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# Faculty of Applied Sciences NAME: _________________________________

PHY406 Phy406-TEST 2

## Semester July Nov 2010 HP #:_________________

SECTION A (Answer ALL QUESTIONS) Time: 1 hour CIRCLE YOUR BEST CHOICE FOR EACH OF THE QUESTIONS BELOW. SCRIBBLE YOUR WORKING ON THIS QUESTION PAPER AND BE VERY THOROUGH WHEN MAKING YOUR CHOICES. Use g = 10 m/s2. 1. A stunt man jumps from the roof of a tall building, but no injury occurs because the person lands on a large, air-filled bag. Which one of the following best describes why no injury occurs? (a) The bag provides the necessary force to stop the person. (b) The bag reduces the impulse to the person. (c) The bag increases the amount of time the force acts on the person and reduces the change in momentum. (d) The bag decreases the amount of time during which the momentum is changing and reduces the average force on the person. (e) The bag increases the amount of time during which the momentum is changing and reduces the average force on the person.

Questions 2 and 3 pertain to the situation described below: A 4.0-kg block slides along a frictionless surface with a constant speed of 5.0 m/s as shown. Two seconds after it begins sliding, a horizontal, time-dependent force is applied to the mass. The force is removed eight seconds later. The graph shows how the force on the block varies with time. 4.0 kg Force (N)

6 3 0
0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10

2.

What is the magnitude of the total impulse of the force acting on the block? (a) 20 Ns (c) 48 Ns (e) (b) 42 Ns (d) 54 Ns What, approximately, is the speed of the block at t = 11 seconds? (a) 5.0 m/s (c) 25 m/s (b) 16 m/s (d) 65 m/s (e)

60 Ns

3.

75 m/s

4.

Two objects of equal mass traveling toward each other with equal speeds undergo a head-on collision. Which one of the following statements concerning their velocities after the collision is necessarily true? (a) They will exchange velocities. (d) Their velocities will be zero. (b) Their velocities will be reduced. (e) Their velocities may be zero. (c) Their velocities will be unchanged. A 3.0-kg cart moving to the right with a speed of 1.0 m/s has a head-on collision with a 5.0-kg cart that is initially moving to the left with a speed of 2.0 m/s. After the collision, the 3.0-kg cart is moving to the left with a speed of 1.0 m/s. What is the final velocity of the 5.0-kg cart? (a) zero m/s (c) 0.80 m/s to the left (e) 2.0 m/s to the left (b) 0.80 m/s to the right (d) 2.0 m/s to the right In which one of the following situations is zero net work done? (a) A ball rolls down an inclined plane. (b) A physics student stretches a spring. (c) A projectile falls toward the surface of Earth. (d) A box is pulled across a rough floor at constant velocity.

5.

6.

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## Semester July Nov 2010

(e) A child pulls a wagon across a rough surface causing it to accelerate. 7. A 5.00-kg block of ice is sliding across a frozen pond at 2.00 m/s. A 7.60-N force is applied in the direction of motion. After the ice block slides 15.0 m, the force is removed. The work done by the applied force is (a) 114 J. (c) 735 J. (e) +19.7 J. (b) +114 J. (d) +735 J. Noy carries an 8.0-kg suitcase as she walks 25 m along a horizontal walkway to her room at a constant speed of 1.5 m/s. How much work does Noy do in carrying her suitcase? (a) zero joules (c) 200 J (e) 2000 J (b) 40 J (d) 300 J Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true? (a) Kinetic energy can be measured in watts. (b) Kinetic energy is always equal to the potential energy. (c) Kinetic energy is always positive. (d) Kinetic energy is a quantitative measure of inertia. (e) Kinetic energy is directly proportional to velocity.
6

8.

9.

10. The kinetic energy of a car is 8 x 10 J as it travels along a horizontal road. How much work is required to stop the car in 10 s? 5 7 (a) zero joules. (c) 8 x 10 J. (e) 8 x 10 J. 4 6 (b) 8 x 10 J. (d) 8 x 10 J. 11. A car is traveling at 7.0 m/s when the driver applies the brakes. The car moves 1.5 m before it comes to a complete stop. If the car had been moving at 14 m/s, how far would it have continued to move after the brakes were applied? Assume the braking force is constant. (a) 1.5 m (c) 4.5 m (e) 7.5 m (b) 3.0 m (d) 6.0 m 12. In which one of the following systems is there a decrease in gravitational potential energy? (a) a boy stretches a horizontal spring (d) a car ascends a steep hill (b) a girl jumps down from a bed (e) water is forced upward through a pipe (c) a crate rests at the bottom of an inclined plane 13. An elevator supported by a single cable descends a shaft at a constant speed. The only forces acting on the elevator are the tension in the cable and the gravitational force. Which one of the following statements is true? (a) The magnitude of the work done by the tension force is larger than that done by the gravitational force. (b) The magnitude of the work done by the gravitational force is larger than that done by the tension force. (c) The work done by the tension force is zero joules. (d) The work done by the gravitational force is zero joules. (e) The net work done by the two forces is zero joules. 14. Two balls of equal size are dropped from the same height from the roof of a building. One ball has twice the mass of the other. When the balls reach the ground, how do the kinetic energies of the two balls compare? (a) The lighter one has one fourth as much kinetic energy as the other does. (b) The lighter one has one half as much kinetic energy as the other does. (c) The lighter one has the same kinetic energy as the other does. (d) The lighter one has twice as much kinetic energy as the other does. (e) The lighter one has four times as much kinetic energy as the other does. 15. A rock is thrown straight up from the surface of the Earth. Which one of the following statements describes the energy transformation of the rock as it rises? Neglect air resistance.

