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Assignment on Water Policy of India

Introduction –

Water is a precious natural resource which is the supreme need of the human as well as all the
organisms of this earth. It is in the continuous cycle and in total circulation form. With the space and
time it is uniformly distributed all over the earth and the other areas. The water cycle is called as
hydrological cycle. Due to multiple uses it is very essential for the industrialization and the other
development activities. About 70% of the earth is surrounded by water and within that 3% is the fresh
water and within that fresh water only 1% is available to the human kind because maximum water is
frozen or in the from of glaciers they are un approachable to human need.

Need for a water policy

As per the reports out of the total precipitation, including snowfall, of around 4000 billion cubic metre
in the country, the availability from surface water and replenishable ground water is put at 1869 billion
cubic metres. Because of topographical and other constraints, about 60% of this i.e. 690 billion cubic
metres from surface water and 432 billion cubic metre from ground water, can be put to beneficial use.
Availability of water is highly uneven in both space and time. Precipitation is confined to only about
three or four months in a year and varies from 100 millimeters in the western parts of Rajasthan to
over 10000 milimetre at Cherrapunji in Meghalaya. Due to highly unevenness of the distribution of the
water the effective water policy was required. This has been discussed long back.

With increasing population and practically little area available for extension of cultivation, India faces
a tough challenge in the coming years in meeting the rising demand for food, livelihood and the export
opportunities made available by a more liberalized trading world. With the growth process and the
expansion of economic activities inevitably lead to increasing demands for water for diverse purposes:
domestic, industrial, agricultural, hydropower, thermal-power, navigation, recreation the natural
resource like water started depleting at a very faster rate.
With the point keeping in mind to boost the quality of available water and to make it accessible to all
was the major demand. There is a large population which is living under a high water stress and
consuming very low quality water which is always be available from the unauthentic source. The
water which is majority consume is through the wells or hand pumps or the tanks and all those sources
are highly prone to contamination very fastly. The sharp increase lately in the demand of water is
attributed to the unabated population growth and industrial development. Giving rise to serious neglect
of traditional institutional laws of ethical management of water resources and neglect of
arrangements resulting in increased pollution and dwindling of water supplies. This has brought the
issue of policies and institutional management at the centre of water management issues in India.

National Water Policy was adopted in September 1987. Since then, a number of issues and challenges
have emerged in the development and management of the water resources. Therefore, the National
Water Policy (1987) has been reviewed and updated.

The old water policy of 1987

COMPARISON OF WATER POLICY 2002 AND 1987


National Water Policy, 1987

ADAPTED FROM MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES, NEW DELHI

Water Policy was adopted in September, 1987. Since then, a number of issues and
challenges have emerged in the development and management of the water resources. Therefore, the
National Water Policy (1987) has been reviewed and updated in 2002.
The first paragraph in bold will have the policy of 2002 and the second paragraph will show the state
of the same in 1987.

2002- Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious
national asset. Planning and development of water resources need to be governed by national
perspectives.
2002- It has been estimated that out of the total precipitation of around 400 million
hectare meters in the country, the surface water availability is about 178 million hectare
meters. Out of this about 50% can be put to beneficial use because of topographical and other
constraints. In addition there is a ground water potential of about 42 million hectare meters.
The availability of water is highly uneven in both space and time. Precipitation is confined to
only about three or four months in the year and varies from 10 cm in the western parts of
Rajasthan to over 1000 cm at Cherrapunji in Meghalaya. Further, water does not respect
state boundaries. Not merely rivers but even under ground aquifers often cut across state
boundaries. Water as a resource is one and indivisible: rainfall, river waters, surface ponds
and lakes and ground water are all part of one system; water is a part of a larger ecological
system.
1987- As per the latest assessment (1993), out of the total precipitation, including snowfall, of around
4000 billion cubic metre in the country, the availability from surface water and replenishable ground water
is put at 1869 billion cubic metre. Because of topographical and other constraints, about 60% of this i.e.
690 billion cubic metre from surface water and 432 billion cubic metre from ground water, can be put to
beneficial use. Availability of water is highly uneven in both space and time. Precipitation is confined to
only about three or four months in a year and varies from 100 mm in the western parts of Rajasthan to over
10000 mm at Cherrapunji in Meghalaya. Rivers and under ground aquifers often cut across state
boundaries. Water, as a resource is one and indivisible: rainfall, river waters, surface ponds and lakes and
ground water are all part of one system.

