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COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF TWO PEPEROMIA

FROM PERU: P. Galioides AND P. Chalhuapuquiana


PAOLA D LEO LRA
1
, YON FARFN
2
, CATALNA M. vAN BAREN
1
, ARNALDO L. BANDON
1*
, JORGE D. COUSSO
1

and ANA PASTOR DE ABRAM
2
1
Ctedra de Farmacognosia-IQUIMEFA (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioqumica, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Junn
956, 2 piso. (C 1113 AAD) - C.A. de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
*abandoni@fyb.uba.ar. TE: 54-11-4964-8247. FAX: 54-11-4508-3642
2
Departamento de Ciencias, Seccin Qumica, Pontifcia Universidad Catlica del Per. Av. Universitaria s/n Lima 32, Per.
AbSTRACT
The volatile oil composition obtained from fresh and dried aerial parts of Peperomia
galioides H.B.K. and Peperomia chalhuapuquiana Trelease have been investigated
by GC/FID/MS. Seventy two compounds were identifed on P. galioides. The main
constituents were found to be -caryophyllene (13.1-16.0%), -humulene (13.2-
17.3%) and epi--bisabolol (15.1-21.3%). In contrast, the oils of Peperomia chal-
huapuquiana were found to contain sabinene (20.5-31.0%), cryptone (8.5-8.7%)
and caryophyllene oxide (8.8-10.2%), furthermore other thirty nine compounds
were identifed.
Key Word Index: Peperomia galioides, Peperomia chalhuapuquiana, essential oil,
sabinene, -caryophyllene, epi--bisabolol.
RESUMEN
Se analiz la composicin del aceite esencial obtenido de las partes areas frescas
y desecadas de Peperomia galioides H.B.K. y Peperomia chalhuapuquiana Trelease,
utilizando un sistema GC/FID/MS. Setenta y dos compuestos fueron identifcados
en P. galioides, siendo los principales: -cariofleno (13.1-16.0%), -humuleno (13.2-
17.3%) y epi--bisabolol (15.1-21.3%). En el caso de Peperomia chalhuapuquiana
se encontraron como mayoritarios: sabineno (20.5-31.0%), criptona (8.5-8.7%) y
xido de cariofleno (8.8-10.2%), adems de otros 39 compuestos.
Introduction
The genus Peperomia Ruiz and Pavn
(Ruiz and Pavon, 1794) is one of the larg-
est genera of Angiosperms together with
another huge genus, Piper, comprising
about 1500-1700 species. Most of them
are compact, small perennial epiphytes
growing on rotten woods. They are native to
Central and South America (Wanke, et al.,
2006). Though most Peperomia species are
mainly used as ornamental, some of them
are used in folk medicine to treat many
diseases (Dias dos Santos, et al., 2001).
Peperomia galioides H.B.K. (Pg), locally
named Sacha congona, orqo congona,
8 Paola Di leo lira, et al.
congona and congona macho, is an
endangered succulent herb very used in
Peruvian traditional medicine (Hammond,
et al., 1998). It grows on the sides of trees
and among spiny shrubs with very superf-
cial roots. De Feo, in a survey of medicinal
and magical plants used in the northern Pe-
ruvian Andes, mentioned the popular uses
of this species in different pharmaceutical
formulations: decoction of the aerial parts
is used as vulnerary meanwhile that of the
leaves as antiinfammatory in earaches
(auricular); leaves juice has decongestive
properties for burns, and is also used as
lenitive for hemorrhoids, and for frictions
against hair-loss. The infusion from fresh
leaves is effective in the treatment of scurvy
(De Feo, 1992). According to information
obtained from one of us from the com-
munity of Lares (168 km from Cusco), the
leaves juice is used as antispasmodic and
analgesic in earaches (2-3 drops directly in
the ear), and the hole plant in cataplasm
is applied on cuts and external wounds to
enhance healing. Other reported uses are in
the treatment of gastric ulcers (Hammond,
et al., 1998; Neto, et al., 2002), hepatic
affections, cardiotonic and against bones