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## (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

The total energy of the rock increases. The kinetic energy increases and the potential energy decreases. Both the potential energy and the total energy of the rock increase. The kinetic energy decreases and the potential energy increases. Both the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the rock remain the same.

16. A 3.0-kg cylinder falls from rest through a distance of 6.0 m in an evacuated tube near the surface of the earth. What is its speed after the cylinder has fallen the 6.0 m distance? (a) 8.0 m/s (c) 13 m/s (e) 120 m/s (b) 11 m/s (d) 26 m/s 17. A roller coaster starts from rest at the top of an 18-m hill as shown. The car travels to the bottom of the hill and continues up the next hill that is 10.0 m high.

18 m

10.0 m

How fast is the car moving at the top of the 10.0-m hill, if friction is ignored? (a) 6.4 m/s (c) 13 m/s (e) (b) 8.1 m/s (d) 18 m/s
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27 m/s

18. The kinetic energy of a car is 8 x 10 J as it travels along a horizontal road. How much power is required to stop the car in 10 s? 5 7 (a) zero watts (c) 8 x 10 W (e) 8 x 10 W 4 6 (b) 8 x 10 W (d) 8 x 10 W 19. What power is needed to lift a 49-kg person a vertical distance of 5.0 m in 20.0 s? (a) 12.5 W (c) 60 W (e) 210 W (b) 25 W (d) 120 W 20. Complete the following statement: The term heat most accurately describes (a) the internal energy of an object. (b) a measure of how hot an object is. (c) the absolute temperature of an object. (d) the molecular motion inside of an object. (e) the flow of energy due to a temperature difference. 21, The specific heat capacity of iron is approximately half that of aluminum. Two balls of equal mass, one made of iron and the other of aluminum, both at 80 C, are dropped into a thermally insulated jar that contains an equal mass of water at 20 C. Thermal equilibrium is eventually reached. Which one of the following statements concerning the final temperatures is true? (a) Both balls will reach the same final temperature. (b) The iron ball will reach a higher final temperature than the aluminum ball. (c) The aluminum ball will reach a higher final temperature than the iron ball. (d) The difference in the final temperatures of the balls depends on the initial mass of the water. (e) The difference in the final temperatures of the balls depends on the initial temperature of the water. 22. Two cubes, one silver and one iron, have the same mass and temperature. A quantity Q of heat is removed from each cube. Which one of the following properties causes the final temperatures of the cubes to be different? (a) density (c) specific heat capacity (e) volume (b) latent heat of vaporization (d) coefficient of volume expansion

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## Semester July Nov 2010

23. Complete the following statement: When a substance undergoes fusion it (a) freezes. (c) condenses. (e) (b) sublimes. (d) vaporizes.

evaporates.

24. Heat is added to a substance, but its temperature does not rise. Which one of the following statements provides the best explanation for this observation? (a) The substance must be a gas. (b) The substance must be a non-perfect solid. (c) The substance undergoes a change of phase. (d) The substance has unusual thermal properties. (e) The substance must be cooler than its environment. 25. The space between the inner walls of a thermos bottle is evacuated to minimize heat transfer by (a) radiation. (d) conduction and radiation. (b) conduction. (e) conduction, convection, and radiation. (c) conduction and convection.

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## Section B Time: 1 hour

Question 1 A box is moving along a straight line on a frictionless surface. A force acts along the displacement of the box and slows the box down. (a) Is the direction of the force the same as or opposite to the direction of the displacement of the box? Explain (b) Does the force do positive, negative, or zero work? Explain your answer. (c) Discuss the energies involved, the energy changes and the relationship between the the work done by this force and the change in the objects energy. Question 2 In a performance test two cars take the same time to accelerate from rest up to the same speed. Car A has a mass of 1400 kg, and car B has a mass of 2800 kg. During the test, which car, a) has the greater change in momentum? Explain your answer.

(b) experiences the greater impulse.? Explain your answer. (c) is acted upon by the greater net average force? Explain your answer. Question 3 The drawing shows two thermometers, A and B, whose temperatures are measured in A and B. The ice and boiling points of water are also indicated. (a) Is the size of one degree on the A scale larger than, the same as, or smaller than on the B scale? Explain your answer. (b) Is a given temperature on the A scale (e.g., +20 A) hotter than, the same as, or colder than the same reading on the B scale (e.g., +20 B)? Explain your answer.

Question 4 (a) Explain the differences between heat, thermal energy, heat capacity, latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization. (b) At 1 atmospheric pressure, water freezes at 0 C and boils at 100 C.Its thermal properties is listed below: Latent heat of melting Latent heat of evaporation 334 kJ/kg 2,270 kJ/kg Specific heat capacity water vapor Specific heat capacity water Specific heat capacity ice 1.996 kJ/kgK 4.187 kJ/kgK 2.108 kJ/kgK

Explain the importance of each of the properties listed in the table above on 1 kg of ice at a temperature of 263.15 K (-10 C). Use graphs (state of matter), pictures, mathematical equations and the numbers above in your explanation.

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