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CHAPTER IV TECHNICAL ASPECT The technical aspect of the business defines the necessary procedures and specific factors

to be considered before putting the project into operation. It also serves a determinant factor to obtain efficient and effective techniques on how to make the project successful. The proper kind of applications must be adapted in order to come up with the best results. This chapter covers the significant areas that must be properly observed. A. Product Description Importance and Its Uses Alugbati (Basella alba) commonly known as Malabar nightshade is a perennial vine found in the tropics where it is widely used as a leaf vegetable. It is also an alternative medicine supplements and vitamins. Aside from all of these benefits, its berries can also be used as one of the components in producing ink. Most of the existing ink refills are made of hazardous chemicals which is harmful to human health. Because of these risk factors, the industry is looking for alternative products which are more environmentally friendly, low-cost, non-toxic, and without sacrificing its quality.

With the attractive world and local prices of ink refills and if the industry will be properly guided by the government sectors and industrial sectors, this product can be a viable and profitable business. B. Acquisition of Raw Materials Needed Before going into the production process, it is necessary to have the needed raw materials. Adequate and continuous supply must be ensured to meet the demands of the market. The supplier of the Alugbati berries, which is the products main ingredient, will be sourced out from Sibonga, Cebu where the largest supplier of Alugbati is found. We have contracted them to deliver the alugbati berries to the processing area once a week. C. Production Flow The production process is concerned with transforming a range of inputs into those outputs that are required by the market. This involves to sets of resources, the transforming resources and the transformed computers, and people that carry out the transforming processes. The transformed resources are the raw materials and components that are transformed into end products. Figure number 1 shows the flowchart. Purchasing of Raw Materials Washing of Raw Materials Extraction of Its Juice

Stirring the Mixture

Adding the other Ingredients

Pouring the extract to a bowl

Checking the Inks Viscosity

Measuring and Packing Figure 1 Production Flowchart

Ready for Sale and Delivery

Purchase of Raw Materials This is the fundamental part of production. The supplier of alugbati berries from Sibonga will deliver the raw materials weekly.

Washing of Alugbati Berries This will be done carefully, in order to maintain the fruits freshness.

Extraction of Alugbati Juice from Alugbati Berries The extracts are squeezed out and further filtered. This process will be done through a masticating juicer. For experiment purposes we used mortar and pestle. Pouring of Extract to a Bowl

The alugbati juice extracts will be poured into a cup/bowl.

Add the Other Ingredients and Stir This process is to mix all other ingredients with the alugbati berries juice. The extract is stirred well. This is done nonstop, in order to achieve a good quality of ink. Checking the Inks Viscosity and Its Quality This process is needed to check the stickiness of the ink to ensure the quality of the ink. This process will be done using a digital viscometer.

Measuring and Packing the Finished Product This is the final process where the ink is measured before packing. The measurement will be done using a graduated cylinder. The finished product

is packed in a 15ml, 30ml, and 60ml bottle. After the process, the finished products are stored in the storage area having room temperature conducive for inks.

D. Production Schedule The business will operate 8 hours a day, 5 days a week from Monday to Friday. All employees will report from 8:00am-5:00pm. The employees will given a one our noon-break, from 12:00nn-1:00pm. Since the delivery of raw materials is weekly, the production of Ink from Alugbati berries will be continuous throughout the month. E. Production Capacity

F. Project Site Plant Location The location of the proposed manufacturing plant is in Dapdap, Poblacion III, Carcar City, Cebu. The proponents find the location efficient since it is near to the supplier of Alugbati berries which is found in Sibonga. Land Size The total land area is 2,000 square meters. This will be used for the construction of the manufacturing plant. The manufacturing plant will occupy a land area of 1,600 square meters and the excess will be used as a parking area.

This Site

Figure 2 Map of Cebu

G. Project Layout H. Tools and Equipment The machineries and equipments needed during the production process play a vital role in the smooth and easy production of ink from alugbati berries. These are the following: Masticating Juicer A masticating juicer juicer uses a single auger to compact and crush

produce into smaller sections before squeezing out its juice along a static screen while the pulp is expelled

through a separate outlet.

