches, developing resource management tools, refining its operations, and communicating results. The program will present preliminary results across different components and discuss the advantages and challenges of taking a multi-disciplinary, holistic and integrated landscape approach to conserve biodiversity and tackle climate change. Key words: Climate resilient, adaptation, sustainable landscape, gender and social inclusion, integrated approach

38

ANALYSIS OF CLIMATIC TRENDS AND THEIR RELATION TO VEGETATION PERFORMANCE IN GAURISHANKAR CONSERVATION AREA, CENTRAL NEPAL
Janardan Mainali1, 2,*, Rabindra Parajuli3, Mahesh Limbu4 and Bishnu Timilsina4
1

Resources Himalaya Foundation, Lalitpur, Nepal, Research Solutions Nepal, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal, 3 Rural Development Tuki Association (RDTA), Charikot, Dolakha, Nepal 4 Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal *Corresponding Author: jmainali23@gmail.com
2

There are growing concerns over changing climate and their impact on vegetation productivity. Both reduction and increment in productivities are documented on changing climate. This study conducted in 2010, analyzed trend of climatic parameters from 1980 to 2009 of central east region of Nepal (Jiri weather station) and shed light over response of mountain vegetation to the climatic variabilities. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of four different vegetation types from 2000 to 2009 of sub alpine and alpine region were studied on Panchpokhari-Jatapokhari region on the vicinity of Jiri weather station, Central East Nepal. We found that maximum temperature is increasing with the rate of 0.0470C per year while winter rainfall also showed significant trend of increase (p<0.05). Most of the vegetation types had significant increase in minimum NDVI value except that of grassland. All vegetation patches NDVI demonstrated significant linear relationships with average monthly temperature and total monthly precipitation of two to five months lag. Alpine vegetations (Grassland and Rhododendron anthopogon thicket) exhibited shortest time lag of two months while subalpine forest (Juniperus recurva forest and Abies spectabilis forest) showed relatively late response to climatic variability. Although different vegetation types responded differently to the climatic variabilities, increase in temperature and winter precipitation in this part of central Himalaya has positive effect to productivity of subalpine and alpine vegetation. Key words: Climatic variable, Mountain Vegetation, Central Himalaya, NDVI, MODIS

39

QUANTIFICATION OF FOREST AND SOIL CARBON STOCKS UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NEPAL
Him Lal Shrestha1*, Roshan M. Bajracharya2 and Bishal K. Sitaula3
1

School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhuliokhel 3 NORAGRIC, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway * Corresponding author: hlshrestha@gmail.com
2

Past studies have indicated that forest and soil carbon are major pools among the terrestrial carbon pools. International Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) under the UNFCCC has reported and documented the guidelines and good practices of monitoring the forest and soil carbon specifically and estimation of green house gas (GHG) in general. Quantification of terrestrial carbon stocks in the international arena has advanced from fieldlevel physical monitoring to highresolution satellite imaging and LiDAR techniques. Despite numerous separate studies of forest biomass and soil carbon stock measurements in a few districts of Nepal, there is still only limited data and capacity for extensive carbon stock monitoring in Nepal. This study aimed to explore the possibility of integrating remote sensing parameters with plotbased forest measurement for the quantification of aboveground biomass carbon and soil carbon. The relation between the satellite metrices and field measurement has the potential for use to prepare carbon maps of the study area. The result showed higher carbon stocks in tropical forest than the temperate forest, likely due to forest stand density. This study focused on the techniques of quantification of aboveground forest biomass carbon pool and below ground carbon pools. It also examined the results in relation to the ecoregions and forests and soils under different management practices in Nepal. The results on soil characteristics, soil carbon and biomass carbon were compared in various management practices i.e. Agriculture, Agro forestry, Community Forest, Leasehold Forest and Protected Forests. The preliminary result showed that biomass carbon was high in community forests with 183.4 tons per ha in Buffer zone CF in Rasuwa. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is found high in CF as compared to agriculture with 436 tons carbon per ha and 371 tons C per ha respectively. Key words: GHG, remote sensing, carbon pools, GIS, LiDAR techniques

40

COMPOSTING LEAF LITTER FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSE: CONCERN FOR E COSYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY
Balram Bhatta1 and Abadhesh Singh2
1

Institute of Forestry, Hetauda Institute of Forestry, Pokhara

Leaf litter plays a vital role in forest productivity, soil fertility and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystem through its decomposition. Litter fall is a major process for transferring nutrients from above-ground vegetation to soils for maintaining plant growth and nutrient cycling through decomposition of litter. This is functioning as the bridge between plant and soil. In Nepal, farming system depends on an intractable relationship of agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry. Forest plays an important role in sustaining the production of agricultural land and animal husbandry. Community forestry, one of the highest priority programs of forestry sector in Nepal, is a practice of controlling and managing the forest resources by the people for their domestic purposes. It has been argued that the approach is successful in improving the supply of forest products, rehabilitating degraded hills and also increasing biodiversity. The study was carried out to explore the reasons for litter collection and uses of collected litter in three community forest of Makawanpur district. Most of the users having cattle are engaged in litter collection and among the collectors, 71% are women. The main reason for litter collection is for animal bedding and finally, to prepare compost. About 88.5% of households used the compost in their own farmland and 11.42% of them for commercial purpose. The users making compost for sale hired labour for collecting litter from forests, who didnt pay due attention to the impact. Shifting of purpose from personal use to commercial use has put higher pressure on the forests, which is alarming the users and planners to include litter management as an essential component of operational plan to sustain the forest ecosystem.

Key words: Forest productivity, soil fertility, community forestry, forest ecosystem, animal bedding

41

ESTIMATION OF ABOVE GROUND PHYTOMASS AND CARBON IN TREE RESOURCES OUTSIDE THE FOREST (TROF): A GEO-SPATIAL APPROACH
Binod P. Heyjoo Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara, Nepal

The contribution of tree resources outside forest (TROF) in mitigating adverse effects of climate changes is being gradually acknowledged globally. In India, few studies on phytomass and carbon assessment in TROF ecosystem have been carried out but with different methodology and for different objectives. This study estimated above ground phytomass and carbon of TROF ecosystem of part of Bijnor district in Uttar Pradesh of India using IRS P6 LISS-IV satellite image by geo-spatial approach coupled with field sampling. The steps followed during the research were: preprocessing and classification of the image, mapping out different TROF types (scattered, linear and block), TROF sampling design, field inventory, plot wise volume and phytomass estimation, correlation between spectral bands and phytomass, carbon estimation and lastly validation of the results. The total phytomass per plot recorded was the maximum of 856.80 t/ha for linear TROF followed by 191.97 t/ha for block TROF. The carbon from phytomass was obtained by multiplying the total phytomass by a conversion factor that represented the average carbon content in phytomass. Spectral modeling for phytomass with different bands and indices were established and the best fit curve (R 2 = 0.552) with red band was applied to generate phytomass and carbon distribution map of the study area. The integration of remote sensing techniques with ground survey covered a wide area in a short time, however, the method can be effectively improved using adequate seasonal multi spectral and highresolution satellite imageries and precise GPS receiver. Key words: Carbon estimation, satellite imageries, carbon distribution map, GPS, Spectral modeling

42

IDENTIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF REFERENCE SITES IN THE ANDHIKHOLA RIVER, NEPAL


Praveen Sharma1*, Subodh Sharma2 and Smriti Gurung3
1

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Science, Kathmandu University, G.P.O. Box 6250, Dhulikhel, Kavre, Nepal; praveen_sharma@email.com; Phone/Fax.: +977-11-661399; +977-11-661443 2 Aquatic Ecology Centre, School of science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Kavre, Nepal 3 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Science, Kathmandu University Reference conditions having no or only minor anthropogenic disturbances, are a basic requirement for ecological studies in rivers. To study ecological impact of a dam, two sites were pre-classified as reference or least disturbed in the river Andhikhola, Nepal using Rapid Field Bioscreening (RFB) protocol. Biological (Macroinvertebrates) and Physico-chemical samples were collected in January and February 2013. Multi-habitat sampling (MHS) was employed in sample collection of macro-invertebrate fauna. Validation of the pre-classified sites was done using several indices viz. Nepalese biotic score (NEPBIOS), British monitoring working party (BMWP), Hindu-kush Himalayan biotic score (HKHBIOS), Hilsenhoff (HILSENHOFF) and National sanitation foundation water quality index NSFWQI. The NEPBIOS, HKHBIOS, HILSENHOFF, RFB and NSFWQI indices predicted the river quality at both the sites as good with quality class II. Only BMWP/ASPT water quality index predicted the river quality at two sites as excellent with quality class I. Hence, preselected sites with quality of rank II i.e. good qualities were validated as reference sites. The study demonstrated that the multi-metric approach is suitable for application in the monitoring and assessment of rivers where dams are built to produce hydropower.

Key words: Anthropogenic disturbances, macro-invertebrates, Rapid Field Bioscreening, dams, indices

43

GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF LAND USE LAND COVER CHANGE MODELING IN PHEWA LAKE WATERSHED OF NEPAL BY USING CELLULAR AUTOMATAMARKOV MODEL
Raju R. Regmi*, S.K. Saha and Mohan K. Balla1
1

Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara, Nepal Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (NRSA), Dehradun 248 001, Uttarakhand, India *Corresponding author: rrrgmi2010@gmail.com
2

Improper practices of land use/ land cover (LULC) are deteriorating watershed conditions. Remote sensing and GIS tools were used to study LULC dynamics using Cellular Automata (CA)Markov model and predicted the future LULC scenario for years 2015 and 2020, in terms of magnitude and direction, based on past trend in Phewa Lake watershed, Kaski district, Nepal. An analysis of the LULC pattern during 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 using satellite-derived maps showed that the biophysical and socioeconomic drivers including slope, road network and settlements proximity have influenced the spatial pattern of the watershed LULC. These lead to an accretive linear growth of open forest and built up area but decrease in other LULC classes. The annual rates of increase from 1995 to 2010 in open forest land and built up land were 81.97 and 24.21 ha/year respectively, while decreases in dense forest, terrace agriculture, valley agriculture and waste land were 30.23, 33.67, 21.63 and 6.42 ha/year respectively. Subwatershed-wise LULC change showed decrease by 261 ha and 76 ha of dense forest, and increase in open forest by 357 ha and 31 ha in mid and North flowing Subwatershed respectively from 1995 to 2010. Open forest is predicted to increase by 103ha and 205.3 ha and dense forest is decreased by 65 ha and 124.5 ha from 2010 to projected 2015 and 2020 in Andheri Subwatershed. The predicted LULC scenario for the year 2015 and 2020, with reasonably good accuracy would provide useful inputs to the LULC planners for effective management of the watershed. The study is a maiden attempt that revealed the expansion of built up land, which is the main driving force for loss of agriculture land, waste land, and grass land, and an increase in open forest leading to decrease in dense forest and bush/ scrub land in the watershed. This study utilized three time period changes to better account for the trend and the modeling exercise; thereby advocates for better agricultural practices to arrest further forest change and LULC alternations.

Key words: GIS, subwatershed, biophysical drivers, socio-economic drivers, open forest, built up land

44

FOREST DYNAMICS AND WOOD EXTRACTION IN COMMUNITY MANAGED FOREST: EIGHT YEARS AT THREE RESEARCH SITES IN NEPAL.
Henrik Meilby1 and Lila Puri2
1 1

Associate professor, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science, Denmark. email: heme@ifro.ku.dk Assistant professor, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Email: puri07878@itc.nl

In order to monitor forest dynamics and wood extraction, a network of 241 permanent sample plots was established at three community-managed forest sites representing the lowlands (Chitwan), the middle hills (Kaski) and the high mountains (Mustang) of Nepal. The plots are located at altitudes ranging from 200 to 2600 m.a.s.l. and represent tropical Shorea robusta forest, subtropical SchimaCastanopsis forest and temperate Pinus wallichiana forest. The plots were measured in the springs of 2005, 2010 and 2013. The measurements included trees, shrubs and regeneration. In this paper, we examine the dynamics of the forest structure and the extraction of wood products by the local communities over the eight-year observation period, compare the growth capacity of the forest to present extraction practices and discuss future management options. We compared tree density, volume and diameter distributions between sites and over the period to assess the structural dynamics of the forest and interpret the observed changes in the context of management practices adopted in each site. With regard to wood extraction, we referred to data collected in 2005 and 2010 only. The analysis revealed that the volume of the growing stock in Chitwan was increasing throughout the study period, whereas the standing volume in Kaski decreased between 2005 and 2010 but started increasing again in 2010-2013. The tree size distribution in Chitwan and Kaski was reverse J-shaped with large densities of small trees, as typically observed for natural and semi-natural forests. Analysis of data from 2005 and 2010 showed that the patterns of forest utilization varied considerably between the three sites. In Chitwan, most of the increment took place in the 10-20cm diameter class while harvest was mainly from large diameter classes with relatively little standing stock. In Mustang, increment was observed in all diameter classes. In Kaski, the standing stock was reduced in virtually all diameter classes. Finally, in 2005-2010 the annual harvest in Chitwan and Mustang was below the annual increment, while in Kaski it was more than three times the annual increment. However, given the recent increase of standing volume in Kaski (2010-2013) this now appears to have changed.

