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edu

Spring 2007

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.582J: Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007 Course Director: Dr. Julie Greenberg

HST 582

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Outline

Applications Terminology Probability Review Intensity-Based Classification Prior models Morphological Operators

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Applications of Segmentation

Image Guided Surgery Surgical Simulation Neuroscience Studies Therapy Evaluation

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Interactive Segmentation

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Applications of Segmentation

Image Guided Surgery Surgical Simulation

Photo removed due to copyright restrictions. Two doctors working with a surgical simulation device.

Applications of Segmentation

Neuroscience Studies

p < 10-6

Thanks to Drs. Randy Buckner and David Salat for supplying this slide.

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

with Aging

Applications of Segmentation

Therapy Evaluation

Multiple Sclerosis

Examples Later in talk

MRI Image

Model-Based Segmentation

Manual Segmentation

Source: Kapur, Tina. Model based three dimensional medical image segmentation. MIT Ph.D. thesis, 1999.

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

slow (up to 60 hours per scan) variable (up to 15% between experts) [Warfield + 2000]

An automated segmentation method needs to reconcile

Gray-level appearance of tissue Characteristics of imaging modality Geometry of anatomy

Terminology: Segmentation

Graphics Community:

Any process that turns images into models

Labeling images according to tissue type (e.g. White / Gray Matter)

Another:

Dividing imagery into Major Anatomical Subdivisions

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

David Kennedy, MGH / Martinos Center

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

WHOLE BRAIN/STRUCTURE

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Original Subcortical Parc. Cortical Parcellation

General Segmentation.

Courtesy of David N. Kennedy, Ph.D. Used with permission.

Probability Review

Discrete Random Variables (RV)

Probability Mass Functions (PMF)

Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF) Probability Density Functions (PDF)

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Characterized by Probability Mass Function (PMF)

(sometimes called Distribution) Maps values x to their Probabilities P(x)

Define Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) on RV x

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Define Probability Density Function (PDF)

Non Negative Integrates to One (Value can be Greater than One)

Conditional Probability

Define Conditional Probability:

Frequent Situation:

A: State of the World B: Measurement P(B|A) : Measurement Model P(A) : A-Priori Model

Intensity-Based Segmentation

Statistical Classification

ML MAP, a-priori models KNN

Segmentation

Easy Segmentation

Tissue/Air (except bone in MR) Bone in CT

Feasible Segmentation

White Matter/Gray Matter M.S. Lesions

Statistical Classification

Probabilistic model of intensity as a function of (tissue) class Intensity data Prior model

[Duda, Hart 78]

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Classification of voxels

Measurement Model

Characterize sensor p(x|tissue class J)

intensity probability density

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Example

p(x|gray matter) p(x|white matter)

intensity

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Measure intensity, xo, and we want to know the tissue class

L(TC j ) = p ( xo | TC j )

Pick tissue class that maximizes L L is not a probability

Called: Likelihood

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Example - revisited

white matter

Anatomical Knowledge

A priori model

Before the measurement is considered

P(TC j )

MAP Classifier

Choose TC to Maximize the A Posteriori probability

measurement model prior

p ( xo | TC ) P(TC ) P(TC | xo ) = p ( x0 )

posterior probability not important

Measurement Model

Training data

Get an expert to label some of the voxels

Assume functional form

Popular choice: Gaussian

Gaussian Density 1D

Why?

Central Limit Theorem Makes math easy (when doing parameter estimation)

1 G ( , , x) = e 2

( x )2 2 2

Choosing and

Use training data: {Y1 , Y2 ,..., YN } ML parameter estimation

1 = N

Yi

i

2 =

1 N

2 ( Y ) i i

MAP tissue classifier with Gaussian measurement model: choose tissue class to maximize:

P (TCj | xo ) = G ( j , j , xo ) P (TC j ) ...

Example

X = proton density intensity T2 weighted intensity Vector Gaussian

G ( M , , X ) = 1 (2 ) | |

N 2 1 2 ( X M )T 1 ( X M )

2D Gaussian: Example

iso probability contour is ellipse

Dual echo MRI

1 x 1 x 3 mm Registered slice pairs

Good: white/gray Bad: gray/csf

T2-weighted image

Good: CSF/ Not so good: white/gray Good: MS lesions

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Multiple Sclerosis

PDw

T2w

Provided by S Warfield

T2 Intensity

PD Intensity

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Detail

MS Lesions are graded phenomenon in MRI, and can be anywhere on the curve

severe csf mild healthy wm gm lesions

Multiple Sclerosis

PDw

T2w

Segmentation

MRI signal derived from RF signals Intra Scan Inhomogeneities

Shading from coil imperfections interaction with tissue?

