Sie sind auf Seite 1von 42

Indian Derivative Market

Project report submitted towards fulfillment of PGDM LBSIMT, Bareilly Academic Session [2008-2010] Submitted by Sarang Mani UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr. Rahul Kumar Agarwal Area Sales Manager IL & FS InvestSmart Securities Ltd.
Submitted by: Name Sarang Mani

TABLE OF CONTENTS
S. No. TOPICS PAGE NO.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1) 2) 3) 4) i) ii) iii) iv) 5) 11. 12. 1) 2) i) ii) 3) 4) 5) i) ii) iii) iv) 13. 14. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) .

Executive Summary ...... 06 Company Profile................... 10 Introduction ................... 16 Need of the Study............................................................................ 17 Literatural Review............................................................................ 18 Objective of the Study..................................................................... 19 Scope of the Study.......................................................................... 20 Research Methodology.................................................................... 21 Limitations of Study......................................................................... 22 Main Topics of Study Introduction to Derivative............................................................. 23 Derivative Defined......................................................................... 24 Types of Derivatives Market........................................................... 25 Types of Derivatives...................................................................... 25 Forward Contracts...................................................................... 26 Future Contracts........................................................................ 27 Options....................................................................................... 32 Swap....................................................................................... 33 Other Kinds of Derivatives......................................................... 34 History of Derivatives......................................................................... 35 Indian Derivative Market .......... 38 Need of Derivatives in India today................................ 39 Myths and realities about derivatives.................. 39 Derivatives increase speculation and do not serve any economic purpose ..................................................................... 40 Indian Market is not ready for derivative trading......................... 41 Comparison of New System with Existing System......... 43 Exchange-traded vs. OTC derivatives markets............................... 45 Factors Contributing To The Growth Of Derivatives........................ 47 Price Volatility.............................................................................. 47 Globalisation of Markets.............................................................. 48 Technological Advances.............................................................. 49 Advances in Financial Theories........................................ 49 Development of Derivative Markets in India....... 50 Benifits of Derivatives................................... 54 Risk Management............................................................................ 54 Price Discovery.............................................................................. 54 Operational Advantages................................................................. 54 Market Efficiency............................................................................ 55 Easy to Speculation......................................................................... 55

INTRODUCTION
2

A Derivative is a financial instrument whose value depends on other, more basic, underlying variables. The variables underlying could be prices of traded securities and stock, prices of gold or copper. Derivatives have become increasingly important in the field of finance, Options and Futures are traded actively on many exchanges, Forward contracts, Swap and different types of options are regularly traded outside exchanges by financial intuitions, banks and their corporate clients in what are termed as overthe-counter markets in other words, there is no single market place or organized exchanges.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To understand the concept of the Derivatives and Derivative Trading.

To know different types of Financial Derivatives To know the role of derivatives trading in India. To analyse the performance of Derivatives Trading since 2001with special reference to Futures & Options

RESARCH METHODOLOGY
Method of data collection:Secondary sources:-

It is the data which has already been collected by some one or an organization for some other purpose or research study .The data for study has been collected from various sources: Books Journals Magazines Internet sources

CONCEPT
2. DERIVATIVE DEFINED A derivative is a product whose value is derived from the value of one or more underlying variables or assets in a contractual manner. The underlying asset can be equity, forex, commodity or any other asset. In our earlier discussion, we saw that wheat farmers may wish to sell their harvest at a future date to
5

eliminate the risk of change in price by that date. Such a transaction is an example of a derivative. The price of this derivative is driven by the spot price of wheat which is the underlying in this case. The Forwards Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952, regulates the forward/futures contracts in commodities all over India. As per this the Forward Markets Commission (FMC) continues to have jurisdiction over commodity futures contracts. However when derivatives trading in securities was introduced in 2001, the term security in the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (SCRA), was amended to include derivative contracts in securities. Consequently, regulation of derivatives came under the purview of Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI). We thus have separate regulatory authorities for securities and commodity derivative markets. Derivatives are securities under the SCRA and hence the trading of derivatives is governed by the regulatory framework under the SCRA. The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 defines derivative to includeA security derived from a debt instrument, share, loan whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract differences or any other form of security. A contract which derives its value from the prices, or index of prices, of underlying securities.

3. TYPES OF DERIVATIVES MARKET

Exchange Traded Derivatives

Over The Counter Derivatives

National Stock Exchange

Bombay Stock Exchange

National Commodity & Derivative Exchange

Index Future

Index option

Stock option

Stock future

Figure.1 Types of Derivatives Market

4. TYPES OF DERIVATIVES

Derivatives

Future

Option

Forward

Swaps

Figure.2 Types of Derivatives

(i)

FORWARD CONTRACTS
A forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell an asset on a specified date for a specified price. One of the parties to the contract assumes a long position and agrees to buy the underlying asset on a certain specified future date for a certain specified price. The other party assumes a short position and agrees to sell the asset on the same date for the same price. Other contract details like delivery date, price and quantity are

negotiated bilaterally by the parties to the contract. The forward contracts are n o r m a l l y traded outside the exchanges.

BASIC FEATURES OF FORWARD CONTRACT


They are bilateral contracts and hence exposed to counter-party risk.

Each contract is custom designed, and hence is unique in terms of contract size, expiration date and the asset type and quality. The contract price is generally not available in public domain. On the expiration date, the contract has to be settled by delivery of the asset.

