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SYS 6064: Applied Human Factors Engr

Fall Semester 2012

Individual Assignment 1- Task Analysis


DUE: December 1, 2012 by 8:00 AM Introduction - This assignment will walk you through the principle steps of a task analysis.

Assignment - Conduct a task analysis of a standard digital camera by completing the four questions below. Read through all the questions before starting the assignment. Make it as general as possible (e.g., it should be applicable for most digital cameras without a video capture function). Someone reading the task analysis should know just about everything there is to know that's relevant about using all functions on a digital camera.

1) Your analysis should, at a minimum, identify the user, tools, resources, properties of a picture, and
environmental constraints relevant to the system. Next, list the properties of the system elements you identified and where relevant, describe how the elements related to each other (i.e. how is the shutter speed related to the use of an automatic flash). (30pts) User Type o Gender o Age (>12, teen, young adult, middle age, elderly) Larger display for elderly/poor eyesight folks o professional/amateur experience level training "techie" or "analog" Duration of camera use (new user vs. "experienced") Tools o flash o zoom, autofocus o day/night filters, o red eye remover, o delay timer o lens size/field of view panoramic wide angle narrow angle o shutter speed (related to the amount of light "absorbed") fast (less light, smaller slice of time able to capture faster movement - i.e.sports) slow (more light, able to capture larger wide angle or panoramic views, not able to capture quick movements) o single shot multi-shot, o grey/color o Stabilizing method - related to the ability to shoot on the move or in "shaky" conditions tripod Auto-stabilization wrist-strap o Properties of picture o Picture subject - related to the lens size, resolution, file size, shutter speed color/grey, panoramic, Landscape Movement (sports, wildlife)

SYS 6064: Applied Human Factors Engr


Fall Semester 2012

Portrait Lighting Angle of sun/time of day (or night) Related to the need of a flash or artificial light or need to reangle camera to reduce glare - or antiglare function o picture size resolution # pixels Storage (Pixel size inversely related to number of pictures camera can store) setting up/framing the picture o related to LCD display characteristics, lens size environmental constraints o Camera size and weight - the bulkier the camera the harder to maneuver for quick pictures o Buttons - small buttons may add functionality but are difficult for "fat fingers" to use o Storage capacity - related to the picture resolution and file size storage type o file type - MPEG, BIT, JPEG, etc. - related to the resolution of the picture when viewed on different interfaces.

2) From the user's perspective, list functional needs and give as many examples as possible of how the
camera can be designed to fulfill those needs, including buttons and displays needed. Some example questions appear below (note that they are not presented in any particular order). Please organize your list following the order in which decisions are made and tasks are completed and by noting exceptions and variations on the theme. Please briefly explain how you decided to organize the list. (30 pts) I attempted to develop the list in as much of a chronological order as possible, with the exception of the different types of pictures the users may wish to take. User needs feedback as to what picture will look like, framing of scene, aim point, etc. o LCD display o "aiming" box User may wish to take high volume of pictures quickly o Point and shoot capability o Auto/default settings o "toggle" type switch to zoom in or out quickly o Shutter speed settings (fast or high speed) o "on/off" button and "shoot" buttons easy to manipulate o Low resolution setting o Large memory sim card to storage highest possible volume of photos Camera needs to allow user to adjust field of view o Zoom function o Auto focus (toggle type zoom) o Lens size Panoramic/wide/narrow FOV options User needs ability to adjust lighting o Artificial light capability Flash on/off button o Glare prevention Anti-glare function Ease of adjusting aim Small size and weight LCD displays camera lens as visual feedback to user

SYS 6064: Applied Human Factors Engr

Fall Semester 2012

User may wish to take landscape or "still life" pictures o shutter Speed setting function (slower) o resolution setting function (high) o large memory stick/sim card availability o wide angle lens/wide field of view settings User will wish to store some of the pictures shot o Save/trash ability User may wish to take sports or wildlife photography (fast movement) o FOV setting option o Focus Auto-focus function Toggle type zoom switch o Shutter speed setting function (high speed) User will want to upload pictures to computer or phone o USB cable interface compatibility o Sim card storage o Flashdrive interface compatibility o Smart phone/texting capability o Eye-Fi device

3) Develop three scenarios of how a user may want to interact with the camera. One scenario can be fairly
straightforward, such as a user turns on the camera and snaps a picture with automatic settings. The next two should be more complex. Good examples should be detailed enough to illustrate multiple features identified through in depth analysis (your answers to questions 1 and 2). Write the scenarios in narrative form, and then describe the functional requirements identified in the scenario. (25pts) Straight forward Scenario The user encounters a snapshot he would like to take and gets into a position with as unobstructed field of view as possible. He takes camera out of case, removes lens cap, and presses the on button. The LCD screen lights up and provides the view of whatever the camera lens is aimed at. The camera has an auto-flash function and senses that a flash is not needed. The camera also has default shutter speed settings, which the user has automatically set to high speed, medium resolution for snapshots. The user toggles the zoom switch and ensures the LCD display frame captures the entire subject. The user presses the shoot button, hearing a slight "click" signaling the picture was captured. The user then reviews the photo on the LCD screen and presses the "save" button. Then he replaces the lens cap, turns off the camera and puts it back into its case. Functional Requirements Automated settings Autofocus Auto-stability feature Simple start-up function Simple "point and shoot" process Lightweight and easy to transport (not bulky) Landscape photo The user encounters a vista during mid-morning on a slightly overcast day in Yosemite NP. Thinking he is a modern day Ansel Adams, he scouts out possible camera angles and viewpoints. The user then choses a position. He first retrieves his telescopic camera tripod from its case and extends the legs to the approximate height and levels the camera emplacement. He then takes the camera out of case, removes lens cap, and fastens the camera to the tripod. Next, he presses the "on" button. The LCD screen lights up and provides the view of whatever the camera lens is aimed at. The user then uses the menu switch to select the appropriate photograph settings. The camera defaults to a color photo setting with the auto-flash function "off". He first toggles to the color setting and selects "black and white" and presses "ok." The screen returns to the main menu and o