¾ Critical analysis- 1. The old date shows that the water can be retained and made into use is just
50% about 178 million cubic metre, but in the new policy this figure has been changed to
1089millioncubic metre and in order to glorify the figures and to make them appear more
appealing they have changed centimeter in to millimeter so 100 cm became 1000 mm.

2002- Floods and drought affect vast areas of the country, transcending state boundaries. A
third of the country is drought-prone. Floods affect an average area of around 9 million
hectares per year. According to the National Commission on floods, the area susceptible to
floods is around 40 million hectares. The approach to the management of drought and floods
has to be coordinated and guided at the national level.
1987- Floods and droughts affect vast areas of the country, transcending state boundaries. One-sixth area
of the country is drought-prone. Out of 40 million hectare of the flood prone area in the country, on an
average, floods affect an area of around 7.5 million hectare per year. Approach to management of droughts
and floods has to be coordinated and guided at the national level.

¾ Critical analysis-In the policy of 1987 it was mentioned as the country’s 1/3 area is drought
prone but in 2000 policy it is mentioned as only 1/6 of the area is draught prone!
2002- Even the planning and implementation of individual irrigation or multi-purpose
projects, though done at the State level, involve a number of aspects and issues such as
environmental protection, rehabilitation of project-affected people and livestock, public
health consequences of water impoundment, dam safety, etc. On these matters common
approaches and guidelines are necessary. Moreover, certain problems and weaknesses have
affected a large number of projects all over the
country. There have been substantial time and cost overruns on projects. In some irrigation
commands, problems of water-logging and soil salinity have emerged, leading to the
degradation of good agricultural land. There are also complex problems of equity and social
justice in regard to water distribution.
The development and exploitation of the country’s groundwater resources also give rise to
questions of judicious and scientific resource management and conservation. All these
questions need to be tackled on the basis of common policies and strategies.
1987- Planning and implementation of water resources projects involve a number of socio-economic
aspects and issues such as environmental sustainability, appropriate resettlement and rehabilitation of
project-affected people and livestock, public health concerns of water impoundment, dam safety etc.
Common approaches and guidelines are necessary on these matters. Moreover, certain problems and
weaknesses have affected a large number of water resources projects all over the country. There have been
substantial time and cost overruns on projects. Problems of water logging and soil salinity have emerged in
some irrigation commands, leading to the degradation of agricultural land. Complex issues of equity and
social justice in regard to water distribution are required to be addressed. The development, and
overexploitation of groundwater resources in certain parts of the country have raised the concern and need
for judicious and scientific resource management and conservation. All these concerns need to be
addressed on the basis of common policies and strategies.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS- the word environmental sustainability which was used in 1987 policy has
been replaced with the environmental sustainability, means government will do some steps for the
protection of the environment protection rather than its sustainability. The word appropriate
resettlement and rehabilitation has been replaced in the 2002 policy as the government has faced
a lots of problem in the Narmada issue so it has scrapped the word appropriate from its new draft.