If the party wishes to reverse the contract, it has to compulsorily go to the same counter-party, which often results in high prices being charged. However forward contracts in transaction costs and increasing certain markets have becomevery standardized, as in the case of foreign exchange, thereby reducing transactions volume. This process of standardization reaches its limit in the organized futures market. Forward contracts are often confused with futures contracts. The confusion is primarily because both serve essentially t h e same economic fun ction s of allocating risk in the presence of future price uncertainty. However futures are a significant improvement over the forward contracts as they eliminate counterparty risk and offer more liquidity.

(ii)

FUTURE CONTRACT
In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a pre-set price. The future date is called the delivery date or final settlement date. The pre-set price is called the futures price. The price of the underlying asset on the delivery date is called the settlement price. The settlement price, normally, converges towards the futures price on the delivery date.

A futures contract gives the holder the right and the obligation to buy or sell, which differs from an options contract, which gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, and the option writer (seller) the obligation, but not the right. To exit the commitment, the holder of a futures position has to sell his long position or buy back his short position, effectively closing out the futures position and its contract obligations. Futures contracts are exchange traded derivatives. The exchange acts as counterparty on all contracts, sets margin requirements, etc.

BASIC FEATURES OF FUTURE CONTRACT


1. Standardization: Futures contracts ensure their liquidity by being highly standardized, usually by specifying: The underlying. This can be anything from a barrel of sweet crude oil to a short term interest rate. The type of settlement, either cash settlement or physical settlement. The amount and units of the underlying asset per contract. This can be the notional amount of bonds, a fixed number of barrels of oil, units of foreign currency, the notional amount of the deposit over which the short term interest rate is traded, etc. The currency in which the futures contract is quoted. The grade of the deliverable. In case of bonds, this specifies which bonds can be delivered. In case of physical commodities, this specifies not only the quality of the underlying goods but also the manner and location of delivery. The delivery month. The last trading date. Other details such as the tick, the minimum permissible price fluctuation. 2. Margin: Although the value of a contract at time of trading should be zero, its price constantly fluctuates. This renders the owner liable to adverse changes in value,

and creates a credit risk to the exchange, who always acts as counterparty. To minimize this risk, the exchange demands that contract owners post a form of collateral, commonly known as Margin requirements are waived or reduced in some cases for hedgers who have physical ownership of the covered commodity or spread traders who have offsetting contracts balancing the position. Initial Margin: is paid by both buyer and seller. It represents the loss on that contract, as determined by historical price changes, which is not likely to be exceeded on a usual day's trading. It may be 5% or 10% of total contract price. Mark to market Margin: Because a series of adverse price changes may exhaust the initial margin, a further margin, usually called variation or maintenance margin, is required by the exchange. This is calculated by the futures contract, i.e. agreeing on a price at the end of each day, called the "settlement" or mark-to-market price of the contract. To understand the original practice, consider that a futures trader, when taking a position, deposits money with the exchange, called a "margin". This is intended to protect the exchange against loss. At the end of every trading day, the contract is marked to its present market value. If the trader is on the winning side of a deal, his contract has increased in value that day, and the exchange pays this profit into his account. On the other hand, if he is on the losing side, the exchange will debit his account. If he cannot pay, then the margin is used as the collateral from which the loss is paid. 3. Settlement Settlement is the act of consummating the contract, and can be done in one of two ways, as specified per type of futures contract: Physical delivery - the amount specified of the underlying asset of the contract is delivered by the seller of the contract to the exchange, and by the exchange to the buyers of the contract. In practice, it occurs only on a minority of contracts. Most are cancelled out by purchasing a covering position - that is, buying a contract to cancel out an earlier sale (covering a short), or selling a contract to liquidate an earlier purchase (covering a long).

10

Cash settlement - a cash payment is made based on the underlying reference rate, such as a short term interest rate index such as Euribor, or the closing value of a stock market index. A futures contract might also opt to settle against an index based on trade in a related spot market. Expiry is the time when the final prices of the future are determined. For many equity index and interest rate futures contracts, this happens on the Last Thursday of certain trading month. On this day the t+2 futures contract becomes the t forward contract. PRICING OF FUTURE CONTRACT In a futures contract, for no arbitrage to be possible, the price paid on delivery (the forward price) must be the same as the cost (including interest) of buying and storing the asset. In other words, the rational forward price represents the expected future value of the underlying discounted at the risk free rate. Thus, for a simple, non-dividend paying asset, the value of the future/forward, be found by discounting the present value of risk-free return . at time to maturity , will by the rate

This relationship may be modified for storage costs, dividends, dividend yields, and convenience yields. Any deviation from this equality allows for arbitrage as follows. In the case where the forward price is higher: 1. The arbitrageur sells the futures contract and buys the underlying today (on the spot market) with borrowed money. 2. On the delivery date, the arbitrageur hands over the underlying, and receives the agreed forward price. 3. He then repays the lender the borrowed amount plus interest. 4. The difference between the two amounts is the arbitrage profit. In the case where the forward price is lower: 1. The arbitrageur buys the futures contract and sells the underlying today (on the spot market); he invests the proceeds.

11

2.

On the delivery date, he cashes in the matured investment, which has appreciated at the risk free rate. 3. He then receives the underlying and pays the agreed forward price using the matured investment. [If he was short the underlying, he returns it now.] 4. The difference between the two amounts is the arbitrage profit.

12

TABLE 1DISTINCTION BETWEEN FUTURES AND FORWARDS CONTRACTS FEATURE Operational Mechanism FORWARD CONTRACT FUTURE CONTRACT

Traded directly between Traded on the exchanges. two parties (not traded on the exchanges).

Contract Specifications Counter-party risk

Differ from trade to trade.

Contracts contracts.

are

standardized

Exists.