Key words: community managed forest, permanent sample plots, annual harvest, increment, sustainability

45

FODDER BIOMASS EQUATIONS USING INDIVIDUAL TREE DISTANCE-INDEPENDENT MODELS: A CASE OF FICUS SEMICHORDATA FROM KASKI DISTRICT OF NEPAL
Arjun Prasad Bastola1 and Dinesh Kumar2
1 2

Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal Silviculture Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, India

In the mid hills of Nepal, several species of fodder trees are being used as a livestock feed since time immemorial. The availability and lopping season of fodder varies with species. Among the most commonly available trees, Ficus semichordata has high feeding value and is one of the most popular fodder trees in mid hills of Nepal. If the amount of fodder biomass yield could be traced, systematic feeding system could be developed accordingly. Linear regression equations were developed for fodder biomass of Ficus semichordata, expressed as a function of easily measured parameters such as diameter at breast height, crown diameter and tree height. Individual tree distance-independent models were used as most fodder tree species are managed on an individual tree basis. Data were collected from experimental plots established in the farmers farmland in Kaski district, Nepal. Aspect specific equations were developed at first as the plots were established on four different aspects. The single variable SD1.37m (stem diameter at 1.37m height) best predicted the total fresh fodder biomass (R 2 > 0.90, S.E. < 3.30) and oven dry fodder biomass (R2 > 0.87, S.E. < 1.42) in all four aspects. Inclusion of additional variables increased multicollinearity beyond the acceptable range; hence additional parameters were dropped from the model. Inclusion of crown diameter data in the model brought about slight improvement in the performance of the model (R2 > 0.97, S.E. < 2 for fresh fodder and R 2 > 0.93, S.E. < 1 for oven dry fodder) but the condition index was more than 18 and 20. The data from all aspects were pooled to develop the single regional model: TFFW = -12.279 + 2.672* SD1.37m (R2 > 0.91, S.E. < 3.30) where, SD1.37m refers to stem diameter at 1.37m height from the base. The corresponding model for oven dry fodder weight is EODFW = -3.789 + 0.853* SD1.37m (R2 > 0.88, S.E. < 1.22). The models developed are recommended for mature trees only. The information generated by these models is expected to help fodder tree management and have research applications in Nepal.

Key words: Farmland, stem diameter, crown diameter, fodder tree, tree distance-independent models

46

Restoration Potentiality of Degraded Sites in the Mid-hills Region of Nepal


R. K. Jha, S. K. Baral, R. R. Aryal, H. B. Thapa Land degradation is the reduction or loss of the biological or economic productivity of the terrestrial bio-productive system that comprises soil, vegetation, or other biota and the ecological and hydrological processes that operate within the system. It is a major challenge to Nepal. A lot of degraded lands are available in community forests in the mid hills region. Community forestry aims at utilizing those lands for ecological restoration as well as supporting livelihoods of the local people. In this context, the study was designed to test the survival capacity and growth performance of different (indigenous as well as exotic) tree species that can be used for the rehabilitation of degraded land. Firstly, Stylo, leguminous grass, was introduced in the site for enriching nutrients in the site. Secondly, six different tree species (indigenous species: Sapindus mukorossi, Prunus cerasoides, Melia azadarach, Choerospondias auxillaris and Exotic species: Pinus patula and Robinia pseudoacacia) were selected for the trial and planted in a randomized complete block design with 4 blocks (6 species X 4 blocks). The result shows that the growth and survival of exotic species P. patula was outstanding however its native counterparts P. cerasoides and C. auxillaris and naturalized species M. azedarach also performed relatively satisfactory result. The result also showed that R. pseudoacacia was not the suitable species for rehabilitating degraded sites in the Mid-hills of Nepal. Therefore, it would be wise to select the native or naturalized species for the rehabilitation of degraded land in the mid-hills because the introduction of exotic species may have negative ecological consequence. Hence, the study shows the possibility of introducing the tree species such as P. cerasoides, M. azadarach and C. auxillaris for ecological restoration of degraded sites linking with income generation of local poor in the community forests of mid hills regions in Nepal. Key words: Land degradation, ecological rehabilitation, growth performance, and native species, naturalized species and exotic species.

47

ABOVE GROUND BIOMASS ESTIMATION IN THE PART OF MUSSOORI HILLS AND RAJPUR HILL OF UTTARAKHAND, INDIA USING EO-1 HYPERION DATA
Dharmendra Singh1 and Sarnam Singh2
1 2

Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun 248001, India. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, ISRO, Dehradun, 248001, India

The study estimated the above ground tree biomass at Mussoorie and Rajpur hills in Doon Valley using ground survey and geospatial technology. Hyperspectral remote sensing data (Hyperion EO-1) was used for the species level classification using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). On the basis of spectral angle matching of ground spectra and image spectra SAM enabled us to map Quercus leucotrichophora, Shorea robusta, Cedrus deodara, Thuja orientalis, Lantana camara, etc. Stratified random sampling technique was used for laying 26 plots of 0.1 ha. The homogenous strata species map available from Hyperion EO-1 data was used for sampling design. The biomass was calculated by traditional approach of estimation using volume equation and multiplying by specific gravity. The study found that Quercus species was dominant in the temperate region while the Shorea robusta in the tropical region. The exotic species, Lantana camara was mapped in the area, which is distributed from tropical to lower subtropical region . The biomass of the Quercus sp. varied from 8.35 ton to 178.45 t/ha while the biomass of Shorea robusta varied from 247.53 to 483.03 t/ha. In case of Cedrus deodar the lowest biomass was 226.77 t/ha while the highest was 545.53 t/ha. The biomass of Thuja orientalis varied from 37.6 t/ha to 76.8 t/ha. The highest (545.53 t/ha) biomass was found in Cedrus deodara species while the lowest (8.35 t/ha) in the Quercus sp. open forest. The mean biomass of Quercus sp. was estimated lowest (85.15 t/ha) while highest mean biomass was estimated for the Cedrus deodara. Quercus and Shorea robusta together contributed about 78.64 percent of the total biomass, because of their dominance in the study area. Total biomass of the Shorea robusta in the mapped area estimated was 755,002 tons. Total biomass of the Quercus sps estimated were 407509 tons in the pure form and 294,735 tons in the mixed form. The total mapped area biomass estimated in the Cedrus deodara class was 8,014.22 tons and in the Thuja orientalis class was 12,985.3 tons. Key words: Hyperion EO-1, SAM, tropical and temperate forest species, volume equation, specific gravity

48

ALLOMETRIC BIOMASS MODELS FOR LEAF OF TAXUS BACCATA IN FAR WEST OF NEPAL
D. Chaudhary1, S. K. Bhandari2, Y. P. Timilsina2 and B. K. Paudyal2
1 2

Department of Forest, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal Department of Social Forestry and Forest Management, Institute of Forestry, TU, Nepal

The precursor of chemotherapy drug taxol can be derived from the leaves of Taxus baccata, which is used for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. Estimation of green leaf biomass from standing tree is of great importance in commercial utilization of this species. But the quantification techniques for leaf biomass are very limited. Therefore, this study was carried out to develop leaf biomass models. We collected diameter at breast height (D), total height (H) and total green leaf biomass (W) of 43 individual T. baccata trees from Bajura, Nepal. Leaf biomass models were developed by using three variables (D, DH, D2H), and designated first, second and third model category respectively, and thus, each model category contains 15 alternative models (i.e. 3 15 = 45 models). Least square regression technique was used to develop biomass models. The models were estimated using lm (for linear models), nls and nlsLM (for non linear models) procedure in R. The estimated models were evaluated by using criteria such as (1) significance of parameter estimates, (2) root mean squared error (RMSE) (3) adjusted coefficient of determination (R 2adj), (4) Akaike information criterion (AIC) and (5) graphical analysis. Among 45 different models tested, the model of the form: Wi=0+1D2H+2(D2H)2 with explanatory variable D2H accounted for the largest proportion of leaf biomass variations (R 2adj = 0.87; RMSE = 44.17; AIC=452.7) for individual T. baccata tree, and showed relatively better graphical appearance and biological logic. Since our models are site-specific, their application should be restricted to site, size and stand conditions similar to this study. Further works for validation and verification of our models with new data from wider range of site, size and stand conditions of T. baccata are recommended. Key words: Green leaf biomass, diameter at breast height, total height, Least square regression, biological logic

49

PRE-MONSOON T EMPERATURE VARIATIONS IN F AR-WESTERN NEPAL SINCE THE BEGINNING OF 18TH CENTURY AS INFERRED FROM RING WIDTHS OF PICEA SMITHIANA (WALL.) BOISS
Udya Thapa1, Dinesh R. Bhuju2, Santosh K. Shah3 and Narayan P. Gaire4
1

Golden Gate Intl College (Tribhuvan University affiliate), Kathmandu, Nepal; nepuday@gmail.com Central Department of Environmental Science, TU, Kirtipur, Nepal 3 Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow, India 4 Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, Lalitpur, Nepal
2

Lack of instrumental data for sufficiently long period is the current challenge for scientific community to make decision regarding the pattern of current and future climate change. Tree rings serve as one of the high resolution proxies to reconstruct the past climate. This study was conducted with an aim to reconstruct the past climatic variations in the mountains of far-western Nepal. A total of 160 tree core samples of Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss were collected from Lokhada region in Khaptad National Park. The samples were processed following standard methods of dendrochronology and analyzed using LinTab at Dendro-Lab of Nepal Academy of Science and Technology. Further data analysis was done at Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow, India. Out of the total samples analyzed, 106 series were successfully cross dated and a ring-width chronology of 422 years was developed dating back to AD 1591. Climate growth relationship analysis revealed that pre-monsoon climate was detrimental in the growth of ring-width. Significant negative correlations were observed between ring-width and temperature of March, April and May whereas, the ring-width showed positive correlations with the precipitation of the same months. Then, transfer functions for temperature of March, April and May was developed, with which temperature of the region since AD 1701 was reconstructed. This reconstruction showed several periods of warming and cooling over the last three centuries with warming trends in the recent decades. The coolest period AD 1807-1812 is attributable to the eruption of undocumented volcano in AD 1809, six years preceding Tambora in Indonesia. However, the reconstruction did not show the persistent pattern of cooling during the Little Ice Age. Key words: Climate reconstruction, dendroclimatology, Khaptad National Park, past climate, ringwidth

50

STATUS OF D EAD WOODS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO CARBON SEQUESTRATION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN COMMUNITY FOREST AND PROTECTED FOREST TYPES OF NEPAL
GandhivKafle1*, YagyaTimilsina2 and Moti Rijal3
1

Agriculture and Forestry University, Faculty of Forestry, Hetauda, Nepal Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Geology, Kirtipur, Nepal

*GandhivKafle, gkafle@scientist.com Dead wood can contribute as a medium for carbon sequestration or sink; and habitat to diverse flora and fauna species. In Nepal, dead wood are usually removed from community forest considering it as a host for insects and diseases. In European countries, dead wood has been considered as an important indicator of biodiversity, forest health and sustainable forest management; prioritizing it in their forest management policies. Forest policies of Nepal have not considered importance of dead wood. Current practices of assessing forest carbon have not included dead wood in the survey and analysis. It can foster underestimation of the forest carbon stock, preventing from obtaining actual benefits in future carbon accounting business. This research was conducted to assess and compare the status of dead wood in Kankali Community Forest (KCF) and Parsa Wildlife Reserve (PWR), and its role in carbon sequestration. Systematic field survey, meetings and literature review were carried out to collect both primary and secondary information. Both standing and down dead woods were found in PWR but only stumps were found in KCF. Total volume of dead woods in PWR and KCF were 39.83 m3/ha and 0.03730 m3/ha respectively. Total biomass of the dead wood in PWR and KCF were 22.39 ton/ha and 0.20704 ton/ha respectively. The total carbon stock in dead wood were 10.741 ton/ha and 0.097 ton/ha in PWR and KCF respectively. Total volume of deadwoods was dominated by intermediate class (61%) in both dead wood categories (standing and down) followed by sound (23%) and rotten (16%) density classes in PWR. About two third parts of volume was occupied by sound density classes with value 0.02255 m 3/ha and remaining by other two classes in KCF. In PWR, standing dead tree has contributed almost 2 times carbon stock than that of down dead wood. Statistically, it revealed that each density class was equally responsible to contribute the carbon stocks in PWR. The average carbon of sound density class was 2.6 and 1.1 times more than that of intermediate and rotten respectively in KCF. Average carbon stock of intermediate class varied considerably from rotten and sound classes in stumps in KCF.

