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Pharmacology Mnemonics (Z-Q)

1) Anti-hypertensives used in emergencies... Singh & Gambhir HELP

S-sodium nitroprusside G-GTN H-hydralazine E-esmolol L-lab etalol P-phentolamine..

Ca++ channel blockers: uses CA++ MASH: Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF Angina Migranes Atrial flutter, fibrillation Supraventricular tachycardia Hypertension

Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects If you know these, you will be "LESS DUMB": Lacrimation

Excitation of nicotinic synapses Salivation Sweating Diarrhea Urination Micturition Bronchoconstriction

Amiodarone: action, side effects 6 P's: Prolongs action potential duration Photosensitivity Pigmentation of skin Peripheral neuropathy Pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is inhibited -> hypothyroidism .

2) Methyldopa: side effects METHYLDOPA: Mental retardation Electrolyte imbalance Tolerance Headache/ Hepatotoxicity psYcological upset Lactation in female

Dry mouth Oedema Parkinsonism

Chloroquine: uses " My RED LIP " Malaria Rhematoiid arthritis Extraintestinal amoebiasis DLE Lepra reaction Infectious mononucleosis Photogenic reactions

Respiratory depression inducing drugs "STOP breathing": Sedatives and hypnotics Trimethoprim Opiates Polymyxins

Drugs causing gynaecomastia. "DESI Gossypol R Most Common Cause oF Gynaecomastia in Kommon People"

D- Digitalis E-Ethionamide,Estrogen S-Spirinolactone I- INH

Gossypol-Griseofulvin R- Reserpine Most-Methyl dopa Common- Cyperoterone acetate,cimitidine, Cause-clomiphine,Calcium antagonist oF-Flutamide Gynaecomastia- Goserelin Kommon-Ketoconazole People-Phenytoin.

Aminoglycosides: common characteristics AMINO: Active Against Aerobic gram negative Mechanism of resistance are Modifying enzymes Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 30S subunit Nephrotoxic Ototoxic

Opioids: effects

BAD AMERICANS: Bradycardia & hypotension Anorexia Diminished pupilary size Analgesics Miosis Euphoria Respiratory depression Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction) Constipation Ameliorate cough reflex Nausea and vomiting Sedations Antimuscarinics: members, action "Inhibits Parasympathetic And Sweat": Ipratropium Pirenzepine Atropine Scopolamine Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in sympathetic.

B2agonist......SMART 1)Salmeterol





Captopril (an ACE inhibitor): side effects CAPTOPRIL: Cough Angioedema/ Agranulocystosis Proteinuria/ Potassium excess Taste changes Orthostatic hypotension Pregnancy contraindication/ Pancreatitis/ Pressure drop (first dose hypertension) Renal failure (and renal artery stenosis contraindication)/ Rash Indomethacin inhibition Leukopenia/ Liver toxicity

Drugs causing lupus like symptoms

SHIP sulfonamide hydralazine isoniazid procanamide

Drugs causing gynaecomastia. DISCO

Digitalis INH Spironolactone Cimetidine Oestrogen

drugs causing hypokalemia

B-beta2 agonists A-Amphotericin B D-Digoxin F-Furesemide,Foscarnet I-Insulin T-Thiazide

Direct sympathomimetic catecholamines DINED: Dopamine Isoproterenol Norepinephrine Epinephrine Dobutamine


Phar 2

Sulfonamide: major side effects Sulfonamide side effects:

Steven-Johnson syndrome Skin rash Solubility low (causes crystalluria) Serum albumin displaced (causes newborn kernicterus and potentiation of other serum albumin-binders like warfarin)

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects, contraindications, interactions HMG-CoA: Side effects: Hepatotoxicity Myositis [aka rhabdomyolysis] Contraindications: Girl during pregnancy/ Growing children Interactions: Coumarin/ Cyclosporine


Hyperplasia of gums Hyperglycemia Hirsutism Hypersensitivity Hydontoin Syndrome



D=diaphoresis U=urination M=meiosis B=bowl motility(incresed) L=Lacrimation E=emesis S=salivation

METRONIDAZOLE-SPECTRUM OF ACTION SPECTRUM OF ACTION A-Amoebiasis B-Bacteroides fragilis C-Clostridium perfringens D-Dracunculus medinensis E-Pseudomembranus Enterocolitis F-Fusobacterium G-Giardiasis H-Helicobacter Pylori S-Anaerobic Streptococci