Exists. However, assumed by the clearing corp., which becomes the counter party to all the trades or unconditionally settlement. guarantees their

Liquidation Profile

Low, tailor

as

contracts

are High, as contracts are standardized

made

contracts exchange traded contracts.

catering to the needs of the needs of the parties. Price discovery Not efficient, as markets Efficient, as markets are centralized are scattered. and all buyers and sellers come to a common platform to discover the Examples Currency market in India. price. Commodities, futures, Index Futures and Individual stock Futures in India.

13

OPTIONS A derivative transaction that gives the option holder the right but not the obligation to buy or sell the underlying asset at a price, called the strike price, during a period or on a specific date in exchange for payment of a premium is known as option. Underlying asset refers to any asset that is traded. The price at which the underlying is traded is called the strike price. There are two types of options i.e., CALL OPTION & PUT OPTION. CALL OPTION: A contract that gives its owner the right but not the obligation to buy an underlying asset-stock or any financial asset, at a specified price on or before a specified date is known as a Call option. The owner makes a profit provided he sells at a higher current price and buys at a lower future price. PUT OPTION: A contract that gives its owner the right but not the obligation to sell an underlying asset-stock or any financial asset, at a specified price on or before a specified date is known as a Put option. The owner makes a profit provided he buys at a lower current price and sells at a higher future price. Hence, no option will be exercised if the future price does not increase.

Put and calls are almost always written on equities, although occasionally preference shares, bonds and warrants become the subject of options.

14

SWAPS Swaps are transactions which obligates the two parties to the contract to exchange a series of cash flows at specified intervals known as payment or settlement dates. They can be regarded as portfolios of forward's contracts. A contract whereby two parties agree to exchange (swap) payments, based on some notional principle amount is called as a SWAP. In case of swap, only the payment flows are exchanged and not the principle amount. The two commonly used swaps are: INTEREST RATE SWAPS: Interest rate swaps is an arrangement by which one party agrees to exchange his series of fixed rate interest payments to a party in exchange for his variable rate interest payments. The fixed rate payer takes a short position in the forward contract whereas the floating rate payer takes a long position in the forward contract. CURRENCY SWAPS: Currency swaps is an arrangement in which both the principle amount and the interest on loan in one currency are swapped for the principle and the interest payments on loan in another currency. The parties to the swap contract of currency generally hail from two different countries. This arrangement allows the counter parties to borrow easily and cheaply in their home currencies. Under a currency swap, cash flows to be exchanged are determined at the spot rate at a time when swap is done. Such cash flows are supposed to remain unaffected by subsequent changes in the exchange rates. FINANCIAL SWAP: Financial swaps constitute a funding technique which permit a borrower to access one market and then exchange the liability for another type of liability. It also allows the investors to exchange one type of asset for another type of asset with a preferred income stream.

15

5. OTHER KINDS OF DERIVATIVES


The other kind of derivatives, which are not, much popular are as follows:

BASKETS Baskets options are option on portfolio of underlying asset. Equity Index Options are most popular form of baskets.

LEAPS Normally option contracts are for a period of 1 to 12 months. However, exchange may introduce option contracts with a maturity period of 2-3 years. These long-term option contracts are popularly known as Leaps or Long term Equity Anticipation Securities.

WARRANTS Options generally have lives of up to one year, the majority of options traded on options exchanges having a maximum maturity of nine months. Longer-dated options are called warrants and are generally traded over-the-counter.

SWAPTIONS Swaptions are options to buy or sell a swap that will become operative at the expiry of the options. Thus a swaption is an option on a forward swap. Rather than have calls and puts, the swaptions market has receiver swaptions and payer swaptions. A receiver swaption is an option to receive fixed and pay floating. A payer swaption is an option to pay fixed and receive floating.

16

12. INDIAN DERIVATIVES MARKET


Starting from a controlled economy, India has moved towards a world where prices fluctuate every day. The introduction of risk management instruments in India gained momentum in the last few years due to liberalisation process and Reserve Bank of Indias (RBI) efforts in creating currency forward market. Derivatives are an integral part of liberalisation process to manage risk. NSE gauging the market requirements initiated the process of setting up derivative markets in India. In July 1999, derivatives trading commenced in India Table 2. Chronology of instruments 1991 14 December 1995 18 November 1996 11 May 1998 7 July 1999 24 May 2000 25 May 2000 Liberalisation process initiated NSE asked SEBI for permission to trade index futures. SEBI setup L.C.Gupta Committee to draft a policy framework for index futures. L.C.Gupta Committee submitted report. RBI gave permission for OTC forward rate agreements (FRAs) and interest rate swaps. SIMEX chose Nifty for trading futures and options on an Indian index. SEBI gave permission to NSE and BSE to do index

futures trading. 9 June 2000 Trading of BSE Sensex futures commenced at BSE. 12 June 2000 Trading of Nifty futures commenced at NSE. 25 September Nifty futures trading commenced at SGX. 2000 2 June 2001 Individual Stock Options & Derivatives