fracture pain (Agapito Francia and Sung,
2003; Palacios Vaccaro, 1993). Signifcant
wound-healing activity was detected by Vil-
legas et al. (Villegas, et al., 1997; Villegas, et
al., 2001 ) who tested a lyophilized extract
from P. galioides in mice, and reported
the isolation of (+)-epi--bisabolol as the
compound responsible for this activity.
Afterwards, the same group reported the
ethanol extract of the whole plant to have
antibacterial activity against Staphylococ-
cus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis
(Neto, et al., 2002), and by bioassay-guided
fractionation found grifolin and grifolic
acid, as the active compounds (Langfeld, et
al., 2004). The essential oil, rich in sesqui-
terpenes, also showed antibacterial activity
as was recently communicated (Mahiou, et
al., 1995). The petroleum ether extract from
the whole plant, showed signifcant in vitro
antiparasitic activity against Leishmania
sp. and Trypanosoma cruzi due to the pres-
ence of prenylated compounds (Mahiou, et
al., 1996; Zoghbi, et al., 2005). Peperomia
chalhuapuquiana Trelease (Pc), locally
named Sacha chullco, china congona
and congona hembra, is popularly used
as infusion to alleviate stomach aches. It
grows in the fences of farms among stones.
No previous phytochemical study on this
species has been reported. The composi-
tion of the essential oil from other species
of Peperomia has been published (Dias
dos Santos, et al., 2001; Zoghbi, et al.,
2005; da Silva, et al., 1999; Moreira, et al.,
1999). Here we report the composition of
the essential oils obtained from Peperomia
chalhuapuquiana and Peperomia galioides
from Peru.
ExPERIMENTAL PART
Aerial parts of Peperomia galioides and
Peperomia chalhuapuquiana were collected
in Lares at 3050 m.o.s.l., district of Lares,
Calca province, Peru, in January 2005,
and were identifed by Alfredo Tupayachi.
Voucher specimens are deposited in the
Herbarium of the University of San Antonio
de Abad, Cusco. Part of the plant material
collected of each species was air dried dur-
ing one day in a shadowed place. The other
part was immediately processed. Hydrodis-
tillation was made in a Clevenger-type ap-
paratus during 3 hs, and the oils obtained
were identifed as (F) from fresh material
and (S) from dried material, respectively.
The oils were dried over anhydrous sodium
sulfate and stored at 4C in the dark.
GC-FID-MS ANALySIS
Quantitative and qualitative data were
carried out on a Perkin Elmer GC Clarus
500 equipped with an unique split/split-
less injector (split ratio: 1:100) connected,
Composition of the essential oil of two Peperomia Rev. Latinoamer. Qum. 35/1 (2007) 9
through a fow divisor, to two capillary
columns (fused silica, 60 m x 0,25 mm
i.d., 0.25m flm thickness) coated with:
a) Polyethyleneglycol (MW aprox. 20.000)
(DB-Wax, J&W Scientifc) and b) 5% phe-
nyl-95% dimethylpolysiloxane (DB-5, J&W
Scientifc). The polar column is connected
to a FID detector, while the non polar col-
umn is connected to a FID detector and also
to MS quadrupole detector (70 eV) using a
vent system (MSVent). Carrier gas: He-
lium (setted at constant fow, 1.87 ml/min).
Oven temperature was programmed at an
initial temperature of 90C, increasing at
a rate of 3C/min to 225C and remaining
for 15 min. Injector and FID detectors tem-
peratures: 255C and 275C, respectively.
Injected volume: 0.2 L of a dilution 10%
in ethanol. Temperature of the transfer
line: 180C. Ion source temperature: 150C.
Acquisition mass range: 40-300 m/z.
Quantitative data were determined from
GC-FID area values on the two columns
and expressed as percentages obtained
by peak-area percentage. The components
of the oil were identifed by comparison of
their retention indices relative to C
6
-C
20

