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DEPT.

COURSE SUBJECT

: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING : DIPLOMA OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING) : ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY (JJ102)

-CASE STUDYELECTRICITY IN CAMBODIA

CASE STUDY - ELECTRICAL OF CAMBODIA

CONTENT & PAGES


INTRODUCTION ABOUT CAMBODIA 1. ELECTRICAL AUTHORITY 2. ELECTRICAL ENERGY PROVIDER 3. ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION SOURCE a. Generation facilities b. Energy imported from neighbouring country 4. ELECTRICAL TARIFF 5. GENERAL SPECIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER a. Standard voltage b. Voltage tolerances c. Standard frequency d. Prevention of hazard and danger e. Socket type 6. CONCLUSION 7. CAMBODIA DATA AT A GLANCE 8. SOURCE OF REFERENCES 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9

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CASE STUDY - ELECTRICAL OF CAMBODIA

INTRODUCTION ABOUT CAMBODIA


GEOGRAPHY DATA Cambodia is located in the southwest of the Indochinese peninsula. Cambodias land total area is about 181,035 square kilometers and borders Thailand to the west and northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east, and Gulf of Thailand to the southwest. Cambodias geographic coordinates are 13 00 N, 105 00 E. Cambodias terrain consists mainly of low plains, with mountains to the southwest and north. Two dominant physical features of Cambodia are the Mekong river, which runs from north to south of the country, and the Tonl Sap Lake. Natural resources include oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential. CLIMATE Cambodias climate is hot and warm almost all year round. The climate is dominated by the annual monsoon cycle of rainy and dry seasons. The rainy season lasts from May to October, and the dry season from November to April. December to January are the coolest months, while the hottest period is in April. The average temperature is around 27-28C POPULATION Cambodias population is approximately 13,395,682 (2008 data). Ninety per cent of residents are Khmer; the rest are Cham (Khmer Muslim), Chinese, Vietnamese, Indian, Thai, Phnorng, Kuoy, Stieng, Tamil, etc. Population density is 78/ km2. OFFICIAL LANGUAGE Khmer CURRENCY Cambodia currency is Riel. * KHR1285 Cambodian Riel = MYR 1.00 = USD 0.31

CASE STUDY - ELECTRICAL OF CAMBODIA

1. ELECTRICAL AUTHORITY
Cambodia have two organizations that have a role in governing the power sector. This two oganization is: 1. Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy (MIME) 2. Electricity Authority of Cambodia (EAC) This organizations have different roles in controlling the power sector in Cambodia. Below diagram will differentiate the roles of this two organization.

Royal Goverment Of Cambodia

Ministry of Industries, Mines and Energy


Roles on: Energy policies Electric Power Strategies Power development plan Technical, safety, environmental standards Other duties

Electrical Authority of Cambodia


Roles : To issue regulation To issue licences to Electrical Service Provider To review cost and approve tariffs To resolve disputes To regulate, impose penalty

Electrical Power Suppliers

Electrical Power Users

CASE STUDY - ELECTRICAL OF CAMBODIA

2. ELECTRICAL ENERGY PROVIDER


Each electricity service provider is required to have a license issued by EAC and to abide its law. In general, there is three categories of electrical service provider. They are: 1. Independent Power Producer 2. Consolidated licensees 3. Electricite du Cambodge (owned by government) Based on 2010 report, there is 311 licensees operating providing electrical power in Cambodia. Number of licensees operating each Province / City is given in table below. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Name of Province / City Banteay Meanchey Battambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Koh Kong Kratie Krong Kep Mondol Kiri Total provider 16 26 37 11 18 10 9 52 4 6 1 1 No 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Total provider Oddor Meanchay 3 Pailin 2 Phnom Penh 13 Preah Vihear 4 Prey Veng 20 Pursat 10 Rattanakiri 4 Siem Reap 18 Sihanoukville 9 Stueng Treang 2 Svay Rieng 3 Takeo 32 GRAND TOTAL 311 Name of Province / City

CASE STUDY - ELECTRICAL OF CAMBODIA

3. ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION SOURCE


Cambodia electrical power source is from: a. Electricity generation facilities (power plant). b. Energy imported from neighbouring country. A. GENERATION FACILITIES Cambodias electricity generation facilities is run and managed by Independent Power Producers (IPP) and Electricite du Cambodge (EDC). Type of power plant can be divided into 4 categories. There are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Hydro power plant Diesel power plant Thermal (Coal) power plant Plant using wood and other biomass 31.73 million kWh 898.73 million kWh 32.08 million kWh 5.82 million kWh 3% 93% 3% 1%

Electricity source by type of generation


Hydro power plant 93% 3% 3% 1% Diesel power plant Thermal (Coal) power plant Plant using wood and other biomass