(1) Need for derivatives in India today In less than three decades of their coming into vogue, derivatives markets have become the most important markets in the world. Today, derivatives have become part and parcel of the day-to-day life for ordinary people in major part of
17

the world. Until the advent of NSE, the Indian capital market had no access to the latest trading methods and was using traditional out-dated methods of trading. There was a huge gap between the investors aspirations of the markets and the available means of trading. The opening of Indian economy has precipitated the process of integration of Indias financial markets with the international financial markets. Introduction of risk management instruments in India has gained momentum in last few years thanks to Reserve Bank of Indias efforts in allowing forward contracts, cross currency options etc. which have developed into a very large market. (2) Myths and realities about derivatives In less than three decades of their coming into vogue, derivatives markets have become the most important markets in the world. Financial derivatives came into the spotlight along with the rise in uncertainty of post-1970, when US announced an end to the Bretton Woods System of fixed exchange rates leading to introduction of currency derivatives followed by other innovations including stock index futures. Today, derivatives have become part and parcel of the day-to-day life for ordinary people in major parts of the world. While this is true for many countries, there are still apprehensions about the introduction of derivatives. There are many myths about derivatives but the realities that are different especially for Exchange traded derivatives, which are well regulated with all the safety mechanisms in place. What are these myths behind derivatives? Derivatives increase speculation and do not serve any economic purpose Indian Market is not ready for derivative trading Disasters prove that derivatives are very risky and highly leveraged instruments. Derivatives are complex and exotic instruments that Indian investors will find difficulty in understanding Is the existing capital market safer than Derivatives?

18

(i)

Derivatives

increase

speculation

and

do

not

serve

any

economicpurpose: Numerous studies of derivatives activity have led to a broad consensus, both in the private and public sectors that derivatives provide numerous and substantial benefits to the users. Derivatives are a low-cost, effective method for users to hedge and manage their exposures to interest rates, commodity prices or exchange rates. The need for derivatives as hedging tool was felt first in the commodities market. Agricultural futures and options helped farmers and processors hedge against commodity price risk. After the fallout of Bretton wood agreement, the financial markets in the world started undergoing radical changes. This period is marked by remarkable innovations in the financial markets such as introduction of floating rates for the currencies, increased trading in variety of derivatives instruments, on-line trading in the capital markets, etc. As the complexity of instruments increased many folds, the accompanying risk factors grew in gigantic proportions. This situation led to development derivatives as effective risk management tools for the market participants.

Looking at the equity market, derivatives allow corporations and institutional investors to effectively manage their portfolios of assets and liabilities through instruments like stock index futures and options. An equity fund, for example, can reduce its exposure to the stock market quickly and at a relatively low cost without selling off part of its equity assets by using stock index futures or index options.

By providing investors and issuers with a wider array of tools for managing risks and raising capital, derivatives improve the allocation of credit and the sharing of risk in the global economy, lowering the cost of capital formation and stimulating economic growth. Now that world markets for trade and finance have become more integrated, derivatives have strengthened these

19

important linkages between global markets, increasing market liquidity and efficiency and facilitating the flow of trade and finance (ii) Indian Market is not ready for derivative trading Often the argument put forth against derivatives trading is that the Indian capital market is not ready for derivatives trading. Here, we look into the prerequisites, which are needed for the introduction of derivatives, and how Indian market fares: TABLE 3. PRE-REQUISITES INDIAN SCENARIO Large market India is one of the largest market-capitalised Capitalisation countries in Asia with a market capitalisation of more than Rs.765000 crores. High Liquidity underlying in the The daily average traded volume in Indian capital market today is around 7500 crores. Which means on an average every month 14% of the countrys Market capitalisation gets traded. These are clear indicators of high liquidity in the underlying. The first clearing corporation guaranteeing trades has become fully functional from July 1996 in the form of National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCCL). NSCCL is responsible for guaranteeing all open positions on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) for which it does the clearing. National Securities Depositories Limited (NSDL) which started functioning in the year 1997 has revolutionalised the security settlement in our country. In the Institution of SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) today the Indian capital market enjoys a strong, independent, and innovative legal guardian who is helping the market to evolve to a healthier place for trade practices.

Trade guarantee

A Strong Depository

A Good legal guardian

(3) Comparison of New System with Existing System

20

Many people and brokers in India think that the new system of Futures & Options and banning of Badla is disadvantageous and introduced early, but I feel that this new system is very useful especially to retail investors. It increases the no of options investors for investment. In fact it should have been introduced much before and NSE had approved it but was not active because of politicization in SEBI. The figure 3.3a 3.3d shows how advantages of new system (implemented from June 20001) v/s the old system i.e. before June 2001 New System Vs Existing System for Market Players

Figure 3.3a

Speculators
Existing Approach &Prize
1) Deliver based Trading, margin possible trading & carry forward transactions. 2) Buy Index Futures hold till expiry.

SYSTEM Peril &Prize


1) Both profit & loss to extent of price change.

New Peril

Approach

1)Buy &Sell stocks 1)Maximum on delivery basis loss 2) Buy Call &Put by paying premium to premium paid

Advantages

Greater Leverage as to pay only the premium. Greater variety of strike price options at a given time.

Figure 3.3b

21

Arbitrageurs
Existing Approach &Prize SYSTEM Peril &Prize Approach New Peril

1) Buying Stocks in 1) Make money 1) B Group more 1) Risk free one and selling in whichever way promising as still game. another exchange. the Market moves. in weekly settlement forward transactions. 2) Cash &Carry 2) If Future Contract arbitrage continues more or less than Fair price Fair Price = Cash Price + Cost of Carry.

Figure 3.3c

Hedgers
Existing Approach &Prize SYSTEM Peril &Prize Approach New Peril

1) Difficult to 1) No Leverage offload holding available risk during adverse reward dependant market conditions on market prices as circuit filters limit to curtail losses.

1)Fix price today to buy 1) Additional latter by paying premium. cost is only 2)For Long, buy ATM Put premium. Option. If market goes up, long position benefit else exercise the option. 3)Sell deep OTM call option with underlying shares, earn premium + profit with increase prcie

Advantages
Availability of Leverage

22

Figure 3.3d

Small Investors
Existing Approach &Prize
1) If Bullish buy stocks else sell it.

