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TEST WORK in CIVIL Engineering

INDEX

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SL. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

EXPERIMENT NO Determination of Normal Consistency of Cement Determination of Initial Setting Time of Cement Determination of Fineness of Cement by Sieving Determination of Gradation of Sand by Sieve Analysis Workability of Concrete-Slump Test Workability of Concrete-Compacting Factor Test Determination of pH Measurement of Total Dissolved Solids in Sewage Determination of Conductivity To Determine the Coefficient of Discharge (Cd) for Venturi meter Determination of Atterberg Limits

PAGE NO. 2 6 10 13 18 22 26 28 30 33 38

EXPERIMENT NO: 1 Determination of Normal Consistency of Cement


AIM: To Determination of Normal Consistency for a Given Sample of Cement. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: a) b) c) d) e) f) To define the Normal Consistency of Cement To prepare a Cement paste To set up the experiment To follow the procedural steps with precautions To fill up the observation table appropriately To report as per instruction Page 212

THEORY: Normal Consistency of Cement is defined as a percentage of water by weight of cement which produces a cement paste of standard consistence permitting a standard plunger of 10 mm diameter to penetrate up to a depth of 5 mm to 7 mm above the bottom of Vicats Mould. The percentage of water in the cement paste for standard consistency will vary from cement to cement and from batch to batch of the same cement. Standard consistency generally ranges from 26 to 33 expressed as a percentage by weight of dry cement. Many times higher normal consistency values are observed for old cement of the cement is 100 fine (very high specific surface area) NECESSARY INSTRUMENTS/EQUIPMENT USED: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Vicat-apparatus with plunger of 10 mm diameter and 50 mm long and Vicats mould with mild steel base plate. Balance with weights (capacity 1 Kg, sensitivity up to 0.1 gm) Trowel (small, weighing about 210 gm) Marble stone slab (non-porous plate) Enamel through Measuring glass (100 c.c. -2 nos.) Thermometer range 50oc Stop Watch Standard spatula

SPECIMEN SUPPLIED: Portland cements 400 gm (for each trial) PREPARATION OF CEMENT PLASTE: a) b) c) Weight about 400 gm of dry cement accurately and place it in the enamel trough Add 25% of clean water and mix it uniformly by means of spatula Care should be taken that the time mixing (gauging) is not less than 3 minutes and not more than 5 minutes. The gauging time shall be counted from the instant of adding water to the dry cement until commencing to fill the mould.

EXPERIMENTAL SET UP: The Vicat plunger, made up of polished brass, 10 mm diameter, 50 mm long with a threaded projection at the upper end for fixing into the movable rod and also having the lower edge flat, shall be fixed to the Vicat-apparatus in proper position. The plunger when resting on the non-porous plate at the bottom of the mould should indicated a reading of zero in its scale.

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a.

Reversible stainless steel plunger with 10mm dia. on one end and threaded

b. Plunger assembly with adjustable indicator weighs 300g with 17.5mm needle attached and 400g with 2mm needle

c. Modified Vicat Cone Penetrometer 10cm scale, attached aluminium cone and plunger

Fig -1 Different Types of VICAT Apparatus PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) Fill the Vicat-mould with the cement paste, the mould resting on marble slab or nonporous plate Make the surface of the cement paste in level with the top of the mould with a trowel weighing about 210 gm. The mould should be slightly shaken to expel air bubbles. Place this mould together with the non-porous plate under the rod bearing the plunger. Bring the bottom of the plunger gradually to the surface of the cement paste. Release the plunger quickly, allowing it to sink into the paste. A reading of 5 to 7 mm is desired for normal consistency of the cement paste. In case the reading is different continue with the following steps. Prepare trial pastes with varying percentages of water and the test as described above until die plunger penetrates up to a depth 5 mm to 7 mm above die bottom of die mould. Indicate this amount of water as a percentage by weight of dry cement (normal consistency) Page 412

5) 6)

PRECAUTIONS:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

The temperature of cement, water and that of the test room at the time of test should be between 25o to 29oc. Appliances to be used for gauging should be neat and clean. The gauging time must be between 3 to 5 minutes. In filling die mould, the operators hands and die blade of the trowel along-e be used. Plunger and mould must be clean for each trial.

OBSERVATION TABLE: Sl. No. 1 2 3 Type of Cement PPC Manufactured Weight of by Cement Sample Ultratech 450 Cement Ltd. 450 450 Quantity of Water Added 450 x 0.35 450 x 0.37 450 x 0.37 Percentage of Water Added 35% 37% 37% Unpenetrated Remarks Depth in mm. 10 8.2 6.5 Desirable value has been obtained at 38% water by wt. Of cement

Hence, standard consistency of cement is 38% REFERENCES: IS: 269-1989 specification for 33 grade ordinary Portland cement IS: 4031 (Part-IV) 1988 determination of standard paste Concrete technology by M.L. Gambhir, Tata McGraw Hill Publication

EXPERIMENT NO: 2

Determination of Initial Setting Time of Cement

AIM: To Determination the Initial Setting Time of a Given Cement Sample. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) To explain the theory of setting of Cement To explain initial and final setting time. To prepare a cement paste. To set up the apparatus. To follow the procedural steps with precautions. To fill up the observation table appropriately. To report as per instruction

THEORY: The term setting of cement is used to describe stiffening of cement paste. When cement is mixed with water, the three main compounds of cement i.e., tri-calcium silicate (C 3S), tri-calcium aluminates (C3A), and di-calcium silicate (C2S), react with water. C3S hydrates more rapidly and develop early strength, generates heat more rapidly and has less resistance to chemical attack. Whereas C2S hydrates and hardens slowly; it adds to ultimate strength and provides more Page 512