2002- The growth process and the expansion of economic activities inevitably lead to
increasing demands for water for diverse purposes: domestic, industrial, agricultural, hydro-
power, navigation, recreation, etc. So far, the principal consumptive use of water has been for
irrigation. While the irrigation potential is estimated to have increased from 19.5 million
hectares at the time of Independence to about 68 million hectares at the end of the Sixth
Plan, further development of a substantial order is necessary if the food and fiber needs of a
growing population are to be met. The country’s population which is over 750 million at
present is expected to reach a level of around 1000 million by the turn of the century.
Growth process and the expansion of economic activities inevitably lead to increasing demands for water
for diverse purposes: domestic, industrial, agricultural, hydro-power, thermal-power, navigation,
recreation, etc. So far, the major consumptive use of water has been for irrigation. While the gross
irrigation potential is estimated to have increased from 19.5 million hectare at the time of independence to
about 95 million hectare by the end of the Year 1999-2000, further development of a substantial order is
necessary if the food and fiber needs of our growing population are to be met with. The country’s
population which is over 1027 million (2001 AD) at present is expected to reach a level of around 1390
million by 2025 AD.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS – this new policy has given the right figure as the population will
grow at the 1000 million at the end of century and it did…but the government has faild to
make any future plan at that time for the estimated population.
2002- The production of food grains has increased from around 50 million tons in the fifties
to about 150 million tons at present, but this will have to be raised to around 240 million tons
by the year 2000 A.D. The drinking water needs of people and livestock have also to be met. In
keeping with the objectives of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade
Programme (1981-1991), adequate drinking water facilities have to be provided to the entire
population in both urban and
rural areas and sanitation facilities to 80 % of the urban population and 25 % of the rural
population by the end of the decade. Domestic and industrial water needs have largely been
concentrated in or near the principal cities, but the demand from rural society is expected to
increase sharply as the development programmes improve economic conditions in the rural
areas. The demand for water for Hydro & Thermal power generation and for other industrial
uses is also likely to increase substantially. As a result what which is already a scarcer in
future. This under scores the need for the utmost efficiency in water utilisation and a public
awareness of the importance of its conservation.

1987- Production of food grains has increased from around 50 million tonnes in the fifties to about 208
million tonnes in the Year 1999-2000. This will have to be raised to around 350 million tonnes by the
year 2025 AD. The drinking water needs of people and livestock have also to be met. Domestic and
industrial water needs have largely been concentrated in or near major cities. However, the demand in rural
areas is expected to increase sharply as the development programmes improve economic conditions of the
rural masses. Demand for water for hydro and thermal power generation and for other industrial uses is
also increasing substantially. As a result, water, which is already a scarce resource, will become even
scarcer in
future. This underscores the need for the utmost efficiency in water utilisation and a public awareness of
the importance of its conservation.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS- the government has stated that til the year 2000 government would bale
to increase the food grain production about 240 million tons but the actual figure leaned around the
208 million tons. In this way governemtn has to do a lot to reach for the target population of India
as the food grain production has shown the percentage of failure in the reacing of the target.
2002- Another important aspect is water quality. Improvements in existing strategies and the
innovation of new techniques resting on a strong science and technology base will be needed
to eliminate the pollution of surface and ground water resources, to improve water quality and
to step up the recycling and re- use of water. Science and technology and training have also
important roles to play in water resources development in general.

1987- Another important aspect is water quality. Improvements in existing strategies, innovation of new
techniques resting on a strong science and technology base are needed to eliminate the pollution of surface
and ground water resources, to improve water quality. Science and technology and training have to play
important roles in water resources development and management in general.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS- the step by step recycling and re use has been withdrawn as the
scientific technological approach has been added. This might be the reason that government is
facing a lot of difficulty in setting up a water plant and recycle plant.