SYSTEM Peril &Prize


1) Plain Buy/Sell implies unlimited profit/loss.

New Approach Peril


1) Downside remains protected & upside unlimited.

1) Buy Call/Put options based on market outlook 2) Hedge position if holding underlying stock

Advantages
Losses Protected.

23

4. Exchange-traded vs. OTC derivatives markets The OTC derivatives markets have witnessed rather sharp growth over the last few years, which has accompanied the modernization of commercial and investment banking and globalisation of financial activities. The recent developments in information technology have contributed to a great extent to these developments. While both exchange-traded and OTC derivative contracts offer many benefits, the former have rigid structures compared to the latter. It has been widely discussed that the highly leveraged institutions and their OTC derivative positions were the main cause of turbulence in financial markets in 1998. These episodes of turbulence revealed the risks posed to market stability originating in features of OTC derivative instruments and markets. The OTC derivatives markets have the following features compared to exchange-traded derivatives: 1. 2. 3. 4. and 5. The OTC contracts are generally not regulated by a regulatory authority and the exchanges self-regulatory organization, although they are affected indirectly by national legal systems, banking supervision and market surveillance. Some of the features of OTC derivatives markets embody risks to financial market stability. The management of counter-party (credit) risk is decentralized and located within individual institutions, There are no formal centralized limits on individual positions, leverage, or margining, There are no formal rules for risk and burden-sharing, There are no formal rules or mechanisms for ensuring market stability and integrity, and for safeguarding the collective interests of market participants,

24

The following features of OTC derivatives markets can give rise to instability in institutions, markets, and the international financial system: (i) the dynamic nature of gross credit exposures; (ii) information asymmetries; (iii) the effects of OTC derivative activities on available aggregate credit; (iv) the high concentration of OTC derivative activities in major institutions; and (v) the central role of OTC derivatives markets in the global financial system. Instability arises when shocks, such as counter-party credit events and sharp movements in asset prices that underlie derivative contracts, occur which significantly alter the perceptions of current and potential future credit exposures. When asset prices change rapidly, the size and configuration of counter-party exposures can become unsustainably large and provoke a rapid unwinding of positions. There has been some progress in addressing these risks and perceptions. However, the progress has been limited in implementing reforms in risk management, including counter-party, liquidity and operational risks, and OTC derivatives markets continue to pose a threat to international financial stability. The problem is more acute as heavy reliance on OTC derivatives creates the possibility of systemic financial events, which fall outside the more formal clearing house structures. Moreover, those who provide OTC derivative products, hedge their risks through the use of exchange traded derivatives. In view of the inherent risks associated with OTC derivatives, and their dependence on exchange traded derivatives, Indian law considers them illegal.

25

5. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE GROWTH OF DERIVATIVES: Factors contributing to the explosive growth of derivatives are price volatility, globalisation of the markets, technological developments and advances in the financial theories. A.} PRICE VOLATILITY A price is what one pays to acquire or use something of value. The objects having value maybe commodities, local currency or foreign currencies. The concept of price is clear to almost everybody when we discuss commodities. There is a price to be paid for the purchase of food grain, oil, petrol, metal, etc. the price one pays for use of a unit of another persons money is called interest rate. And the price one pays in ones own currency for a unit of another currency is called as an exchange rate. Prices are generally determined by market forces. In a market, consumers have demand and producers or suppliers have supply, and the collective interaction of demand and supply in the market determines the price. These factors are constantly interacting in the market causing changes in the price over a short period of time. Such changes in the price are known as price volatility. This has three factors: the speed of price changes, the frequency of price changes and the magnitude of price changes. The changes in demand and supply influencing factors culminate in market adjustments through price changes. These price changes expose individuals, producing firms and governments to significant risks. The break down of the BRETTON WOODS agreement brought and end to the stabilising role of fixed exchange rates and the gold convertibility of the dollars. The globalisation of the markets and rapid industrialisation of many underdeveloped countries brought a new scale and dimension to the markets. Nations that were poor suddenly became a major source of supply of goods. The Mexican crisis in the south

26

east-Asian currency crisis of 1990s has also brought the price volatility factor on the surface. The advent of telecommunication and data processing bought information very quickly to the markets. Information which would have taken months to impact the market earlier can now be obtained in matter of moments. Even equity holders are exposed to price risk of corporate share fluctuates rapidly. These price volatility risks pushed the use of derivatives like futures and options increasingly as these instruments can be used as hedge to protect against adverse price changes in commodity, foreign exchange, equity shares and bonds. B.} GLOBALISATION OF MARKETS Earlier, managers had to deal with domestic economic concerns; what happened in other part of the world was mostly irrelevant. Now globalisation has increased the size of markets and as greatly enhanced competition .it has benefited consumers who cannot obtain better quality goods at a lower cost. It has also exposed the modern business to significant risks and, in many cases, led to cut profit margins In Indian context, south East Asian currencies crisis of 1997 had affected the competitiveness of our products vis--vis depreciated currencies. Export of certain goods from India declined because of this crisis. Steel industry in 1998 suffered its worst set back due to cheap import of steel from south East Asian countries. Suddenly blue chip companies had turned in to red. The fear of china devaluing its currency created instability in Indian exports. Thus, it is evident that globalisation of industrial and financial activities necessitates use of derivatives to guard against future losses. This factor alone has contributed to the growth of derivatives to a significant extent.