Key words: Biodiversity, forest health, sustainable forest management, density classes

51

THEME THREE: GOVERNANCE


CLIMATE FORESTRY AND MARGINALIZATION OF LOCAL FOREST MANAGERS: INSIGHTS FROM REDD PROCESS IN NEPAL

Naya Sharma Paudel and Paul Vedeld Forest Action, Nepal Forest management priorities and governance regimes are increasingly shaped by the emerging climate change discourses and policies. Many of the traditionally distant and less visible actors have now become stakeholders and have become active in defending and expanding their interests over local forest management. In this context, this paper explores how community forestry and other local practices of forest management have been subjected to climate change responsive framework. Based on the observation and analysis of three different levels of forest resource governance international climate discourses, national forest policies and local forest management practices, this paper identifies and explains diverse ways how climate change is shaping forest management practices often marginalizing the local agenda. Multi-stakeholder processes and forest policy decisions have been some of the frequently adopted strategies to bring climate change agenda into local forestry practices. These processes have been seen as the convenient ways to legitimise the climate informed external interventions that often bring about gradual changes in forest management practices. Many of these changes are the results of mainstreaming local forestry practices into climate friendly policies. While multi-stakeholder processes are promoted as democratic and inclusive approaches, current practice have often marginalized - the local communities and indigenous people the central actors and rights holders from defending their interests. Under the climate forestry regime, local forestry practices are not only dictated by national policies but are increasingly shaped by international debate and negotiations on climate change.

Key words: Forest management, governance regime, climate change, forest policy, community forestry

52

COMMUNITY FOREST GOVERNANCE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE IN INDONESIA


G. Galudra, P. Agung, J. Jasnari and D. Catacutan Community forest governance has been recognized as a policy option other than command-andcontrol models and privatization schemes. Since 1998, Indonesia has developed a range of community-based forest management schemes as complementary strategies to decentralize forest governance, such as community forestry (hutan kemasyarakatan), village forest (hutan desa), peoples plantation forest (hutan tanaman rakyat) and customary forest (hutan adat). Despite this, it remains doubtful whether local communities can sustain forest management without support from external parties. It was suggested that successful management depends on institutional arrangements that 1) establish local residents rulemaking autonomy; 2) facilitate the flow of external financial and institutional assistance for monitoring and enforcement of local rules; and 3) buffer residents and their respective local institutions from more powerful, and at times, corrupt actors involved in forest exploitation. Nevertheless, the key questions on community-based forest governance are: what types of policy interventions will help support or create local institutions, supported by higher level institutions, to protect current and encourage positive local forest transitions? There are some doubts whether community actually can manage forest sustainability, without any support from external parties. Using the theory of the commons by Elinor Ostrom, this paper seeks to address the problems above by examining the limitations of community based forest management (CBFM) in Indonesia and how external organizations should address these problems. The centrality of the issue remains on tenure and collective rights especially in the issue of REDD+. Here, we use two case studies in Jambi, the community forestry in forest peatland in lowland and the village forest in mountainous area in Jambi. Not only are they both represent different schemes, but also, different purpose, populations and natural resource conditions. Key words: Community based forest management, REDD+, natural resource, community rights, participation

53

ACTIVE FOREST MANAGEMENT: CONSTRAINT AND OPPORTUNITY FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH


Nagendra Prasad Yadav1 and Kamlesh K Yadav2
1 2

Green Nepal Consultancy Pvt Ltd., Lalitpur, Kathmandu; npyadav7@gmail.com Leasehold Forestry and Livestock Programme, FAO, UN House, Pulchowk, Lalitpur

Nepal's forests are being managed and protected under different modalities- community forestry (CF), active forest management (AFM), leasehold forest (LF), etc. Out of them, CF is most widely recognized. Till date, 1,652,654 ha of CFs have been handed over to 21, 77,858 households of 17,685 CFUGs (DoF, 2013). Even though CF is popular in the country, it has not yet adopted principle of sustainability, which has resulted into degraded forest condition, unsustainable production and supply as well as lowered quality of products. FUGs are conserving the forests rather than managing them, which facilitates illegal felling in government-managed forest. AFM, which is the fusion of scientific forestry and users' perspectives, is not being adopted. The present forest management is associated with several technical and social issues including conservative operational plan due to unclear guidelines and directives and limited practical knowledge with staff and users, etc. Consequently, sustainable supply of forest products has not been ensured due to poor forest health and vitality. This paper highlights the constraints of AFM related to forest policy and forestry institution. The forest has economic potential, which depends on ability of forest manager to provide input for application of silvicultural operations on time. Review of existing policy and strategic documents and CFUGs operational plans, results of action researches, and long experiences of the authors in Nepalese forest management are the methodological basis of this paper. This paper explores the issues that restrict active forest management and also, share the opportunities of AFM in terms of improving forest condition and economic growth. Key words: Active forest management, FUGs, guidelines, economic growth

54

ENHANCING REDD+ OUTCOMES THROUGH IMPROVED GOVERNANCE OF COMMUNITY FOREST USER GROUPS
Bishnu Hari Poudyal1, Govinda Paudel2 and Harisharan Luintel3
1

RECOFTC-The Center for People and Forest, Nepal; bishnuharipaudel@yahoo.com ForestAction Nepal 3 The School of Environment, Portland State University, USA;
2

Since forests are both source and sink of the carbon, scholars have suggested avoiding deforestation and forest degradation, conservation and sustainable management and enhancement of forest carbon stock to be part of the climate negotiation. Studies have shown that forests can play role in reducing emissions in a cheaper, quicker and effective way, while generating important co-benefits including biodiversity conservation and watershed management. However, governance that shapes relations between different stakeholders at the grass-root level has shown to be a crucial issue in managing local forests in a way that sequester more carbon from, and emit less of it to, the atmosphere. Internal good governance (IGG) study of two community forest user groups (CFUG) have shown that range of effective and locally suitable governance measures that promote participation, accountability and transparency are devised and applied at the CFUG level. Further, the study found that existing CF policy by and large is useful to provide space for CFUGs to exercise their rights over forest product use at the local level. However, gaining benefits from the environmental services including carbon sequestration and Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) scheme may need more explicit and elaborated policy framework. The authors in this paper argue that the lessons gained at the CFUG level regarding forest governance could be useful in designing REDD+ governance structure at grass-root level. For this, both positive lessons and challenges faced so far could be documented, analyzed, synthesized and shared at the broader level. REDD+ being an external intervention to the local communities can bring a range of challenges that influence the governance dynamics. However, if the programme is managed carefully, CFUGs are capacitated adequately and governed collaboratively, REDD+ may bring synergistic outcomes with existing community forestry at the grass-root level, particularly by bringing both environmental as well as livelihood benefits. Key words: Internal good governance, grass-root level, carbon sequestration, sustainable forest management, synergistic outcomes

55

OPTIMIZING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND OTHER BENEFITS IN NEPALESE FOREST SYSTEMS


Geoff Cockfield Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia This paper reports on three projects examining strategies for optimizing carbon sequestration and other benefits in Nepalese forest systems. The first project classifies and compares different types of agroforestry systems, the second compares the regional impacts of REDD+ investments in community forest management and the third looks at REDD+ governance. Together, these projects have significant policy and investment implications. The form and sequestration value of agroforestry appears to be correlated to the size and structure of farms, so that structural adjustment in agriculture will change sequestration outcomes. Preliminary results from the second project suggest that the optimum locations for maximising sequestration while minimising the trade-off in net benefits, are in the middle latitude areas. Finally, the governance work suggests that the approach of creating governance standards through the multi-stakeholder, multi-level and multi-tier process is innovative and such standards are likely to have a high degree of local ownership and relevance.

Keywords: Agroforestry systems, REDD+, community forest management, governance standards, local ownership

56

SUSTAINABILITY INDEX FOR ASSESSING COMMUNITY BASED FOREST MANAGEMENT : A CASE FROM NEPAL
Ridish K. Pokharel and Krishna R. Tiwari Institute of Forestry, ComForM Project, Pokhara

Implementation of sustainable forest management is challenging in a country where people are dependent on forest resources for their livelihoods. Many countries have realized that it is almost impossible to manage the countrys forest by the government alone without involving local people, and developed and adopted the forest policy in favor of community based management. However, adopting community based forest policy simply by granting responsibility to local people will not made community based forestry sustainable. A monitoring tool is essential that allow local management bodies to evaluate themselves where they are heading in terms of sustainable forest management. An index is used as a tool for undertaking the assessment of forest management practices. This paper explains how sustainability index was produced and also, assesses the three different community based forest management practices in terms of sustainability. The information was gathered from three different districts of various physiographic regions of Nepal by employing village to village approach. Locally identified criteria and indicators were developed in the form of questionnaire along with the verifiers of each indicator in a Likert-type scale- poor, fair and good, and administered it in a small group of forest users. Informants responses were transferred into numeric value and calculated the indices for sustainability i.e. sustainability index for individual criterion and overall sustainability index. Calculation of overall sustainability index for three different management practices indicated buffer zone community forestry to be higher (0.63) than community forestry (0.51) and collaborative forestry (0.49), implying that buffer zone community forestry is performing better in terms of sustainable forest management. The paper concludes that the community needs support and guidance from the government to make their management effective in terms of sustainable forest management.

Key words: Forest policy, local management body, buffer zone community forestry, community forestry, collaborative forestry

57

IMPROVING ACCOUNTABILITY OF FOREST U SER GROUP: LESSON FROM PILOTING OF PERFORMANCE BASED GRANT SYSTEM IN WESTERN TERAI OF NEPAL

Bijendra Basnyat and Jagannath Koirala

Forest users groups (FUGs) are implementing different programmes for conserving biodiversity, fulfilling demands of forests products and improving livelihoods in Nepal. However, efforts are mostly guided by short term gains with less realization of long term goal or priority. Conservation efforts largely remain fragmented and accountability towards realization of shared outcome is poor. Statutory requirements are poorly followed. Realizing this, Western Terai Landscape Complex (WTLC) Project piloted performance based grant system (PBGS) on three forest corridors covering 42 FUGs in Nepal's WTLC with a view to improve accountability towards conservation. WTLC Project1 piloted this concept for two fiscal years and disbursed NRs 1 million. In the first year, the Project developed system, established baseline and disbursed fund while in second year, it monitored results/outcome and lessons. PBGS involves transfer of money or material goods based on performance against predetermined indicators or results. The study developed 12 minimum conditions indicators and 20 performance indicators based on statutory requirement. Indicators are from four functional areas, which include conservation, livelihoods, governance and financial management. After assessment, fund was disbursed to each FUGs based on performance. Average amount of fund received by FUGs varied from Rs 12,366 to Rs 33,188. The Project monitored and mentored FUGs continuously. FUGs used fund for conservation related activities together with addressing the operational constraints such as auditing, revision of operational plan and pro-poor livelihoods related activities. The assessment revealed that performance of FUGs on both indicators has improved. PBGSs is quite successful for generating conservation awareness and developing shared vision by ensuring minimum common code of conduct and identification of capacity building needs. This mechanism is quite effective on compliance of statuary and regulatory requirements, improving management effectiveness, increased investment and motivation for conservation together with proper documentation. PBGS has not only improved healthy competition but also, brought systemic changes on managing forest. Direct payments make excellent incentives to achieve conservation goal and improve accountability. It also acts as a comprehensive tool for selfmonitoring processes and outcomes and facilitated for introducing systemic changes on their management approaches and performance.