Auto Tune Equipment Upgrades

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

EM-Segmentation

E-Step Compute tissue posteriors using current intensity correction. Estimate intensity correction using residuals based on current posteriors. M-Step

Provided by T Kapur

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

PDw

T2w

Tissue classification

No Intensity Correction

EM Segmentation

Prior Models

Average Brain Structurally-Conditioned Models Markov Random Fields (MRF)

Ising Potts

Construct a spatial prior model by averaging tissue distributions over a population [MNI].

Source: Pohl, Kilian M. "Prior Information for Brain Parcellation." MIT Ph.D. thesis, 2005.

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

P(white matter | x y)

Source: Pohl, Kilian M. "Prior Information for Brain Parcellation." MIT Ph.D. thesis, 2005.

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

From (Kapur 1999)

Modeling Global Geometric Relationships between Structures

Relative Geometry Models Motivate Using Knee MRI Brain MRI Example

Femur Femoral Cartilage Tibial Cartilage Tibia

Source: Kapur, Tina. Model based three dimensional medical image segmentation. MIT Ph.D. thesis, 1999.

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Motivation

Primary Structures

image well easy to segment Femur Femoral Cartilage

Secondary Structures

image poorly relative to primary Tibia

Tibial Cartilage

Source: Kapur, Tina. Model based three dimensional medical image segmentation. MIT Ph.D. thesis, 1999.

Select primary/secondary structures Measure geometric relation between primary and secondary structures from training data Given novel image

segment primary structures use geometric relation as prior on secondary structure in EM-MF Segmentation

Provided by T Kapur

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Seed

Source: Kapur, Tina. Model based three dimensional medical image segmentation. MIT Ph.D. thesis, 1999.

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Status

Have Bone Want Cartilage

Provided by T Kapur

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Measure Geometric Relationship between Primary and Secondary Femur Structures Femoral Cartilage

Tibial Cartilage

distances between surfaces local normals of primary structures local curvature of primary structures etc.

Tibia

Provided by T Kapur

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Measure Geometric Relationship between Primary and Secondary Femur Structures Femoral Cartilage

Tibial Cartilage

n s normal to bone (femur) at closest point P(x s Cartilage | Bone) P( s , n s | x s Cartilage)P(Cartilage) Z Provided by T Kapur

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Tibia

Estimate of

P( s , n s | x s Cartilage)

Source: Kapur, Tina. Model based three dimensional medical image segmentation. MIT Ph.D. thesis, 1999.

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

MRI Image

Model-Based Segmentation

Manual Segmentation

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Simon Warfield Use Atlas to control kNN Classifier Resolve contrast failure

Overlapping distributions

Lesion classification

Lesion classification

Multiple Sclerosis

PDw T2w

Morphological Operations

Erosion Dilation Opening Closing

[Haralick + 1989]

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Morphological Operators...

Ubiquitous simple tools. Useful for ad-hoc clean-up of results from Statistical Classification.

Dilation

Binary (or Boolean) images Represent image by a set of coordinate vectors of pixels with value 1

image

A B {c | c = a + b, for some a A, b B}

vector addition

1 1 11

1 1 1 1 1

Dilation

Continuous analogy Makes structures fatter

zero 1

Erosion

Erosion is dual of dilation

complement A reflect B (negate coordinates) dilate complement result

A B = A B

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Erosion

Erosion by simple S.E.s makes structures thinner Analog analogy:

zero

Opening

Opening = Erode then Dilate

Closing

Closing = Dilate then Erode Can attach objects that have become fragmented

Common trick in brain isolation descalping

Erode it

to disconnect brain from head

Dilate it

But only mark pixels that were originally brain

Connectivity

Define neighbor relation

4-neighbor

8-neighbor

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

N=1 Repeat until all pixels are labeled

Pick an unmarked 1 pixel Label it, and all of its 1 neighbors, N NN+1

Boolean image

1 1 1 1 zero

2 1 3

Cite as: William (Sandy) Wells. Course materials for HST.582J / 6.555J / 16.456J, Biomedical Signal and Image Processing, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

zero 4

Selected References

[Duda and Hart1973] Duda, R. and Hart, P.1973. Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis. John Wiley and Sons. [Gonzales + 2001] R Gonzales and R Woods. Digital Image Processing, 2nd Ed. Prentice Hall 2001. [Haralick + 1989 ] R Haralick and S Steinberg. Image Analysis Using Mathematical Morphology. IEEE Transactions PAMI 1989. [Kapur 1999] T Kapur. Model Based Three Dimensional Medical Imaging Segmentation. PhD Thesis, MIT EECS, 1999. [Warfield + 2000] S Warfield, J Rexilius, M Kaus, F Jolesz, R Kikinis. Adaptive template moderated spatial varying statistical classification. Med. Image Analysis, 2000. [Wells + 1996] W Wells, E Grimson, R Kikinis, F Jolesz. Adaptive segmentation of MRI data. IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 15, 1996.

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