27

C.} TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES A significant growth of derivative instruments has been driven by technological breakthrough. Advances in this area include the development of high speed processors, network systems and enhanced method of data entry. Closely related to advances in computer technology are advances in telecommunications. Improvement in communications allow for instantaneous worldwide conferencing, Data transmission by satellite. At the same time there were significant advances in software programmes without which computer and telecommunication advances would be meaningless. These facilitated the more rapid movement of information and consequently its instantaneous impact on market price. Although price sensitivity to market forces is beneficial to the economy as a whole resources are rapidly relocated to more productive use and better rationed overtime the greater price volatility exposes producers and consumers to greater price risk. The effect of this risk can easily destroy a business which is otherwise well managed. Derivatives can help a firm manage the price risk inherent in a market economy. To the extent the technological developments increase volatility, derivatives and risk management products become that much more important. D.} ADVANCES IN FINANCIAL THEORIES Advances in financial theories gave birth to derivatives. Initially forward contracts in its traditional form, was the only hedging tool available. Option pricing models developed by Black and Scholes in 1973 were used to determine prices of call and put options. In late 1970s, work of Lewis Edeington extended the early work of Johnson and started the hedging of financial price risks with financial futures. The work of economic theorists gave rise to new products for risk management which led to the growth of derivatives in financial markets. The above factors in combination of lot many factors led to growth of derivatives instruments

28

13. DEVELOPMENT OF DERIVATIVES MARKET IN INDIA The first step towards introduction of derivatives trading in India was the promulgation of the Securities Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 1995, which withdrew the prohibition on options in securities. The market for derivatives, however, did not take off, as there was no regulatory framework to govern trading of derivatives. SEBI set up a 24member committee under the Chairmanship of Dr.L.C.Gupta on November 18, 1996 to develop appropriate regulatory framework for derivatives trading in India. The committee submitted its report on March 17, 1998 prescribing necessary preconditions for introduction of derivatives trading in India. The committee recommended that derivatives should be declared as securities so that regulatory framework applicable to trading of securities could also govern trading of securities. SEBI also set up a group in June 1998 under the Chairmanship of Prof.J.R.Varma, to recommend measures for risk containment in derivatives market in India. The report, which was submitted in October 1998, worked out the operational details of margining system, methodology for charging initial margins, broker net worth, deposit requirement and realtime monitoring requirements. The Securities Contract Regulation Act (SCRA) was amended in December 1999 to include derivatives within the ambit of securities and the regulatory framework were developed for governing derivatives trading. The act also made it clear that derivatives shall be legal and valid only if such contracts are traded on a recognized stock exchange, thus precluding OTC derivatives. The government also rescinded in March 2000, the three decade old notification, which prohibited forward trading in securities. Derivatives trading commenced in India in June 2000 after SEBI granted the final approval to this effect in May 2001. SEBI permitted the derivative segments of two stock exchanges, NSE and BSE, and their clearing house/corporation to commence trading and settlement in approved derivatives contracts. To begin with, SEBI approved trading in index futures contracts based on S&P CNX Nifty and BSE30 (Sense) index. This

29

was followed by approval for trading in options based on these two indexes and options on individual securities. The trading in BSE Sensex options commenced on June 4, 2001 and the trading in options on individual securities commenced in July 2001. Futures contracts on individual stocks were launched in November 2001. The derivatives trading on NSE commenced with S&P CNX Nifty Index futures on June 12, 2000. The trading in index options commenced on June 4, 2001 and trading in options on individual securities commenced on July 2, 2001. Single stock futures were launched on November 9, 2001. The index futures and options contract on NSE are based on S&P CNX Trading and settlement in derivative contracts is done in accordance with the rules, byelaws, and regulations of the respective exchanges and their clearing house/corporation duly approved by SEBI and notified in the official gazette. Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) are permitted to trade in all Exchange traded derivative products. The following are some observations based on the trading statistics provided in the NSE report on the futures and options (F&O): Single-stock futures continue to account for a sizable proportion of the

F&O segment. It constituted 70 per cent of the total turnover during June 2002. A primary reason attributed to this phenomenon is that traders are comfortable with single-stock futures than equity options, as the former closely resembles the erstwhile badla system. On relative terms, volumes in the index options segment continue to

remain poor. This may be due to the low volatility of the spot index. Typically, options are considered more valuable when the volatility of the underlying (in this case, the index) is high. A related issue is that brokers do not earn high

30

commissions by recommending index options to their clients, because low volatility leads to higher waiting time for round-trips. Put volumes in the index options and equity options segment have

increased since January 2002. The call-put volumes in index options have decreased from 2.86 in January 2002 to 1.32 in June. The fall in call-put volumes ratio suggests that the traders are increasingly becoming pessimistic on the market. Farther month futures contracts are still not actively traded. Trading in

equity options on most stocks for even the next month was non-existent. Daily option price variations suggest that traders use the F&O segment

as a less risky alternative (read substitute) to generate profits from the stock price movements. The fact that the option premiums tail intra-day stock prices is evidence to this. If calls and puts are not looked as just substitutes for spot trading, the intra-day stock price variations should not have a one-to-one impact on the option premiums. The spot foreign exchange market remains the most important In the derivative and options. have

segment but the derivative segment ha s also grown. turnover been of derivatives in India followed by

market foreign exchange swaps account for the largest share of the total forwards Significant milestones in the development of derivatives market (i) permission

to banks to undertake cross currency derivative to the

transactions subject to certain conditions (1996) (ii) allowing corporates to undertake long term foreign currency swaps that contributed rupee options (2003) and (iv) introduction development of the term currency swap market (1997) (iii) allowing dollar of currency futures (2008). I would like to emphasise that currency swaps allowed companies with ECBs to swap their foreign currency liabilities into rupees. However, since banks