resistance to chemical attack. C3A is fast reacting and large amount of heat generates and causes initial setting. The phenomenon of changing from fluid state to a rigid state is called setting of cement. Hardening of cement due to its hydration, which results in strength development, is different from setting. In concrete construction work it is specified that the plastic concrete should be placed and consolidated before die initial setting has occurred. It should not be disturbed until it has hardened, the initial setting time should not be too small and therefore the standards specify the minimum initial setting time. After initial setting, the concrete becomes rigid at final setting and thereafter through hardening attains strength rapidly; so there is minimum of delay before side shuttering can be removed. The setting time measures the time taken for the cement paste to offer a certain degree of resistance to die penetration of a special attachment pressed into it. Two periods of times are used to assess the setting behaviour. These are called initial setting time and the final setting time. The terms initial and final set, are used to describe arbitrarily chosen stages of setting. Initial setting time is defined as the period or the time starting from the instant of mixing of water to a state at which the cement paste loses its plasticity. It indicates the end of slow and steady rate of chemical reaction after which rapid rises in temperature occurs due to faster rate of chemical reaction. Practically it is defined as the period elapsing between the time when the water is added to the cement and the time at which a needle of 1 mm square section penetrates no deeper than to a point 5mm 0.5 mm from the bottom of the Vicat apparatus mould with the cement paste. Initial setting time (minimum) as specified by ISI is 30 minutes for ordinary and rapid hardening Portland cement and 60 minutes for low heat cement. The final setting time is the time which is taken to reach the stage when the paste in the die becomes a rigid mass. Practically it is defined as the period elapsing between the time when water is added to the cement and the time at which the needle makes an impression on the surface test block while the annular attachment fails to do so. Note the difference between the attachments for determining the initial and final setting time. Final setting time (maximum) is 600 minutes for all types of cement according to IS specifications (269-1989, IS 6909-1990, IS 1489-1991) Final setting time chemically implies a maximum rise of temperature in die sample. The Phenomenon of abnormal premature hardening of concrete or cement within a few minutes of mixing of water is called false setting of cement. In this case not much heat is evolved and remixing without additional water gives the required workability and die cement sets in die normal manner with no appreciable loss of strength. There is no relationship between setting time and rate of strength development of concrete. Final setting time is approximately equal to 90+1.2 times initial setting time for normal Portland cement at room temperature. NECESSARY INSTRUMENTS/EQUIPMENT USED: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Vicats apparatus with mould and non-porous plate as per IS: 4031 (part-v) 1988 shown in fig. Needle (C) for initial setting time and needle (F) for final setting time. Balance (capacity 1 Kg, Sensitivity 0.1 gm) Trowel (weighing about 210 gm) Enamelled tray Page 612

6) 7) 8) 9)

Standard spatula Stop Watch Thermometer Measuring cylinder, 2 nos. (100 c.c.)

Materials Used: Cement (ordinary Portland) and water PROCEDURE: 1. PREPARATION OF CEMENT PASTE (SAMPLE): Weigh 400-450 gm of ordinary Portland cements accurately (W) having standard consistency (P). The water which is to be added in the above weighed cement is: 0.85 times the percentage of water required for the standard consistency i.e. 0.85XPXW. Start the stop watch at once, when the water is added in the cement. Mix it uniformly with spatula over a glass plate. The mixing or gauging time of cement water is not more than 3 minutes and not more than 5 minutes. It is counted from the instant of adding water to dry cement up to the filling of the mould. 2. i) ii) iii) iv) DETERMINATION OF INITAL SETTING TIME: The cement paste as prepared above is filled in Vicats mould, which is rested a nonporous plate. Smooth off the upper surface of the paste, making it level with the top of the mould to give the test block. The mould resting on non-porous plate is placed under the rod bearing the needle (C) as shown in Fig. 2. Lower the needle gently in contact with the surface of the test block and quickly release the needle allowing it to penetrate into test block. In the beginning the needle (C) will completely pierce the test block. Repeat this procedure until the reading becomes 5+ 0.5 mm, measured from die bottom of the mould. Note the initial setting time. Record the time in the observation table.

v) vi) vii)

Final set needle

Plunger

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Initial set needle Mould with Cement Paste

Fig -2 VICATS APPARATUS

OBSERVATION: Weight of cement (C) gm Standard consistency of Water (P) Weight of water to be added Sl No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time in minutes 3 10 15 20 25 31 450 gm 38 % 0.85 x C x P = 0.85 x 450 x 0.38 = 145.35

Vicats apparatus reading 0 0 0 1.5 2 5

Time for initial setting = 31 minutes PRECAUTIONS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Needle should be cleaned every time before use. Proper needle is fixed for initial final setting time. Release the needle gently after it comes in contact with the surface of test mould. Gauging time should not be less than 3 minutes and not more than 5 minutes. Check up the stopwatch for accuracy Shift the position of the mould after recording the penetration reading so that the penetration may not be at same place. Test block should be performed away from vibrations and other disturbances.

CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: After doing this test in laboratory compare the observed values with the standard values for the type of cement which is used by you and give your comments on the suitability of using the cement sample tested by you at construction site. REFERENCES: IS: 269-1989 specification for 33 grade ordinary Portland cement Page 812

IS: 4031 (Part-IV) 1988 determination of standard paste Concrete technology by M.L. Gambhir, Tata McGraw Hill Publication Properties of concrete by A.M. Neville, ELBS Publication.

EXPERIMENT NO: 3 Determination of Fineness of Cement by Sieving


AIM: To Determination the Fineness of Cement by Sieving PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) To explain the reaction of water with cement particles To explain the phenomena of hydration and rapid hardening due to greater fineness To explain the link of fineness of cement with gypsum and shrinkage To set up the apparatus To follow the procedural steps with precautions. To record the observations appropriately. To prepare a report as per instruction

THEORY: Strength development of concrete is the result of the chemical reaction of water with cement particles. The reaction always starts at the surface of the cement particles. Thus larger the surface area available for reaction, greater is the rate of hydration and strength development. Rapid development of strength requires greater degree of fineness. Rapid hardening cement, therefore, requires greater degree of fineness. However, two much fineness is also undesirable because the cost of grinding the cement to higher fineness is considerably high. Finer cement deteriorates more quickly when exposed to air and likely to cause more shrinkage, but less prone to bleeding. Greater fineness also requires greater amount of gypsum for proper retardation of setting. Fineness of cement is controlled by minimum specific surface area defined as surface area of cement particles per gram of cement. For ordinary Portland cement the specific surface area should not be less than 2250 cm2/g. Checking fineness of cement through sieving is an indirect method and it is easily done in the laboratory. It also indicates if lumps have formed in cement due to poor storage & chemical reaction with moisture from the air of the ambient environment, however specific surface area of cement can be measured by Blaines air permeability co area of cement apparatus. NECESSARY INSTRUMENTS/EQUIPMENT USED: Page 912

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Analytical balance capable of reproducing results within 0.0002 gm with an accuracy of 0.0002 gm. Wire cloth test sieve of sue 90 microns (90) conforming to IS: 460 (Part-I) - 1985 Standard weights Brush nylon or pure bristle brush preferably with 25 to 40 mm bristle for cleaning the sieve Trowel Tray of size 300 x 300 mm