2002- Water is one of the most crucial elements in developmental planning. As the country
prepares itself to enter the 21st century, efforts to develop, conserve, utilise and manage this
important resource have to be guided by national perspectives. The need for a national water
policy is thus abundantly clear: water is a scarce and precious national resource to be
planned, developed and conserved as such, and on an integrated and environmentally sound
basis, keeping in view the needs of the States
concerned.
Information System
The prime requisite for resource planning is a well-developed information system. A
standardized national information system should be established with a network of data banks
and data bases, integrating and strengthening the existing Central and State level agencies
and improving the quality of data and the processing capabilities. There should be free
exchange of data among the various agencies and duplication in data collection should be
avoided.
Apart from the data regarding water availability and actual water use, the system
should also include comprehensive and reasonably reliable projections of future demands for
water for diverse purposes.
1987- A well developed information system, for water related data in its entirety, at the national / state
level, is a prime requisite for resource planning. A standardised national information system should be
established with a network of data banks and data bases, integrating and strengthening the existing Central
and State level agencies and improving the quality of data and the processing capabilities Standards for
coding, classification, processing of data and methods / procedures for its collection should be adopted.
Advances in information technology must be introduced to create a modern information system
promoting free exchange of data among various agencies. Special efforts should be made to develop and
continuously upgrade technological capability to collect, process and disseminate reliable data in the
desired time frame.

2.3 Apart from the data regarding water availability and actual water use, the system should also include
comprehensive and reliable projections of future demands of water for diverse purposes.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS – the government has put less intend upon the use of advance
technology measures to tackle the future demand and the other capabilities of the coming
generation.

Maximizing availability
2002- The water resources available to the country should be brought within the category of
utilizable resources to the maximum possible extent. The resources should be conserved and
the availability augmented by measures for maximizing retention and minimizing losses.
2002- Resource planning in the case of water has to be done for a hydrological unit such as a
drainage basin as a whole, or for a sub-basin. All individual developmental projects and
proposals should be formulated by the States and considered within the framework of such an
overall plan for a basin or sub-basin, so that the best possible combination of options can be
made.
2002- Appropriate organisations should be established for the planned development and
management of a river basin as a whole. Special multidisciplinary units should be set up in
each state to prepare comprehensive plans taking into account not only the needs of
irrigation but also harmonizing various other water uses, so that the available water resources
are determined and put to optimum use having regard to subsisting agreements or awards of
Tribunals under the relevant laws.
2002- Water should be made available to water short areas by transfer from other areas
including transfers from one river basin to another, based on a national perspective, after
taking into account the
requirements of the areas/basins. 3.5 Recycling and re-use of water should be an integral
part of water
resource development.
1987- Non-conventional methods for utilisation of water such as through inter-basin transfers, artificial
recharge of ground water and desalination of brackish or sea water as well as traditional water conservation
practices like rainwater harvesting, including roof-top rainwater harvesting, need to be practiced to further
increase the utilisable water resources. Promotion of frontier research and development, in a focused
manner, for these techniques is necessary.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS – the new water policy has various attributes of water conservation
techniques and the watershed development has been given more stress and the water has bee n
put under a maximum utilize category and its reach has been increased. Management of river
basin and the transfer of one river basin to another river basin has been the newly added
concept just to enhance the effect the river interlinking programme.

Project Planning
2002- Water resource development projects should as far as possible be planned and
developed as multipurpose projects. Provision for drinking water should be a primary
consideration. The projects should provide for irrigation, flood mitigation, hydro-electric power
generation, navigation, pisciculture and recreation wherever possible.
1987- Water resource development projects should as far as possible be planned and developed as
multipurpose projects. Provision for drinking water should be a primary consideration.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS – the word like project planning has mentioned the word irrigation and the
other ways of utilizing water resource this new policy has broaden the aspect of water use.
2002- The study of the impact of a project during construction and later on human lives,
settlements, occupations, economic and other aspects should be an essential component of
project planning.
The study of the likely impact of a project during construction and later on human lives, settlements,
occupations, socio-economic, environment and other aspects shall form an essential component of project
planning.