Key words: Forest corridors, minimum conditions indicators, performance indicators, auditing, operational plan, livelihoods

58

PUBLIC LAND MANAGEMENT: A N OPPORTUNITY FOR LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION THROUGH AFFORESTATION IN WESTERN LOW LAND, NEPAL
Sushma Bhattarai , Chiranjibi Prasad Upadhyaya and Basant Pant
1 1 2 3

Resource Identification and Management Society-Nepal (RIMS-Nepal) Email:bhattarai.sushma@gmail.com


2

Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Lalitpur, Nepal

People in western low lands of Nepal are facing increasing livelihood problems. Mostly affected are poor and landless people, living in highly vulnerable areas to the effect of climate change with limited livelihood opportunities and devoid of access to forest resources. Public lands have potential to improve the livelihood condition of poor people through ensuring their access to forest resources and livelihood diversification. However, most of the studies had focused on analyzing livelihood condition based on existing forest areas and scientific literatures on livelihood diversification through afforestation of public land are limited. Nawalparasi district was chosen for the study as it consists of community based management initiatives in public land areas since eight years. Field observation, semi-structured and key informant interviews were the main methodological tools used for the study. Besides, review of project documents, reports and various other scientific materials was done. Empirical evidence demonstrated that community based afforestation programme in public land has made landless poor self reliant by providing sustainable forest products flow and generating cash income. People have improved their livelihood condition through diversifying their income opportunities such as fish farming, vegetable and cash crops. The study suggests that in order to help poor to escape poverty, livelihood diversification, sustainable public land management strategy and proper facilitation process are required.

Key words: Poor, forest resources, vulnerable areas, landless people, public land

59

ENVIRON OF CHURIA: SOCIO-NATURAL INTERFACE ANALYSIS

Prem Prasad Paudel Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management, Kathmandu

The Churia region of Nepal extends as a contiguous landscape comprising 36 districts. It has immense social, ecological environmental, palentogical significance. The hill slopes are geologically young and composed of unconsolidated loose materials originating from soft rocks such as mudstone, sandstone, siltstone and shale. Problems vary distinctly depending upon the location (eastern, middle, and western parts). However, Churia region has common issues, problems and threats like deforestation and forest degradation at about 1.7%/year; illegal settlement of about 4 million people; erosion (80020000 ton/km2/year); flooding and inundation; excessive extraction of stones, sand and boulders; river bed expansion; land use change/ land tenure/ownership; poverty and others (forest fire, over grazing, low level of awareness). Due to the great social and ecological significance, Government of Nepal has given emphasis since 1970. Many INGOs, NGos are working since past many years. However, results are not enough to address growing problems. The problem is directly linked with prosperity of entire nation covering more than 50% of total population. Hence, Rt. Honorable President of Nepal has shown concern for its conservation and National Iconic Program entitled Rastrapti Churia Conservation Program was initiated since 2011 under Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation (MFSC) with the aim to conserve natural environment of Churia and provide livelihood support for sustainable ecosystem maintenance. Necessity of Churia Conservation lies in facts that it is the contiguous landscape extending east west and is the main biological corridor, regarded as water recharge zone for Terai, provides direct benefit to more than 50% population and also for trans-boundary, connects upstream and downstream with social harmonization opportunity, paleontological, biodiversity, water quality/ quantity and uses. Problems, issues are multi-sectoral and coordinated, collaborative actions are becoming essential. Initiatives taken by the President may become the milestone for sustainable conservation of Churia. MFSC is giving due emphasis and still more concentrated efforts and multi sectors cooperation are anticipated. Key words: Rastrapti Churia Conservation Program, deforestation, illegal settlement, river bed expansion, contiguous landscape

60

WHO ACCESSES BENEFITS OF COMMUNITY FORESTRY ? A STORY ABOUT ELITE CAPTURE IN NEPAL
Jens Friis Lund1, Bir Bahadur Khanal Chhetri2 and Ajay Karki1
1 2

Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara, Nepal

This paper aims at determining who has access to different benefits arising from the management of community forests in Nepal. The paper is based on data from 45 Community-Forestry User Groups (CFUG), including 1,111 CFUG member households, from three mid-hill districts in Nepal. We investigated who had access to important forest products, such as timber, firewood, and fodder, as well as benefits arising from the finances of CFUGs, such as investments in schools, water facilities, electricity and irrigation as well as loans. Statistical analysis revealed few statistically significant differences in access to benefits between households when grouped on the basis of participatory wellbeing ranking, land ownership, and caste group. However, political status and connectedness, notably membership of the CFUG executive committee was significantly and positively associated with access to timber and loans, which arguably were the most lucrative, individually distributed benefits from CFUG management. Our analyses indicate that analyses of access to benefits from community forestry should move beyond traditional social structures associated with wealth, land and caste to become more attentive to peoples political status and connections to the decision-making bodies in community forestry.

Key words: Forest decentralization, forest management, forest products, political status, caste group

61

USE OR LOSE BATTLE?: LOOKING NEPAL'S COMMUNITY AND PRIVATE FORESTRY FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND INCOME LENS
Bharat K. Pokharel HELVETAS Swiss Interco-operation Nepal, Nepal

This paper provides a brief analysis of Nepal's Community and Private Forestry (PF) Programme, the most priority programmes envisaged by Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector in 1988. It shows that both community and PF have contributed positively to their environmental objectives. It is mainly in terms of the improvement in the forest condition and its landscape, reduction in deforestation and degradation, enhancement of biodiversity, increment in forest growth, density and tree cover in private land. Evidences are cited to show that the rate of forest degradation has been arrested both in the community and private forest land. Forest cover and density have increased up to 32% in 20 year period (1990-2010). Human, social and physical capital of local community groups have enhanced. There are evidences of the impact of the community forestry to the formation of the bundles of capitals at group level. However, there are no measurable indicators that these group capitals have been transferred significantly to increase the measurable national and household income. The paper argues that Nepal's community forestry programme lacks clarity in its original socioeconomic objectives of creating jobs and employment, and has eventually failed to show its contribution at national and household income. To what extent the forests as natural asset, the national property is transformed into group asset, then to the household, and ultimately to individual financial asset is not known. The case of private forestry is somewhat different. Despite governments low priority to this sub sector in terms of policy and regulatory environment, the contribution of private sector services and trees on private farm land to the national and per capita income is found to be significant. However, quantification of the contribution of combined effect on the community and PF to the nation, group, household's economy and individual's per capita income is not well researched, therefore, largely unknown. The paper nevertheless compiles the learning of 25 years of achievements of the programme and concludes that the scope, objectives, approaches and policies related to community and PF are to be revisited if they are to be promoted for income and employment generation. Key words: Forest condition, deforestation, forest growth, group asset, private sector services

62

ARE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC FORESTRY USEFUL TO COMMUNITIES FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES? STORIES FROM NEPALS COMMUNITY FORESTS
Rebecca Leigh Rutt, Bir Bahadur Khanal Chettri, Jens Friis Lund, Ridish Pokharel, Santosh Rayamahji and Thorsten Treue Participatory forestry is based on expectations of improved environmental and socio-economic outcomes. Yet evidence on the conservation and in particular, socio-economic outcomes is scarce. This scarcity has been attributed in particular, to a disparity between the theory of participatory forestry and actual implementation practices. Forest bureaucracies are often concerned over local communities (lack of) management. Scientific forest management plans (SFMPs) have become a precondition for transferring authority to local institutions. SFMPs appear remarkably similar across national participatory forestry processes, and follow scientific forest management principles originating from present-day Germany in the early 19th century onwards and adopted by forest training institutions and forest bureaucracies throughout the world. In addition to their claimed role in safeguarding nationally important environmental values, SFMPs are justified by their practical relevance and indeed necessity in local communities day-to-day forest management. The quality of a SFMP, however, depends on the quality of data informing it and plans are useless if forest inventories are done haphazardly or too infrequently. Unfortunately, forest inventories are resource demanding, so resource strained forestry officials face incentives to take shortcuts. Further, the research indicates that local communities draw on other forms of knowledge to inform their management practices under participatory forestry. This raises two questions: (i) whether the forest inventories underlying SFMPs are generally of a sufficient technical quality? and (ii) whether SFMPs, irrespective of their technical quality, are useful to communities management practice? Based on case studies in two locally managed forests in Nepal, this paper engages with these two questions. Time series analyses of remote sensing images help to understand forest development, and are supported by detailed forest inventories. Interviews with past and present community forest managers and an analysis of community management committees written documentation contribute to understanding the actual management processes and underlying rationale. Results indicated that SFMPs have been elaborated rather haphazardly, and that local communities based their management on other sources of knowledge and with notable success in the sense that they seemed highly aware of the condition of the forests they managed and that their forest management practices have contributed to sustainable forest development. Key words: Participatory forestry, forest inventories, remote sensing images, forest development

63

COLLABORATIVE FOREST MANAGEMENT IN T HE TERAI: EXISTING SITUATION AND POLICY IMPLICATION IN LIVELIHOOD IMPROVEMENT (A CASE STUDY FROM MAHOTTARI DISTRICT)
Bimal Paudyal Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara, Nepal This study was conducted in a collaborative forest- Banke Marha in Mahottari district of Nepal. The objective of the study was to assess the existing situation of collaborative forest management and policy implication on rural livelihood improvement. Questionnaire survey, group discussion and informal talks were the methods used for data collection. The results showed that people were positive towards development of some of the natural, social/human and financial/physical assets by the introduction of collaborative forest management programme. However, there is no provision in law to address collaborative forest management properly. The programme lacks clarity about how livelihood issues will be addressed. It is recommended to have a provision in law for collaborative forest management programme, and the programme should focus on livelihood improvement activities.

Key words: Rural livelihood, livelihood issues, natural asset, social/human asset, financial/physical assets

64

EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF THE DETERMINANTS OF MEDICINAL PLANT CONSUMPTION AND LOCAL PERCEPTIONS ON THE ROLE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN HEALTH CARE IN RURAL NEPAL
Rikke Stamp Thorsen and Marive Pouliot Traditional medicine is argued to play an important role in health care in developing countries. Health care behavior studies mainly include health care practices taking place outside of the household and ethno botanic studies document the variety of knowledge and plants used without quantifying the actual use or characterizing the users. Very little research has been made on the extent of reliance on medicinal plants for self-treatment and the role of these in peoples overall health seeking strategies. This paper quantifies household-level use of medicinal plants in rural Nepal, and characterizes the households and people resorting to medicinal plants for self-treatment. Moreover, it explores the conditions that facilitate or restrain the use of medicinal plants and presents a conceptual framework to describe the different ways people perceive medicinal plants. Structured household surveys (n=785) were conducted in four sites of rural/peri-urban Nepal in 2012 to collect data on household assets, treatment seeking behavior and knowledge and collection practices relating to medicinal plants. Qualitative interviews were conducted in three sites on 54 households to gather data on household perceptions regarding medicinal plants and other treatment options. In total, 1539 illness episodes were reported. Self-treatment with medicinal plants was the most often used form of traditional medicine and was used in 331 (21%) of all illness episodes. Preliminary results show that only households who perceive themselves as having knowledge on medicinal plants have used them as selftreatment. Knowledge on medicinal plants is usually transmitted within the family but is lost between generations. Key words: Traditional medicine, health seeking, local knowledge, self-treatment, illness episodes

65

WILL REDD+ CONTRIBUTE TO IMPROVE FOREST GOVERNANCE AND ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS OF FOREST DEPENDENT PEOPLE? LESSONS FROM N EPALS REDD+ READINESS PROCESS
Dil B. Khatri* and Naya S. Paudel
ForestAction Nepal *Email: dil@forestaction.org

The prospect of Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) appears to be declining at least in the stakeholders view. Stakeholders in Nepal were enthusiastic on REDD+ during initial years of inception of REDD in Nepal. They expected its contribution to improve Nepals forest governance, resulting in sustainable forest management, and provide benefits to the forest dependent people. However, there is a growing realization that REDD+ is less likely to meet such expectations that the stakeholders had in the initial years. This paper examines Nepals REDD+ readiness process and associated debates with particular attention to the progress in Readiness Preparation Proposal (RPP) implementation, civic engagement in REDD+ process, and key focus of debate around it. Preliminary findings suggest that the national REDD+ readiness process has lagged behind expected timeline and uncertainties exists on international framework of REDD+. At the international level, key issues like financing mechanism and Monitoring, Reporting and Verification system is yet to be finalized and timeline of implementation postponed until 2020. In Nepal, not only the implementation of RPP is considerably lagging behind the timeline, there are many procedural and substantive issues raised over the structure and process adopted within the readiness phase. It has been revealed that RPP implementation process has been dominated by techno-bureaucratic process and there has been limited space for participation of and deliberation. Civic actors have been constantly raising the question of inclusiveness of REDD+ related structures (especially REDD working group), participation and deliberative spaces in the REDD Working Group meetings and other public forums. On substantive part, activities and debates led by both government and non-government actors are narrowly focused on immediate technical issues including carbon measurement, piloting demonstrational payment and raising awareness on REDD+ among stakeholders. However, there has been limited attention towards addressing core issues of forest policy and governance, which ultimately determine the extent we can demonstrate the effectiveness of REDD+ implementation. Evidences in this line will lead us to conclude that REDD+ is less likely to meet initial expectations of stakeholders contribute to improved governance and supporting livelihoods of the forest dependent people.