31

could not carry open positions the risk was allowed to be transferred to any other resident corporate. Normally such risks should be taken by corporates who have natural hedge or have potential foreign exchange earnings. views on currencies. This period has also witnessed several relaxations in regulations relating to forex markets and also greater liberalisation in capital account regulations leading to greater integration with the global economy. Cash settled exchange traded currency futures have made foreign But often corporate assume these risks due to interest rate differentials and

currency a separate asset class that can be traded without any underlying need or exposure a n d on a leveraged basis on the recognized stock exchanges with credit risks being assumed by the central counterparty Since the commencement of trading of currency futures in all the three exchanges, the value of the trades has gone up steadily from Rs 17, 429 crores in October 2008 to Rs 45, 803 crores in December 2008. The average daily turnover in all the exchanges has also increased from Rs871 crores to Rs 2,181 crores during the same period. The turnover in the currency futures market is in line with the international scenario, where I understand the share of futures market ranges between 2 3 per cent. Table 4.1ForexMarketActivity April05Total turnover (USD billion) Inter-bank to Merchant ratio Spot/Total Turnover (%) Forward/Total Turnover (%) Mar06 4,404 2.6:1 50.5 19.0 April06Mar07 6,571 2.7:1 51.9 17.9 April07Mar08 12,304 2.37: 1 49.7 19.3 April08Dec08 9,621 2.66:1 45.9 21.5

32

Swap/Total Turnover (%) Source: RBI

30.5

30.1

31.1

32.7

14. BENEFITS OF DERIVATIVES Derivative markets help investors in many different ways: 1.] RISK MANAGEMENT Futures and options contract can be used for altering the risk of investing in spot market. For instance, consider an investor who owns an asset. He will always be worried that the price may fall before he can sell the asset. He can protect himself by selling a futures contract, or by buying a Put option. If the spot price falls, the short hedgers will gain in the futures market, as you will see later. This will help offset their losses in the spot market. Similarly, if the spot price falls below the exercise price, the put option can always be exercised. 2.] PRICE DISCOVERY Price discovery refers to the markets ability to determine true equilibrium prices. Futures prices are believed to contain information about future spot prices and help in disseminating such information. As we have seen, futures markets provide a low cost trading mechanism. Thus information pertaining to supply and demand easily percolates into such markets. Accurate prices are essential for ensuring the correct allocation of resources in a free market economy. Options markets provide information about the volatility or risk of the underlying asset. 3.] OPERATIONAL ADVANTAGES As opposed to spot markets, derivatives markets involve lower transaction costs. Secondly, they offer greater liquidity. Large spot transactions can often lead to significant price changes. However, futures markets tend to be more liquid than spot markets, because herein you can take large positions by depositing relatively small margins. Consequently, a large position in derivatives markets is relatively easier to take and has less of a price impact as opposed to a transaction of the same magnitude in the spot market. Finally, it is easier to

33

take a short position in derivatives markets than it is to sell short in spot markets.

34

4.]

MARKET EFFICIENCY

The availability of derivatives makes markets more efficient; spot, futures and options markets are inextricably linked. Since it is easier and cheaper to trade in derivatives, it is possible to exploit arbitrage opportunities quickly and to keep prices in alignment. Hence these markets help to ensure that prices reflect true values.

5.]

EASE OF SPECULATION

Derivative markets provide speculators with a cheaper alternative to engaging in spot transactions. Also, the amount of capital required to take a comparable position is less in this case. This is important because facilitation of speculation is critical for ensuring free and fair markets. Speculators always take calculated risks. A speculator will accept a level of risk only if he is convinced that the associated expected return is commensurate with the risk that he is taking.

The derivative market performs a number of economic functions. The prices of derivatives converge with the prices of the underlying at the expiration of derivative contract. Thus derivatives help in discovery of future as well as current prices. An important incidental benefit that flows from derivatives trading is that it acts as a catalyst for new entrepreneurial activity. Derivatives markets help increase savings and investment in the long run. Transfer of risk enables market participants to expand their volume of activity.

35

15. National Exchanges In enhancing the institutional capabilities for futures trading the idea of setting up of National Commodity Exchange(s) has been pursued since 1999. Three such Exchanges, viz, National Multi-Commodity Exchange of India Ltd., (NMCE), Ahmedabad, National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), Mumbai, and Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX), Mumbai have become operational. National Status implies that these exchanges would be automatically permitted to conduct futures trading in all commodities subject to clearance of byelaws and contract specifications by the FMC. While the NMCE, Ahmedabad commenced futures trading in November 2002, MCX and NCDEX, Mumbai commenced operations in October/ December 2003 respectively. MCX MCX (Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd.) an independent and demutulised multi commodity exchange has permanent recognition from Government of India for facilitating online trading, clearing and settlement operations for commodity futures markets across the country. Key shareholders of MCX are Financial Technologies (India) Ltd., State Bank of India, HDFC Bank, State Bank of Indore, State Bank of Hyderabad, State Bank of Saurashtra, SBI Life Insurance Co. Ltd., Union Bank of India, Bank of Bank of Baroda, Canera Bank, Corporation India, Bank

Headquartered in Mumbai, MCX is led by an expert management team with deep domain knowledge of the commodity futures markets. Today MCX is offering spectacular growth opportunities and advantages to a large cross section of the participants including Producers / Processors, Traders, Corporate, Regional Trading Canters, Importers, Exporters, Cooperatives, Industry Associations, amongst others MCX being nation-wide commodity exchange, offering multiple commodities for trading with wide reach and penetration and robust infrastructure.