2002- In the planning, implementation and operation of projects, the preservation of the
quality of environment and the ecological balance should be a primary consideration. The
adverse impact, if any, on the environment should be minimised and should be off-set by
adequate compensatory measures.
In the planning, implementation and operation of a project, the preservation of the quality of environment
and the ecological balance should be a primary consideration. The adverse impact on the environment, if
any, should be minimised and should be offset by adequate compensatory measures. The project should,
nevertheless, be sustainable.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS – the mention of project should be nevertheless sustainable was not to
be included in the policy of 1987 the incorporation of this word shows hazy picture of the
government projects. It’s a right step that the word ahs not been included in the new policy of
2002

2002- There should be an integrated and multi-disciplinary approach to the planning,


formulation, clearance and implementation of projects, including catchment treatment and
management, environmental and ecological aspects, the rehabilitation of affected people and
command area development.
Special efforts should be made to investigate and formulate projects either in, or for
the benefit of, areas inhabited by tribal or other specially disadvantaged groups such as
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. In other areas also, project planning should pay
special attention to the needs of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and other weaker
sections of society.
1987- Special efforts should be made to investigate and formulate projects either in, or for the benefit of,
areas inhabited by tribal or other specially disadvantaged groups such as socially weak, scheduled castes
and scheduled tribes. In other areas also, project planning should pay special attention to the needs of
scheduled
castes and scheduled tribes and other weaker sections of the society. The economic evaluation of projects
benefiting such disadvantaged sections should also take these factors into account.

2002- The planning of projects in hilly areas should take into account the need to provide
assured drinking water, possibilities of hydro-power development and the proper approach to
irrigation in such areas, in the context of physical features and constraints such as steep
slopes, rapid run-off and the incidence of soil erosion. The economic evaluation of projects in
such areas should also take these factors into account.
1987- The planning of projects in hilly areas should take into account the need to provide assured drinking
water,
possibilities of hydro-power development and the proper approach to irrigation in such areas, in the context
of physical features and constraints of the basin such as steep slopes, rapid run-off and the incidence of soil
erosion. The economic evaluation of projects in such areas should also take these factors into account.

2002- Time and cost overruns and deficient realization of benefits characterizing most
irrigation projects should be overcome by upgrading the quality of project preparation and
management. The under-funding of projects should be obviated by an optimal allocation of
resources, having regard to the early completion of on-going projects as well as the need to
reduce regional imbalances.
1987- Time and cost overruns and deficient realisation of benefits characterising most water related
projects should be overcome by upgrading the quality of project preparation and management. The
inadequate funding of projects should be obviated by an optimal allocation of resources on the basis of
prioritisation, having regard to the early completion of on-going projects as well as the need to reduce
regional imbalances.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS- the projects which have been named inappropriate funding has been
termed as under been termed as under-funding projects. This was the corrective step of government
in the new policy as to termed the projects as the under funding and the over funing.
The drainage system should form an integral part of any irrigation project right from the
planning stage.
This line has not been added into the new policy of 2002.

Maintenance and Modernisation


2002- Structures and systems created through massive investments should be properly
maintained in good health. Appropriate annual provisions should be made for this purpose in
the budgets.
There should be a regular monitoring of structures and systems and necessary
rehabilitation and modernisation programmes should be undertaken.
1987- Formation of Water Users' Association with authority and responsibility should be encouraged
to facilitate the management including maintenance of irrigation system in a time bound manner.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS – this line which says that the formation of water user’s association
has not been added the reason might be as the government may have some fear with the
association and the other types of structures as those may cause trouble in near future.
Safety of Structures
2002- There should be proper organizational arrangements at the national and state
levels for ensuring the safety of storage dams and other water-related structures. The Central
guidelines on the subject should be kept under constant review and periodically updated and
reformulated. There should be a system of continuous surveillance and regular visits by
experts.
1987- There should be proper organisational arrangements at the national and state levels for ensuring the
safety of storage dams and other water-related structures consisting of specialists in investigation, design,
construction, hydrology, geology, etc. A dam safety legislation may be enacted to ensure proper inspection,
maintenance and surveillance of existing dams and also to ensure proper planning, investigation, design
and construction for safety of new dams. The Guidelines on the subject should be periodically updated and
reformulated. There should be a system of continuous surveillance and regular visits by experts.