Key words: Participation, deliberation, readiness, forest policy, carbon measurement

66

OPTIMIZING CONTRIBUTION OF TIMBER IN COMMUNITY FORESTRY IN NEPAL: AN ASSESSMENT OF ITS POTENTIALITY , POLICY CONSTRAINTS AND ASSOCIATED PRACTICAL HURDLES
Govinda Paudel*, Naya S Paudel*, Dil Bahadur Khatri*, Prakash Jha* Bishnu Hari Poudyal** *ForestAction, Nepal ** RECOFTC, Nepal Community Forestry in Nepal has contributed significantly in generating forestry resources, improving environmental health and supporting community livelihoods. Studies have shown that CF has successfully generated resources both in terms of restoring greenery and growing stock. However, economical potentiality of timber resource in CF has largely remained untapped due to many reasons. Firstly, we know little about total amount of harvestable timber from community forests and its total monetary value. Secondly, there are various constraining factors that hinder sustainable harvesting and marketing of timber.. Inventory guideline for CF has provided methodological guidance to estimate growing stock, increment and annual allowable harvest. It is argued that the present inventory guideline is conservative and therefore encourages under-harvest. Similarly, forest policies and resulting bureaucratic response also limit CFUGs to harvest and market the timber. This study quantifies the total growing stock, increment and total annual harvest of timber in community forest. For this, we apply stratified random sampling from which sample districts have been selected at random. Then we collect data on growing stock, annual increment and allowable harvestable amount from operational plans of CFUGs in the district. We also ground-truth the data by inventorying some sample CFs from each strata. Finally, we estimate the monitory value of timber from Nepals CF and see its economic potentiality. In addition to quantitative estimation, we have analyzed forest inventory related guidelines and practices and identified some methodological errors. Based on the study, we argue that Nepal CF has huge potentiality in terms of generating income and employment from timber, the potentiality being oblivious due to de-motivating and constraining regulatory barriers and bureaucratic processes, poor institutional mechanism, conservative inventory guidelines.

Key words: Community Forestry, forest inventory, timber, growing stock, increment, annual harvest

67

EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING SUB-NATIONAL LEVEL REDD+ MRV SYSTEM AND VERIFICATION IN NEPAL
Shambhu Prasad Dangal Environmental Resources Institute Pvt. Ltd., Ekantakuna, Lalitpur, Nepal Payment mechanism for Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), sustainable forest management, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stock is emerging globally after Bali Convention in 2007. According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), participating countries need to develop a national level measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) as a prerequisite for successful implementation of REDD+ mechanisms. Nepal's REDD Readiness Preparation Proposal (RPP) 2010 has envisioned a hybrid approach including both MRV at national and sub-national levels for REDD+ implementation. In 2011, a sub-national level REDD+ MRV framework was developed based on the experience gained from the implementation of first REDD+ pilot project in Nepal and reviewing MRV system under international carbon standards. This framework was implemented in 2013 at the sub-national level piloting project in Nepal. This paper describes a comprehensive framework for making REDD+ a reality through incentivising community based REDD+ initiatives at local, landscape and/or sub-national levels. This framework provides a cost effective and efficient monitoring, reporting and verification of GHG emission reductions as well as Social and Ecosystem Services (SES) by utilising domestic institutional and technical capabilities. Although this framework applies to the technical and institutional capacity of Nepal, it is flexible and can be modified to suit any developing country. This framework will ensure real, measurable and transparent emission reductions and assess SES or impacts due to implementation of REDD+ activities. The benefits expected from REDD+ mechanism largely depends on the effective implementation of the framework which increases the negotiation capacity of REDD+ project at international financial architect. Hence, the paper also highlights the experience gained in implementing the Framework at sub-national level. The highlights include not limiting to the standard of tools and techniques, capacity of key actors, and technical and governance aspects.

Key words: REDD+, Social and Ecosystem Services, hybrid approach, carbon standards

68

PAYMENT FOR WATERSHED SERVICES AS A TOOL TO RESOLVE DRINKING WATER PROBLEM OF MUNICIPALITIES : A CASE OF BAGLUNG MUNICIPALITY
Sushant Acharya1 and Dil Bahadur Khatri2
1

Multi Stakeholder Forestry Programme, Services Support Unit, Cluster Coordinator Office, Baglung, Nepal
2

Forest Action, Lalitpur, Nepal

Shortage of drinking water is a growing challenge of municipal areas in the developing countries, which has also been prevalent in Baglung municipality. The efforts of the municipality to secure water source from neighboring upstream villages has been successful only after five years due to conflict among municipality dwellers and upstream community. In this context, this paper explores whether and how payment for watershed services (PWS) can provide a mechanism to resolve resource use conflict and establish upstream- downstream linkage for sustainable provisioning of ecosystem services. This paper provides and analyzes how the conflict between upstream community and municipality emerged over time and what have been the efforts to resolve such conflict and solve the water related problem. Preliminary finding revealed that the municipality was positive towards providing some form of payment to the upstream community for the cost of securing the water source for long-term. On the other side, the upstream community has also given green signal to provide water source for municipality if the municipality contributed to support the development of the community. There are quite long international experiences of PWS mechanisms which has provided tool for upstream-downstream linkage and resolving water related problem of many municipalities. This has led us to conclude that PWS can provide a framework to establish linkage between Baglung municipality and upstream community. This will not only resolve the enduring problem of water related conflict but also helps in conservation of watershed and sustainable provisioning of ecosystem services. Findings of this paper will provide insight to many municipalities of Nepal and elsewhere who are facing similar water related problem.

Key words: Upstream-downstream linkage, watershed conservation, conflict, ecosystem services, community

69

FOREST WORKERS ' OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND SOCIAL SECURITY : CHALLENGES FOR FOREST GOVERNANCE IN NEPAL
Bishnu Prasad Gyawali General Secretary/Forest Environment Workers' Union,Nepal Student/M.sc.environment science/TU bishnugyawali@gmail.com Nepal is in forefront to contribute in conservation of natural resources and thereby working towards climate change. Nepal's Glacier has shrunk by 21 per cent over 30 years. The ecosystem of the region is one of the most fragile yet it offers livelihood support to 210 million people downstream. Nepalese people are facing such environmental problem for which they were not responsible. Beside this, Nepal is facing some local level environmental problem like deforestation and degradation of forest resources, land slide, flood by human induced causes i.e. encroachments, forest firing, timber smuggling, fuel wood exploitation, overgrazing, poaching which are fully relying on poverty and livelihood opportunity to its majority of population living below the poverty line. Lack of alternative livelihood opportunity and sustainable management of Forest resources, jobs in forestry sector became hazardous, unsafe and over exploited including many times illegal. This has become the great challenge to the policy maker for sustainable management of forest and natural resources in the country. Under the Descriptive and Explorative research designs, Primary and Secondary information were collected through reviewed the national policies and acts, international labor conventions, observation, interview ,key informant survey and focus group discussion to examine and analysis the Forest workers' occupational safety and social security scenario of the country. The Government initiatives were not adequate to provide socio-economical security to the forest dependent communities who are seeking livelihood opportunity in forestry. About 12 percent of country labor depends on forest which was vulnerable from different type of hazards including socio-psycho, physiological and biological hazards that is causing challenges for forest governance in Nepal. Forest sector act and policies were unable to ensure occupational safety and social security for the forest workers which minimized the total cost of production and reduce the ethics and professionalism in forest worker. They were also incompatible with the international labor convention which was ratifying by the Nepal government. It is recommended to Nepal government for declaring minimum wages of forest worker and endorsement of national standard guideline to ensure decent job in forest sector for effective forest governance system to reduce deforestation and degradation.

Key word: Forest worker, hazardous job, occupational safety and security, Decent Work, sustainable management

70

GOVERNANCE IN COMMUNITY FORESTRY IN NEPAL AFTER INTRODUCING FOREST CERTIFICATION Ram P. Acharya1,4,6, Bhola P. Bhattarai2, Nabaraj Dahal3, Ripu M. Kunwar4, G Karki4, and, Hari P. Bhattarai5,
1

Forest Certification National Working Group of Nepal National Forum for Advocacy Nepal, Kathmandu 3 Federation of Community Forest User Groups Nepal, Kathmandu 4 Practical Solution Consultancy Nepal, Kathmandu 5 Department of Sociology/Anthropology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal 6 Author for correspondence (ram.pacharya@gmail.com)
2

Forest Certification has raised a significant amount of interest around the world because it is regarded as an incentive to improve community forest management and to complement poverty reduction because it is intrigued with economic, social and environmental impacts, which are inseparable from rural livelihood. The methods adopted for the present study helped analyze changes in awareness, perception, implementations, governance, institutional development, processes, provisions and livelihood and economic development in sample CFUGs over a period of five years of forest certification and later on through forest products and contribution to resource conservation. Kalobhir CFUG of Jiri VDC7, Dolakha and Lahare CFUG of Gadaraya VDC9, Bajhang were selected as sample following free-listing and stakeholders and key-informants consultations. The geographical location of the sample CFUGs was also taken into consideration for better comparison. Certification seemed to be a vehicle for local value addition, income and employment generation. It has decreased negative environmental consequences, has improved the governance of community forest management and local enterprises, and has contribuluted to rural poverty reduction and sustainable resource management. The major positive changes in management of resources included improvement of collection of forest products, maintenance of records, and maintaining transparency of all process and methods. Therefore, certification should be expanded in community managed forests to improve natural resource governance and resource management and income and employment.

Key words: Forest certification, community based forest management, multiple impacts, poverty reduction, sustainable forest management.

71

COMMUNITIES, GOVERNMENTS AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF FORESTRY: EMERGING NEXUS OF RESOURCE CONTROL IN NEPAL TERAI
Prakash K. Jha1, Dil B. Khatri1 and Hemant R. Ojha2
1 2

ForestAction Nepal ForestAction Nepal, SIAS and University of Melbourne

Nepals Terai forest occupies highly productive land and contains valuable timber albeit gradually shrinking due to high demand for land and mismanagement. This is largely because governance challenges like failure of centralized state centric management and ambiguity about community based management. Two different kind of community based management systems have evolved Community Forestry (CF) and Collaborative Forest Management (CFM). In the recent years, majority of the groups (both CF and CFM) are involved in harvesting and commercialization of the timber but facing many governance challenges. On one hand, the resource generated from the commercialization is captured by the local elite with very minimal benefit accruing to the poor and marginalized people. On the other hand, the way community interacts with market and the government is also criticized for promotion of informal practices and nexus, which is damaging the positive image of CF itself. In this context, this paper documents the varieties of ways in which CF and CFM groups interact with district forest office (DFO) and market related actors in relation to commercialization of the valuable timber in Terai. We analyzed two CFs and one collaborative forest to understand the commercialization process and the ways community interacted with DFO and market actors. We adopted qualitative tools like interview with community leaders, contractors and DFO staff, and focus group discussion with group members. We then related our findings with the theory of common property resource management and understanding socio-ecological system (SES). We critically examined whether and to what extent Ostroms (2009) theory helped explain governance and sustainability of commons involving the complex relations communities, government, DFO and market actors. This study thus offers important policy insights as to how high value and complex forests systems of Terai can be managed, and also contributes to the SES framework by adding new dimensions related to market and bureaucracy.

Key words: Social-Ecological System framework, community forests, collaborative forests, governance challenges, commercialization process

72

WHAT MAKES THE VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION SUCCESS? PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANT SUB-SECTOR IN MID-WESTERN, N EPAL
Keshav Raj Acharya GIZ/INCLUDE Nepal is rich in biological diversity due to its diverse climatic and topographic variations. It harbors more than 7000 floral diversity in both agro-based and forest based. At least 700 species from the forest based biodiversity have been found to have the medicinal properties. Hundreds of different species are being traded in commercial level mostly to the Indian market without any value addition. Mid and Far-Western Development Regions are contributing about 80 percent of such trade to India from Nepal (GIZ, 2010). Some other agro-based species like ginger and turmeric have also medicinal properties and being cultivated by the farmers traditionally in the local level in Nepal. They are also being traded to India following the same trade channels (JABAN, 2013). Among the different MAPs, this paper has confined in the case of three different products in two districts of Mid-Western Development Region. This is the case study based on ginger, essential oil and Chyuri value chain development intervention. Revisions of secondary literature, focus group discussion, direct observation and interview with key stakeholder are the key methods applied to conclude the findings of the present study. Ginger and essential oil are in high demand in international market where as Chyuri butter has the high resource potential for up-scaling the processing. This study tried to explore the achievement of the intervention implemented by the Intermediaries' Organization in Pyuthan and Surkhet districts. This study showed that the intervention supported for the processing and marketing had high success rate than the intervention supported in the production level. Key message from this study revealed that the value chain supporter should focus on value addition and better marketing linkage. The improved marketing linkage can provide business conducive environment to motivate the producers to increase the quality products. The increased production can contribute increased employment and better income to the local people.