SYS 6064: Applied Human Factors Engr

Fall Semester 2012

the user selects the shutter speed (ISO) setting and selects "400" from the list since the lighting is good and the picture subject is stationary. The user then selects resolution and choses the highest setting (9600x2400). The last setting the user selects is field of view, and sets it to wide-angle. The user then toggles the zoom switch and ensures the LCD display frame captures the entire subject, and adjusts the angle to remove the slight glare from the hills. The user carefully presses the shoot button, hearing a slight "click" signaling the picture was captured. The user then reviews the photo on the LCD screen and presses the "save" button and then replaces the lens cap, turns the camera off, loosens the screws holding the camera to the tripod and puts it back into its case. Last, the user collapses the tripod and stores it in its case. o Functional Requirements Picture Setting Options Shutter speed setting option (ISO) with slow speeds Resolution setting options Lens options Wide angle lens option Collapsible tripod Relatively lightweight and easy to transport system(not too bulky) Large memory storage capacity

Group photo shot and uploaded to internet The user asks the group of friends he is with to pose for the ubiquitous group shot. The user then gets into a position with as unobstructed field of view as possible. He takes camera out of case, removes lens cap, and presses the on button. The LCD screen lights up and provides the view of whatever the camera lens is aimed at. The camera has an auto-flash function and senses that a flash is needed. The user's camera also has default shutter speed settings, which the user has automatically set to high speed, medium resolution for snapshots. The user toggles the zoom switch and ensures the LCD display frame captures the entire group. The user presses the shoot button, hearing a slight "click" and seeing the flash of light, signaling the picture was captured. The user then reaims the camera and repeats the process for a second and third time to ensure that at least one photo turned out satisfactory. The user and group then review the photos on the LCD screen. The user selects the best picture and presses the "save" button, and then selects "delete" for the remaining duplicates. Since the user has an Eye-Fi memory card and is within Wi-Fi range, he selects "send picture" and then chooses to post the picture on Facebook, tags friends in the photo and sends the picture from the camera to the computer. Last, he selects "done" and the photo is sent to his Facebook account. Then he replaces the lens cap, turns off the camera and puts it back into its case. o Functional Requirements Automated settings Autofocus Toggle switch to adjust zoom Auto-stability feature Simple start-up function Simple "point and shoot" process Lightweight and easy to transport (not bulky) Eye-Fi memory card to send pictures

Comment on any new requirements not previously identified in questions 1 or 2, then add them to your analysis in the previous questions. I had not thought of the saving and sending options (smartphone/internet uploading) until I developed the group shot narrative.

SYS 6064: Applied Human Factors Engr

Fall Semester 2012

4) Using one of the task analysis modeling methods in the book (Figs. 3.10-3.16), diagram one of your
complex scenarios. (15 pts)

SYS 6064: Applied Human Factors Engr

Fall Semester 2012

0. Take Picture 1.0 Set up 1.1 retrieve camera 2.0 Camera Settings 2.1 find "menu" button 3.0 Aim Camera 3.1 aim camera at group 3.2 use "zoom" toggle switch to adjust FOV to capture group and setting 3.3 stabilize camera (grip/wristwrap) 3.4 prepare group subjects for picture 4.0 Save Picture 4.1 select "menu" 5.0 Send Picture 5.1 select "menu"

1.2 turn camera on 1.2.1 find "on" button 1.2.1 press "on" button

2.2 press menu button 2.3 toggle switch to "settings" 2.4 confirm settings for FOV, flash, resolution 2.4.1 if wrong setting, highlight setting and select "ok" 2.4.2 use toggle button to select proper setting

4.2 select "view pictures" 4.3 view pictures recently taken 4.4 confirm with group pictures to save 4.4.1 if bad photo, select "delete" function 4.4.1.1 when prompted "delete picture?" press "ok"

5.2 toggle to "send picture" setting 5.2.1 select "ok' 5.3 select "send to Facebook"

1.3 remove lens cap 1.4 clear line of sight to subject 1.4.1 If no, move to different location/angle 1.5 adjust angle to sun

3.4.1 ask crowd "ready? 3.4.1.1 if no, wait and repeat 3.4.1

5.4 confirm Wi-Fi connectivity 5.5 tag friends in photo

2.4.3 select "ok" 2.4.4 press "menu' button to return to main screen

3.4.1.2 if yes, tell subjects "on three" 3.5. find shutter function button and count aloud 3.6 press shutter button 3.6.1 wait for feedback (flash/click) 3.7 repeat as necessary

4.4.2 if good pic, select "save"

5.6 select "upload"