¾
CRITICAL ANALYSIS – the line which specifies that the dam safety legislation, for the proper
planning and the investigation and the design etc has bee n given under the central authority is
actually to make them stricter and centre could have supreme right over the water and the dam
issues.

Ground water Development


2002- There should be a periodical reassessment on a scientific basis of the ground water
potential, taking into consideration the quality of the water available and economic viability.
Exploitation of ground water resources should be so regulated as not to exceed the
recharging possibilities, as also to ensure social equity. Ground water recharge projects
should be developed and implemented for augmenting the available supplies.
Integrated and coordinated development of surface water and ground water and their
conjunctive use, should be envisaged right from the project planning stage and should form
an essential part of the
project.
Over exploitation of ground water should be avoided near the coast to prevent ingress of sea
water into sweet water aquifers.
There is not much change on the ground water development issue in the new policy as the ground
water preservation would require the specific state will and than only the policy could be effective.
Water Allocation Priorities in 2002
In the planning and operation of systems, water allocation
priorities should be broadly as follows:
_ Drinking water
_ Irrigation
_ Hydro-power
_ Navigation
_ Industrial and other uses.
However these priorities might be modified if necessary in particular regions with reference to
area specific considerations.
Water Allocation Priorities in 1987
. In the planning and operation of systems, water allocation priorities should be broadly as follows:
• Drinking water
• Irrigation
• Hydro-power
• Ecology
• Agro-industries and non-agricultural industries
• Navigation and other uses.
However, the priorities could be modified or added if warranted by the area / region specific
considerations.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS- the word like ecology and the agro industries and the non agriculture
industries has been scraped from new policy of 2002 this might be because the government has
put those subject in different departments.

Drinking Water
Adequate drinking water facilities should be provided to the entire population both in
urban and in rural areas by 1991. Irrigation and multipurpose projects should invariably
include a drinking water component, wherever there is no alternative source of drinking
water. Drinking water needs of human beings and animals should be the first charge on any
available water.
¾ There is not any change in the drinking water policy frame

Irrigation
Irrigation planning either in an individual project or in a basin as a whole should take
into account the irrigability of land, cost-effective irrigation options possible from all available
sources of water and appropriate irrigation techniques. The irrigation intensity should be such
as to extend the benefits of irrigation to as large a number of farm families as possible,
keeping in view the need to maximize production.
There should be a close integration of water-use and land-use policies.
Water allocation in an irrigation system should be done with due regard to equity and
social justice. Disparities in the availability of water between head-reach and tail-end farms
and between large and small farms should be obviated by adoption of a rotational water
distribution system and supply of water on a volumetric basis subject to certain ceilings.
1987- Water allocation in an irrigation system should be done with due regard to equity and social justice.
Disparities in the availability of water between head-reach and tail-end farms and between large and small
farms should be obviated by adoption of a rotational water distribution system and supply of water on a
volumetric basis subject to certain ceilings and rational pricing.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS – the word like the rational pricing has been removed and the word
ceiling has been limited. Its seems that government has not any plan to privatized water at the
time of framing of the policy.

Concerted efforts should be made to ensure that the irrigation potential created is fully
utilised and the gap between the potential created and its utilisation is removed. For this
purpose, the command area development approach should be adopted in all irrigation
projects.

Water Rates
.2002 Water rates should be such as to convey the scarcity value of the resource to the users
and to foster the motivation for economy in water use. They should be adequate to cover the
annual maintenance and operation charges and a part of the fixed costs. Efforts should be
made to reach this ideal over a period, while ensuring the assured and timely supplies of
irrigation water. The water rates for surface water and ground water should be rationalized
with due regard to the interests of small and marginal farmers.
1987- Irrigation being the largest consumer of fresh water, the aim should be to get optimal productivity
per unit of water. Scientific water management, farm practices and sprinkler and drip system of irrigation
should be adopted wherever feasible.
9.6 Reclamation of water logged / saline affected land by scientific and cost-effective methods should
form a part of command area development programme.

