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# Unit 5 Physics from creation to collapse

## Thermal energy Investigate recognise and use the expression E=mc

Specific heat capacity is the quantity of energy needed to raise the temperature of material, per kilogram per degree rise in temperature. Specific heat capacity can be calculated using this equation , Giving the c the units Measuring specific heat capacity: 1. Weigh a block of aluminium to find its mass m and then place it in the lagging. 2. Add a small amount of cooking oil to ensure good thermal contact when the heater and thermometer and inserted 3. Take the initial temperature of the block. Switch on the power supply and start the stopwatch record the current and potential difference 4. After three minutes switch of the power supply and record the highest steady temperature reached. 5. You can than find the specific heat capacity using the equation

Explain the concept of internal energy as the random distribution of potential and kinetic energy amongst molecules
In gas the molecules have Kinetic energy due to their random motion. In addition molecules that are made from two or more atoms have kinetic energy due to rotation and vibration. In an ideal gas the internal energy is entirely the random kinetic energy of its molecules

Ideal gas assumptions: 1. The intermolecular forces are negligible except in collision 2. That the collisions between molecules and with the wall are elastic 3. Just before a collision molecules have kinetic energy the closer the molecules get the larger the repulsive force so K.E is transferred to potential energy as a result of work being done to overcome resistive force so the molecule is temporarily stationary 4. Time spent in collision is 0 compared to time spent out of collision Hot bodies have a higher concentration of internal energy compared to cold bodies. Heat is the random interchange of energy between two bodies in thermal contact. Energy can be transferred between two bodies in the form of work irrespective of temperature difference

Explain the concept of absolute zero and how the average kinetic energy of molecules is related to the absolute temperature
A temperature of 0K is called absolute zero because it is the lowest temperature that can theoretically be reached. Its value on the Celsius scale is -273.15 degrees At temperatures close to 0K matter exhibits quantum effects such as superconductivity and superfluidity A superconductor is a material that will conduct without any resistance when cooled to a certain temperature

There is a catch to superconductors: a lot of energy is needed to maintain very low temperatures and this is not always ideal. For example the large Hadron collider needs 96 tonnes of liquid helium to maintain a temperature of 1.9K which is -271 degrees.

## Recognise and use the expression m<c2> = 3/2 kT

< > is the mean squared and can calculated by squaring all the speeds and divide by the number of speeds. T is temperature measured in Kelvin is the average Kinetic energy of a molecule

The average Kinetic energy of molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas

Use the expression pV = NkT as the equation of state for an ideal gas
N is the number of molecules of gas k= Investigating the relationship between Pressure and Volume for a fixed mass: The volume of a fixed mass of air under test can be given by the length of the tube x the cross sectional area. Therefore if the tube is uniform then V is proportional to L The total pressure can be read off the pressure gauge. Open valve so air starts at atmospheric pressure then increase the pressure using a foot pump. Record pressure and volume. Allow air to reach thermal equilibrium P is proportional to 1/V PV=constant is Boyels law Investigating the relationship between Pressure and Temperature of a fixed mass of gas and a constant volume: Start by putting ice in a beaker to get the temperature as low as possible, at this temperature measure the pressure on the pressure gauge and record both. Increase the temperature by 10 degrees each time and record the corresponding pressure until boiling point is reached. Allow a few minutes before taking results to allow an equilibrium temperature to be reached.

Oscillations Recall that the condition for simple harmonic motion is F = -kx, and hence identify situations in which simple harmonic motion will occur
In oscillation the motion is repetitive about a fixed position with the object at rest at either extremes and has maximum speed at midpoint For an oscillation the force acting on the oscillating body and therefore its acceleration must be proportional to the displacement The force and therefore acceleration always act in opposite directions towards the equilibrium position An object whose motion satisfies the above conditions is said to have SHM

Recognise and use the expressions a = - 2x, a = -A2 cost, v = A sin t, x = Acost and T = 1/f = 2/ as applied to a simple harmonic oscillator
Since force is proportional to acceleration we can expression in terms of a where is the constant Finding the spring constant of a spring from Hookes law: Suspend a 100g mass hanger from a vertical spring Use a set square against a meter rule to measure the initial height Add extra masses in 50g increments until 300g. After each mass is added record the extension Plot a graph of F against X the graph should be a straight line and the gradient will be the spring constant Finding the spring constant using simple harmonic motion Set up apparatus similar to that for the previous experiment.

This time measure the time taken for the masses to make 10 oscillations To help judge the start and stop of an oscillations put a marker at the centre of an oscillation, e.g. a pin secured to a vertical ruler using blue tack Plot a graph of against this should give a straight line

through the origin. The gradient will give you the value of k Equations of simple harmonic motion: In perfect simple harmonic motion the frequency of the oscillation does not depend on the amplitude of oscillation If t=0 at one end of the motion x at that time will be = to the Amplitude. The Solution is equal to For the above equation the graph will be a cosine graph (displacement-time ) the gradient of this will be the velocity The velocity can therefore be found by differentiating the above equation which will give us . This means that the velocity time graph looks like a negative sine wave

Obtain a displacement time graph for an oscillating object and recognise that the gradient at a point gives the velocity at that point.
A card is attached to masses to give a good reflective surface. Data logger set to record for 10 seconds at a sampling rate of 100 per second. Computer can be programed to give graphs of displacement, velocity and acceleration against time. Rotary sensor A pendulum is connected to a rotary sensor. This measures the rotational motion and in the case of a pendulum is measures the angular displacement.