Graduated Cylinder A graduated cylinder is a piece of laboratory equipment used to measure the volume of a liquid.

Viscometer A viscometer is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid such as ink.

Funnel A funnel is a pipe with a wide mouth, good for feeding, often conical and a narrow stem. It is used to channel liquid or fine-grained substances into containers with a small opening. It is used to avoid spillage.

I. Utilities

J. Raw Material Requirements Fresh alugbati fruits






stalkless, ovoid or nearly spherical, 5-6 mm in length and purple when mature.

White Vinegar Vinegar is a liquid consisting mainly of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and water. It is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient, but historically, as the most easily available mild acid, it had a great variety of industrial, medical, and domestic uses. Salt or Table Salt Salt is also known as table salt or rock salt. It is a crystalline mineral that is composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of ionic salts. It can
promote the fermenting process by inhibiting the growth of undesirable microorganisms, favoring the growth of desired Lactobacilli, and in some cases even adding desirable bacteria to the culturing process.

Rubbing alcohol Rubbing alcohol is a liquid

prepared and used primarily for topical application. It is prepared from a special denatured alcohol solution and contains approximately 70 percent by volume of pure, alcohol) concentrated or ethanol (ethyl



alcohol). As an antiseptic, it is fair against viruses and fungi, though it does well against vegetative bacteria. Iodine Solution Iodine solution is an antiseptic; it is also called weak iodine solution. It usually consists of 2 - 7% elemental iodine, along with potassium iodide or sodium iodide, dissolved in a mixture of ethanol and water.

K. Manpower Requirements

L. Wastes and Waste Disposal Method/s







processing or disposal managing and monitoring of waste materials. In order to improve efficiency and profitability, and to increase the environmental awareness of our workforce and management, there is a need of waste management application. One way of managing waste is by segregating biodegradable wastes from non-biodegradable. The company will provide to each department trash bins or garbage bags in implementing the segregation of wastes. This bins or bags must be put in their proper or designated places. The waste from the processing place will be identified as biodegradable. These wastes will be disposed in a landfill located at the back of the plant site. Non-biodegradable wastes will be recycled or sold to junkshops. Wastes that cant be recycled will be collected by the garbage truck which will visit the site once a week.

M. Total Production Costs Masticating Juicer Php7,550.00 Graduated Cylinder Php550.00

Digital Viscometer Php8,500.00

N. Systems and Forms Design

REFERENCES Things needed Fresh alugbati fruits Mortar and pestle Strainer 3 tbsp. vinegar 1 tbsp. salt 2 tbsp. rubbing alcohol 1 tbsp. iodine Bottle or jar with lid Instructions 1. Pick the alugbati fruits at full ripeness, when it is round, plump and dark purple in color. You will need about three cups of fruit to produce one cup of juice. 2. Crush the fruits and seeds in a mortar and pestle. 3. Strain the juice into a bowl. Discard the solid fruit and seed remains. Repeat until you've procured one cup of juice. 4. Add the rubbing alcohol, white vinegar, salt and iodine and stir. 5. Transfer to a bottle or jar and seal until use. ALUGBATI Scientific Names: Basella alba L., B. rubra L.

