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Meaning Staff development is the process directed towards the personal & professional growth of the nurses and other personnel while they are employed by a health care agency. Personal and Professional Development (CPPD) is the new name for the Staff Development.

Definition: Staff development includes all training and education undertaken by an employer to improve the occupational and personal knowledge, skills, and attitudes of employment. A process consisting of orientation, in-service education and continuing education for the people of promoting the development of personnel within any employment setting, consistent with the goals and responsibilities of the employment.( ANA)

Needs for staff Development: Social change and scientific advancement Advancement in the field of science like medical science and technology. to provide the opportunity for nurses to continually acquire and implement the knowledge, skills, attitudes, ideals and valued essentials for the maintenance of high quality of nursing care. As part of an individual's long-term career growth. To add or improve skills needed in the short term Being necessary to fill gap in the past performance To change or correct long-held attitudes of employee

To move ahead or keep up with change. Fast changing technologies Need to increase the productivity and quality of the work. To motivate employees and to promote employee loyalty Fast growing organizations.

Goals: 1. Assist each employee (nurse) to improve performance in his/her position. 2. Assist each employee (nurse) to acquire personal and professional abilities that maximize the possibility of career advancement.

Objectives To increase employee productivity. To ensure safe and effective patient care by nurses. To ensure satisfactory job performance by personnel. To orient the personnel to care objectives, job duties, personnel policies, and agency regulations. To help employees cope with new practice role. Help employees cope with new practice role. Help nurses to close the gap between present abilities and the scientific basis for nursing practice that is broadening through research.

Function of Staff Development Provide Educational activities for all nurses employed by the health care agency directed towards change behavior related to role expectations.

It concerned with growth and development of personnel from their initial contact with a healthcare agency until termination of service

Staff development program, health care organization model

Assessing Competency



Developing competency

Steps of staff development program Assess the educational needs of all staff members Set priority Develop general objectives for the staff development program Determine the resources needed to reach the desired objectives Develop a master calendar for an entire year Develop and maintain staff development record system Establish files on major educational topics Regularly evaluate the staff development program

Resources Public libraries, audiovisual program in addition to many books and computers, research activities and speakers to community groups. Schools and universities Association Health and inter service agency Other nursing homes Ones own staff

Administrative structure of a staff development program: Administrative philosophy, policies & practices of health care agency. Policies, practices and standards of nursing & other health professionals. Human & material resources Physical facilities Financial resources

Centralization v/s Decentralization: Qualification of Staff development Role: Applies adult learning principles when helping employees learn new skills or information. Coaches employees readily regarding knowledge and skill deficits. Actively seeks out teaching opportunities. Uses teaching techniques that empower staff. Is sensitive to the learning deficits of the staff and creatively minimizes these deficits.

Frequently assess learning needs of the unit.

Types of Staff Development: Induction Training. Job Orientation. In service education Continuing education Training for special function

Induction Training Need of induction training Increased retention of newly hire employees, Improved employee morale and Increased productivity.

Steps in induction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tour of facilities Introduction to the other employees, superiors and subordinates. Description of organizational functions. Departmental visit Orientation to philosophy goals and objectives Administration policies and procedures

Techniques used in induction Forms of induction

Internship Preceptorship Mentorship

Job Orientation A good beginning is half the battle!

Meaning The process of creating awareness with an individual of his/her roles, responsibilities and relationships in the new work situation.

Components A new employee to his or her job setting so that he / she is aware of his/ her job responsibility and expectation. present employee to the job responsibilities of his/ her expanded/ enriched role. The old employees to the policy changes.

Types of orientation General orientation Specific orientation

IMPORTANCE OF ORIENTATION PROGRAMME Provides essential, relevant and necessary information Helps employee to gain confidence, Lessen the time for the employee to learn about new situations related to his/her job setting. Helps the new employee to develop a sense of belonging Eliminates

Learning by trail and error

Passing of incorrect information by old employees and peers. Reduces misinterpretation Mistakes and confusion Apprehension

Help new employee in solving initial problems and adjust the new situation/environment, Acquaints her with personnel services readily with in the


CONTENT OF AN ORIENTATION PROGRAMME The origination and its environment Policies, rules and regulation Personnel Services Functions to be undertaken

In service education Definition: In service education is a planned educational experience provided in the job setting and closely identified with services in order to help person perform more effectively as a person and as a worker.

Planned education activities

Help a persons to

Concept of inservice education

Provided in a job setting

improve performance

Closely identified with services Need Social changes and scientific advancement Changes and advancement in the field of service increased the demand of nursing services. Consumer demand quality care Rapid changes in medical and nursing practice create a need for in service education. Increase number of the people seeking health care as the population enlarges makes it necessary for the nurses to function at her highest potential as quickly as possible. As health care delivery system become more complex, the need for continues skill training also increased.