Key words: Business conducive environment, MAPs, market linkage, production level

73

Poster Presentations
IMPACT OF COMMUNITY BASED FOREST GOVERNANCE ON LOCAL LIVELIHOODS IN PAKISTAN: IMPLICATION FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION
Khurram Iqbal University of Agriculture, Gobindpura Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan; kisociologist@yahoo.com Community or social forestry remains a buzzword in the contemporary debates around forest governance. Community based forest governance is considered as one of the most effective tools of controlling degradation of natural forests, and consequently mitigating the negative effects of climate change. The developing countries of the world are being threatened by increasing depletion of natural forests, which increases the harmful consequences of climate change. In most of the developing and transitional countries of the global South, poor forest management by the state authorities is mostly considered responsible for the depletion of natural forests. Most of the development donors, practitioners and researchers argue that community based forestry promotes pluralism, public participation, democracy and empowerment of the poor. In this perspective, this paper presents a case study of community based forest management in the Himalaya-Hindukush and Karakorum mountain range of northern Pakistan. Here the natural forests are being heavily degraded, and as a result, livelihoods of forest dwellers are at stake. Pakistan is among those countries that have meagre forest and has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world. The case of Pakistan regarding community forestry is rather different from many developing countries. The main obstacle is the resistance from the state and powerful timber smugglers. This paper analyzes how decentralized/participatory forest management impacted the state of forests and livelihoods of forest dwellers living in the marginal Karakorum-Himalaya-Hindukush regions of Northwest Pakistan. The system of community forestry has legal cover in Northwest Pakistan and it received heavy support from different donor agencies but, there are many challenges in the implementation. Community forestry represents a formal partnership between the state agencies and forest dependent communities. In practice this system represents a couched provision of partnership in the provincial forestry legislation of Pakistan. This paper also attempts to answer the question that whether community participation in decision making regarding forests helped in minimizing the threats of climate change, illegal forest harvesting and livelihoods vulnerability. Key-words: Deforestation, joint forest management, rural livelihoods, poverty, sustainable forest management

74

DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF HIPPOPHAE TIBETANA FROM SAGARMATHA NATIONAL PARK, NEPAL HIMALAYA
Shyam Prasad Sharma1, Youba Raj Pokharel1 and Narayan Prasad Gaire2
1

Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Department of Forests, Tree Improvement and Silviculture Unit, Hattisar, Kathmandu, Nepal 2 Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal yrpokharel@gmail.com Dendrochronology is an important tool to assess the response of plant species to climate change besides other changes. A dendrochronological study of the high-elevation shrub species, Seabuckthorn (Hippophae tibetana) was carried at Sagarmatha National Park, Solukhumbu district, northeast Nepal with the aim of knowing its potential for dendrochronological study and its dynamics with environmental change. Sampling was carried at three sites (altitudes: 3600 to 3950 m asl) in Dudhkoshi river valley. At least 30 discs samples were taken from the stem base considering different diameter classes from each site. Besides, plant density and ecological status were studied. In the laboratory, the sample discs were air dried, sanded and polished with progressively finer sandpaper to enhance the visibility of the annual rings under microscope. Soil in the area was acidic in nature having organic matter 1.57% and sandy loam in texture. Major associates were Salix sps, Betula utilis, Rhododendron sps. ,Juniper, Rosa sps., Abies, spectabilis, etc. Average plant density was found to be 26,800/ha with good regeneration. Diameter at base ranged from 1.05 to 2.71cm and height ranged from 29 to 78cm. Similarly, age ranged from 7 to 37 yrs with mean annual radial growth of 0.58mm. There was a decreasing trend in average age with increasing elevation. Positive relationship was found between radial growth and precipitation in most of the months. Disc analysis showed that the annual rings of the species were distinct and could be counted easily under the microscope, indicating suitability of this species for further dendrochronological study. Key words: Tree-ring analysis, dendrochronology, radial growth, plant growth, ecology

75

IMPENDING HEALTH BURDEN FROM DEFORESTATION IN BANGLADESH


Md. Shafiqur Rahman1, Rukhsana Shaheen1 and Shahreen Raihana2
1

Directorate General of Health Services of Bangladesh (rahmans.shaheenr@gmail.com) International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh The developing country Bangladesh has a landmass of 147,570 km2. About 17.08% of the landmass is recorded as total forest, of which 9.8% is owned by public sector. This forest area is less than the minimum requirement of 25% of the landmass. In-spite of the less than required forest area, deforestation is ongoing. Biodiversity and ecosystem integrity vis--vis human health are being threatened due to deforestation. Attempt is made to alert all concerned on their responsibilities towards thwarting deforestation to avert health challenges. Consultation of electronic recorded communication for conceptual analysis and etic interpretation was done to study the human health burden from deforestation in Bangladesh. Deforestation is going on in Bangladesh at a rate of 3.3/100 ha of forest annually, although forest preservation and aforestation laws are in place. Forest acts as natures lung. It also brings biophile elements (e.g. zinc, iodine, bromine, sulfur, selenium, etc.) from deep to top soils, which are taken up by crops and are assimilated by human through diet. Loss of plant-biophile is enhanced by deforestation. Plantbiophiles are essential to maintain human immunological functions and biological makeup, and thus human health. Deficiency of plant-biophiles also causes rapid replication and growth of disease causing virus and bacteria posing threat to environment. Human health, an essential component of sustainable development, is at stake in Bangladesh due to deforestation. Implementation of existing laws for forest conservation has to be ensured along with reclaiming of lost forest land. Greater awareness among scientists, government and local population regarding necessity of forest may help to sustain the efforts. Key words: Biophiles, health challenges, forest conservation, biological makeup

76

HIGHLAND CONSERVATION AREA AND LIVELIHOOD OF LOCAL PEOPLE: A REVIEW PAPER FROM NEPAL, ASIA
Ramesh Raj Pant Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur; rpant@cdes.edu.np; Tel.: 9843315874/01-4332147 The purpose of this research paper is to understand the impacts of highland conservation area on livelihood of local people. This study was primarily done by reviewing literatures of conservation areas. Poverty and environmental conservation are two distinct but related global concerns. In Nepal, most of the conservation areas are declared in high mountain region largely occupied by marginalized rural population, who are being involuntarily restricted from right of access to the resources for their livelihood. However, revenue generated from conservation areas has been spent on livelihood improvement of local people. Additionally, conservation areas have also been providing education and awareness to the locals that have been reducing the dependency of people towards the natural resources. People living in the areas where tourism is highly developed, receives more economic benefits and are more employed. Nevertheless, peoples participation is crucial for the effective management of conservation area, and is possible only if the conservation area enhances the local economy.

Key words: Poverty, environmental conservation, high mountain region, rural population

77

COMPOUND SPECIFIC STABLE ISOTOPES (CSSI) FOR SEDIMENT FINGERPRINTING


Hari Ram Upadhayay1,3*, Roshan Man Bajracharya1, Wim Cornelis2 and Pascal Boeckx3
1

Aquatic Ecology Centre, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal 2 Department of Soil Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent, Belgium
3

Isotope Bioscience Laboratory-ISOFYS, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent, Belgium *hrgene@gmail.com

Soil erosion across the watershed is highly variable process occurring at different temporal and spatial scale. Suspended sediment load transported by river or stream commonly represents the mixture of sediment derived from different locations and from different source types within the contributing catchment. The fatty acid specific stable isotopes (D and 13C) approach and compound specific stable isotopes (CSSI) -based mixing models to calculate the proportion of each source soil contributing to the eroded soil mixture could be promising. The theoretical background behind this approach has significant implications in our understanding of the erosion hotspot in the watershed scale.

Key words: Sediment fingerprinting, soil erosion, mixing model, erosion hotspot

78

SAARCS ANXIETY ON CLIMATE CHANGE: WHAT DOES THIS CONCERN ENTAIL?


Baniateilang Majaw
North-Eastern Hill University (NEHU), Shillong, India E-mail: <majawban@gmail.com>. Concern over climate change has appeared frequently on the international agenda even within the banner of regional cooperation that negotiates on binding climate agreements. Although, South Asian countries are negligible contributors to global warming, yet climate change is generally acknowledged as a threat to the region. The Heads of State of SAARC reiterated their deep concern at the continued degradation of environment. In 2003, the Meeting of SAARC Cultural Affairs Ministers approved measures for protection, conservation and maintenance of South Asian Cultural Heritage and cooperation among Member States in promoting culture. With climate change the ecosystem will be particularly vulnerable. Sacred groves are a biological heritage and a system that has helped preserve the biodiversity conservation and livelihood improvement for generations in the state of Meghalaya. Communities play a central role in biodiversity conservation inside the sacred groves, which are influenced by customary regulations through ages. Sacred groves are mostly primary forest and are well preserved, often in their pristine state and are rich in biodiversity. They constitute a unique example of conservation of genetic resources, and also, show micro climatic conditions with their own distinct floral and faunal varieties. In the absence of effective conservation management, these sacred groves are facing challenges to hold the original plant diversity they have. Since preservation and protection of the environment remains a high priority on the agenda being pursued by the Member States of SAARC, this study will try to highlight

the aspects of the traditional forest management systems of the local tribal people that
contribute towards preservation, conservation and protection of cultural heritage.

Key words: Climate agreements, global warming, sacred groves, biological heritage, genetic resources

79

DIVERSIFYING LIVELIHOODS THROUGH FOREST BASED MICRO-ENTERPRISES: LESSONS FROM WESTERN T ERAI LANDSCAPE COMPLEX PROJECT, NEPAL
Bijendra Basnyat and Jagannath Koirala Western Terai Landscape Complex (WTLC) Project promoted forest based micro-enterprises (FBMEs) targeting women, poor and marginalized groups with a view to empower local communities to pursue sustainable diversified livelihoods that enable biodiversity conservation. The project established and strengthened 54 FBMEs benefitting nearly 5000 families. FBMEs are quick impacting in nature and provided income and employment opportunities within a very short duration of time. It created employment of 110 days per year per family with a net annual income of Rs 19,620 per family. Income was mostly utilized for child education followed by household affairs, medical treatment and loan repayment while investment on growth and expansion of business was very limited. Membership of poor and marginalized communities in community institutions as well as their representation in key decision making positions increased. Besides, few households also shifted towards the alternative energy, especially biogas. This reveals that FBMEs have not only ensured social and economic empowerment of the target groups but also, reduced their direct dependency on forests. Despite of this, sustainability of enterprises is very less. Of the 54 FBMEs promoted by the project, nearly half are operational. There is high dropout rate among the entrepreneurs, which is mainly because of less demand of products in the market or problems associated with selling of products, availability of cheap substitutes, poor product quality, less economic return, etc. The most pressing reason is the availability of cheap substitutes where the poor people could neither compete with quality nor with the price. Apart from this, few FBMEs has also increased direct dependency on forests because of limited availability of raw material. Resource base creation together with environment and social screening is essential to minimize negative impact on forests and biodiversity. FBMEs could sustain, in a long run only, if environmental benefits of a particular product or production system is effectively disseminated among the consumers. Hence, eco-labeling and certification together with premium based marketing should be promoted for sustaining FBMEs and diversifying livelihoods.