Common Names: Ceylon Spinach, Indian spinach, Malabar nightshade Local Names: Alugbati, Dundula, Libato Botanical Description: Alugbati is a succulent, branched, smooth, twining, herbaceous vine, reaching a length of several meters. The stems are green or purplish. The leaves are somewhat fleshy, ovate or heart-shaped, 5-12 centimeters (cm) in length, stalked, tapering to a pointed tip and heart shape at the base. The spikes are axillary, solitary and 5-29 cm in length. The flowers are pink and about 4 millimeters (mm) long. The fruit is fleshy, stalkless, ovoid or nearly spherical, 5-6 mm in length and purple when mature. Adaptability and Availability Alugbati grows well in tropical lowlands at elevations near to 500-3,000 meters (m). It also grows in temperate regions. Alugbati thrives in many soils, but sandy loam appears to be most suitable. It is widely cultivated in all regions of the country particularly in Visayas. USES/IMPORTANCE Alugbati is commonly grown for its young shoots which make an excellent succulent, slightly mucilaginous vegetable, used as a pot herb in stews or soup; consumed boiled, fried in oil or sometimes as a green salad. Its fruits seem to have been earlier used for dyeing purposes in China. The red fruit juice can be used as ink, cosmetic and for coloring foods. The young leaves can be used as laxative, the pulped leaves to poultice sores, red fruit juice as eye drops to treat conjunctivitis and the roots as rubefacient. The red forms are commonly planted as ornamentals and are, even becoming popular in Europe as pot plant. NUTRIENT VALUE Shoots of alugbati per 100 grams (g) edible portion, contain water (91 g), protein (2.1 g), fat (0.3 g) carbohydrates (3.9 g) and fibre (1.3 g). The energy value is approximately 112 kJ/100 g. The protein content is relatively low compared to other greens. The vitamin and mineral contents vary widely as follows: vitamin A, 1686-6390 IU; vitamin C, 29-166 mg; calcium (Ca), 16-117 mg; and iron (Fe), 1.2-3.1 milligrams per 100 gram edible portion. PROPAGATION There are several types of alugbati-the green stem, red stem, and variants of the green and red. These are propagated by cuttings or seeds. The leaves are usually removed before planting materials. In home gardens, alugbati is usually grown in slanting or horizontal trellises. For commercial production, densities of about 50,000 plants/hectare are recommended. CULTURAL PRACTICES Three to four cuttings or seeds are planted per hill at a distance of 20 to 30 cm between hills in furrows spaced at 50 to 75 cm apart. If cuttings are abundant, 7 to 10 cuttings are planted in a hill with distance 40 to 50 cm between hills.

Alugbati grows well even without fertilizer but yield will improve with a liberal amount of compost. Irrigation is done by watering or flooding the field. PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT Alugbati is very susceptible to rock-knot nematodes, but is free of disease and pest problems due to its very thick leaf cuticle. Leaf spots caused by Cercospora and Acrothecium sometimes occur. HARVESTING AND POSTHARVEST HANDLING Young shoots are first harvested at about 6-8 weeks after planting, subsequently at regular intervals for 4-6 months until flowering interferes with quality. Shoots, 15-25 cm long are cut, bunched and sold at nearby markets. If undamaged, leaves can be kept for about one week in the refrigerator. FOOD PREPARATION Alugbatri can be cooked with other vegetables such as in pinakbet. It is also blanched or cooked with egg and noodles. PROSPECTS/OPPURTUNITIES Alugbati is a very productive leaf vegetable, suitable for both home and market gardens. An advantage of this leafy vegetable is its remarkable resistance to pests and diseases. Biological waste treatment Composting Composting is the controlled aerobic decomposition of organic matter by the action of micro organisms and small invertebrates. There are a number of composting techniques being used today. These include: in vessel composting, windrow composting, vermicomposting and static pile composting. The process is controlled by making the environmental conditions optimum for the waste decomposers to thrive. The rate of compost formation is controlled by the composition and constituents of the materials i.e. their Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratio, the temperature, the moisture content and the amount of air. The C/N ratio is very important for the process to be efficient. The micro organisms require carbon as an energy source and nitrogen for the synthesis of some proteins. If the correct C/N ration is not achieved, then application of the compost with either a high or low C/N ratio can have adverse effects on both the soil and the plants. A high C/N ratio can be corrected by dehydrated mud and a low ratio corrected by adding cellulose. Moisture content greatly influences the composting process. The microbes need the moisture to perform their metabolic functions. If the waste becomes too dry the composting is not favoured. If however there is too much moisture then it is possible that it may displace the air in the compost heap depriving the organisms of oxygen and drowning them.

A high temperature is desirable for the elimination of pathogenic organisms. However, if temperatures are too high, above 75oC then the organisms necessary to complete the composting process are destroyed. Optimum temperatures for the process are in the range of 50-60oC with the ideal being 60oC. Aeration is a very important and the quantity of air needs to be properly controlled when composting. If there is insufficient oxygen the aerobes will begin to die and will be replaced by anaerobes. The anaerobes are undesirable since they will slow the process, produce odours and also produce the highly flammable methane gas. Air can be incorporated by churning the compost.