Participation of farmers and voluntary agencies


Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of
management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water
rates. Assistance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in
efficient water use and water management.
¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS- The policy of participation of farmers and the voluntary organisation
has been added into the policy and effectively the various management schemes has been put
inside the policy which has been like the distribution and the collection of water and the and
the educating of the farmers and their assistance in various project.

Water Quality
Both surface water and ground water should be regularly monitored for quality. A phased
programme should be undertaken for improvements in water quality.
The water quality inspection has been newly incorporated into the new water policy this is a positive
approach towards the health related awareness.

Water Zoning
Economic development and activities including agricultural, industrial and urban
development, should be planned with due regard to the constraints imposed by the
configuration of water availability. There should be water zoning of the country and the
economic activities should be guided and regulated in accordance with such zoning.
¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS- There not any change has been reflected in the 2002 policy as it may
seems that the government don’t like to touch the issue of the water zoning and the division of
water.
Conservation of Water
2002- The efficiency of utilisation in all the diverse uses of water should be improved and an
awareness of water as a scarce resource should be fostered. Conservation consciousness
should be promoted through education, regulation, incentives and disincentives.
The resources should be conserved and the availability augmented by maximising retention,
eliminating pollution and minimising losses. For this, measures like selective linings in the conveyance
system, modernisation and rehabilitation of existing systems including tanks, recycling and re-use of
treated effluents and adoption of traditional techniques like mulching or pitcher irrigation and new
techniques like drip and sprinkler may be promoted, wherever feasible.

Flood Control and Management


2002- There should be a master plan for flood control and management for each flood
prone basin. Sound watershed management through extensive soil conservation, catch-ment-
area treatment, preservation of forests and increasing the forest area and the construction of
check dams should be promoted to reduce the intensity of floods. Adequate flood-cushion
should be provided in water storage projects wherever feasible to facilitate better flood
management. An extensive network for flood forecasting should be established for timely
warning to the settlements in the flood plains, along with the regulation of settlements and
economic activity in the flood plain zones, to minimize the loss of life and property on account
of floods. While physical flood protection works like embankments and dykes will continue to
be necessary, the emphasis should be on non-structural measures for the minimization of
losses, such as flood forecasting and warning and flood plain zoning, so as to reduce the
recurring expenditure on flood relief.
1987- There should be a master plan for flood control and management for each flood prone basin.
Adequate flood-cushion should be provided in water storage projects, wherever feasible, to facilitate
better flood management. In highly flood prone areas, flood control should be given overriding
consideration in reservoir regulation policy even at the cost of sacrificing some irrigation or power
benefits. While physical flood protection works like embankments and dykes will continue to be necessary,
increased emphasis should be laid on non-structural measures such as flood forecasting and warning, flood
plain zoning and flood proofing for the minimisation of losses and to reduce the recurring expenditure on
flood relief.
There should be strict regulation of settlements and economic activity in the flood plain zones
along
with flood proofing, to minimise the loss of life and property on account of floods.
The flood forecasting activities should be modernised, value added and extended to other
uncovered
areas. Inflow forecasting to reservoirs should be instituted for their effective regulation.

¾ CRITICAL ANALYSIS- The effective time warning system has not been incorporated into the
policy of 2002 this has been the major drawback as the government should have to increase the
time warning system to have the proper warning to be given before the flood actually arrives.
This will immensely help to reduce the flood and the other related devastations
Land erosion by sea or river
2002- The erosion of land, whether by the sea in coastal areas or by river waters inland,
should be minimized by suitable cost-effective measures. The States and Union territories
should also undertake all requisite steps to ensure that indiscriminate occupation and
exploitation of coastal strips of land are discouraged and that the location of economic
activities in areas adjacent to the sea is regulated.
Drought Management
2002- Drought-prone areas should be made less vulnerable to drought associated problems
through soil-moisture conservation measures, water harvesting practices, the minimization of
evaporation losses, the development of the ground water potential and the transfer of surface
water from surplus areas where feasible and appropriate. Pastures, forestry or other modes of
development which are relatively less water demanding should be encouraged. In planning
water resource development projects, the needs of drought-prone areas should be given
priority.
2002- Relief works undertaken for providing employment to drought stricken populations
should preferably be for drought proofing.