Key words: Marketing, biodiversity conservation, employment opportunity, community institution, environmental benefit

80

MAPPING ABOVE GROUND WOODY BIOMASS USING FOREST INVENTORY , REMOTE SENSING AND GEOSTATISTICAL MODELS
Bechu K. Yadav Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO 2 emissions, planning and monitoring of forest operations for commercial use or the study of ecosystem productivity. This pilot project attempted to estimate growing stock and aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) from forest inventory data; to map AGWB combining field inventory data, RS imagery and geostatistical models viz. k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), direct radiometric relationships (DRR) and Cokriging (CoK); and to evaluate/compare the biomass maps derived from the different geostatistical models. A part of Timli Forest Range of West Dehradun Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for study (58.78 km2 area) IRS P6 LISS-III satellite data of 01 December 2012 and Software such as IDRISI/k-NN FOREST, ArcGIS 10, ERDAS 10 and ENVI 5.0 were used for processing and analyses. The whole project was divided into prefield work (database preparation and arrangement), field work (reconnaissance survey, measurement of forest parameters and recording the information) and post field work (processing, analyzing and interpretation of the collected data). Stratified random sampling was applied to collect biophysical data such as girth at breast height, average tree height, density, etc. Sample plots of size 0.1 ha (31.62m31.62m) were laid down in the field randomly. Total 26 sample plots using Chackos formula for analyses and 10 plots for validation were enumerated for biophysical data. Volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Two forest type-density classes- Sal (40-70%) and Sal (>70%) and four non-forest classes- scrub, stream, agriculture and settlement were delineated in the study area. Volume in different strata of forest typedensity ranged from 189.84-484.36 m3 /ha. Total growing stock of forest was found 2011412.77 m 3. AGWB in forest area ranged from 143-421 t/ha. Total biomass in Sal (>70%) and Sal (40-70%) were found to be 769311.77 tons and 662200.73 tons respectively. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis Distance (RMSE=42.25 t/ha) was found to be the best method followed by Fuzzy Distance and Euclidean Distance with RMSE of 44.23 t/ha and 45.13 t/ha. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 t/ha. Key words: Spectral bands, vegetation indices, DRR, k-NN, CoK

81

SATELLITE BASED BURNT AREA ASSESSMENT OF NEPAL FROM 2000 TO 2013


Him Lal Shrestha* and Hari Krishna Dhonju International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Lalitpur, Nepal * Corresponding author: hshrestha@icimod.org Forest fire is considered as drivers of forest degradation as it burns trees in the forest and produces ash and smokes. The tendency of the forest fire, which goes up to the crown type, causes major destruction of the forest due to loss of tender shoot and green leaves of treecrowns. The forest type also matters on the spreading of the forest fire magnitude in terms of forest depletion. Forest fire has its spatiotemporal characteristics in terms of its occurrence, spreading and its depletion. The geospatial approach can better present the current scenario, assessment of damage and loss magnitude, and even can support for the forest fire management in future. MODIS product has multiresolution data in terms of spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric characteristics. Those characteristics support for regular monitoring of forest fire occurrence and its damages over the region. This study tried to find the current trend of forest fire occurrence and burnt areas assessment since MODIS operation year 2000 to the current date for entire Nepal. The study also tried to assess the seasonality and spatiality of forest fire for the same period and region. MODIS products MCD45A1 of burnt area and burn date were analyzed writing the routine code in python scripting. RS based information still needs the field level validation and crosschecking of the data in collaboration with actors working on forest fire and its management. The study shows huge rate of burnt area due to forest fire in Nepal with average rate of 261 km2 per year. The year 2001 and 2012 had high burnt areas of 552 km2 and 401 km2 for entire Nepal. Since last few years, Nepal is experiencing huge number of forest fire occurrence, however, we dont have proper damage assessment and records from the ground. In this current scenario, the assessment carried out with the help of MODIS satellite imageries and spatial analysis could help managers, forest use communities and policy makers to intervene appropriate plan, action and strategy to deal with forest fire in coming days from forest fire management perspective. Key words: Forest fire, geospatial approach, burnt areas, multiresolution data, MODIS product

82

BIOMASS EQUATION FOR EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS: A STUDY FROM SAGARNATH TARAI, NEPAL
Ram Asheshwar Mandal1, Iswar Chandra Dutta2, Shamsul Mohamad Haque3, Ashok K. Mallik3, Yajna Timalsina4 and Gandib Kafle3
1

Trichandra College, TU, Nepal Tribhuwan University Commission, Tribhuwan University, Kirtipur 3 Institute of Forestry, Hetauda 4 Institute of Forestry, Pokhara
2

Nepal proposed to adopt tier 2 and to be ready for tier 3 under REDD+ mechanism. So, standard equations are essential to calculate the species- wise tree biomass. Thus, objectives of this research are to develop the regression equations for estimation of biomass; to assess the proportion of stem, branch and leaves in total biomass and to determine the percentage of sapwood, heartwood and bark in bole biomass. Plantation sites of Sagarnath Forest Development Project were selected. 59 trees were selected randomly based on diameter classes and were felled. Out of this 40 trees were used to develop the biomass equation and remaining 19 used for validation purpose. Meanwhile, height and diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured before felling. Samples of bole, branches and leaves and separated bark, heart wood and sap wood were dried in the lab. The regression equations were developed between dry biomass and DBH, height and wood density. The R2 of equations of bole, branch and leaves were 0.9, 0.93 and 0.95 respectively. Statistically, equations were checked with root mean square error (RMSE). Moreover, the value of bole in biomass ranged from 74.32 to 78.98%, while they were 11.34-14.04 % and 9.68-11.64% of branches and leaves respectively. Similarly, estimated percentages of bark, sap wood and heart wood ranged 12.6-16.4%, 43.84-47.68% and 37.42-42.08% respectively. As Nepal has proposed tier 2 in REDD+ mechanism and approaching for tier 3, such standard biomass model has very momentous.

Key words: Regression, bole, branch, sapwood

83

FARM TREES: COMPOSITION, ABUNDANCE AND ROLE OF TREES ON FARMLAND


Lila Puri* and Henrik Meilby * Email: puri07878@alumni.itc.nl To monitor forest dynamics and wood extraction, a network of 241 permanent plots was established by ComForM Project at three community-managed forest sites in the lowlands (Chitwan), the middle hills (Kaski) and the high mountains (Mustang). The plots are located at altitudes ranging from 200 to 2600 m.a.s.l. and were measured in the springs of 2005, 2010 and 2013. Measurements included trees, shrubs and regeneration. In addition, surveys of soil, deadwood, biomass and litter were undertaken within or around the plots. In this paper we examine the dynamics of the forests and the extraction of wood products by the local communities, compare the growth capacity of the forest to present extraction practices and discuss future management options. We also discuss the possible use of the plot network and the potentials of the data. Key words: ComForM Project, deadwood, biomass, litter, extraction of wood products

84

MINERALOGY OF ROCKS AND SOILS IN KANKALI AND TIBREKOT COMMUNITY FORESTS, NEPAL
Ram Prasad Sharma1*, M.K. Gupta2, A.K. Raina2 and M.K. Balla1
1

Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara, Nepal Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India *Corresponding author: ramsharmag@yahoo.com
2

Mineralogical study has special importance in forestry where vegetation growth lasts over a long period and depends to a large extent, on the minerals as a source of nutrients in the soil. Soil is one of the most important factors for vegetation growth, which is mainly governed by weathering and climatic conditions. The aim of the research is to investigate minerals of rocks, sand and soil clay in Kankali community forest (CF), Chitwan and Tibrekot community forest, Kaski, Nepal. The rock minerals were identified by studying thin sections of rocks using a petrographical microscope, sand minerals by petrographical miscroscope and clay minerals by X-ray diffraction. The rocks of Kankali CF dominantly contained light minerals (53%) with quartz, feldspar and muscovite, and 26% opaque minerals (biotite and chlorite) followed by 13% ground mass and cementing materials and 4% lithic fragments. The sand has embraced largely by 85% quartz, and 10% rock fragments with other minor trace minerals followed by about 4% opaque minerals, feldspar, muscovite, magnetite, hornblende and tourmaline combined. The soil clay from Kankali community forest indicated the presence of kaolinite, quartz, chlorite, illite and small traces of phengite and muscovite and Tibrekot community forest by chlorite, illite and traces of quartz, magnetite and albite. The mineralogical compositions were mostly associated with nature and condition of parent materials and degree of weathering. The study, therefore, suggests that soils of the study area contained low to moderate amount of weatherable minerals indicating their pedzolic nature. This indicates that there will be low to moderate amount of release of the nutrient elements and will render to stable land in the area. Key words: Weathering, climatic conditions, light minerals, ground mass, cementing materials, weatherable minerals

85

TOURISM AND SUSTAINABILITY : A DICHOTOMY DEBATE AND THE THEORY OF MEAN


Ramji Sharma Pokhara College of Management; Email: ramjisharma@gmail.com Tourism has been a favorite segment around the globe for quick economic prosperity and social transformation for developing economies although this leisure industry was traditionally the remit of the western rich communities mostly after the World War II. Researchers stunned for a while whilst socio-cultural and environmental bearings appeared to surpass its economic spin-offs. The issue of sustainability became a buzzword thereafter in tourism industry. The environment, biodiversity and indigenous cultures could not remain in isolation from the impact of tourism growth. Then a hypothesis of sustainable tourism development emerged aiming to ensure minimum impacts on environment, biodiversity, society and cultures. The charge yet to be challenged is the claim that tourism is ultimately unsustainable because of its multidimensional impacts on environments, biodiversity, society and cultures and then makes destinations less appealing. Tourism is accused of being a despoiler of pristine natural environments, a destroyer of valued lifestyles and age-old cultures, and an exploiter of poor nations. Therefore, it is often portrayed as a juggernaut, consuming one destination after another and then rolling on. There are various complex issues of sustainable tourism in relation to biophysical, environmental and socio-cultural impacts. One debate is that continued growth of tourism can dramatically transform cultures and create a homogenized world. Other argument is that tourism can counteract other change agents and help maintain cultures, thus contributing to socio-cultural sustainability. Furthermore, sustainable development is still a contested concept and the theory of sustainability has advanced through discourses of a range of different interpretations. Many issues have emerged as points of controversy regarding sustainable development. Hence, sustainability is a delicate issue to be discussed in tourism management between economic development and its inevitable impacts on the society, culture and environment. Around this periphery, responsible tourism, the main pillars of which are environmental integrity, social justice and economic development, has emerged as a theory of mean for the reason that it is regarded as a means to reach to the ends - sustainable development. Key words: Leisure industry, multidimensional impacts, sustainable development, juggernaut, sociocultural impacts, natural environments

86

CONTRIBUTION OF CONSERVATION AREA ON T HE LIVELIHOOD OF POOR AND DISADVANTAGED GROUPS (A CASE STUDY OF API-NAMPA CONSERVATION A REA LATINATH AND KHANDESWORI VDCS OF DARCHULA DISTRICT, FAR-WESTERN D EVELOPMENT REGION N EPAL)
Ramesh Raj Pant Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur; Email: rpant@cdes.edu.np; Mobile/Tel.: 9843315874/01-4332147

Conservation areas are an appropriate means for managing biodiversity and have an immense role on livelihoods of many local communities living in and around the areas. Therefore, conservation area is one of the best models to interlink between environmental conservation and the livelihood of local people. This research explores the contribution of conservation area on the livelihood of poor and disadvantaged groups of Api-Nampa Conservation Area- Latinath and Khandeswori VDCs of Darchula district. The field observation and survey, interview with local poor people and disadvantaged groups (DAGs), along with consultation meeting, group discussion and questionnaire survey were carried out. Api-Nampa Conservation Area is the youngest conservation area established in 2010 to conserve the natural beauty, ecosystem and improve the livelihood of local people. It was found that the area provided habitats for many rare, endangered and threatened wildlife species and made the area rich in terms of biological diversity. The area was also rich in terms of cultural and ethnic diversity. The environmental resources in as forest products especially NTFPs have direct and significant role to uplift the livelihood of the people at local level. However, the research concluded that due to the lack of conservation program, illiteracy, ignorance and local ownership of resources, still there is the link of conservation with the livelihood of the people missing.

Key words: Forest products, NTFPs, biodiversity, disadvantaged groups, natural beauty, ecosystem

87

IN VITRO AND IN VIVO GERMINATION OF CROTALARIA RAMOSISSIMA, AN ENDEMIC LEGUME OF EASTERN GHATS, INDIA
Devarajan Thangadurai Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003, Karnataka, India; Email: drdthangadurai@gmail.com The medicinal usage of Crotolaria was long back recognized in India since Vedic periods. The descriptions of Crotalaria species are seen in Ayurvedic literatures. Now-a-days, genus Crotalaria shows highest percentage of endemic species. In that 33% are endemic. Among them, Crotalaria ramosissima is one of the endemic species. The present study was carried out while considering the diversity, endemism and number of species under threat. For germination study, seed viability test has been done. In vivo and in vitro seed germination, acclimatization of in vitro germinated plantlets was carried out. Also the effect of temperature and different media concentration on seed germination were found out. Various treatments like H2SO4, HCl, hot water and mechanical scarification were undertaken for seed coat breaking. Among these methods, mechanical scarification showed good results. For propagation, tissue culture studies on this species have also been conducted to test in vitro seed germination percentage. In vivo germination test showed higher germination rate in case of seed stored with capsules than those of stored without capsules. In conclusion, the highest seed germination rate was obtained in the mixture of peat, perlite and vermiculite in the ratio 10:1:1 in native soil and germinated at 27C in polyhouse.