Fig.-3, A: Wire cloth test sieve, B: Brush , C: Analytical Balance SPECIMEN SUPPLIED: The samples of the cement shall be taken according to the requirements of IS: 3535-1986 and the relevant standard specification for the type of cement being tested. The representative sample of cement selected shall be thoroughly mixed before testing. PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) Weight accurately 100 gm of cement and place it on a standard IS sieve 90 microns. Break down any air set lumps in the sample with finger but does not rub on the sieve. Continuously sieve the sample by holding the sieve in both hands and giving a gentle wrist motion or mechanical sieve shaker may be used for this purpose. The sieving should be continuous for 15 minutes. Page 1012

4)

Weight the residue left after 15 minutes sieving. This residue shall not exceed the specified limits as follows: After sieving the residue by weight on 90 IS sieve not to exceed 10% for ordinary cement and 5% for rapid hardening cement

OBSERVATION: Description of items Weight of cement W (gm) IS Sieve size () Sieving time (minutes) Weight retained on sieve W1 (gm) Percents weight retained on sieve Mean percentage REMARKS: As the cement is partially hydrated few portion has formed lumps due to which is more than ten. PRECAUTIONS: 1) 2) 3) 4) The cleaning of the sieve should be done very gently with the help of a brush i.e. 25 mm or 40 mm birds brush with 25 cm handle. After sieving die cement must be removed from the bottom surface of the sieve gently. Weighing machine must be checked before use. Sieving must be carried out continuously. Sample I 100 90 15 11 11% Sample II 100 90 15 12 12% 12.33% Sample III 100 90 15 14 14%

REFERENCES: IS: 3535 (Part-I) -1986 Methods of sampling of hydraulic cement (first revision) IS: 4031 (Part-I) 1988 determination of standard paste Concrete technology by M.L. Gambhir, Tata McGraw Hill Publication Properties of concrete by A.M. Neville, ELBS Publication.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 4 Determination of Gradation of Sand by Sieve Analysis


AIM: To Determination the Gradation of Sand by Sieve Analysis PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) To explain the theory of particle size distribution (Grading) To collect die true representative sample from stock pile To set up the experiment To follow the procedural steps with precautions. To fill up the observation table appropriately To plot the particle size distribution curve (Grading curve) To report as per instruction

THEORY: Sieve analysis is a mechanical process of separating aggregate (here sand) into its different size fractions by sieving or screening through a series of test sieves in order to determine the grading of particle size distribution i.e., proportion of particles of different sizes. Sand as a fine aggregate for concrete and mortar should be well graded on the principle that the smaller particles shall fill the voids between larger particles leaving minimum voids that are supposed to be filled up by the cement particles in the resulting mass. For normal structural purposes the grading shall be within the limits specified in IS: 383-19/0. The sieves that are to be used for the sieve analysis of fine aggregate (sand) as per IS: 2306 (Part-I)-1963 are 4.75mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600 m, 300 m, 150 m, & 75 m. The sieves arranged in such an order that the square openings are nearly half for each succeeding smaller size. The curve showing die cumulative percentage of die material passing the sieves represented on die ordinate and with the sieve openings plotted to a logarithmic scale represented on the abscissa is termed as the grading curve. The grading curve indicates whether die grading of a given sample confirms to that specified or is too coarse or too fine, or deficient in a particular size. Fineness Modulus (P.M.) of fine aggregate (sand) is an approximate numerical index of fineness, giving some idea of the mean size of the particles present in die entire body of the aggregate. Larger die value, the larger is the average size approximately. It is defined as the sum of the cumulative percentages retained on the sieves (from 4.75 mm to 150 ) divided by 100. The fineness modulus can be looked upon as a weighted average size of a sieve on which the material is retained, the sieve being counted from the finest, However, it should be kept in mind that one parameter, the average, cannot be representative of a distribution: thus the same fineness modulus can represent or infinite number of totally different size distribution of grading curves, it is not Page 12 12

much used in India now-a-days, but it is valuable for measuring slight variations in the aggregate from the same source. Standard grading zones or limits of percentages passing different sieves are available for proper grading of sand is grading zones I, II. III, & IV as shown in Table below reproduced from IS: 383-1970, Coarse sand is suitable for making concrete where as finer sand can be used for smooth plastering of masonry or concrete surface. But mortar with coarser sand is stronger than mortar with finer sand for same proportion of cement to sand ratio and workability.

Table Showing Percentages of Sand Passing Sieves for Different Grading Zones:

IS Sieve Designation 10 mm 4.75 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 600 300 150

Grading Zone I 100 90-100 60-95 30-75 15-34 5-20 0-10

Grading Zone II 100 90-100 75-100 55-90 35-59 8-30 0-10

Grading Zone III 100 90-100 85-100 75-100 60-79 12-40 0-10

Grading Zone IV 100 95-100 95-100 90-100 80-100 15-50 0-15

NECESSARY INSTRUMENTS/EQUIPMENT USED: 1) 2) 3) 4) A set of IS-Sieves (of 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm. 1.18 mm, 600 microns, 300 microns, 150 microns, 75 microns) with a lid at top and receiving pan at the bottom. A weighing balance or scale of 5 kg capacity accurate to 0.1 percent the weight of die test sample. A sieve shaking machine Soft brush, tray, duster, stopwatch etc.

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B C

Fig.-4, A: Automatic sieve shaking machine, B: Wire cloth test sieve, C: Analytical Balance

MATERIALS & PREPARATION: a) b) c) d) Cool die oven dry (100oC-110oC) sample to room temperature. Take about 1 kg from it, by quartering and break the lumps if any. Check the accuracy of the balance. Check the sieve sizes and order. Clean the sieves and the receiving pan.

PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Weigh out 500 gm of the sample prepared for testing = W gm. Weigh each sieve = W1 gm. Weigh also the receiving pan and keep a record. Set die sieve in order with the largest sieve (4.75 mm) at the top, put the receiving pan at the bottom of 75 microns sieve. Place the weighed sample into the top sieve put the lid over it. Put the whole assembly on the sieve-shaking machine and shake for 10 minutes. Weigh each sieve along with the hand retained on it = W2 (gm) Find out: a.) The weight of the sample retained on each sieve = W2-W1 = W3 (gm) b.) The Percentage of total sample by weight retained on each sieve P = (W2-W1 )/W x 100 % c.) Fine the cumulative percentage by weight of total sample retained on each. Page 1412

8) 9)

Add up the cumulative percentage for sieve sizes 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 , 300 & 150 only and divide it by 100 to obtain Fineness Modulus (F.M) Check the weight of sample retained on sieve and receiving pan with that of test sample taken (W)

OBSERVATION: Weight of the sand taken, W = 500 gm. Observation Table for a Sample of Sand:
Sieve order No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 IS Sieve size Wt. Sand Retained (W2-W1) (gm) 3 8 41 116 244 88 Percentage of Weight Retained P = (W2-W1 )/W x 100 % 0.6 1.6 8.2 21.2 48.8 17.8 Cumulative Percentage Retained 0.6 1.22 9.72 30.92 79.72 97.52 219.70 Cumulative Percentage Passing 99.4 98.78 90.28 69.08 20.28 2.48 Remarks

4.75 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 600 micron 300 micron 150 micron

1. Oven dry sand cooled to room temp. was tested. 2. Shaking of sieve was done by shaking machines

Total = 500 (gm)

PRECAUTIONS: 1) 2) 3) 4) Aggregate sample should he air-dried to prevent clogging in sieves. Finer sieves should be cleaned gently with soft brushes Care should be taken to see that the sieves are not surcharged. The Weight of sand sample should not exceed 500 gm Sieving should be done by giving varied motion so that each particle gets sufficient chance of passing through the sieve opening (if done manually)

RESULTS: Size of sand at: i). 10 % finer than (D10) = 0.22 mm ii). 60 % finer than (D) = 0.54 mm iii). D60/D10 = uniformity co-efficient, Cu = if> 4 well graded otherwise poor aggraded. iv). Fineness Modulus (F.M) = 2.197 Hence the sand is fine sand Page 1512

CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: Comment on test results obtained by you in laboratory (well graded/Gap graded/uniformity graded). Give your comments on the suitability of using the cement sample tested by you at construction site.

REFERENCES: IS: 2386 (Part-I) -1963 Methods of test for aggregates for construction Part-I particle size and shape IS: 383-1970 specification for coarse fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete. Concrete technology by M.L. Gambhir, Tata McGraw Hill Publication Properties of concrete by A.M. Neville, ELBS Publication.

EXPERIMENT NO: 5 Workability of Concrete Slump Test


AIM: To Determination the workability of concrete by Slump Test PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: a) b) c) d) e) Define workability State the important properties of concrete related to workability Set up the apparatus and prepare sample Follow the procedural steps with precautions. Record the observation appropriately Page 1612

f)

Report as per instruction

THEORY: Workability is the ease with which concrete mix flows to the remotest corner of the formwork. In more scientific term it is the property of the concrete, which determine die amount of useful internal work necessary to produce full compaction. But in practice various requirements such as mixability, stability, transportability, placeability, mobility, compactability and finishability etc. are collectively referred to as workability. IS:6461 (Part-VII)-1973 defines workability as that property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar which determine the ease and homogeneity with which it can be mixed, placed, compacted and finished. For full compaction concrete mix should posses three important properties adequately viz. Mobility, cohesiveness and absence of hardness. Water is the most important factor, winch affect mobility, but higher W/C ratio reduces the strength of concrete. Too much of water may lead to segregation and loss of cohesiveness and homogeneity. Similarly adopting coarser grade of aggregate can reduce internal friction. Harshness in concrete is mostly due to presence of too much of coarse aggregate specially if the coarse aggregate is flaky in nature. Harshness can be eliminated if there is adequate proportion of mortar to fill the voids in the coarse aggregate, but this involves additional cost because of increased consumption of cement. Factors including W/C ratio remaining constant, using a high amount of cement per unit volume of concrete can increase the workability of a concrete mix. Therefore, a good quality of concrete is to be obtained by appropriate proportioning of coarse and fine aggregate as well as cement while the W/C ratio is fixed from compressive strength of concrete criteria. Depending on narrowness of a section and its reinforcement content more congested section demand higher values of workability. There is really no unique method, which can measure the workability of concrete in its totality a number of empirical tests are available for checking uniformity of workability of freshly mixed concrete . Each test measures one or few aspect of workability but slump test despite some limitations, is a very simple and common one in use. The test is more useful to ensure the uniformity of a concrete mix by measuring consistency or wetness rather than measuring the actual workability of concrete. NECESSARY INSTRUMENTS/EQIPMENT USED: 1) A mould of metal of thickness 1.6 mm in the form of a frustum of a cone with top and bottom open and a smooth inter surface as shown in Fig. below. It is also provided with foot pieces and handles. Tamping rod of steel 0.6 m long and 16 mm diameter with one end rounded. Trough, trowel, G.I plain sheet, steel scale.

2) 3)

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K Slump Tester

Slump Test Sets for Concrete Testing


Fig.-5

SPECIMEN: Concrete mix, as per given proportion, is to be prepared by weight or volume as directed by the teacher. PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Clean the internal surface of the mould and place it on a smooth, horizontal, rigid and nonabsorbent surface such as a levelled metal plate. Fill the mould in four layers each with approximately one quarter of height compacted with 25 strokes of tamping rod on each layer uniformly distributed. Concrete shall be struck off level with a trowel at die top surface. The mould should be removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly finds carefully in a vertical direction. Measure the subsidence concrete or slump immediately from highest point of specimen. The test shall be carried out at a place free from vibration or shock, within a period of 2 minutes after maxing.

Fig.- 6 Schematic of the Modified Slump Test

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True

Zero

Collapsed

Shear

Fig.- 7 Different Types of Slumps

Cement taken 4.4 kg Sand taken 7.61 kg Coarse aggregate taken 7.61 kg Water taken 2.29 kg Slum value = 300-275 = 25 mm REMARKS: The work ability of this concrete is very low well mass concreting of foundation having light reinforcement PRECAUTIONS: 1) The test shall be carried out at a place free from vibration within two minutes after mixing of concrete it if it is field test and it can be done within 10 minutes after mixing if it is a laboratory test. If slump collapse or shears off laterally as shown in Fig.7 above, test may be repeated, and Page 12 if again similar results are obtained, the fact should be recorded. The19 slump is to be

2)

measured along the longitudinal axis of the cone. In normal cases the slump should look in fig. earlier. REFERENCES: IS: 3535 (Part-I) -1986 Methods of sampling of hydraulic cement (first revision) IS: 4031 (Part-I) -1988 determination of standard paste. Concrete technology by M.L. Gambhir, Tata McGraw Hill Publication

EXPERIMENT NO: 6 Workability of Concrete Compacting Factor Test


AIM: test for workability (COMPACTING FACTOR TEST)