Recall that the total energy of an undammed simple harmonic system remains constant and recognise and use expressions for total energy of an oscillator

As the pendulum swings there is a continuous change of Kinetic energy to Potential energy. At either extremes the Kinetic energy is 0 and G.P.E is max

## Distinguish between free, damped and forced oscillations

A free oscillation is one where there are no external forces acting on the oscillating system apart from the force causing the oscillation The above is rarely achievable because there is air resistance and other frictional forces An oscillating system does work against the external forces acting on it and so uses up some of its energy. This transfer of energy from the system to the internal energy of the surroundings slows the oscillating object down until it eventually dies. This is known as damped oscillation. Forced oscillation- When an object is force to vibrate by another object, usually at the same frequency as the vibrating source.

Investigate and recall how the amplitude of a forced oscillation changes at and around the natural frequency of a system and describe, qualitatively, how damping affects resonance Investigating damped oscillations
Set up equipment like in diagram. Initially find the period T of the pendulum without the cup by measuring 10 oscillations twice and then finding the average Pull back the pendulum s that the initial amplitude is 1.00m Let go and record the amplitude at each end of the swing

The heavy dense bob is pulled back and released This pendulum will oscillate at it natural frequency determined by its length and given by the equation

## All other light pendulums are coupled to this diver pendulum

by a string so they will experience a forced oscillation = in frequency to that of the driving pendulum Pendulums closer to the driving pendulum absorb more energy because there natural frequency is closer to the natural frequency of the driving pendulum. They will oscillate with large amplitudes Oscillations of large amplitudes is called resonance For a system will little or no damping the resonant frequency occurs at the natural frequency For a system which has been damped the resonant frequency is lower than its natural frequency

Explain how damping and the plastic deformation of ductile materials reduce the amplitude of oscillation
Damping is important in designs of machines and building to prevent unwanted vibrations The shape of the lathe is designed so that the resonant frequency is nowhere near the frequency of the rotation of a lathe

Latest technology is to coat turbine blades with ductile material. (A material that can be plastically deformed without fracture) which means that it can absorb a lot of energy. If a ductile material feels vibrations it goes through hysteresis loops each vibration.

## Astrophysics and cosmology Use the expression F = Gm1m2/r2

Newton proposed that every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with the Force F. G is the gravitational constant M1 M2 is the product of the masses of the two particles and r is the distance between them

Derive and use the expression g = -Gm/r2 for the gravitational field due to a point mass

## Recall similarities and differences between electric and gravitational fields

Gravitational effects Field strength Electrostatic effects

P.d.

Energy conservation

Force Laws

Differences:
Gravitational force affects all particles with a mass, but electrostatic force only affects particle with charge Gravitational force is always attractive whereas electrostatic force can be attractive or repulsive It is not possible to shield mass from gravitational field but it is possible to shield a charge from an electrostatic field

Recognise and use the expression relating flux, luminosity and distance F = L/4d2 application to standard candles
I light year is the distance travelled by light in one year

Luminosity, L is used to describe the total output power of a star, units W The electromagnetic wave energy per second per unit area from a star reaching us on earth is called the radiation flux, F Radiation flux is also known as light intensity F and L are linked by the inverse square law Standard candles The problem with using to measure the distance between

earth and a star is that it is too far so it wont exhibit parallax. A Cepheid star change luminosity with time The maximum luminosity L of Cepheid star is related to the period T of its luminosity variation Supernova explosions can be used as standard candles to find the distance to even more distant galaxies

Recognise and use a simple Hertzsprung- Russell diagram to relate luminosity and temperature. Use this diagram to explain the life cycle of stars.
The Hertzsprung- Russell diagram is a plot of stellar luminosity and surface temperature

On the horizontal axis the temperature goes from High temperatures on the left to low temperatures on the right

## Life cycle of the star

Once a star is formed it adopts a position on the main sequence and spends most of its life at a fairly constant surface temperature and luminosity More massive stars spend a shorter time on the main sequence compared to less massive stars 1. It was formed from a cloud of hydrogen and helium 2. It joined the main sequence about 5 billion years ago and it will leave the main sequence 5 billion year from now 3. After leaving the main sequence its will expand and become a red giant and after losing about 50% of its mass it will become a white dwarf 4. It will cool slowly for billions of years and effectively die
Supergiant Supernova Neutrino star or black hole

Massive stars

Red Giant

## White dwarf Planetary nebula

Recognise and use the expression: maxT = 2.898 x 10-3 m K (Wiens law) for black body radiators
The sun is a yellow star but stars that are hotter than the sun appear white Wiens law maxT = 2.898 x 10-3 m K tells us that max and T are inversely proportional Only applies to black body radiators All stars act as black body radiators which means they absorb any electromagnetic radiation falling on them
Recognise and use the expressions z = / f/f v/c for a source of electromagnetic radiation moving relative to an observer and v = Hod for objects at cosmological distances