Key words: Tissue culture, endemic species, seed viability, mechanical scarification, medicinal usage

88

RESPONSIVE GOVERNANCE IN CLIMATE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION INTERVENTIONS : NEPAL


Celeste Lacuna-Richman and Bishnu Devkota Much of the climate change agenda seems to be generated in international forums and delegated to national governments for amendment and implementation, and the citizens of the country in question often become passive entities in various policy processes. Yet, these are the same people who are and will be heavily impacted by mitigation and adaptation interventions. For this reason, finding ways to assess the responsive governance in-country is necessary. National Action Plans for Adaptation (NAPA) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD+) are such international initiatives that affect greatly the climate change policy and governance of its partner countries. Nepal, due to its history of international cooperation, its long experience in community forestry, and its current challenges in governance, is such a highly-impacted country. In this study, we used a variety of methods, to determine the extent of interventions related to NAPAs and REDD+ in the Chitwan and Nawalparasi regions of Nepal, where these interventions have been introduced. Crucial issues in the study are existence and extent of responsive governance in, and the local impacts resulting from implementing these interventions. Research methods that could be used to examine these issues are discussed in this paper.

Key words: REDD+, NAPAs, impacts, climate change policy, governance

89

REVISITING THE EXCELLENCE: DOES SUCCESS HOLD FOR COMMUNITY FORESTS WINNING GANESHMAN SINGH CONSERVATION AWARD IN NEPAL?

Anuja Raj Sharma Community Forestry Division, Department of Forests, Nepal

This paper is based on a study on revisiting the community forests awarded with the prestigious Ganeshman Singh Conservation Award from 1996 to 2013. The paper attempts to assess characteristics of successful forestry outcomes, using the theoretical framework of Agrawal and Angelsen (2009). The paper is based on an analysis of 196 community forests nominated for the award versus 27 community forest user groups winning the award. The paper dwells on the applicability of the mentioned framework in best practices of community forestry in Nepal. The paper stimulates policy discourse in formulating criteria and indicators for successful outcomes in community forestry.

Key words: Management, nomination, user group, forestry outcomes

90

DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL C ONDITIONS IN HIGH ALTITUDE LAKES


Smriti Gurung1, Ingrid Jttner2, Catalina Angele2, Subodh Sharma1 and Chhatra Mani Sharma1
1 2

Aquatic Ecology Center, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Kavre, Nepal Department of Biodiversity and Systematics, National Museum of Wales, UK

Diatoms are eukaryotic algae characterized by the presence of siliceous cell walls. They are widely used as bioindicators of environmental conditions in aquatic ecosystems. Benthic diatoms from different microhabitats were studied in the Gokyo lakes, Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal. The objectives of the research were to assess (1) diatom species richness, (2) differences in diatom assemblages between different substrata and (3) whether diatoms indicate impairment by sewage. A total of 146 diatom taxa were observed indicating a rich diatom flora. The most abundant taxa were the Cymbellales followed by Fragilariales and Achnanthales. The most common taxa were Achnanthidium minutissimum and related species. Diatom richness and assemblages in the lake at the highest altitude and upstream of tourist facilities were significantly different than in other lakes. The diatom assemblages also differed in the lakes inlets and outlets during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The assemblages in the inflow of Lake 3 were distinct from inflows and outflows of other lakes reflecting a different habitat character of the inflow in Lake 3. Pollution tolerant taxa were also observed in the littoral zone of Lake 3 indicating possible nutrient enrichment in this lake.

Key words: Bioindicators, environmental conditions, aquatic ecosystems, sewage, habitat character

91

ALTITUDINAL VARIATION ON PICROSIDE-I CONTENT IN THE POPULATION LINES OF PICRORHIZA KURROOA, A THREATENED MEDICINAL PLANT OF NEPAL
Jit N. Sah* and V.K. Varshney Chemistry Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun-248006 *Email: jitnarayan2008@gmail.com Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle Ex. Benth (family Scrophulariaceae), commonly known as Kutki, is a medicinally revered herb used extensively in traditional as well as modern medicinal system of India, China, Tibet, Nepal and Sri Lanka for various immune-related diseases. The plant grows in Himalayan region at elevations ranging from 3000-5000m. Picrorhiza kurrooa constitutes an important group of medicinal plants used by different communities in Nepal. Its conservation and domestication has recently gained unprecedented importance because of the large gap in its demand and supply resulting into its over exploitation, adulteration and contamination, which have lead to inconsistent supply of the quality raw material and ultimately threat to its efficacy and existence. Picroside-I is one of the marker bioactive metabolites responsible for therapeutic effects of Kutki. The aim of the study was to determine variability in picroside-I content in the population lines of Kutki grown at different altitudes in Nepal and also to identify superior genotypes for domestication. Wild populations of Kutki at different altitudes in consultation of the District Forest Offices and community forest user groups of Nepal were surveyed and plants containing rhizomes were collected from Bajhang (3170-3255m), Jumla (3947-4299m), Mugu (3446-4414m), Dolpa (3944-4282m), Myagdi (38294295m), Gorkha (3978-4199m), Rasuwa (3887-4098m) and Dolkha (4157-4175m) districts. Rhizomes were shade dried, milled (80-100 mesh size), defatted and extracted with hot methanol. The methanol extract was analyzed by TLC Densitometric technique and picroside-I was quantified using the method validated according to ICH guidelines. Separation and quantification of picroside-I was achieved on precoated silica gel 60F254 aluminium plates using mobile phase CHCl3-MeOH (75:25, v/v) and densitometric scanning at 254 nm in UV absorbance mode. Picroside-I varied considerably. Altogether it was found to be 0.60-5.28% in populations grown at altitudes from 3000-4500 m. Populations grown at altitude 3000-3499m, 3500-3999m and 4000-4500m contained 1.58-3.96%, 0.77-5.28% and 1.27-4.88% pircoside-I respectively. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in the picroside content altitude wise. Key words: Kutki, TLC Densitometric technique, therapeutic effects, conservation and domestication, marker bioactive metabolites

92

PEOPLES PARTICIPATION IN BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN THE MIDDLE-HILLS OF NEPAL (A CASE STUDY OF TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF N EPAL)
Shree Prasad Dhoubhadel

Department of Zoology, Trichandra Multiple Campus, T.U., Kathmandu Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) and Shivapuri National Park (ShNP) are two protected areas lying in the middle hills of Nepal. They are the most beautiful spots in the middle hills of the country and rich in biodiversity. The objective of the study was to find out status of biodiversity and the peoples attitude and their participation in biodiversity conservation activities in ACA and ShNP. Field observation, Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and key informant survey methods were used to collect the required information. The status of biodiversity in the park was in decreasing trend. The main threat to biodiversity in the areas were forest degradation, poaching and NTFPs collection, fodder and grass collection, erosion and landslides, forest fire, urbanization and infrastructure development, park people conflict, etc. Majority of the villagers of the protected areas had positive attitude toward biodiversity conservation. Educated people involved in tourism industry understand more about the importance of biodiversity in their life than uneducated ones. Community plantations, private plantation, Chautara making, community forestry, alternative energy technology introduction, and soil conservation works were some positive aspects of peoples participation in biodiversity conservation activities. Some recommendations to make the environment of the area better, and to uplift the livelihood of the local people so that they can actively participate in the biodiversity conservation have been made. Key words: Annapurna Conservation Area, Shivapuri National Park, tourism industry, peoples attitude, forest degradation

93

CODE OF CONDUCT (COC) FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN POKHARA


Shreekanta S. Khatiwada

Tourism is an over sensitive business activity, which depends on visitors' perception about the destination. Hence, due attention is necessary to manage well for the sustainable development of tourism in any destination. One of the effective tools that have been introduced by UNWTO for the tourism sustainability is the provision of Code of Conduct (CoC) in hospitality industry since the beginning of this century. Pokhara has been popular destination among the domestic as well as international visitors. Tourism activities have been increasing with the establishment of number of business firms and recreational activities. Competition as one of the prime virtue of business some time, converts in conflict, and has become challenge for the destination as a whole in tourism. On the other hand proper utilization of resources and conserving or managing the nature and cultural based tourism products has become a big question for tourism sustainability. Hence, this paper tries to discuss the opportunities and challenges of tourism related with different stakeholders and outline the general CoC guidelines for tourism sustainability in the context of Pokhara.

Key words: Challenges, destination, hospitality, opportunity, service and facilities, responsible tourism

94

Recovery of Vegetation Structure and Floral Diversity after shifting of forest villages of Achanakmar- Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve:A comparison and conservation implication Bhavana Dixit Department of Forestry Gurughasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur,C.G.INDIA dixit1968@yahoo.com The core region of Achanakmar- Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve falls in Chhattisgarh State (India) and lies between lat. 220 15 to 200 58 N and long. 810 25N to 820 5 E. Shorea robusta Gaertn F. (sal) is the dominant species occurring in this region. The present study deals with the comparative account of composition and diversity of pure Shorea robusta forest and degraded mixed moist forest of Achanakmar- Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve. Based on the repeated reconnaissance of the area, three representative sites of size 1 ha. in pure sal forest was selected for two growth strata stages eg. upper story(trees )under story(,saplings and seedlings ). The forest vegetation was analyzed using 10 randomly placed quadrate(each 10 *10m) within the representative sites. The vegetation data were quantitavely analyzed for frequency, density, abundance and Importance value index and various indices of alpha and beta diversity. The pure Shorea robusta forest showed high density and basal cover of trees (1233stem ha-1, basal cover 36.36 m2 ha-1) and under story vegetation (density1575 stem ha -1, basal cover 1.85 m2 ha-1). The degraded mixed moist deciduous forest sites represent the degraded stage having low density of trees and basal cover (633 stem ha-1, basal cover 32.82 m2 ha-1) and under story vegetation (density 918 stem ha-1, basal cover 0.37 m2 ha-1). The total number of species was high in pure Shorea robusta forest as compared to degraded mixed moist deciduous forest. Similarly plant diversity was also high in pure Shorea robusta (sal) forest for trees and understory (2.82; 2.92 Shanon index; 4.76; 2.32 richness index, 0.99; 1.01 equitability, 0.21; 0.22 concentration of dominance, 5.78; 8.82 beta diversity) respectively than on degraded mixed moist deciduous forests for trees and understory (1.99; 2.44 Shanon index; 3.48; 1.43richness index, 0.78; 1.04 equitability index, 0.39; 0.26 concentration of dominance, 8.20; 11.93; beta diversity) respectively. The climatic condition of the region supported the regeneration of Shorea robusta (sal) and its associates in the climax formation over a long successional process. The study focuses on the comparison and conservation implication of this biosphere reserve. Key words: Bioshere Reseve ,Composition, Floral diversity, Structure and Succession.

95

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SUSTAINABLE HARVESTING , ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION AND INVESTMENT FEASIBILITY OF NIRMANSI (DELPHINIUM DENUDATUM) IN SUPPORTING RURAL LIVELIHOOD (A STUDY FROM THONCHE V.D.C OF LOWER MANANG)
Chandra Prakash Sedai
Forest Technician, District Soil Conservation Office, Gulmi, Nepal chandrasedai@gmail.com

The research entitled "An Assessment of the Sustainable Harvesting, Economic Contribution and Investment Feasibility of Nirmansi ( Delphinium denudatum) in supporting rural livelihood was conducted in Manang sector of Annapurna Conservation Area in Thonche C.A.M.C. This research had explored out the biomass of Nirmansi with respect to ecological factor i.e. altitude. The research found out the density and annual harvestable biomass of Nirmansi and investigated its variation with respect to altitude. It also assessed economic contribution, investment feasibility and explored people opinion regarding its sustainable management at their place. Both biophysical data as well as social data so collected were analyzed with the help of SPSS, Excel and G.I.S soft wares. Nirmansi was found on open areas with gentle slopes and loose soil where moisture is available at an altitude ranging from 3500-4600m. The total density of Nirmansi per hactre is 9014 and 12.88 kg. The total biomass in Thonche V.D.C is 6.17 tons and 3.08 tons is available for annual allowable harvest the stratum wise density and biomass of Nirmansi was found to be different. The per hectare density of Nirmansi was slightly rising while per hectare biomass was slightly decreasing with respect to altitude Nirmansi had a contribution of 4.5 % in annual household income. The projected NPV, IRR and B/C ratio for five years at 5% interest rate were calculated as 1441, 74.16% and 1.04:1 respectively. However, no micro enterprises are developed for utilization of this species. Nirmansi is processed by locally and sold to village traders. People are using Nirmansi for poisoning, stomach pain, wound, vomiting, body pain, headache and common cold at household level. Local people are positive towards sustainable management of Nirmansi at their place and expect organization to support them for establishing processing units and provide incentives for its farming.

Key words : Nirmansi, NPV, B/C ratio, IRR, Biomass