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) To define the term workability List different tests for determining workability To explain compacting factor test and the principle on which it works. To find out the compacting factor To set up the experiment To follow the procedural steps with precautions. To fill up the observation table appropriately To report as per instruction

THEORY: The workability of a freshly mixed concrete can be defined as the amount of useful internal work necessary to produce full compaction. But in practice various requirements such as mixability, stability, transportability, placeability, mobility, compactability and Page finishability 2012 etc. are

collectively referred to as workability. IS:6461 (Part-VII)-1973 defines workability as that property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar, which determines the ease and homogeneity with which it can be mixed, placed, compacted and finished. There is no really unique method, which can measure die workability of concrete in its totality. A number of empirical tests are available for checking uniformity of workability of freshly mixed concrete. The empirical tests, which are widely used in finding die workability, are: 1) 2) 3) 4) Compacting factor test The slump test The Vee-Bee consistency test The flow test

Each test measures one or a few aspects of workability. Compacting factor test is one of such available test. The method uses an inverse approach; the degree of compaction achieved by a standard amount of work by allowing the concrete to fall through a standard height is determined rather than measuring the amount of work necessary to achieve full compaction. The method is especially suitable in die case of relatively dry concrete mix which is insensitive to slump test. This test evaluates a factor known as compacting factor. The compacting factor for a fresh concrete is defined as the ratio of the density actually achieved in the test to the density of same concrete fully compacted. For a container of constant volume, the compacting factor, as in rest is defined as the ratio of the weight of partially compacted concrete in die cylinder at bottom under standard height of fall to the weight of equal volume of compacted concrete. Suggested ranges of workability of concrete for different conditions of placing as per IS: 456 (Part-III)-1978 and IS: 1199-1959:

Sl. No 1 2 3

Placing Condition Concreting of small section with vibrations Concreting of lightly reinforced section with vibrations Concreting of lightly reinforced section without vibrations or heavily reinforced section without vibrations Concreting of heavily reinforced section without vibrations

Degree of workability Very low (stiff) Low (stiff plastic) Medium (plastic)

Compacting factor 0.5-0.80 0.80-0.85 0.85-0.92

High (flowing)

More then 0.92

REMARKS: Hence the degree workability medium plastic NECESSARY INSTRUMENTS/EQUIPMENT USED: Compacting factor apparatus as per IS: 1199-1959 is shown in Fig. 8

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Fig. 8 Compacting factor apparatus

1.) The apparatus consists of three parts i.e. upper hopper, lower hopper and cylinder. These are of rigid construction to true shape and smooth finish from inside. These shall be made of cast brass or bronze, but stout sheet of brass or steel may also be considered satisfactory provided die inside surface of die joints are smooth and flush. 3 mm thick metal plate trapdoor is hinged tightly at die lower ends of hopper having quick release catches. The following are the dimensions of compacting factor apparatus used for the aggregate not exceeding 38 mm nominal maximum size. Details Upper hopper A: Top internal diameter Bottom internal diameter Internal height Lower hopper B: Top internal diameter Bottom internal diameter Internal height Cylinder C: Internal diameter Internal height Distance between bottom of upper hopper and Top of lower hopper And top of cylinder Length of hand scoop Stop watch Tamping rod of diameter 16 mm and length 610 mm Platform weighing machine 1 no. Dimension in mm 254 127 279 229 127 229 152 305 203 203 152

a) b) c) d)

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MATERIAL USED: Cement, Sand, Aggregate, Water PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Take the sample with required proportions by weight or by volume with specified water cement ratio as direction by the teacher. Apply a thin layer of petroleum jelly to the whole apparatus internally. Place the sample of concrete gently in the hopper with a hand scoop without any compaction. Fill up the concrete in level with brim. Open the trap door so that the concrete falls into lower hopper. If the concrete sticks to the sides of the hopper push it gently with help of rod from top. Open the trap door of the lower hopper and allow the concrete to fall into the cylinder. Remove excess concrete remaining above the level of the top of the cylinder stuck off by trowel. Clean the cylinder from outside and weight it to the nearest 10 gm Refill the cylinder from the same sample of concrete in layers approx. 50 mm deep, every layer is being heavily rammed by giving 25 blows with tamping rod or vibrated so as to obtain full compaction. Clean the cylinder from outside and weight it again. Record all the observation in the observation table

10) 11)

OBSERVATION TABLE: Sl. No a) b) c) d) e) f) Particulars Weight of cylinder W1 kg Weight of cylinder concrete falling through standard height = W2 kg Weight of concrete (W2-W1) = W3 kg Weight of fully compacted concrete = W4 kg Weight of fully compacted concrete (W4-W1) = W5 kg Compacted factor =W3/W5 Specimens 1 6.3 18.18 18.18-6.3 = 11.88 19.40 19.40-6.3 = 13.10 0.906

PRECAUTION: 1) 2) Test should be performed immediately after the mixing is completed. The convenient time for realizing the concrete from the upper hopper is 2 minutes after the mixing is completed. Page 2312

3) 4)

The concrete, which sticks of the sides of hopper, should be gently pushed with the help of tamping rod from top side. Weighing should be done properly.

REFERENCES: IS: 1199-1959: Methods of sampling of and analysis of concrete. IS: 456-2000: Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete. IS: 6461 (Part-VII)-1973 Laboratory manual for concrete technology, T.T.T.I Chandigarh Publication Concrete technology by M.L. Gambhir, Tata McGraw Hill Publication

EXPERIMENT NO: 7 DETERMINATION OF pH


Aim: To determine the pH of given samples using (1) universal indicator (2) pH paper, and (3) digital pH meter Principle: pH value of water indicates the hydrogen ion concentration in water and concept of pH was put forward by Sorenson (1909). pH is expressed as the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration in moles/litre at a given temperature. The pH scale extends from 0(very acidic) to 14 (very alkaline) with 7 corresponding to exact neutrality at 25 oC. pH is used in the calculation of carbonate, bicarbonate and CO2, corrosion and stability index etc. While the alkalinity or acidity measures the total resistance to the pH change or buffering capacity, the pH gives the hydrogen ion activity. pH can be measured colorimetrically or electrometrically, Colorimetric method is used only for rough estimation. It can be done either by using universals indicator or by using pH paper. The hydrogen electrode is the absolute standard for the measurement of pH. They range from portable battery operated unites to highly precise instruments. But glass electrode is less subject to interferences and used in combination with a calomel reference electrode. This system is based on the fact that a change of 1 pH unit produces an electric charge of 59.1 m V at 25oC. Apparatus: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. pH meter with electrode Beaker Thermometer Colour comparator with dieses Cuvettes