Science and Technology


2002- For effective and economical management of our water resources, the frontiers of
knowledge need to be pushed forward in several directions by intensifying research
efforts in various areas, including the following :
hydro-meteorology;
Assessment of water resources;
Snow and lake hydrology;
Ground water hydrology and recharge;
Prevention of salinity ingress;
Water-harvesting;
Evaporation and seepage losses;
Economical designs for water resource projects;
Crops and cropping systems;
Sedimentation of reservoirs;
The safety and longevity of water-related structures;
River morphology and hydraulics;
Soils and material research;
Better water management practices and improvements in
Operational technology;
Recycling and re-use;
Use of sea water resources.
Training
2002- A perspective plan for standardized training should be an integral part of water
resource development. It should cover training in information systems, sector planning,
project planning and formulation, project management, operation of projects and their
physical structures and systems and the management of the water distribution systems. The
training should extend to all the categories of personnel involved in these activities as also
the farmers.

NEW THINGS INCLUDED IN TO THE NEW WATER POLCIY OF 2002


Performance improvement
There is an urgent need of paradigm shift in the emphasis in the management of water resources
sector. From the present emphasis on the creation and expansion of water resources infrastructures for
diverse uses, there is now a need to give greater emphasis on the improvement of the performance of the
existing water resources facilities. Therefore, allocation of funds under the water resources sector should be
re-prioritised to ensure that the needs for development as well as operation and maintenance of the
facilities are met.

Water Sharing / Distribution amongst the States


The water sharing / distribution amongst the states should be guided by a national perspective with
due regard to water resources availability and needs within the river basin. Necessary guidelines, including
for water short states even outside the basin, need to be evolved for facilitating future agreements amongst
the basin states.
21.2 The Inter-State Water Disputes Act of 1956 may be suitably reviewed and amended for timely
adjudication of water disputes referred to the Tribunal.
Private Sector Participation
Private sector participation should be encouraged in planning, development and management of
water resources projects for diverse uses, wherever feasible. Private sector participation may help in
introducing innovative ideas, generating financial resources and introducing corporate management and
improving service efficiency and accountability to users. Depending upon the specific situations, various
combinations of private sector participation, in building, owning, operating, leasing and transferring of
water resources facilities, may be considered.

Resettlement and Rehabilitation


. Optimal use of water resources necessitates construction of storages and the consequent resettlement
and rehabilitation of population. A skeletal national policy in this regard needs to be formulated so that the
project affected persons share the benefits through proper rehabilitation. States should accordingly evolve
their own detailed resettlement and rehabilitation policies for the sector, taking into account the local
conditions. Careful planning is necessary to ensure that the construction and rehabilitation activities
proceed simultaneously and smoothly.

This time many new things which have been incorporated into the new water policy 2002 , this has
been prove effective in many ways but not in others as the water policy has been revised but with
many inadequate features like government should have some strict rules for the water conservation
and the river linking project. If government would like to add certain innovative ways to conserve the
water and to work with the grass root level with the help of a concrete plan than I think the water like
resource can be conserved. The role of social worker is enhanced here as through analyse the various
aspect of the policy.
Refrences –

Ministry of water Resources

GHOTGE, S. National Water Policy 2002

Water Policy, Pricing and Regulation and Related Issues


Author(s) Iyer R. R.
Source Note WASTELANDS NEWS,Vol.21(1), Aug-Oct.2005, pp.12-17.

National Water Policy-2002-System of Nature's Water at the Recieving End


Author(s) Fouzdar,Dilip
Source Note Social Action,Vol.53(3),July-Sept.2003,pp.256-269