36

MCX, having a permanent recognition from the Government of India, is an independent and demutualised multi commodity Exchange. MCX, a state-ofthe-art nationwide, digital Exchange, facilitates online trading, clearing and settlement operations for a commodities futures trading. NMCE National Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd. (NMCE) was promoted by Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC), National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India (NAFED), Gujarat Agro-Industries Corporation Limited (GAICL), Gujarat State Agricultural Marketing Board (GSAMB), National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NIAM), and Neptune Overseas Limited (NOL). While various integral aspects of commodity economy, viz., warehousing, cooperatives, private and public sector marketing of agricultural commodities, research and training were adequately addressed in structuring the Exchange, finance was still a vital missing link. Punjab National Bank (PNB) took equity of the Exchange to establish that linkage. Even today, NMCE is the only Exchange in India to have such investment and technical support from the commodity relevant institutions. NMCE facilitates electronic derivatives trading through robust and tested trading platform, Derivative Trading Settlement System (DTSS), provided by CMC. It has robust delivery mechanism making it the most suitable for the participants in the physical commodity markets. It has also established fair and transparent rule-based procedures and demonstrated total commitment towards eliminating any conflicts of interest. It is the only Commodity Exchange in the world to have received ISO 9001:2000 certification from British Standard Institutions (BSI). NMCE was the first commodity exchange to provide trading facility through internet, through Virtual Private Network (VPN). NMCE follows best international risk management practices. The contracts are marked to market on daily basis. The system of upfront margining based on Value at Risk is followed to ensure financial security of the market. In
37

the event of high volatility in the prices, special intra-day clearing and settlement is held. NMCE was the first to initiate process of dematerialization and electronic transfer of warehoused commodity stocks. The unique strength of NMCE is its settlements via a Delivery Backed System, an imperative in the commodity trading business. These deliveries are executed through a sound and reliable Warehouse Receipt System, leading to guaranteed clearing and settlement. NCDEX National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Ltd (NCDEX) is a technology driven commodity exchange. It is a public limited company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 with the Registrar of Companies, Maharashtra in Mumbai on April 23,2003. It has an independent Board of Directors and professionals not having any vested interest in commodity markets. It has been launched to provide a worldclass commodity exchange platform for market participants to trade in a wide spectrum of commodity derivatives driven by best global practices, professionalism and transparency.

Forward Markets Commission regulates NCDEX in respect of futures trading in commodities. Besides, NCDEX is subjected to various laws of the land like the Companies Act, Stamp Act, Contracts Act, Forward Commission (Regulation) Act and various other legislations, which impinge on its working. It is located in Mumbai and offers facilities to its members in more than 390 centres throughout India. The reach will gradually be expanded to more centres. NCDEX currently facilitates trading of thirty six commodities - Cashew, Castor Seed, Chana, Chilli, Coffee, Cotton, Cotton Seed Oilcake, Crude Palm Oil, Expeller Mustard Oil, Gold, Guar gum, Guar Seeds, Gur, Jeera, Jute sacking bags, Mild Steel Ingot, Mulberry Green Cocoons, Pepper, Rapeseed Mustard Seed ,Raw Jute, RBD Palmolein, Refined Soy Oil, Rice, Rubber,

38

Sesame Seeds, Silk, Silver, Soy Bean, Sugar, Tur, Turmeric, Urad (Black Matpe), Wheat, Yellow Peas, Yellow Red Maize & Yellow Soybean Meal.

FINDINGS & CONCLUSION


From the above analysis it can be concluded that: 1. Derivative market is growing very fast in the Indian Economy. The turnover of Derivative Market is increasing year by year in the Indias largest stock exchange NSE. In the case of index future there is a phenomenal increase in the number of contracts. But whereas the turnover is declined considerably. In the case of stock future there was a slow increase observed in the number of contracts whereas a decline was also observed in its turnover. In the case of index option there was a huge increase observed both in the number of contracts and turnover. 2. After analyzing data it is clear that the main factors that are driving the growth of Derivative Market are Market improvement in communication facilities as well as long term saving & investment is also possible through entering into Derivative Contract. So these factors encourage the Derivative Market in India. 3. It encourages entrepreneurship in India. It encourages the investor to take more risk & earn more return. So in this way it helps the Indian Economy by developing entrepreneurship. Derivative Market is more regulated & standardized so in this way it provides a more controlled environment. In nutshell, we can say that the rule of High risk & High return apply in Derivatives. If we are able to take more risk then we can earn more profit under Derivatives.

39

RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESTIONS


RBI should play a greater role in supporting derivatives. Derivatives market should be developed in order to keep it at par with other derivative markets in the world. Speculation should be discouraged. There must be more derivative instruments aimed at individual investors. SEBI should conduct seminars regarding the use of derivatives to educate individual investors.

After study it is clear that Derivative influence our Indian Economy up to much extent. So, SEBI should take necessary steps for improvement in Derivative Market so that more investors can invest in Derivative market. There is a need of more innovation in Derivative Market because in today scenario even educated people also fear for investing in Derivative Market Because of high risk involved in Derivatives.

40

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books referred: Options Futures, and other Derivatives by John C Hull Derivatives FAQ by Ajay Shah NSEs Certification in Financial Markets: - Derivatives Core module Financial Markets & Services by Gordon & Natarajan

Websites visited: www.nse-india.com www.bseindia.com www.sebi.gov.in www.ncdex.com www.google.com www.derivativesindia.com

41

42