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Fig. 9 Buffer solutions and pH meter with electrode

Reagents: 1. 2. 3. Buffer solutions pH paper Indicator Universal

Procedure: a) Using Universal Indicator 1. 10 ml of sample is taken in a cuvette. 2. Another 10 ml sample is taken in another cuvette and 0.2 ml of universal indicator is added and placed in the hole provide for. 3. A colour disc corresponding to this indicator is inserted into the comparator and the disc rotated such that the 2 circles colours. 4. The reading is noted. 5. The procedure can be repeated using an indicator whose range is near the value obtained. 6. The extra pH is obtained. b) Using pH Paper 1. Dip the pH paper in the sample. 2. Compare the colour with that of the colour given on the wrapper of the pH paper book. 3. Note down the pH of the sample along with its temperature. c) Using pH Meter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Follow the manufacturers operating instruction. Dip the electrode in the buffer solution of known pH Switch on the power supply and take the reading. Standardize the instrument using the calibrating knob. After cleaning, again dip the electrode in the buffer solution of pH 7. Note the reading. If it is 7, in the instrument is calibrated. If not, correct the value and is manipulated so that the reading in the dial comas to 7.0. A solution whose pH is to be found is taken in a baker and the temperature knob is adjusted such that the temperature of solution is some as that in dial. The electrode is washed with distilled water and reused with the solution and then it is dipped in the solution. The reading on the dial indicates the pH of the solution. Page 2512

Results:

SAMPLE NO. 1 2 3 pH paper Blue Red Red

pH pH meter 12 6.30 6.00

Remarks Alkaline Acidic Acidic

EXPERIMENT NO: 8 Object:


THEORY: Sewage contains 99.9% water and only 0.1% solids but the nuisance caused by them is considerable, as they are highly putrescible (readily degradable) and therefore require proper treatment before disposal. The solids present in sewage may be classified, as suspended and dissolved solids, colloidal solids and settleable solids, which may farther be subdivided into volatile and non volatile solids. The volatile matter is organic matter. Quantification of volatile or organic fraction of solid which is putrescible is necessary as this constitutes the load on biological treatment units or oxygen resources of a stream when sewage is disposed of in a river. The dissolved solid may be inorganic also the inorganic fraction is considered when sewage is used for land irrigation or when reuse of sewage is done for any other purpose. The measurement of total dissolved solids in water can be done in similar way, by taking the sample, of water, in place of sewage. Apparatus: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Procedure: Take 50 ml of well mixed sewage sample in a measuring cylinder. Have four folder of the standard filter paper and fix it on the funnel placed over a conical flask. Pour the sewage gently on the tunnel and allow it to slowly filter down through the funnel shaped filter paper. Pour it intermittently so that the filtrate is only sewage containing dissolved solids and the suspended impurities are filtered out. Transfer filtrate to a weighed evaporating dish (weight say A mg) and evaporate to dryness in the drying oven. Dry evaporated sample for 1 hr in an oven at 180 oC and cool it. Weight it say as B mg and calculate the dissolved solids as below. CALCULATION AND RESULT Evaporating dishes Drying oven Standard filter paper Digital weighing balance (microgram) Conical flask Measuring cylinder

Measurement of Total Dissolved Solids in Sewage

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where: A = weight of filter + dried residue, mg, and B = weight of filter, mg. Comments: The total dissolved solids give an ides about the organic and inorganic matter present in the sewage in dissolved form. Organic matter is volatile and can be determined by igniting the residue at higher temperature at 550oC. Even the total dissolved solids give a fair idea about the organic matter and the anticipated treatment of the wastewater. Treatment means to satisfy the BOD. BOD can be satisfied aerobically or anerobically. Aerobic treatment is better as it produces less harmful end products but it is generally costly. So depending upon the foulness (organic solid matter) and the funds available the selector of process is done. The total dissolved solids in the give sewage sample are 650 mg remarks permissible limit of dissolve solids in water is 500 mg/L where the value obtained from this result for the sewage waters is much better than the limit value.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 9 Object : CONDUCTIVITY


INTRODUCTION: The conductivity of a solution is a measure of its ability to carry an electric current and varies both with the number and type of ions the solution contains. Conductivity can be measured in a conductivity cell connected to a Wheatstone Bridge circuit. The physical measurement made in a laboratory determination of conductivity involves setting the cell constant to and using it to determine the conductivity and hence the specific conductance (K). The molarities of various dissolved ions, their valences and their actual and relative concentrations after conductivity. Most inorganic acids, bases and salts are relatively good conductors. Conversely molecules of organic compounds that do not dissociate in aqueous solution conduct current very poorly. SIGNIFICANCE: Practical applications of conductivity measurement area: a) Conductivity is at least as good a criterion of the degree of mineralization as the more commonly used total dissolved solids for assessing the effect of diverse ions on chemical equilibrium physical effect on plants and animals, corrosion rates etc. The purity of distilled and deionised water can be checked by the determination. Variations in dissolved minerals concentrations of raw water or waste matter samples can be noted. Conductivity measurement allows an estimate of the sample size that should be used for the common chemical determination. Conductivity measurement makes possible the determination of the amount of ionic reagent needed in certain precipitation.

b) c) d) e)

GENERAL DISCUSSION: The standard unite of electrical resistance is Ohm (). The standard unite of electrical conductance (G) is its inverse, the Siemens. Resistively is the resistance measured between opposite faces of a rectangular Prism and is reported in Ohms unit length. Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistance and reported in Siemens per unit length. Specific conductance is defined as the conductance of a conductor 1 cm2 in cross sectional area. PRICIPLE: Page 2812

Commonly used instrument which is used in the conductivity test is known as the conductivity meter. The principle involves setting the cell constant to unit reading given by the conductivity meter can be directly read as the specific conductance of the sample APPARATUS:

Cell Constants Available k=0.1, k=1.0 (k=10.0 available for CS200 and CS200TC only) Measuring Surface Graphite (CS150) or Platinum black coated platinum (CS200) Body Material Epoxy

Fig. 10 Conductivity Cell

1. Conductivity Cell: Non Platinum Electrode Type Conductivity Cell contains electrodes constructed durable metals are widely used for continuous monitoring and field studies. Such cells are to be calibrated by comparing the conductivity of the mater being tested with the result obtained with the laboratory instruments. Determination of cell constant with KCL may introduce a significant error if the cell and instrument are not properly designed. REAGENTS: 1. Standard KCL, 0.01 M 745.6 mg anhydrous KCL is dissolved in conductivity meter and made up to 1000 m) at 25 C. This is the standard reference solution, which at 25 C has a specific conductance of 1413 mho/cm. It is satisfactory for most maters when using a cell with a constant between 1 and 2. PROCEDURE: 1. Determination of cell constant arid conductivity of KCL solution. The KCL solution is taken in a beaker. The electrode is washed with distilled water and is then dipped into the KCL solution. The cell constant of the instrument is set 1 and the conductivity reading is noted. Then the specific conductance of the solution is determined from the formula K = C x L/A Where, K = specific conductance of the solution C = conductivity of the solution L/A = Cell constant of the instrument.