alkanes on both columns, and their mass
spectral data with those from electroni-
cally libraries (NIST, 2002; Mc Lafferty and
Stauffer, 2000; Adams, 2001; users) and
with data published in the literature. For
each compound the minor response from
both columns were used.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The yields of each essential oil based on
dried weight were (%v/w): Pc-F: 0.2%, Pc-
S: 1.0%, Pg-F: 0.3% and Pg-S: 0.4%. The
fragrance of Pc is fruity meanwhile Pg has
citric notes. No signifcant olfactive differ-
ences were detected between oils coming
from the respective fresh and dried mate-
rial. According to our results, a careful dry-
ing process does not affect its organoleptic
qualities. The components identifed in the
essential oils from P. chalhuapuquiana and
P. galioides are shown in Table 1. Its chemi-
cal profles are qualitatively very different.
A total of 42 compounds were identifed
in P. chalhuapuquiana representing the
85% of the total oil and is characterized
mainly by the presence of monoterpenes
(52.9-59.2%). This is the frst report about
the chemical composition of this species.
Meanwhile, a total of 72 constituents were
identifed in P. galioides comprising nearly
the 95% of the total oil, which is character-
ized by the presence of a high content of
sesquiterpenes (81.6-81.8%). Villegas (Vil-
legas, et al., 2001) revealed the presence of
epi--bisabolol and viridiforol in an hexane
extract of this species. Both sesquiterpenes
are present in the analyzed oil, being epi--
bisabolol together with -caryophyllene and
-humulene the major ones. The chemical
composition of the essential oil we report
here is very different from that of Belaunde
et al. (2006), who informed -pinene and
limonene as the main components within
the monoterpenes, and globulol and -
caryophyllene as the main sesquiterpenes
present (Mahiou, et al., 1995). The presence
of nonanal and decanal in this oil justifes
the citric aroma profle. Though arylpro-
panoids are common compounds in the
essential oils produced by Piperaceae spe-
cies (Dias dos Santos, et al., 2001), only a
minor quantity of safrol (0.1%) was detected
in those from P. galioides.
ACkNOWLEDGMENTS
Part of this work was supported by Proyect
B019 (UBACYT) in Argentina. In Per, the
Pontifcia Universidad Catlica del Per,
supported this research. Authors wish
to express their thanks to Red CYTED
306rt278.
10 Paola Di leo lira, et al.
Table 1. Chemical composition of the essential oils from fresh and dried aerial parts of P. galioides and P.
chalhuapuquiana.
IK Compound ( % v/w)
PgS PgF PcS PcF
947 -thujene 0.1 0.1 1.1 1.2
954 -pinene 1.5 1.0 1.3 1.7
976 sabinene 0.8 0.6 20.5 31.0
976 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one 0.1 0.1 - -
981 myrcene 1.4 1.7 3.9 3.4
983 -pinene 1.4 1.2 1.9 3.4
998 p-mentha-1(7)-8-diene - - 0.8 0.4
1013 p-cymene 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.5
1016 limonene 2.6 2.8 3.9 2.4
1019 -phellandrene 0.2 0.2 5.4 1.7
1021 1,8-cineole 1.4 1.0 0.1 0.2
1022 cis--ocimene 0.1 0.3 - -
1048 cis-linalool oxide (furanoid) 0.1 tr - -
1022 cis-sabinene hydrate - - 0.3 0.3
1061 terpinolene 0.3 0.4 0.1 Tr
1068 linalool 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.4
1072 nonanal 0.1 0.1 - -
1119 trans-pinocarveol 0.1 tr 0.1 0.3
1133 sabina ketone - - 0.1 0.5
1133 nonanol 0.2 tr - -
1154 terpinen-4-ol 0.1 tr 0.5 0.3
1165 cryptone - - 8.7 8.5
1168 -terpineol 0.1 0.1 - -
1170 decanal 0.9 0.4 - -
1173 myrtenal 0.1 0.1 - -
1217 nerol 0.1 tr - -
1220 cumin aldehyde - - 1.2 1.1
1259 p-menth-1-en-7-al - - 0.2 0.2
1261 2-undecanone 0.1 0.2 - -
1267 tridecane - - 0.5 0.3
1268 safrole 0.1 0.1 - -
1270 p-cimen-7-ol - - 1.2 1.5
1301 myrtenyl acetate 0.2 0.2 - -
1307 4-hidroxy criptone - - 0.5 0.5
1323 3-oxo-para-menth-1-en-7-al - - 0.3 0.4
1329 -cubebene 0.1 tr 0.3 0.3
1339 -longipinene 0.2 0.2 - -
1357 isoledene 0.1 0.1 - -
1363 -copaene 0.8 0.6 1.8 1.6
1369 7-epi-sesquithujene 0.2 0.1 - -
1374 -bourbonene 0.3 0.2 3.8 3.2
1375 -elemene 0.2 0.1 - -
1380 methyl eugenol 0.1 0.2 - -
1384 sesquithujene 0.2 0.1 - -
1390 dodecanal 0.1 0.1 - -
1399 isocaryophyllene 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.3
1409 -santalene 0.9 0.7 - -
1417 -caryophyllene 16.0 13.1 7.0 4.3
1421 cis--bergamotene 0.7 0.6 - -
1423 -cedrene 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.4
1426 -guaiene 0.1 0.1 - -

Composition of the essential oil of two Peperomia Rev. Latinoamer. Qum. 35/1 (2007) 11
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1688 epi -bisabolol 15.1 21.3 0.9 0.2
Total 95.5 93.4 85.8 85.1

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