Tricyclic antidipressents (TCA): side effects TCA'S: Thrombocytopenia Cardiac (arrhymia, MI, stroke) Anticholinergic (tachycardia, urinary retention, etc) Seizures

Inhibitors of p450: IC(see) KEGS (going down) INH, Cimetidine, Ketoconazole, Erythromycin,Grapefruit,Sulfonamides

Zero order kinetics drugs (most common ones) "PEAZ (sounds like pees) out a constant amount": Phenytoin Ethanol Aspirin Zero order

Steroids: side effects BECLOMETHASONE: Buffalo hump

Easy bruising Cataracts Larger appetite Obesity Moonface Euphoria Thin arms & legs Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia Avascular necrosis of femoral head Skin thinning Osteoporosis Negative nitrogen balance Emotional liability

Second line anti tubercular drugs

Please TAKE Carbon Copy

Paraaminosalicylic acid Thiacetazone Amikacin Kanamycin Ethinamide Cycloserine Capreomycine

Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location "You have 1 heart and 2 lungs": Beta-1 are therefore primarily on heart. Beta-2 primarily on lungs.

Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity Picture diabetic and asthmatic kids riding away on a cart that rolls on pinwheels. Pindolol and Carteolol have high and moderate ISA respectively, making them acceptable for use in some diabetics or asthmatics despite the fact that they are non-seletive beta blockers.

TOM thumb for short acting Benzodiazepines. Triazolam Oxazepam Midazolam

(Triazolam is the drug of choice for sleep on overnight flight.)

Thalidomide: effect on cancer cells "Thalidomide makes the blood vessels hide": Use thalidomide to stop cancer cells from growing new blood


Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia "A goes with B": Atropine used clinically to treat Bradycardia.

Beta-blocker main contraindications / cautions ABCDE: Asthma Block (heart block) COPD Diabetes mellitus Electrolyte (hyperkalemia

Inhibition of Choline uptake during ACh synthesis HICUp ":

Hemicholinium Inhibits Acetyl Choline Uptake (Choline Uptake is the rate limiting step in ACh synthesis)

Quinolones [and Fluoroquinolones]: mechanism "Topple the Queen": Quinolone interferes with Topoisomerase II.

First Generation Cephahlosporins - Remember this story: Mr. Fazol (ceFAZOLin) is a Lorry Driver (cephaLORIdine). He works very hard and has become Thin (cephaloTHIN) He has a "Rad" Watch on his hand (cephRADine) and a "Lux" soap (cephaLEXin). He wears a bright green Drawer {i.e trousers} ( cefaDROxil)

Route of drug administration: He will put the Lux soap in his Drawer - (Cefalexin & Cefradine are given orally. The latter can also be given i.v. /.i.m.. All others- i.v. /.i.m) Second Generation Cephalosporins: Remember FOX, FUR, FAC - ceFOXitin, ceFURoxime, ceFAClor Third Generation Cephalosporins - The story goes thus: Mr. Aziz (ceftAZIdime) is taking an Ox (ceftizOXime, cefpodOXime) in a Taxi (cefoTAXIme) for slaughtering, i.e. an Operation (cefOPERAZONE). For this purpose he is taking Three Axon blades (cefTRIAXONe). He will Fix (ceFIXime) the ox for dinner (cefDINIR) in a short time!

Route of drug administration: Fix the price and eat (only Cefixime is given oral: all others im/iv).

ADRs: Operation will cause bleeding (Cefoperazone cause

bleeding) Fourth Generation Cephalosporins: My wierd dream: QUEEN of ROME who FLEW to OZONE layer, fell down and was made IP (Inpatient) by ME. Helps you to remember fourth generation cephalosporins - Cefquinome, Cefpirome, Cefluprenam, Cefozopran, Cefipime.

Morphine vs. Amphetamine :Pupils in overdose "MorPHINE: Fine and AmPHETamine: Fat" Morphine overdose: pupils constricted (fine) Amphetamine overdose: pupils dilated (fat)

Reversible Anticholinesterases ( antiChEs ) " Car PPENDoRi ": Read as "carpentry" Reversible Anticholiesterases belonging to Carbamates are Physostigmine Pyridostigmine Edrophonium Neostigmine Donepezil Rivastigmine