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2.

Determination of the specific conductance of the matter sample. K = C x L/A K = C (L/A) K 1.411 X 10-3 1.411 X 10-3 1.411 X 10-3 C 2.25 X 10-3 2.25 X 10-3 2.25 X 10-3 K/C 0.627 0.624 0.627 C 0.5 0.51 0.51

CALCULATION: Sl. No. 1. 2. 3.

1. K = 0.5 x 0.627 = 0.313 2. K = 0.51 x 0.624 = 0.318 3. K = 0.51 x 0.627 = 0.320 Result: The conductivity of the matter sample comes out to be 0.315 milliohms/cm

EXPERIMENT NO: 10 Object: To determine the coefficient of discharge (Cd) for Venturimeter
Apparatus: Page 3012

Venturimeter is fitted across a pipeline leading to a collecting tank, stop watch, U-Tube manometer connected across entry and throat sections etc.

Downstream Pressure tap Upstream Pressure tap Venturi Throat Upstream Flow Downstream Flow

Fig. 11 the Venturi meter operation.

Formula: Theoretical discharge through Venturimeter Q th = [A1 .A2 (2g.H)1/2] /[A12-A22] Actual discharge through Venturimeter Q ac = V/t = (A. H)/t Where: A1: Cross section area of Venturimeter at entry section A2: Cross section area of Venturimeter at throat section H: Pressure head difference in terms of fluid flowing through pipeline system. V: (A.H) i.e. Volume of water collected in collecting tank. Page 3112

A: Cross section area of collecting tank. H: (H2-H1) i.e. Depth of water collected in collecting tank. t : Time required to collect the water up to a height H in the collecting tank. Theory: Venturimeter is a device consisting of a short length of gradual convergence and a long length of gradual divergence. Pressure tapping is provided at the location before the convergence commences and another pressure tapping is provided at the throat section of a Venturimeter. The difference in pressure head between the top tapping is measured by means of a U-tube manometer. On applying the continuity equation & Bernoullis equation between the two sections, the following relationship is obtained in terms of governing variables. Qth = [A1.A2(2g.H) 1/2]/ [A12-A22] 1/2....................................................................... 1. H = Hm [(m /w) 1] m & w be the densities of manometric liquid & fluid (water) flowing through pipeline system. In order to take real flow effect into account, coefficient of discharge (Cd) mast be Introduced in equation 1 then, Qac = Cd.A.(2g.H) 1/2 Therefore, Cd = Qac/Qth Theoretical discharge is calculated by using equation 1. Actual discharge is calculated by collecting water in collecting tank & noting the time for collection. Qac = A. (H2 H1)/t = V/t =(A.H) / t Procedure: * * * . * * * Note the pipe diameter (d1) and throat diameter (d2) of Venturimeter. Note the density of manometric liquid i.e. mercury (m) and that of fluid flowing through pipeline i.e. water (w) Start the flow and adjust the control valve in pipeline for maximum discharge Measure the pressure difference (Hm) across the Venturimeter by using U-tube manometer. Measure flow rate i.e. actual discharge (Qac) through Venturimeter by means of collecting tank. Calculate the theoretical discharge (Qth) through Venturimeter by using the formula. Page 3212

* * * *

Decrease the flow rate by adjusting the control valve and repeat the process for at least five times. Determine the coefficient of discharge (Cd) for each flow rate and find the mean value of coefficient of discharge (Cd) mean. Plot a graph of (Qac) on y-axis versus (Qth) on x-axis. Calculate the slope of graph of (Qac) versus (Qth), it gives mean value of coefficient of discharge (Cd) mean graphically.

Observation: Diameter of pipe d1 = 0.025 m Diameter of throat d2 = 0.0125 m Area of collecting tank A = 0.5 x 0.3 = 0.15 m2 Area of pipe at entry, A1 = [(/4) d12] = [(/4) (0.025)2] = 4.908 x 10-4 m2 Area of pipe at throat, A2 = [(/4) d22] = [(/4) (0.0125)2 = 1.227 x 10-4 m2 Density of mercury, m = 13600 kg/m3 Density of water, w = 1000 kg/m3 Observation Table:
Sl. No Left Lim b h1 m 11.20 11.30 10.60 10.10 9.40 Manometric Reading Rig ht Lim b h2 m 16.20 16.40 15.80 16.90 17.60 Diff h2- h1 Hm m 5 5.10 5.20 6.80 8.20 Pressure Head difference H= Hm [(pm /pw)-1] m 0.63 0.6426 0.6552 0.8568 1.0332 Tank Reading Initial Final Diff. H2-H1 H m 10 10 10 10 10 Time t Actual Discharge Qac = (A.H) /t m3 /sec 2.884 x 10-4 3.125 x 10-4 3.33 x 10-4 3.6585 x 10-4 4.1667 x 10-4 m3 /sec 4.455 x 10-4 4.499 x 1-04 4.453 x 10-4 5.1938 x 10-4 5.7054 x 10-4 0.647
0.6945 0.7485

Qth
=A1.A2(2g.H)1/2

Cd = Qac Qth

/ [A12-A22] 1/2

1 2 3 4 5

H1 m 2.2 1 1.5 2.7 3.5

H2 m 12.20 11 11.50 12.70 13.50

Sec 52 48 45 41 36

0.704 0.730

Sample Calculation: For Observation No. * Pressure head difference H = Hm [m /w) 1] = 5/100 [(13600 /1000) 1 = 5/100 [12.6] = 0.63 m Actual discharge, Qac = (A.H) /t = (0.15 x 0.10 /100)/ 52 = 2.8846 x 10-4 m3/sec Theoretical discharge Qth = [A1.A2(2g.H1/2)]/ [A12-A22 ] 1/2 = [4.909 x 10-4 x 1.227 x 10-4(2 x 9.81 x 0.63)]1/2/

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[(4.909 x 10-4)2 - (1.227 x 10-4)2]1/2 = 4.4552 x 10-4 m3/sec * Coefficient of discharge Cd = Qac /Qth Cd = 2.8846 x 10-4 /4.4552 x 10-4 Cd = 0.647 Hence the average value of the Coefficient of discharge is 0.705.