Objective To provide for and promote the personal growth and development of the workers To stimulate and develop occupational

To proved for job satisfaction identifying and meeting current bearing needs To disseminate new information from body of nursing knowledge and health science through verity of channels. To acquire up to date knowledge and to make confidence among the nurses. To retain experience personnel to foster there continue education.

Steps in in-service education

Assessment Pinpoint needs, prioritize needs, set training objectives, and develop criteria

Implementation Climatic check, actual conduction of training with ongoing monitoring


Establishment of criteria, pre test to the participants, post test following completion of the training or program. Observation on transfer of learning to the job, follow up studies for assessment of extent of retention of learning.

Continuing education Definition Continuing education is all the learning activities that occur after an individual has completed his basic education - cooper Shannon Aims of continuing education 1.Improvement of professional practice 2.To motivate the staff to seek the latest knowledge 3.To keep the nurses with the latest development of technologies 4.It develops interest, job satisfaction and confidence

The education which builds a previous education is called continues education

Purpose of continuing education Enable a worker to move from satisfactory to excellent performance Provides exposure to new concepts, procedural refinements, innovative product applications, or acquisition of increased expertise Ensure professional development Increase ability in order to solve the problem in a clinical teaching/ administrative area. Improve the ability to communicate or participate in research work.

Need of continuing education To ensure safe and effective nursing care Changing health care delivery system, Development of nurses by updating their knowledge For career advancement

Professional are altered as society changes and as technologies emerge To acquire specialized skill for professional. Training for specific function Definition This is concerned with developing expert technical or manual skills, communication and helps the personnel to perform their functions effectively. Objectives To help the nursing personnel to perform correct methods and procedures with understanding. Establishing standards and quality of nursing services. Procedure to skill nurses to skilled nurses.

Types of skills Psychomotor skill Cognitive skill Teaching skills Affective skill Communication skill Supervisory skills

Need for skill training Individual nurse needed to have greater freedom to choose the specific field of nursing in which she would work. Good work to be recognized and reward. A venues of advancement and promotion need to be better development Fear of making mistakes

Guidelines for skill training 1.Set the stage, using equipment similar to that provided for the worker in the work situation. 2.Create in worker a learning attitude, 3.Give reasons why the procedure is carried out in this way in this agency; 4.Break the activities in to logical steps, necessary to carry out the procedure.Demonstrate step by step. 5.Make certain that the person has learnt by requiring a return demonstration 6. Provide written out lines for references. 7. Arrange for follow up (supervision

Standards of staff development programme (ANA) Standard 1 organization and administration The nursing service department and the nursing staff development unit philosophy, purpose and goals address the staff development needs of nursing personnel. Standard II human resources Qualified administrative, educational and support personnel are provided to meet the learning and developmental needs by nursing services personnel. Standards III learner Nursing staff development educators assist nursing personnel in identifying their learning needs and planning learning activities to meet those needs. Standard IV program planning Provides the unit systematically, plans and evaluate the overall nursing staff development program in response to health care needs. Standard V educational design

Educational offering and learning experience are designed through the use of educational process and incorporate adult education and learning principles. Standard VI material resources and facilities Material sources and facilities are adequate to achieve the goals and implement the functions of the overall nursing staff development unit. Standard VII records and reports The nursing staff development unit establishes and maintains a record keeping and report system Standard VIII evaluation Evaluation is an integral ongoing and systematic process, which includes measuring the impact on the learning Standard IX consultation Nursing staff development educators use the consultation process to facilitate and enhance achievement of individual, departmental and organizational goals. Standard X climate Nursing staff development educators foster a climate which promotes open communication, learning and professional growth. Standard XI systematic enquiring Nursing staff development educators encourage systematic inquiry and applications of the results into nursing practice.

Potential difficulties in staff development & training activities Lack of time Inadequate resources at disposal Under-funded training budgets Conflicting priorities

Lack of Clarity about what should be done Failure to identify, or accept the need. Shortfall in training skill or experience Fear that trained employee will leave the organization or will be poached by competitor. Cynical attitude to Staff development-Not directly measurable. Treated as Cost not investment.

METHODS OF DELIVERING SDP INDUCTION Physical tour of the facilities Group discussion Seminar Hand book and pamphlet JOB ORIENTATION Orientation Seminar Discussion Hand out or book and pamphlets INSERVICE Orientation Skill training Continuing education Leadership training CONTINUING EDUCATION Lecture Demonstration Seminar Debate Journal club Book review Correspondence course Formal course Clinical research TRAINING FOR SKILL Demonstration Discussion Role-play method.