Currently, diesel power plant are the main power source of Cambodia. Being fueled by imported diesel mean the cost of produced electricity is very high and have made the electricity cost in Cambodia is among the costliest in the world. As a way bringing down the cost, the Cambodias government intend to exploit cheaper energy resources namely hydropower plant and coal. Currently there is 3 hydro power plant in Cambodia were in operation: 1. Kirirom connected to Phnom Penh power system 2. Ratanakiri 3. Mondulkiri 6

CASE STUDY - ELECTRICAL OF CAMBODIA

The following generation projects is under implentation and planning: 1. Kamchay hydropower plant. 2. Kirirom III hydropower plant. 3. Reusey Chrum Krom hydropower plant. 4. Stung Tatay hydropower plant. 5. Stung Atay hydropower plant. 6. 100 MW Coal Fired power plant in Sihanoukville 7. 240 MW Coal Fired power plant in Sihanoukville 8. 135 MW Coal Fired power plant in Sihanoukville 9. Sesan Hydroelectric 10. Prek Laang Hydroelectric

B. ENERGY IMPORTED FROM NEIGHBOURING COUNTRY Cambodia also imports electricity from Thailand, Vietnam and Laos to meet power demand in the country. Quantity (kWh) of electricity imported by country is given below: No 1. 2. 3. Country Thailand Vietnam Laos Total electricity imported
385278454 kWh 1155408844 kWh 5748768 kWh

QUANTITY (kWh) OF ELECTRICITY IMPORTED BY COUNTRY

74.71% 24.91% Thailand Vietnam Laos

0.37%

*Based 2010 data. 7

CASE STUDY - ELECTRICAL OF CAMBODIA

1. 2. 3. 4. ELECTRICITY TARIFF
Tariff of electricity in Cambodia is vary, depending on its source. 93% of electricity generation is from Diesel power plant. Hence, the tariff of electricity from this source is linked and related to the cost of the imported fuel. This made the tariff from this type of electricity generation is the highest in the country. Due to energy sector of Cambodia rely so much on diesel power plant, making the rate is among the highest in the world. However,the cost of generation from hydro power plant, electricity imported from neighbouring country and other type of sources did not fluctuate much. In general, the tariff can be low as 610 riels/kWh and can be high as 1250 riels/kWh. That is about USD 0.15 kW/h to USD 0.31/kWh or in Malaysian Ringgit is from MYR 0.47 kWh to MYR 0.97/kWh. For comparison, Malaysia electrical tariff for domestic use is MYR 0.22 for the first 200 kW/h.

CASE STUDY - ELECTRICAL OF CAMBODIA

5. GENERAL SPECIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER


A. Standard voltage Classification of voltage Low voltage Medium voltage High voltage Range of nominal voltage 600V or less 600V ~ 35kV >35kV Nominal voltage 230V / 440V 22kV 115kV 230kV Highest voltage 24kV 123kV 245kV

B. Variation of voltage The AC voltage at low voltage power supply must be maintained as per below: Nominal system voltage Value to be maintained 230V 400V 207V ~ 244V 360V ~ 424V

C. Standard frequency Frequency rating is at 50Hz. The variation of frequency must be maintained between 49.5Hz and 50.5Hz. D. Prevention of hazard and danger Similar to electrical standard practice of every country in the world, prevention and precautionary measury is to be practice on every aspect of electrical system, the equipments and the facilities to prevent danger. Example of standard practice: i. Grounding ii. Power cut off during fault iii. Correct selection of conductor E. Socket type There is three type of socket use in Cambodia. They are: Socket type A: Nema 1-15 USA 2 pin Socket type C: CEE 7/16 Europlug

CASE STUDY - ELECTRICAL OF CAMBODIA Socket type G: UK - BS1363

6. CONCLUSION
1. Due to about 93% of it electricity source is from diesel power plant, the cost of electricity in Cambodia is among the highest in the world due to fuel price hikes and inefficiency of old electricity generation equipments. 2. Cambodia government realized that high cost of electricity will limit economic growth and hinders the country from attracting investments. Due to this fact, they have take necessary action to exploit the the high pontential hydro power plant to generate cheaper electricity. 3. The electrical system is not much different to Malaysia electrical system.

7. CAMBODIA DATA AT A GLANCE

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8. SOURCE OF REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
http://www.eac.gov.kh/report.php http://www.edc.com.kh/ http://www.investincambodia.com/power.htm http://www.pps.com.kh/Electricity.pdf http://eneken.ieej.or.jp/data/3115.pdf http://www.un.org/en/

http://cambodia.usembassy.gov/media2/pdf/cambodian_power_development_plans.pdf

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/Resources/2263001318878759408/eap_energy_flagship_appendixes.pdf

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