Venturimeter

Fig. 12 the Venturi meter

PRECAUTIONS: Flow pressure should be control in a way to active the measurable manometer difference accuracy has to be mentioned. The time of scale reading of the stop watch should be handled properly to measure accurate timing table.

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Fig. 13 Experimental Setup to determine Cd for the Venturi meter

EXPERIMENT NO: 11

Object: Atterberg Limit: Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit of Soils


D 4318 -95
Abstracted with permission, from the 1996 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, copyright

American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 Sample Preparation Procedure for Liquid Limit: 1. Select 200 to 250 gm specimen Page 3512

2. 3.

Adjust the water content of the specimen by adding distilled water and mixing on a glass plate with a spatula. This specimen should be close to, but not past, the liquid limit of the soil. Place the prepared soil in a container and let the specimen stand for at least 16 h.

Sample Preparation Procedure for Plastic Limit: 1. 2. Scope: This test method covers the determination of the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index of soils. The liquid and plastic limits of soils are often referred the as the Atterberg limits. Definitions: Liquid Limit (LL or wL): the water content, in percent, of a soil at the arbitrarily defined boundary between the semi-liquid and plastic states. Plastic Limit (PL or wp): the water content, in percent, of a soil at the boundary between the plastic and semi-solid states. Plasticity Index (PI): the range of water content over which a soil behaves plastically. Significance and Use: This testing method is used as an integral part of several engineering classification system to characterize the fine-grained fractions of soils and to specify the fine-grained fraction of construction materials. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index of soils are also used extensively, either individually or together, with other soils properties to correlate with engineering behaviour such as compressibility, permeability, compatibility, shrink-swell and shear strength. Select 20gm specimen of the same sample used for the preparation for the liquid limit test. This sample should be dry enough so that it will not be sticky. Place this sample in the same container and on top of the wetter specimen.

Apparatus: Liquid Limit Device a mechanical device consisting of a brass cap suspended from a carriage designed to control its drop onto a hard rubber base. The device may be operated by either a hand crank or electric motor. Cup brass with mass (including cap hanger) of 185 to 215 gm. Cam designed to raise the cap smoothly and continuously to its maximum height, over a distance of at least 180o of the cam rotation, without developing an upward or downward velocity of the cup when the cam follower leaves the cam. Flat Grooving Tool a tool made of plastic or non-corroding metal having specified dimensions. Gauge A metal gauge block for adjusting the height of the drop of the cap to 10 mm Page 3612

Ground Glass Plate used for rolling plastic limit threads

Fig. 14 Liquid Limit Machine

Calibration of Apparatus: Determine that the liquid limit device is clean and in working order. Adjust the height of the drop of the cap so that the point of the cap that comes in contact with the base rises to a height of 10 0.2 mm.

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Fig. 15 Liquid Limit Test Set

Procedure for Liquid Limit: 1. Place a portion of the prepared sample in the cap of the liquid limit device at the point where the cap rests on the base and spread it so that it is 10 mm deep at its deepest point from a horizontal surface over the soil. Take care to eliminate air bubbles from the soil specimen. Keep the unused portion of the specimen in the storage container. From a groove in the soil by drawing the grooving tool, bevelled edge forward, through the soil from the top of the cup to the bottom of the cup. When forming the groove, hold the tip of the grooving tool against the surface of the cup and keep the tool perpendicular to the surface of the cup. Lift and drop the cup at a rate of 2 drops per second. Continue cranking unit the two halves of the soil specimen meet each other at the bottom of the groove. The two halves must meet along a distance of 13 mm (1/2 in). Record the number of drops required to close the groove. Remove a slice of soil and determine its water content, w. Repeat steps 1 through 5 with a sample of soil at a slightly higher or lower water content. Whether water should be added or removed depends on the number of blows required to close the grove in the previous sample.

2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

Note: The liquid limit is the water content at which it will takes 25 blows to close the groove over a distance of 13 mm. Run at least five tests increasing the water content each time. As the water content increases it will take less blows to close the groove . Procedure for Determination of the Plastic Limit: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the 20gm sample select a 1.5 to 2gm specimen for testing. Roll the test specimen between the palm or fingers on the ground glass plate to from a thread of uniform diameter Continue rolling the thread until it reaches a uniform diameter of 3.2 mm or 1/8 in. When the thread becomes a diameter of 1/8 in. Reform it into a ball. Knead the soil for a few minutes to reduce its water content slightly. Repeat steps 2 to 5 until the thread crumbles when it reaches a uniform diameter of 1/8 in. When the soil reaches the point where it will crumble, and when the thread is a uniform diameter of 1/8, it is at its plastic limit, Determine the water content of the soil.

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Fig 16 Plastic Limit Set

Fig 17 Plastic Limit Roller

Note: Repeat this procedure three times to compute an average plastic limit for the sample. Calculation: Trial no. 1 2 3 No of blow 21 15 12 Container No 1 2 3 Container weight 19.5 18.85 18.81 Weight of Container with soil 50.84 53.76 47.80 Weight of Container with dry soil 43.68 45.66 40.92 Moisture content in percent 29.6 30.2 31.17

From graph it is observed the moisture contain corresponding to 25 blows is 28.61 approximately Liquid Limit, LL: Plot the relationship between the water content, w, and the corresponding number of drops, N, of the cup on a semi-logarithmic graph with water content as the ordinates and arithmetical scale, and the number of drops on the abscissas on a logarithmic scale. Draw the best fit straight line through the five or more plotted points. Page 3912

Take the water content corresponding to the intersection of the line with the 25 drop abscissa as the liquid limit, LL, of the soil. Plastic Limit, PL: Compute the average of the water content obtained from the three plastic limit tests. The plastic limit, PL, is the average of the three water content. Trial no. 1 Container No 4 Weight of Container with soil 20.56 Weight of Weight of Container with water dry soil 20.22 0.39 Weight of dry soil 1.21 Moisture content 28.09

Hence, Plastic Limit = 28.09 and Plasticity Index = liquid limit plastic limit Plasticity Index: Calculation the plasticity index as follows: PI = LL-PL = 28.61 28.09 = 0.52 Where: LL = Liquid Limit, and PL = Plastic Limit. Report: 1. 2. Sample identification information Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index to the nearest whole number.

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